IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI E??IA?IEIA?? ? E??IIAAeEOeEIE

Iaaeeaeia Noeoaiaae Ooia?aeiae/

OAeE 612.111:577.352
464:57.086.13:576.311.32

I?IIEEI?NOUe A?EO?IOeEO?A AeI E??II?IOAEOI??A

? NO?OEOO?II-OOIEOe?IIAEUeI?E NOAI

EIIIIIAIO?A ?O OeEOIIEACIE IA

AOAIAO E??IEIINA?AOAAIIss

03.00.19 — e??ia?ieia?y ? e??iiaaeeoeeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ?

e??iiaaeeoeeie Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? a?ie. iaoe, i?ioani?
Ii?na?a

A?eoi? Ieaen?eiae/, caa.
a?aeae?eii

e??ia?io?ceee ?inoeoooo
i?iaeai

e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI
Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?, caa. a?aeae?eo
iieaeoey?ii? a?io?ceee O?ceei-oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo IAI Oe?a?ie Aeaaie
TH??e Iaaeiae/

2. Aeieoi? a?ie. iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?io?ceee Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea Ceia Aaeaioei
Eaii?aeiae/.

3. Aeaaeai?e Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe, aeieoi? a?ie.
iaoe, i?ioani?, caa. a?aeae?eo o?c?ieia?? ?aciiiaeaiiy oa ooo/iiai
inaiai?iiy Oa?e?anueeiai a?ioaoiieia?/iiai oeaio?o Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe Inoaoei Oaae?? ?aaiiae/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «__21__»_aa?aniy____1999 ?. a _12.00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.242.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie ( 310015, i. Oa?e?a,
aoe. Ia?ayne?anueea, 23).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

310015, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Ia?ayne?anueea, 23.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «_25_»_ /a?aiy__1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani?
Aieueoeaa A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. E??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia`?eo?a ? aeoaea
aaaeeeaei aeey ae??oaiiy ??cieo caaea/ a aaeoc? iaaeeoeeie, aaiaoeee,
i?e?ia?ieia??, n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?iieneiaino? ( Aaeion,
A?euaiei, 1994; Aaaee/oe, 1990; Oeooeaaaa, Aieueoeaa, Iiiia e ae?.,
1988; Meryman, 1966). Oiio noai?aiiy iiaeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo
e??ia?ieia?/ieo oaoiieia?e ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy. Aeey oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy
oeeo caaea/ iaiao?aei? ciaiiy i?i iniaeeaino? ae?? oeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
/eiiee?a, ye? iathoue i?noea ia aoaiao e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo
ia`?eo?a:

— aieea oaiia?aoo?e, neeaaeo ciai?oiuei- oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo
?ic/ei?a ia i?iieei?noue ee?oei;

— ci?ia aeanoeainoae ?ic/ei?a iaciai? ? ana?aaeei? ee?oeie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o neeaaeo i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e;

— i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aeaeo?ie?o?a ? iaaeaeo?ie?o?a iaciai? oa
ana?aaeei? ee?oeie /a?ac aeii?iaeoaaiiy aiaee i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?
«aiaea-e?ae» oa ?o aieea ia an? eiiiiiaioe ee?oeie.

Aea/aiith i?iieeiino? ee?oei aei iaaeaeo?ie?o?a oa aeaeo?ie?o?a
i?enay/aia aeinoaoiy aaeeea e?euee?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
?ia?o (O?ioei, 1956, 1985; Kadem i Eatchalsky, 1958; Stein, 1967;
Einothe, 1986). Aea aei nueiaiaei? aaaaoi ?? noi??i caeeoathoueny
iaynieie, ? ia ?ac? ?niothoue iaia?aiia oai??y oa ni?aoe?iiia a?iioaca
(O?ioei, 1985). Oae, aei oeueiai /ano ia aea/aii aieea eiioeaio?aoe??
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea ia i?iieei?noue iaia?ai ee?oei. E??i oiai,
eiao?oe??io i?iieeiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a aei ae?oea?eio, io?eiaiee ??cieie
aeine?aeieeaie, a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueo i?ae ia ii?yaeie (3-40) 10-5
ni/oa (Orskov, 1935; Stein, 1967; Mazur i Miller, 1976), ui aeaco? ia
iaaeie?ee ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia ?ac? ?niothoue iiiaeeiie? ?iaioe, a eio?eo aeine?aeaeaia
i?e?ia`yce?noue oeeoiieacie a?eo?ioeeo?a oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee
noai aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo a?ee?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?
iaaaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e ??cieo ?a/iaei ( Iienaaa, 1984; A?euaiei,
Iaaeeaeia, Iienaaa, Ia?aeeae, 1995; Oeeiaae, 1992; A?ae, 1979; Noonue,
?icaiiaa, 1992). Aea oeeo aeaieo iaaeinoaoiuei aeey oe?ieeo
ocaaaeueiaiue.

E?ioeaaith iaoith oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo niinia?a e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ??cieo a?ieia?/ieo ia`?eo?a. Oae,
a iaaee/i?e i?aeoeoe? oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue ia?aeeaaiiy e?ia? oa ??
eiiiiiaio?a i?e e?eoaaii? ??cieo caoai?thaaiue. Aea ?nioth/? iaoiaee
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a iathoue iaaeie?ee: o?oaeii?noe?noue,
aei?iaiaecia, iae? oa?i?ie caa??a?aiiy a ?anoniaiaeoth/iio
na?aaeiaeu? i?ney e??ieiina?aoaaiiy oa a?aeieaaiiy.

Iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe, a iane?aeie ?? aaaeeeaino?,
ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo i?ia?aiao ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI

Oe?a?ie:

1. Oaia ? 9, 2.2.6.9, oeo? 2.28.3.1:2.28.3.2,

iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01944005297.

“Aea/aiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia no?oeoo?iee noai ?cieueiaaieo oa
iaia?aiiica`ycaieo a?ee?a, a oiio /ene? oeeoicieth oa oeeoineaeaoo, ia
o?ceei-o?ie/i? i?ioeane a na?aaeiaeu? ?ieoaaoe?? ? ia iaoaaie?ci a
ee?oeiao c iaoith aea/aiiy e??i?acenoaioiino? ee?oeiieo no?oeoo?”.

2. Oaia ? 69, 2.2.6.69, oeo? 2.28.3.1:2.28.3.2.

“Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia no?oeoo?iee noai iaia?aie ?
oeeoicieth, a oaeiae ia i?iieei?noue aei aeaeo?ie?o?a oa iaaeaeo?ie?o?a
a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?icaeoeo ? i?e aeayeeo
iaoieia?yo”.

Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. Oaia ? 5/282, oeo? «?i?e»

«Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iieeiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a aei aeaeo?ie?o?a oa
iaaeaeo?ie?o?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy aianeo aei ia? iaia?aie ?
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iica- oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo na?aaeiaeu «.

A ca`yceo c aeuaaeeeaaeaiei iaoith ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy aieeao ??cieo
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo /eiiee?a ia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai eiiiiiaio?a
oeeoiieacie a?eo?ioeeo?a oa i?iieei?noue ?o iaia?ai aei e??ii?ioaeoi??a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoei iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

— aea/eoe i?iieei?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a aei e??ii?ioaeoi??a oa aieea ia ia?
oaiia?aoo?e, eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io;

— aea/eoe aieea oaiia?aoo?e, ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iao??th oei?eaeo,
eae?th oei?eaeo, naoa?ice, aetheice, 1,2-i?iiaiae?ieo,
iie?a?i?ei??ie?aeiio-12600 ia aeeooc?th ciiaeo OAIIII a oeeoiieaci?
a?eo?ioeeo?a ;

— aea/eoe aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th oei?eaeo, eae?th oei?eaeo,
naoa?ice ia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaueiee noai aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai
aaiiaeia?io;

— aea/eoe aieea ii?aeiaiiy 1,2-i?iiaiae?ieo c oei?eaeii iao??th, a
oaeiae ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ia caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a;

— aea/eoe aieea eiia?iaoe?e aenieiiieaeoey?ieo
(iie?a?i?ei??ie?aeii-12600, iie?aoeeaiieneae-1500, aeaeaoeia,
ieneaoeeueiaaiee e?ioiaeue-180000) oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo (naoa?ica,
aetheica, iao??th oei?eae, iao??th a?ae?ioeeo?ao) ?a/iaei ia
caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e e??ieiina?aoaaii?;

— oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee aeiiii?/ieo
e??ieiina?aaio?a aeey e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ee?oeiieo noniaic?e;

— noai?eoe niin?a e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie i?e
oaiia?aoo?? -196iN.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa i?iaaaeai? nenoaiaoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iieeiino? iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie aei ??cieo
e??ii?ioaeoi??a i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 0-10iN. Aecia/ai? eiao?oe??ioe
i?iieeiino? oa aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano ?o i?iieeaiiy. Iieacaii, ui
iecea, eio?o ooai?ththoue e??ii?ioaeoi?e ca aaee/eiith eiao?oe??ioo
i?iieeiino? aei a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie ia iiai?noth ei?aeth? c ieceith,
a ye?e ?o iine?aeiai?noue aecia/a?oueny ?o ?ici??aie, e?io?iiieie oa
ae?aeaeo?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie, a oaeiae e?euee?noth ca`ycaii? c ieie
aiaee.

Aia?oa iieacaii, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea aieeaa?
ia eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo e??ii?ioaeoi??a i?ae a?eo?ioeeoaie oa
ioi/oth/ei ?o na?aaeiaeuai, a oaeiae ia oaeaee?noue i?iieeaiiy
ae?oea?eio.

Aeine?aeaeaii noai o?iiioi?ii? a?oie aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai
aaiiaeia?io a a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao naoa?ice, iao??th ? eae?th
oei?eaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao iao??th oa eae?th
oei?eaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oi?i aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai
aaiiaeia?io (iene-, aeaciene- oa iaoaaiiaeia?i), ui na?ae/eoue i?i ci?io
eiai eiioi?iaoe??.

Aia?oa iieacaii, ui i?e iioeiaeaeaii? a?eo?ioeeo?a a a?ia?oii?/ieo
?ic/eiao iao??th oa eae?th oei?eaeo a ia?oo /a?ao ciaioo?oueny
e?euee?noue ee?oei, ui i?noyoue a?eueoo e?euee?noue ieneaaiiaeia?io, a
oie /an ye e?euee?noue ee?oei, ui i?noyoue a?eueoa iaoaaiiaeia?io,
ca?eueoo?oueny.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iao??th oei?eaeo ia ia?o?
iio?aei? niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy (IINI) aeiaoey?ii? /anoeie
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io oa aia?oa iieacaii, ui a a?ia?oii?/ieo
?ic/eiao c`yaey?oueny aeiaeaoeiaee iaaaoeaiee iaeneioi ia IINI
aaiiaeia?io, ui aeaco? ia ci?io eiai eiioi?iaoe??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eiiai oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino? /ano
ei?aeyoe?? iaa?oaeueii? aeeooc?? (*EIAe) nieiiaiai ciiaeo OAIIII a
oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? iicaee?oeiii? ?a/iaeie
iia`ycaii c aeoiaeii c a?eo?ioeeo?a iniiaii? iane a?eueii? aiaee.

Iieacaii, ui e?euee?noue ooeiaeaeaieo a?eo?ioeeo?a ia ei?aeth? c
aaee/eiith ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy noniaic?? ee?oei i?e ianooii?e
e?enoae?caoe??. I?e/eiaie ??cieoe? a ?o caa?aaeaii? a oeeo oiiaao ? ye
noeneaiiy, oae ? aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao, ye? ?icaeaathoueny o aocueeeo
eaiaeao i?ae e?enoaeai? eueiaeo, a eio?? aeo?niythoueny a?eo?ioeeoe i?e
aeii?iaeoaaii? aiaee o e?ae.

Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
e??ii?ioaeoi?a a e??ieiina?aaio? aeicaiey? ciaioeoe eiai e?euee?noue,
eio?a iaiao?aeia aeey e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ee?oeiieo noniaic?e.

Aeyaeaii, ui a i?enooiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a, ii/eiath/e c iaaii? ?o
eiioeaio?aoe??, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aenoeioe?? o?iiioi?ii? a?oie
iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io. Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
ee?oei ? iao??th oei?eaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeaeueoiai ca?eueoaiiy
aenoeioe?? iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io, a oie /an, ye e??ii?ioaeoi?e
?? ciaioothoue, ii/eiath/e c iaaii? ?o eiioeaio?aoe??. Ie??i oiai,
anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?enooiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a cieea? nioaa iiaeeiaiiy
iaoaaiiaeia?io a ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue nioae Ni?a, oi/a
eiioeaio?aoe?y a?eo?ioeeo?a ciaioaia oae, ui aenoeioe?y iaoaaiiaeia?io
a?aeiia?aea? eiai cia/aiith a iaaeinaae? aac a?eo?ioeeo?a.

Aea/aii aieea ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aeniei- oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo
e??ii?ioaeoi??a ia caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?aeiaiiy
aeniei- oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo e??ii?ioaeoi??a aeicaiey? ciaioeoe
eiioeaio?aoe?th iecueeiiieaeoey?iiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a, ca?eueoeoe
ae?aiacii oaeaeeinoae caii?iaeoaaiiy, i?e yeeo caa?aaeaiiy ee?oei
caeeoa?oueny aenieith. E??i oiai, oea iie?ioo? ?acoeueoaoe
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e iii??ii iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui 1,2-i?iiaiae?ie oa aoeeaiae?eieue i?e eiioeaio?aoe?yo
aeueo 20% /eiyoue ia a?eo?ioeeoe oiene/io ae?th, eio?a ni?ey?
iineeaiith ooeiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a ?ic/ei? iao??th oei?eaeo c
eiioeaio?aoe??th 3,2 iieue/e (LD50).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? e??ii?ioaeoi?a o neeaae? e??ieiina?aaioo aeicaiey?
noai?eoe aeiiii?/i?, iaio o?oaeii?noe? niiniae e??ieiina?aoaaiiy
ee?oeiieo noniaic?e. Noai?ai? aeiiii?/i?, aoaeoeai? ? iaio o?oaeii?noe?
niiniae e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie i?e -196 iN oa -85
-90 iN.

Iieacaii, ui a?eo?ioeeoe i?e ?anoniaic?? (i?ney oeaio?eooaoaaiiy) a oiio
ae a?ia?oii?/iiio ?ic/ei?, a yeiio aiie ciaoiaeeeenue ia?aae
oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi, ?oeiothoueny, ii/eiath/e c eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th
oei?eaeo 0,6 iieue/e.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?inoee niin?a ?i?oe?aoe?? e?enoae?caoe?? a eiioaeia??
aeey caiia?aaiiy ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy noniaic?? ee?oei i?e
e??ieiina?aoaaii?, ui aeicaiey? ciaioeoe e?euee?noue ooeiaeaeaieo ee?oei
? io?eiaoe ?o aeniea ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy.

Ciaeaeaia yaeua ca?eueoaiiy aenoeioe?? o?iiioi?ii? a?oie iicaee?oeiiiai
iaoaaiiaeia?io a i?enooiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a aeei?enoaii aeey aea/aiiy
aieeao ??cieo ?a/iaei ia iaia?aio a?eo?ioeeoo.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iieeiino? oa aeaa?ae?aoaoe??, a
oaeiae ?io? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ?ioeo a?ieia?/ieo ia`?eo?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A ?iaioao, ui iioae?eiaai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaai? ?aea? ?ia?o, iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiooaaeenue c?acee. Caeiaoaa/ i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith
o/anoue a i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a, iniaenoi aeeiioaaa noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a, i?eeiaa o/anoue a iaoeiaiio iaaiai?aii? an?o
?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioethaaa iniiaiee ci?no aeniiae?a ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoeiaiai eiinoeueoaioa aeieoi?a a?ie. iaoe, i?ioani?a Ii?na?aa A.I.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaaieoiue ?aciiain a aeie.
e iaaeeoe.» (*i?iiaieiaea, 1989), ia I c`?cae? A?ei?onueeiai oiaa?enoaa
oioia?ieia?a oa a?io?cee?a (I?inuee, 1994), ia III c`?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa aaiaoieia?a ? o?ainooc?ieia?a (Noie, 1995), ia I c`?cae?
Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie (Oa?e?a, 1995),
ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioee e
i?iecaiaenoaa e?iaacaiaieoaeae e eiina?aaioia e?iae” (Ieine 1994), ia
II c`?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Oa?e?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 21
noaooy a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 9 oac ? io?eiaii 6 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeiooeoa
oa iaoaio?a.

Ia`?i oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a, o?ueio aeaa, a
yeeo aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
caeeth/aiiy, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, nieneo nei?i/aiue. Iaoa??aee
aeeeaaeai? ia 319 noi?. Iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? ai?uothoue 47 ?en., 40
oaae.

IAOA??AEE ? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeai? ia a?eo?ioeeoao aeiii?nueei? e?ia? ethaeeie 3-5
ae?a caa??aaiiy i?e 4 iN. A?eo?ioeeoe aeei?enoiaoaaee i?ney 3-e?aoiiai
a?aeieaaiiy o?c?ieia?/iei ?ic/eiii iao??th oei?eaeo, aeaioiaeaiei ia 5
iiieue/e iao??e-oinoaoiiio aooa?? c ?I = 7,30,2. A caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeoe oeaio?eooaoaaee ia oeaio?eooc? Iii-3 i?e
1500-3000 ia/oa, aai OeNE-3 i?e 1500-2400 ia/oa.

*a?aii? o?i? a?eo?ioeeo?a iaea?aeoaaee ca iaoiaeii, cai?iiiiiaaiei
?ai?oa (Whittam, Ager, 1964). An? aeei?enoai? a ?iaio? i?aia?aoe aoee
ia?ee *AeA aai O*. ?aaeoeae, ui ia a?aeiia?aeaee oeei aeiiaai, i/euaee
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th aai ia?aaiieith. Ciiae
2,2,6,6-oao?aiaoee-4-ienii?ia?eaeei-1-ienee (OAIIII) neioaciaaii ca
a?aeiiith iaoiaeeeith oa ?aeaioeo?eiaaii ??cieie iaoiaeaie. A yeino?
ia?aiaai?oiiai ?icoe?thaa/a aeei?enoiaoaaee oa?ioeeai?ae eae?th (OE) o
o?c?ieia?/i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,1 iieue/e. Iniiey?i?noue ?ic/ei?a
aecia/aee ia iniiiao?? IIEA 1Oe-01 (N?N?). Ca aeiiiiiaith
oi?aa?naeueiiai eiiiia?a AA-74 aecia/aee ?I.

I?e?ia`yce?noue oeeoiieacie a?eo?ioeeo?a ? i?iieei?noue ?o iaia?ai
aea/aee iaoiaeii AI? nieiiaiai ciiaeo (Iaaeeaeia, Iienaaa, 1987;
Iaaeeaeia, Ia?aeeae, Iienaaa, 1995). Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia
i?eeaae? AI? «Bruker ER-100D» (O?I) ?c noaiaea?oiith oaiia?aoo?iith
i?enoaaeith. ?iciiae?e ?a/iaei i?ae ee?oeiaie oa ioi/oth/ei ?o
na?aaeiaeuai aea/aee iaoiaeii 1I-ssI? ia i?eeaae? ssI? «Tesla BS 567A» c
?iai/ith /anoioith 100 Iaoe. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao,
a o?iyo oa a iaaeinaae? i?iaiaeeee ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? «SPECORD PAY
UNICAM SP-8000» (Aiae?y) aai «SPECORD UV VIS» (O?I). ?ic?aooiie oi?i
aaiiaeia?io i?iaiaeeee ii a?aeii?e iaoiaeeoe? (?icaiiaa, Noonue, 1992).

HbO2 = 0,17A(577) — 0,13 A(569) — 0,015 A(500) (1)

Hb = -0,16 A(577) + 0,25 A(569) — 0,033 A(500) (2)

Hi = -0,02 A(577) — 0,04 A(569) + 0,13 A(500) (3),

aea HbO2, Hb, Hi — iene-, aeaciee- ? iaoaaiiaeia?i a?aeiia?aeii; A(577),
A(569), A(500) — ?ioaineaiino? niaeo?o aaiiaeia?io a a?aei. iae. ia
aeiaaeeiao oaeeue 577,569,500 ii a?aeiia?aeii. Ca 0 i?eeiyoa iio.aono.
c?acea i?e 700 ii.

E?euee?noue iioeiaeaeaieo a?eo?ioeeo?a aecia/aee ii e?eueeino?
aaiiaeia?io a iaaeinaae?, yeee aecia/aee ia eiei?eiao?? OE-56I (N?N?).
Caii?iaeoaaiiy c?ace?a e?ia? aeeiioaaee ia i?ia?aiiiio caii?iaeoaa/?
OII-8 (ae?iaieoeoai ?IE?E IAI Oe?a?ie), aai a niaoe?aeueiiio eiioaeia??.
Aaeee? ia`?ie e?ia? caii?iaeoaaee ca iaoiaeii, cai?iiiiiaaiei ?ai?oa
(Ai?io?e?i, 1987). Caa?aaeaiiy ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeanoeainoae
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?ney e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ioe?ithaaee ca caa?aaeaiiyi oi?ie
ee?oei, ia?iuoaaith aaiie?co a ?anoniaiaeoth/iio na?aaeiaeu? i?ney
a?aeieaaiiy, ooai?aiith iiiaoieo noiai/ee?a a ieaci? e?ia?.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iieeiino? iaia?ai oa ?iciiae?eo ?a/iaei a?eo?iiana
ci?ooaaeanue c 20 oa 30% ?ic/eiaie e??ii?ioaeoi??a 1:1 o an?o a?iaaeeao.
I?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?e?ia`yceino? oeeoiieacie a?eo?ioeeo?a, ?o
iioeiaeaeaiiy a ?ic/eiao iao??th oei?eaeo ? i?e eiai ii?aeiaii? c
e??ii?ioaeoi?aie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?eo?iiana:?ic/ei aoei 1:20 oa 1:50
a?aeiia?aeii. ?ic?aooiie eiao?oe??ioo i?iieeiino? i?iaiaeeee ca
oi?ioeith, iaea?aeaiith ia i?aenoaa? ??aiyiue ia??aiiaaaeii?
oa?iiaeeiai?ee (Ai?aeeaiei, 1994), c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae iaoiai
iaoiaeo
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 (4),

aea gi = 0,5, = 0,35, h = hi i?e t = , = S/Vo; h, hi —
?ioaineaiino? oeaio?aeueii? eiiiiiaioe IINI AI? ciiaeo OAIIII i?e
t = ? o iioi/iiio

/an? a?aeiia?aeii; ieiua iiaa?oi? a?eo?ioeeoo S = 109 iei2, a ia`?i
V = 63 iei3. Aeey ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aoiaoaaee ? oaeiae ia i?aenoaa?
??aiyiue aeeooc?? O?ea.

Eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo (Q) aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith

Q=Iic/Iis:Iiw/Iis : Ioc/Ios:Iow/Ios
(5),

aea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,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,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 — ?ioaa?aeueia ?ioaineai?noue niaeo?o e??ii?ioaeoi?a, noaiaea?oo
oa aiaee a a?eo?iian? a?aeiia?aeii;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,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,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 — ?ioaa?aeueia ?ioaineai?noue niaeo?o e??ii?ioaeoi?a, noaiaea?oo
oa aiaee a iaaeinaae? a?aeiia?aeii.

?ic?aooiie /ano ei?aeyoe?? (i(-1)) oa ianoa?e/iino? () iaa?oaeueii?
aeeooc?? ciiaeo OAIIII i?iaiaeeee ca a?aeiieie oi?ioeaie (Eeooaiooaei,
1974; Eociaoeia e ae?., 1975)
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 (6),

aea i(-1) (-1) — /an ei?aeyoe?? oa /anoioa iaa?oaeueii? aeeooc??
nieiiaiai ciiaeo a?aeiia?aeii, ?ic?aoiaai? c aeei?enoaiiyi
oeaio?aeueii? (hi) oa aenieiiieueii? (h-1) eiiiiiaio niaeo?o AI?
ciiaeo, a?aei.iae.; Ii — i?aoe?eia hi, An.

picscalex10001000900000354000000000012000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c02000220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffffc0ffffffe0000000c00100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
5000050000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000003000000000000000000
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(7),

aea h(+1) — ?ioaineai?noue iecueeiiieueii? eiiiiiaioe IINI AI?.

?acoeueoaoe an?o aenia?eiaio?a i?aeaeaaaee noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? c
o?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??io?a Nouethaeaioa i?e iaae?ei?e ?iia??iino? 95%.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ? eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai

a?eea ia i?iieei?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a.

Iaie aeine?aeaeaia i?iieei?noue iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a aei 1,2-IAe
(1,2-i?iiaiae?ieo), AeINI (ae?iaoeenoeueoieneaeo), AA (aoeeaiae?eieth),
AE (ae?oea?eio) i?e 0,5 oa 10 iN, a aei AE ua e i?e 20 iN. C ?en.1
aeaeii, ui e?iaoeea i?iieeaiiy AA, AeINI, 1,2-IAe i?e 10iN ?a?no?o?oueny
aeinoaoiuei aeia?a. Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo aeaieo ?ic?aoiaai? ?, aia?a??
aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano ?o i?iieeaiiy ? /an ?o iai?ai?iieeiaiiy(t1/2).
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ? iiaeai? a oaae.1, c yei? aeaeii, ui
ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ia 10 iN i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ? aei
1,2-IAe, AeINI, AA, AE a 7, 4, 1.8, 1.8 ?ace a?aeiia?aeii.
?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ii

?en. 1. E?iaoeea i?iieeaiiy e??ii?ioaeoi??a (20%) aei a?eo?ioeeo?a

i?e 10iN: 1 — AA, 2 — AeINI, 3 — 1,2-IAe.

Oaaeeoey 1. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioo i?iieeiino? iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a

(?10-5 ni/oa) a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa aeaeo e??ii?ioaeoi?a (20%)

Ae?oea?ei — 30%.

0 iN5 iN10 iN20 iN1,2-i?iiaiae?ie1,00,13,11,8
7,31,9-AeINI1,00,11,60,13,91,3-Yoeeaiae?eieue2,80,63,21,0
4,90,4Ae?oea?ei* 0,290,03-0,520,071,60,2Ae?oea?ei0,260,04—

aecia/aiith ? aei AE i?e 20 iN ni?aiaaeathoue c aeaieie e?oa?eoo?e
(340)10-5 ni/oa (Mazur, Miller, 1976), a cia/aiiy aia?a?? aeoeaaoe??
9,3 eeae/iieue aeecueea aei cia/aiiy, io?eiaiiai oeie ae aeine?aeieeaie
(7,2 eeae/iieue). ??cieoey a

? aei AE iaoiiaeaia iaoiaeeeith ?ic?aooieo.Oae, iao? aeai? a 2,5 ?ace
iaio?, i?ae o?, ui iaea?aeoaaee ?ai?oa ia i?aenoaa? ??aiyiue aeeooc??
O?ea.

Oaeei /eiii, ca aaee/eiith ? iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e oaiia?aoo?? 10 iN
e??ii?ioaeoi?e iiaeia ?ici?noeoe o ieceo 1,2-IAe AA AeINI AE. Oey
iecea ia ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ieceith, eio?o aiie ooai?ththoue ca
e?io?iiieie, ae?aeaeo?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie, a oaeiae ii ?ici??ai ?o
iieaeoe, e?eueeino? ca`ycaii? aiaee ? o.?. Ioaea, ? e??ii?ioaeoi?a
aecia/a?oueny eiiieaenii an?o eiai o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io ia i?iieei?noue
iaia?ai aea/aee ia a?eo?ioeeoao oa ?o /a?aiieo o?iyo. E?iaoeea
i?iieeaiiy 20% AE i?e 0 iN a /a?aii? o?i? a?eo?ioeeo?a iiaeaia ia
?en. 2. Aeaeii, ui i?ioean i?iieeaiiy AE caaa?oo?oueny ai?iaeiaae 4-5
oaeeei, a oie /an, ye aeey ?ioaeoieo a?eo?ioeeo?a oeae /an a?eueo, i?ae
30 oaeeei (? = 0,6710-5 ni/oa). Aeey /a?aiieo o?iae ? aei??aithaaa
9,710-5 ni/oa.

I?e i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aaiiaeia?io oeyoii aeaa?ae?aoaoe??
?ic/eiii iao??th oei?eaeo( NaCl ) 0,4 iieue/e e?iaoeea i?iieeaiiy AE ia
?a?no?oaaeanue (?en.2). Aiaeia?/i? aenia?eiaioe ia /a?aiieo o?iyo
a?eo?ioeeo?a, ye ? c ?ioaeoieie a?eo?ioeeoaie, c aeiaeaaaiiyi aei ieo
0,4 iieue/e NaCl iieacaee, ui e?iaoeea i?iieeaiiy AE niinoa??aa?oueny
aeinoaoiuei aeia?a (?en.2). Aeaeeii, i?e/eiith ??cei? ci?ie oaeaeeino?
i?iieeaiiy AE a a?eo?ioeeoe ? ci?ia oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae??
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io c iaia?aiith oa oeeoineaeaoieie
a?eeaie /a?ac ci?ie eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? .

Oaeei /eiii, ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ? aei AE a?eueo, i?ae a 10 ?ac?a a
ii??aiyii? c ?ioaeoieie a?eo?ioeeoaie, a ca?eueoaiiy eiai eiioeaio?aoe??
— aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy AE.

A ca`yceo c oeei aeine?aeaeaii aieea eiioeaio?aoe??
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea ia ?iciiae?e ?a/iaei i?ae ee?oeiith ?
ioi/oth/ei ?? na?aaeiaeuai. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aei
a?eo?iiane 1:1 aeiaeaaaee ?ic/eie, ui i?noeee e??ii?ioaeoi? 30%,
iao??e-oinoaoiee aooa? — 15 iiieue/e (?I 7,4), NaCl — 0,122 iieue/e.
C?acee oo?eioaaee a oa?iinoao? i?e 37 iN aei anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae a
nenoai?, oeaio?eooaoaaee, a?aeae?aee iaaeinaae ? caienoaaee niaeo?e
1I-ssI? e??ii?ioaeoi?a a iaaeinaae? ? a a?eo?iian? (aai a noniaic??).
Aoaeiiii neoaoaaa oao?aiaoeeneeai (OIN), ai?uaiee a oiieee eai?ey?. *an
anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ae iica- oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiiei na?aaeiaeuaie
aecia/aee

iaoiaeii AI?.

Ia ?en. 3 iiaeai? niaeo?e 1I-ssI? IAA-1500 oa aiaee a iaaeinaae? ? a
noniaic?? a?eo?ioeeo?a, c yeeo aeaeii, ui a iaaeinaae? oe? niaeo?e
aeia?a ?ica`ycai? ?

ia ia?ae?eaathoueny, a oie /an ye a noniaic?? a?eo?ioeeo?a ia?
i?noea ia?ae?eaaiiy

?en.2. E?iaoeea i?iieeaiiy 20%-ae?oea?eio i?e 0iN: 1 — aei /a?aiieo

o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a; 2 — aei /a?aiieo o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a a i?enooiino?

0,4 iieue/e NaCI; 3 — aei a?eo?ioeeo?a a i?enooiino? 0,4 iieue/e
NaCI.

?en. 3. Niaeo?e 1I-ssI? IAA-1500, aiaee oa OIN a noniaic??

a?eo?ioeeo?a (?) o iaaeinaae? (??). 1- aiaee, 2 — IAA-1500, 3 — OIN,

4 — ?ioaa?ae niaeo??a.

niaeo??a, yea ? ua ae?aci?oei a a?eo?iian?. Aiaeia?/ii ia?ae?eaaeenue
niaeo?e a a?eo?iian? ? aeey IAA-400. A c?aceao c /a?aiieie o?iyie
a?eo?ioeeo?a niaeo?e 1I-ssI? IAA-400 ? aiaee aoee aeia?a ?ica`ycai? ? ia
ia?ae?eaaeenue. Aiaeia?/iee aeaeyae iaee niaeo?e a iaaeinaaeao ? a
/a?aiieo o?iyo a?eo?ioeeo?a aeey ?ioeo e??ii?ioaeoi??a. C
aeuaaeeeaaeaiiai aeo?ea?, ui ?icoe?aiiy niaeo??a aiaee oa
e??ii?ioaeoi??a a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a, aeaeeii, ca`ycaii ia o?eueee
c aaoa?iaaii?noth nenoaie, aea ? c iniaeeainoyie noaio aiaee oa
e??ii?ioaeoi??a a oeeoiieaci? ee?oeie. Iiaeeeai, oea iia`ycaii c
aenieith i?e?i`yce?noth aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui aeo?ea? c
aeaieo AI?.

A oaaeeoe? 2 iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, c yeeo
aeaeii, ui Q AE, 1,2-IAe a??ia?aeii ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aeaieo
e?oa?aoo?e (Cei/aiei, 1994), yeui o?aooaaoe, ui aiie ?ic?aoiaoaaee ia
aanue ia`?i a?eo?iiane, a ie — ii a?aeiioaiith aei aiaee a a?eo?ioeeoao
(aeey ii??aiyiiy iao? aeai? iaiao?aeii iiiiiaeeoe ia 0,6).

Cia/aiiy Q aeey IAA-1500 cia/ii a?eueoa 1 aeey a?eo?ioeeo?a, a oie /an
ye aeey o?iae — aiii aeecueea aei 1. Aeey IAA-400 Q aoei 1,770,53 o
aeiaaeeo o?iae aeey iaeiiai ?c aeiii??a. Iiynieoe cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa
?iciiae?eo, yea ? a?eue-oei 1 aeey IAA-1500, c oi/ee ci?o iayaiino? a
a?eo?ioeeoao iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo eiiiiiaio?a ia aaea?oueny, ine?eueee a
ee?oeiao ciaoiaeeoueny aeecueei 50% a?ae caaaeueii? iane
e??ii?ioaeoi?a. E??i oiai, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui aiaea, yea
ciaoiaeeoueny a i?aeee?oeiiiio i?inoi?? caeia? a?ey 10% a?ae
caaaeueiiai ia`?io a?eo?iiane. Oiio, yeui a ee?oeiao ia aoei a
e??ii?ioaeoi?a, oi eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo aoa ae a iaaeao 0,1 —
0,2, iicaye e?euee?noue e??ii?ioaeoi?a

a i?aeee?oeiiiio i?inoi?? ?ic?aoiaoaaeanue ae ii a?aeiioaiith aei an???
aiaee a a?eo?iian?. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe ia aaea?oueny iiynieoe c iiaeyaeo
iaia?aiii? oai???.

I?e/eiaie oaeeo ci?i eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo iiaeooue aooe aaeni?aoe?y
e??ii?ioaeoi??a aioo??oiueiee?oeiieie eiiiiiaioaie, caeaaei?noue ?o
?ic/eiiino? a?ae i?enooiino? o aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiio na?aaeiaeu? a?eea
aaiiaeia?ia.

Oaaeeoey 2. Aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai
aaiiaeia?io

a?eo?ioeeo?a ia eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo ??cieo e??ii?ioaeoi??a. ?ic/eie
i?noeee: e??ii?ioaeoi? — 30%; iao??e-oinoaoiee aooa? — 15 iiieue/e; NaCl
— 0,122 iieue/e.

EI — e??ii?ioaeoi?;

* — aeai? e?oa?aoo?e [Cei/aiei,1994];

** — aeai? e?oa?aoo?e [Ee?ioea,1997].

EIA?eo?ioeeoe*A?eo?ioeeoeO?i?AA0,781,100,08**0,960,09AE0,71-1,130,101,2-
IAe0,631,200,08**0,930,09IAA-4000,600,950,09
0,900,05IAA-6000,421,170,301,070,10IAA-15000,381,550,150,850,15Oaeei
/eiii, aioo??oiueiee?oeiiee a?eie aieeaa? ia ?iciiae?e i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei i?ae ee?oeiith ? ioi/oth/ei ?? na?aaeiaeuai. A ca`yceo c oeei
aea/aii aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea ia ?iciiae?e
aeaeo?ie?oo — oa?ioeeai?aeo eae?th.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ii aecia/aiith ai?noo oi?i aaiiaeia?io a
a?eo?ioeeoao oa ?o o?iyo a i?enooiino? OE iiaeai? a oaae. 3, c yei?
aeaeii, ui ?c ciaioaiiyi ai?noo aaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao
ca?eueoo?oueny a ieo ai?no iaoaaiiaeia?io. Aeai? ii ca?eueoaiith ai?noo
iaoaaiiaeia?io, ui io?eiai? oeyoii ?ic?aooieo ca oi?ioeaie, aeiaeaoeiai
ii??aithaaeenue c ?acoeueoaoaie aecia/aiiy eiai ai?noo ?c nioae
iiaeeiaiiy ia aeiaaeei? oaee? 634 ii. I?e oeueiio aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
?acoeueoaoe aeinoaoiuei aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny i?ae niaith (eiio?ieue —
100%, o?i? 1 — 179,310,5% oa o?i? 2 — 234,88,8%).

Oaaeeoey 3. Caeaaei?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oi?i aaiiaeia?io ana?aaeei?

a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? a ieo aaiiaeia?io i?ney ?o
aea?e?a?a-

oe?? c oa?ioeeai?aeii eae?th (510-3 iieue/e).

HbO2, Hb, Hi — iene-, aeaciene- e iaoaaiiaeia?i a?aeiia?aeii.

Aaiia*. — aaiiaeia?io. A?eo?ioe. — a?eo?ioeeoe.

Ai?no.

Aaiia.,%

HbO2, %

Hb, %

Hi, %Ai?no

Hi, %A?eo?ioe.10063,01,024,42,712,61,0eiio?ieue,100O?i?
138,056,92,820,52,322,61,3179,35,8O?i?
222,247,90,619,60,732,50,2257,90,6

Oaeei /eiii, eiioeaio?aoe?y aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io nooo?ai
aieeaa? ye ia ?iciiae?e ?a/iaei i?ae ee?oeiaie ? ioi/oth/ei ?o
na?aaeiaeuai, oae ? ia oaeaee?noue i?iieeaiiy ae?oea?eio. Oiio ?
aaaeeeaei aea/aiiy i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oeeoiieaci? ee?oei
i?ae aieeaii ??cieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo /eiiee?a.

Aieea ??cieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo /eiiee?a ia /an ei?aeyoe?? iaa?oaeueii?

aeeooc?? nieiiaiai ciiaeo iaciai? oa ana?aaeei? a?eo?ioeeo?a ?
no?oeoo?-

ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai aaiiaeia?io ?o oeeoiieacie.

Aiane?aeie aaaeeeaino? a?ae?aoaoe?? aeey caa?aaeaiiy oe?e?niino? ?
ooieoe?? ee?oei ?? aea/aiith aeine?aeieee i?eae?eythoue aaeeeo oaaao
(Iienaaa, Iaaeeaeia, Ia?aeeae, 1989; Farrant, Woolgar, 1972). Ine?eueee
a?ae?aoaoe?y oeeoiieaci? ia?ic?eaii iia`ycaia c ?o a`yce?noth, iaie
aeine?aeaeaia caeaaei?noue *EIAe (/ano ei?aeyoe?? iaa?oaeueii? aeeooc??)

OAIIII a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ??cieo ?a/iaei.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue *EIAe OAIIII a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? ??cieo ?a/iaei iiaeai? ia ?en. 4. C ?en. 4 aeaeii, ui
oa?aeoa? ci?ie *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII ? e?i?eiei aei 0,8 — 1,0 iieue/e, a
aeae? a?aei?/a?oueny a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eii? caeaaeiino?. I?e/eiith
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eii? caeaaeiino?, aeaeeii, ? aeo?ae c a?eo?ioeeo?a
iniiaii? iane a?eueii? aiaee. A?eueo iecuee? cia/aiiy *EIAe OAIIII
a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a a i?enooiino?

?en. 4. Caeaaei?noue *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a

a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??: 1 — NaCI, 2 — KCI, 3 — naoa?ice, 4 — aetheice.

aetheice, aeaeeii, iia`ycai? c i?iieeaiiyi aetheice a a?eo?ioeeoe. Ci?ia
i?aoe?eie Ii iaea e?i?eiee oa?aeoa? a ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e
iao??th oei?eaeo 0,15-2,0 iieue/e.

Aea/aiiy aieeao eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea ia *EIAe
OAIIII (oeeoiieacia /a?aiieo o?iae) iieacaei, ui eiai caeaaei?noue a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl ia? e?i?eiee oa?aeoa? aei cia/aiue 2,4 iieue/e.
I?e/eiith oaei?

ci?ie *EIAe OAIIII, aeaeeii, ? iecueea eiioeaio?aoe?y aaiiaeia?io a
/a?aiieo o?iyo a ii??aiyii? c a?eo?ioeeoaie ? a?eueoee ai?no aiaee oa
aeaeo?ie?o?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue caeaaeiino? *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII a oeeoiieaci?
a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl a i?enooiino? ??cieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e 1,2-IAe iiaeai? a oaae. 4, c yei? aeaeii, ui i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?yo NaCl aei 0,8 iieue/e cia/aiiy *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII a
oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a aeey eiioeaio?aoe?e 1,2-IAe 25 oa 30%
a??ia?aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aeaieo aeey 5 oa 15%. ? oaeiae
a??ia?aeia ??cieoey i?ae *EIAe OAIIII aeey eiioeaio?aoe?e 1,2-IAe 25
oa 35%. I?e/eiith oaeeo a?aei?i, eiia??ii, ? ca?eueoaiiy i?e?ia`yceino?
aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? aiaee i?e aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo 1,2-IAe /a?ac
eiai aieea ia aeanoeaino? aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? aiaee. Oeae aeniiaie
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e (Iooea?ue e niaao., 1978) i?i
aieea aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?e e??ii?ioaeoi??a ia aeanoeaino? aiaee. I?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl 1,2 iieue/e ? aeua a?aenooi? a?aei?iiino? i?ae
cia/aiiyie *EIAe i?e an?o eiioeaio?aoe?yo 1,2-IAe. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie caeaaeiino? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a
a?ae iniiey?iino? ?ic/ei?a NaCl. Oae, i?e eiioeaio?aoe?yo iao??th
oei?eaeo 0,4-0,8 iieue/e (aei 1600 iini) a ee?oeiao ua ? a?eueia aiaea,
a oie /an ye i?e eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2 iieue/e (2400 iini), oiaoi
a?eueoa 2000 iini, a?eo?ioeeoe iiai?noth aeaa?ae?aoiaai? (Farrant,
Woolgar, 1972; Iienaaa, Iaaeeaeia, Ia?aeeae, 1989). Aeai? i?i ci?io Ii,
a oaeiae , a oe?eiio ocaiaeaeothoueny ?c ci?iaie *EIAe.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aei?iiino? a *EIAe OAIIII a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a

Oaaeeoey 4. Caeaaei?noue *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?e iao??th oei?eaeo ? 1,2-IAe. Eiioeaio?aoe?y OE
0,267 iieue/e.

1,2-IAe, %
(iieue/e)NaCI5(0,66)15(1,97)25(3,29)35(4,6)iieue/e1011,n0,405,80,45,50,5
6,70,49,00,70,8011,60,315,10,513,70,3-1,2012,40,813,00,913,30,7-2,416,71
,317,50,615,31,2-i?e eiioeaio?aoe?yo 1,2-IAe 15% ? aeua a i?enooiino?
NaCl c eiioeaio?aoe??th aei

0,8 iieue/e ca`ycai? c iayai?noth a a?eo?ioeeoao aeinoaoiuei?
e?eueeino? a?eueii? aiaee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia *EIAe OAIIII a oeeoiieaci?
a?eo?ioeeo?a, eiee aiie ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ic/ei? NaCl 0,15, IAI-12600
0,0127 (16%), iai?oo 0,5, naoa?ice 0,88 oa eae?th oei?eaeo 0,5 iieue/e
iieacaei, ui a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 0-25 iN caeaaei?noue iineoue
e?i?eiee oa?aeoa?. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui oa?aeoa? iaoeeo e?eaeo i?aeoe/ii
ia ci?ithaaany i?e ci?i? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa aeaeo ?a/iaei.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy *EIAe OAIIII a iica- oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiio ?ic/eiao
iieacaei, ui a i?enooiino? i?iieeath/iai e??ii?ioaeoi?a 1,2-IAe eiai
ca?eueoaiiy i?ney e?enoae?caoe?? aiaee ia ? ae?aciei (25%) ? eiai
cia/aiiy a iica- oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiio ?ic/eiao caeeaeothoueny, a
oie /an ye a i?enooiino? NaCl aiii ca?eueoo?oueny a 4 ?ace. A niaeo??
OAIIII, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a iicaee?oeiiiio na?aaeiaeu? (1,2-IAe 23%), i?e
-40 iN e?ai?o/ a?ae iecueeiiieueii? eiiiiiaioe h+1 c`yaey?oueny iiaa
eiiiiiaioa, eio?a oa?aeoa?ia aeey ciiaeo c ai?cio?iiiei iaa?oaiiyi, c
*EIAe ~ 210-8 n. I?e -50 iN niaeo? OAIIII aeecueeee aei niaeo?a ciiaeo c
*EIAe ~ 110-7 n. Oeae niaeo? a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae niaeo?o ciiaeo, yeee
?cio?iiii iaa?oa?oueny a ?ic/ei? 1,2-IAe 60% i?e -38 iN (*EIAe ~ 710-9
n) oa -48 iN (*EIAe ~ 110-7 n). A oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a a
i?enooiino? 1,2-IAe 23% iiyaa iiai? eiiiiiaioe a niaeo?? OAIIII ? /?oei
ae?aaeaiith i?e -40 iN, iaeiae, ia?o? ?? iciaee a?aei?/aeenue i?e -36
iN. A ?ic/ei? naoa?ice (30%) iiaa eiiiiiaioa a niaeo?? OAIIII
a?aei?/a?oueny i?e -20 iN, a oie /an ye a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a oiio ae ?ic/ei?, aaea i?e -15 iN, ye ? a ?ic/ei? NaCl
0,15 iieue/e. A ?ic/ei? IAI-12600 (20%) a?aei?/aii iiyao iiai?
eiiiiiaioe a niaeo?? OAIIII i?e -25 iN, a a ?ic/ei? IAI-1500 (30%)
i?e — 30iN .

Aeey aea/aiiy ?ie? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea aaiiaeia?ia a i?ioeanao,
iienaieo aeua, aeine?aeaeaii aieea ??ciiiai?oieo /eiiee?a ia eiai
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai.

I?e niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? noniaic?e ee?oei a
a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao niaeo? /anoi ? noia?iiceoe??th niaeo??a iica- oa
aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo eiiiiiaio?a. Oiio aaaeeeai ciaoe, /e ? a oaeiio
aeiaaeeo niaeo? i?inoith noiith niaeo??a aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo
eiiiiiaio?a ? eiiiiiaio?a ee?oeie, ui iio?aieee a ?ic/ei a ?acoeueoao?
?o ?oeiaoe??. Aeey c`ynoaaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy iaie i?iaaaeaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe/ii? aono?ie (D) iicaee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io, ui
i?noeoue o?iiioi?, a i?enooiino? ee?oei.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ?ioaineai?noue niaeo?o
aaiiaeia?io a ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei oaeeue 578-500 oa 270-290 ii a?eueoa
i?ae noia niaeo??a aaiiaeia?io, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ana?aaeei?
a?eo?ioeeo?a, oa iaoaaiiaeia?io, eio?ee ciaoiaeeoueny a iicaee?oeiiiio
na?aaeiaeu?, ia 2,9-4,2% oa 7,2-10,3% a?aeiia?aeii. Aeai? a eiaeiiio c
ae?aiacii?a a??ia?aeii iaeia a?ae iaeiiai ia a?ae??ciyeenue. A
i?enooiino? aaiiaeia?io ??ci?oe? ia a?aei?/aii.

I?e aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo ee?oei ia? i?noea neeueia ?icn?yiiy na?oea,
oiio iaie canoiniaaii iaoiae aeeoa?aioe?eii? niaeo?ioioiiao??? i?e
iayaiino?

ee?oei a iaio ethaaoao.

Ia ?en.5 iiaeai? niaeo?e iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io a i?enooiino?
a?eo?ioeeo?a (1), a iaaeinaae? i?ney inaaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a (2), i?ney
ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a aei cia/aiue, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
iaoaaiiaeia?io a iaaeinaae? aac a?eo?ioeeo?a (3) ? a iaaeinaae? a?ae
c?acea 3 (4). Aeaeii, ui D iaoaaiiaeia?io ca?eueoeeanue a i?enooiino?
a?eo?ioeeo?a ? iiaeeiaiiy a iaaeao nioae Ni?a ? a?aenooi?i. I?e/eiaie
oaeiai ca?eueoaiiy D iiaeooue aooe:

1 — i?iieeiaiiy oa?ioeeai?aeo eae?th a a?eo?ioeeoe oa ooai?aiiy a ieo
iaoaaiiaeia?io;

2 — iioe/i? aoaeoe, iia`ycai? c ??cieie oi?iaie ee?oei, ui ? iane?aeeii
a?aei?iiino? na?aaeiaeu;

3 — ia?aaea/a aia?a?? iaoaaiiaeia?iii aei eiiiiiaio?a ee?oeie.

?en. 5. Niaeo?e iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io: 1 — a i?enooiino?

a?eo?ioeeo?a; 2 — a iaaeinaae? a?ae c?acea 1; 3 — i?e ciaioaii? eiioeai-

o?aoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a (a?ey 61010 ee/e); 4 — a iaaeinaae? a?ae
c?acea 3.

Aea/aiiy D iaoaaiiaeia?io i?ney a?aeieaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a ?ic/eiii, ui
i?noeoue OE, anoaiiaeaiiy ethaaoe, ui i?noeoue aaiiaeia?i, iiia?aaeo oa
iicaaeo ethaaoe c noniaic??th a?eo?ioeeo?a (ii a?aeiioaiith aei
aeaea?aea na?oea), a oaeiae aea/aiiy oi?ie ee?oei a ethaaoao aeaee
i?aenoaao aeey aeniiaeo, ui ca?eueoaiiy D iaoaaiiaeia?io iia`ycaii c
ia?aianaiiyi aia?a?? aei eiiiiiaio?a iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a. Oeae
aeniiaie ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e (Aeaaeeie?ia, 1965; Eiiaa,
1965; Eaeiae/, 1986).

Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? D iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a iieacaei (?en.6), ui aiia ia? e?i?eiee
oa?aeoa? ? i?e iaai?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ee?oei cia/aiiy D iaoaaiiaeia?io
a?aeiia?aea? ?? cia/aiith a iaaeinaae? aac a?eo?ioeeo?a.
Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? D iica-

?en. 6. Caeaaei?noue aenoeioe?? (D) o?iiioi?ii? a?oie iicaee?oeiiiai
iaoaaiiaeia?io a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a. — aeiii? 1; i — aeiii?
2.

ee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io ioiiaeiii? e?ia? ieiaeo ethaeeie a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? ee?oei iieacaei, ui aiia oaeiae ia? e?i?eiee oa?aeoa?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? D iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th oei?eaeo aei 1,2 iieue/e a i?enooiino?
a?eo?ioeeo?a iieacaei, ui aiia ca?eueoo?oueny c ca?eueoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th oei?eaeo ? i?e eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,4 iieue/e D
ca?eueoo?oueny a?eueo i?ae a 2-3 ?ace a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiii?a.
Oaea ca?eueoaiiy D iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io iiaea aooe iia`ycaii ?c
noeneaiiyi iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o iaia?aie ? ciaioaiiyi a?aenoai?
i?ae aeiii?ii oa aeoeaioi?ii (Eaeiae/, 1986).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao e??ii?ioaeoi?a 1,2-IAe iieacaei, ui D
iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io iinooiiai ciaioo?oueny ? i?e eiai
eiioeaio?aoe?? 30% (oaae.5) oea ciaioaiiy noaiiaeoue 346,6%. Oea iiaea
aooe iia`ycaii ye c aca?iiae??th 1,2-IAe c iaoaaiiaeia?iii oa
aeoeaioi?ii, oae ? c ca?eueoaiiyi a?aenoai? i?ae ieie ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie a?ae?aoii? iaieiiee c 1,2-IAe oa aiaee. Aiaeia?/ia
ciaioaiiy D iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io a?aei?/a?oueny ? a i?enooiino?
ae?oea?eio, aea aaea i?e 20% eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? a?aei?/a?oueny oaea ae
ciaioaiiy D (29,83,3%), ye ? i?e 30% eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2-IAe. I?e/eiith
a?eueo neeueiiai aieeao ae?oea?eio iiaea aooe a`yce?noue ?ic/eio, eio?a
? a?eueoith o ?ic/eiao ae?oea?eio.

A 5% ?ic/ei? IAI-12600 ciaioaiiy D iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io aoei
32,38,3%. Oaeee aoaeo iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e IAI-12600 iiaeia iiynieoe
eiai niaoeeo?/iith aca?iiae??th c aeoeaioi?ii oa iaoaaiiaeia?iii. I?e
a?eueo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo IAI-12600 a?aeaoaaeinue ooai?aiiy
iaoaaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao ? ?ioaineai?noue nioae iaoaaiiaeia?io a
iaaeinaae? ciaiooaaeanue, ui aeaco? ia ca?eueoaiiy eiai aaeni?aoe?? a
i?enooiino? IAI-12600.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue i?aenoaao aeey aeniiaeo,
ui a i?enooiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aenoeioe??
iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io,yea, aeaeeii,iia`ycaia c ia?aaeaaaiiyi
aia?a?? aei eiiiiiaio?a ee?oeie. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ee?oei oa
NaCI i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeaeueoiai ca?eueoaiiy D iicaee?oeiiiai
iaoaaiiaeia?io, a oie /an, ye ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2-IAe,
ae?oea?eio oa IAI-12600 ni?e/eiythoue ?? ciaioaiiy,

Oaaeeoey 5. Caeaaei?noue ca?eueoaiiy D iicaee?oeiiiai iaoaaiiaeia?io

a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2-IAe a i?enooiino?
a?eo?ioeeo?a.

1,2-IAe, %05102030 D

0,150

0,013 0,146

0,0100,139

0,0100,121

0,0080,099

0,010

ii/eiath/e c iaaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oeeo ?a/iaei.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeuacaaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aoei aeine?aeaeaii aieea ??cieo
?a/iaei ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oi?i aaiiaeia?io ana?aaeei?
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e oaiia?aoo?? 201 iN .

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th oa eae?th
oei?eaeo ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oi?i aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai
aaiiaeia?io iiaeai? a

oaae. 6, c yei? aeaeii, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th
oei?eaeo aei 0,4 iieue/e a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo
iaoaaiiaeia?io. Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oea, oaeaeoa ca ana,
iia`ycaii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi na?oei?icn?yiiy. Aea oey oaiaeaioe?y
caa??aa?oueny i?e a?eueo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo NaCl, aea iaia?
i?aeneeaiiy ?icn?yiiy na?oea.

I?e eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl 2,8 iieue/e a?aeaoaa?oueny a??ia?aeia ciaioaiiy
ai?noo ieneaaiiaeia?io, ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aeacieneaaiiaeia?io, a ai?no
iaoaaiiaeia?io caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiei. I?e/eiith ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo
aeacieneaaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao, aeaeeii, ? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?y
a?eo?ioeeo?a, eiioeaio?oaaiiy naiiai aaiiaeia?io oa ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a
oeeoiieacie a?eo?ioeeo?a, ci?ia ?I ? eiioi?iaoe?? aaiiaeia?io, ?icaaeain
a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ui ? i?eaiaeeoue aei aeacieneaaiaoe??
ieneaaiiaeia?io. Ine?eueee i?e oe?e eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??th oei?eaeo
?oeio?oueny 17,75,0% a?eo?ioeeo?a, oi iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie
a?eo?oeeo?a, ui i?noyoue a?eueoa ieneaaiiaeia?io.

Oaaeeoey 6. Caeaaei?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oi?i
aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai

aaiiaeia?io ? aaiie?co a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ??cieo
?a/iaei.

HbO2, Hb, Hi — iene-, aeaciene- ? iaoaaiiaeia?i a?aeiia?aeii.

Eiioe.- eiioeaio?aoe?y. Aai. — aaiie?c.

Eiioe.NaCI KCIiieue/eHbO2, %Hb, %Hi, %HbO2,%Hb, %Hi,
%0,1566,54,221,33,112,34,166,78,823,17,110,22,50,4055,15,126,84,818,11,4
58,14,727,53,414,41,81,2059,75,425,05,815,41,462,35,427,14,010,52,12,005
8,94,325,03,616,11,756,66,128,74,514,73,4Aai.,%5,23,12,70,42,8052,37,236
,410,011,34,360,24,928,03,811,81,6Aai.,%17,75,07,90,73,6058,15,521,86,32
0,13,359,35,624,83,815,92,8Aai.,%39,511,0 31,53,6I?e eiioeaio?aoe??
iao??th oa eae?th oei?eaeo 3,6 iieue/e ciaioo?ouey ai?no ieneaaiiaeia?io
? ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaoaaiiaeia?io. I?e/eiaie ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo
iaoaaiiaeia?io iiaeooue aooe: 1) aaoiieeneaiiy aeacieneaaiiaeia?io ca
?aooiie aca?iiae?? aaia c ai?iieeneioieie caeeoeaie a?eeiaiai eaioethaa;
2) ieeneaiiy ieneaaiiaeia?io eeniai ia?aeeno aiaeith aai eeniai, eio?ee
aeae?ey?oueny i?e aeacieneaaiaoe?? ieneaaiiaeia?io; 3) cieaeaiiy
aeoeaiino?

oa?iaio?a aethoao?iiia?ieneaeace oa eaoaeace, IAAe-I ?
aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace, IAAe-I-iaoaaiiaeia?i?aaeoeoace oa
IAAe-I-aeaa?ae?iaaiace.

I?e eiina?aoaaii? a?ieia?/ieo ia`?eo?a iineeththoueny i?ioeane
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy (Aaeion, A?euaiei, 1994), ui iiaea i?eaanoe aei
oaeiai ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo iaoaaiiaeia?io. E??i oiai, iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue
ooai?aiiy iaoaaiiaeia?io ca ?aooiie aca?iiae?? aaia ?c caeeoeaie
ai?iieeneio aiane?aeie ?o caeeaeaiiy, ci?ie aeanoeainoae
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeua. Aea/aiiy oi?i aaiiaeia?io i?e 11 iN
iieacaei, ui a oe?eiio ci?ie iinyoue oaeee aea oa?aeoa?, aea ii/aoeiaee
ai?no ieneaaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao aoa aeuee.

Oaeei /eiii, i?e i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl oa KCl
a?aeaoaa?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao, ee?oei c a?eueoei ai?noii
ieneaaiiaeia?io ? ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ee?oei c a?eueoei ai?noii
iaoaaiiaeia?io. Oe? aeai? aeacothoue ia ci?io eiioi?iaoe?? aaiiaeia?io
ana?aaeei? a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo NaC? oa KN?. A
ca`yceo c oeei aeine?aeaeaii aieea ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iao??th
oei?eaeo ia noai a?eeiai? /anoeie aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a ?ic/ei? NaCl 0,4 iieue/e ia?
i?noea aeiaaioaeeueiaee cnoa iaeneioio IINI (ia?oi? iio?aeii? niaeo?o
iiaeeiaiiy) (293295ii) (?en.7) aaiiaeia?io. I?e/eiith oaeeo ci?i,
aeaeeii, ? ciaioaiiy iiey?iino? na?aaeiaeua aiane?aeie eiioeaio?oaaiiy
aaiiaeia?io. I?e eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl 1,2 iieue/e iaeneioi IINI
aaiiaeia?io ia ci?uo?oueny, a oie /an ye a ?ic/ei? 3,6 iieue/e
a?aei?/a?oueny ei?ioeioaeeueiaee cnoa. E??i oiai, c`yaey?oueny
aeiaeaoeiaa no?oeoo?a ia IINI aaiiaeia?io (?en.8). Oea, aeaeeii,
iia`ycaii c oei, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia eiioi?iaoe?? aaiiaeia?io
aiane?aeie eiai aeacieneaaiaoe??, iiaeeeai aa?aaaoe?? /a?ac ae?th nee
eiaac?? i?ae a?eeaie, aca?iiae?? aaia c ai?iieeneioieie caeeoeaie a?ee?a
oeeoiieacie, oeeoineaeaoo oa iaia?aie aiane?aeie ?o caeeaeaiiy ?
ci?ie aeanoeainoae aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeua. Oae? i?ioeane
aoaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ia aoaiao
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy, a oaeiae i?e caa??aaii? a ?anoniaiaeoth/iio
na?aaeiaeu?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeey caiia?aaiiy eiioi?iaoe?eieo ci?i a?ee?a ana?aaeei?
ee?oeie, ?o aa?aaaoe??, aca?iiae?? c iaia?aiieie oa oeeoineaeaoieie
a?eeaie ia

?en.7. Ia?oa iio?aeia niaeo?o iiaeeiaiiy aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai
aaii-

aeia?io, eiee a?eo?ioeeoe a ?ic/eiao NaCI: 1- 0,15 iieue/e; 2 —
0,4 iieue/e.

?en. 8. Ia?oa iio?aeia niaeo?o iiaeeiaiiy aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai
aaii aeia?io, eiee a?eo?ioeeoe a ?ic/eiao NaCI:

1 — 0,15 iieue/e; 2 — 3,6 iieue/e.

aoaiao e??ieiina?aoaaiiy, eio?? aoaeooue aeeeeeaoe iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei
ia aoaiao caii?iaeoaaiiy, a?ae?a??ao, a oaeiae i?e caa??aaii? a
?anoniaiaeoth/iio na?aaeiaeu?, ? iaiao?aeiei iayai?noue a oeeoiieaci?
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?iieeath/iai e??ii?ioaeoi?a. I?enooi?noue a iicaee?oeiiiio
na?aaeiaeu? aenieiiieaeoey?- iiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a ca?eueoeoue a`yce?noue
iicaee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeua i?e aeinoaoiuei iecuee?e eiai iniioe/iino?,
ciaioeoue a?aae??io iniioe/iiai oeneo ia iaia?aiao ee?oei, ui iiaeiii
iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe e??ieiina?aoaaiiy E??i oiai, oea iiaeiii
i?aeaeueoe caa?aaeaiiy ee?oei a ?anoniaiaeoth/iio na?aaeiaeu? i?ney
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy oa a?aeieaaiiy.

E??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a.

Aei oeueiai /ano iaia? ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee oiene/iino?
e??ii?ioaeoi?a ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?, oi/a e??ii?ioaeoi?aie ei?enoothoueny
aeaaii. Iaoiae ioe?iee oeeoioiene/iino? ca ?oeiaoe??th ee?oei a ?ic/ei?
NaCl 4 iieue/e ia aieno?oueny a caaaeueiii?eeiyoo noaio ioe?iee
oiene/iino? ?a/iaei ca LD50. A ca`yceo c oeei i?iiiio?oueny ioe?ithaaoe
oeeoioiene/i?noue e??ii?ioaeoi??a ca ?o aieeaii ia ?oeiaoe?th ee?oei,
eiee i?ae aieeaii iao??th oei?eaeo ?oeio?oueny 50% ee?oei. I?e
i?iaaaeaii? oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?eo?ioeeoe i?aeaeaaaee ae?? ?ic/eio
iao??th oei?eaeo 3,2 iieue/e (aeeeeea? iioeiaeaeaiiy 50% ee?oei, oiaoi
LD50). I?e oeueiio aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui e??ii?ioaeoi?e 1,2-IAe, AA, AE c
eiioeaio?aoe?yie aei 15% /eiyoue caoenio ae?th, a oie /an ye i?e
a?eueoeo (aeua 20%) eiioeaio?aoe?yo i?aeneethaaee iioeiaeaeaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a (aeeeth/aiiy — ae?oea?ei). Oae, i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2-IAe
30% a?aeaoaaany iiaiee aaiie?c a?eo?ioeeo?a (99,4 3,7%), a AA c o??th
ae eiioeaio?aoe??th aeeeeeaa iioeiaeaeaiiy 69,57,9% ee?oei. Ioaea,
1,2-IAe oa AA o aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aeyaeythoue oiene/io ae?th,
aeaeeii, aiane?aeie ?o aieeao ia iaia?aio oa a?eie-e?i?aei? aca?iiae??.
A yeino? e??ii?ioaeoi?a ie a?ae?a?aee 1,2-IAe, ine?eueee a?i ia? iaeo
oiene/i?noue ??ai? i?aai?cio, oaeaeei i?iieea? a ee?oeie, eaaei
a?aeieaa?oueny, a i?aaeeueiee i?aea?? eiiiiiaio?a na?aaeiaeua aeicaiey?
ciaioeoe eiai oiene/i?noue.

A?aeiii, ui i?e ia?aioieiaeaeaii? noniaic?e ee?oei i?e e??ieiina?aoaaii?
i?aeneeth?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei. Aea ia ynii, /e iia`ycaii oea naia
c ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi, aai c ?ioeie /eiieeaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
aeeaeie ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ia aaee/eio aaiie?co a?eo?ioeeo?a iieacaei, ui
aiia i?e -12 (5,3%), -13 (5,9%), -15(4,7%) ia a?eueoa ?? cia/aiue,
i?ae i?e a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao -8-10 iN (4,4-7,2%). Iiieeea ia
a?eueoa 0,7%. Ioaea, ciaioaiiy caa?aaeaiiy ee?oei a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia
iia`ycaia naia c ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi. Noai?aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e cnoao ?
noeneaiiy ia iaae? e?enoae?/ieo o?iio?a, ui ?inoooue, oeyoii ?o ci?uaiiy
a?aeiinii iaeia iaeiiai i?ecaiaeeei aei ??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy
iioeiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a. Oaeei /eiii, i?e/eiith iioeiaeaeaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e ia?aioieiaeaeaii? ? aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao oa noeneaiiy
aiane?aeie ci?ie ia`?io i?e ianooii?e e?enoae?caoe?? aiaee. C?icoi?ei,
ui e?euee?noue ooeiaeaeaieo ee?oei caeaaeeoue a?ae ia`?io, ioiieaiiio
aeaoi?iaoe??th, a a?i, a naith /a?ao, a?ae i?noey ca?iaeaeaiiy e?enoaeo
a ia`?i?. Caii?iaeoaaiiy ee?oei aac ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ? c
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi iieacaei, ui i?e/eiaie oaeeo a?aei?iiinoae iiaeooue
aooe oaeiae iecuee? oaeaeeino? caii?iaeoaaiiy a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?, a
iaaeao yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei.

Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a a?aeieaaiiy ee?oei oeyoii ?o ?anoniaic?? a oeo
aea a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao, a yeeo aiie ciaoiaeeeenue ia?aae
oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi, iieacaei, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei a?aeaoaa?oueny a
?ic/ei? iao??th oei?eaeo 0,6 iieue/e. Oaea iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei, oaeaeoa
ca ana, iia`ycaia ?c aca?iiae??th eiiiiiaio?a iaia?ai ??cieo ee?oei
aiane?aeie noeneaiiy iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ? ciaioaiiy a?aenoai?
i?ae eiiiiiaioaie ??cieo ee?oei. I?e ?anoniaic?? a?aeaoaa?oueny,
aeaeeii, aeo?ae eiiiiiaio?a ?c neeaaeo iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a, ui
ni?e/eiy? ?? ?oeiaoe?th.

Oaeei /eiii, aeey ciaioaiiy ao?ao ee?oei ia aoai? a?aeieaaiiy
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe na?aaeiaeua c iaaaeeeith iniiey?i?noth,
iane?eueee oea iiaeeeai, aai canoiniaoaaoe ae?ae?c.

Aeey ia?aa??ee iaoeo i?eiouaiue i?i iiaeeea?noue iie?ioaiiy
caa?aaeaiiy ee?oei i?e ii?aeiaii? aeniei- oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo
e?eii?ioaeoi??a aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aea/aiiy aieeao
??cieo aenieiiieaeoey?ieo (IAI-12600, IAI-1500(2000, 3000, 4000),
aeaeaoeia, iie?a?i?eiaee nie?o-36000 (IAN-36000) ieneaoeeueiaaiee
e?ioiaeue-186000, aeaeno?ai-20000) oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo (naoa?ica,
aetheica, o?oeoica, iao??th oei?eae, iao??th oeeo?ao, iao??e
oinoi?iieeneee aeaicai?uaiee) ?a/iaei a ii?aeiaii? c i?iieeath/ei
e??ii?ioaeoi?ii 1,2-i?iiaiae?ieii ia caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?ney
caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?ae?a??ao, a?aeieaaiiy ? ia?aianaiiy o na?aaeiaeua 8a.
Aoei aea/aii aieea ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e, niieo/aiue oa oaeaeeinoae
caii?iaeoaaiiy ia caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee: 1) ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2-IAe
a?ae 37 aei 20% iio?aao? ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ae 1014
a?aae/oa aei 3040 a?aae/oa ? iayaiino? a na?aaeiaeu? aenieiiieaeoey?ii?
?a/iaeie aeey caeiaoooy oaeiai ae caa?aaeaiiy ee?oei; 2) noai?aiiy aaeth
ia?aae caii?iaeoaaiiyi a?eo?ioeeo?a ia i?aeaeuo? ?o caa?aaeaiiy; 3)
i?enooi?noue o neeaae? eiina?aaioo IAI-12600 9% ? a?eueoa i?aeaeuo?
caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e caii?iaeoaaii? a aeaeo?ioieiaeeeueieeo aei
-80-90 iN; 4) i?ney caii?iaeoaaiiy ?c oaeaee?noth 3040 a?aae/oa,
a?ae?a??ao, a?aeieaaiiy ? ?anoniaic?? a ?ic/ei? 8a ia

aaea?oueny o?eaaei caa??aaoe a?eo?ioeeoe.

Ine?eueee ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy iia??oo? ?acoeueoao e??ieiina?aoaaiiy, iaie
cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?i?oe?aoe?? e?enoae?caoe?? a iaeiio ia`?i?
eiioaeia?a, ia ca/?iath/e iniiaii? eiai /anoeie (Iaaeeaeia n niaao.,
1996), ui aeicaiey? io?eiaoe aeniea caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a. Ciaioaiiy
oaeaeeino? caii?iaeoaaiiy aei 8-12 a?aae/oa, ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
1,2-IAe oa eiai ii?aeiaiiy c IAI-12600 aeicaieeei io?eiaoe aenieee
nooi?iue caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeo?a ? ca?eueoeoe no?iee eiai caa??aaiiy a
na?aaeiaeu? 8a aei 6 aei?a. O?aooaaiiy aeyaeaieo iaie /eiiee?a, ye?
iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei i?eoiaaiiai ooeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei, ia?iuoaaiith
aaiie?co a ?anoniaiaeoth/iio na?aaeiaeu?, aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe no?iee
caa??aaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a iueiio aei 6 ae?a aac IAI-12600.

Aeey aea/aiiy iiaeeeaino? ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo a noai?aii? aeiiii?/ieo
e??ieiina?aaio?a aeey e??ieiina?aoaaiiy noniaic?e ee?oei aoa i?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c ia i?aenoaa? ??aiyiue aaeaino ian (oaae.7)

NiVi=Ns (Vo+Vs)
(9),

aea No ? Ns — ii/aoeiaa oa e?ioeaaa eiioeaio?aoe?? e??ii?ioaeoi?a o
aiaeieo oacao; Vo — ii/aoeiaee ia`?i e??ieiina?aaioa; Vs — ia`?i
aiaeii? oace a a?eo?iian? (ii/aoeiaee), a yeiio ?ic/eiaii
e??ii?ioaeoi?.

Oeae aiae?c iieacaa, ui ca?eueoaiiy ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe??
e??ii?ioaeoi?a aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe aeiiii?/i? ? iaio o?oaeii?noe?
niiniae e??ieiina?aoaaiiy. Aeei?enoiaoth/e oeae i?aeo?ae, ie noai?eee
aeiiii?/i?, iaio o?oaeii?noe? oa aoaeoeai? niiniae e??ieiina?aoaaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e -196 (Iaaeeaeia, Ai?io?e?i, Iien??a, 1995) e -80-90iN
(Iaaeeaeia, Iien??a, Ai?io?e?i, 1996).

Oaaeeoey 7. Caeaaei?noue e?eueeino? aeo?a/aiiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a
(mk) a?ae

ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? (Ni), ia`?io eiina?aaioo, ui
aeiaea?oueny (Vo)

oa e?ioeaai? eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? a iaaeinaae? (Ns). A — a?eo?iiana;
? — ?ic/ei.

Ni?aa?ae-NsiioaiiyVs/Vo10203040A:?Com10Com20Com30Com401:30,2123624723610
8481201:1,50,414212842426356841:10,616163232484864641:0,61,0201240246036
80481:0,51,222114422663388441:0,41,5251050207530100401:0,32,030960189027

AENIIAEE

1. E??ii?ioaeoi?e ii oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy /a?ac iaia?aio a?eo?ioeeo?a
i?e oaiia?aoo?? 10 iN noai?ththoue ieceo: 1,2-IAe > aoeeaiae?eieue >
AeINI > ae?oea?ei, eio?a ia ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ieceith, yeo aiie
ooai?ththoue ca ?o e?io?iiieie aeanoeainoyie (ca aaee/eiith eiao?oe??ioo
?iciiae?eo a nenoaiao oei?ioi?i/aiaea oa ieeaeiaa ie?y/aiaea), ca
aaee/eiith ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? ?o ?ic/ei?a, ca e?euee?noth
ca`ycaii? c ieie aiaee ? o.?., a ca`yceo c /ei ne?ae i?eionoeoe, ui
i?noea e??ii?ioaeoi?a a oe?e iecoe? aecia/a?oueny eiiieaenii an?o eiai
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

2. Eiioeaio?aoe?y aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea ni?e/eiy? cia/iee aieea ia
eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo ??cieo ?a/iaei i?ae a?eo?ioeeoaie oa ioi/oth/ei
?o na?aaeiaeuai, a oaeiae ia oaeaee?noue i?iieeaiiy ae?oea?eio.

3. A?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eiiai oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino? *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII
a oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ??cieo ?a/iaei aeua 0,8
iieue/e iia`ycaia c aeoiaeii c a?eo?ioeeo?a iniiaii? iane a?eueii?
aiaee.

4. A?aei?iiino? a cia/aiiyo *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII a oeeoiieaci?
a?eo?ioeeo?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? 1,2-IAe i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?yo iao??th oei?eaeo aei 0,8 iieue/e iaoiiaeai? caeaaei?noth
a`yceino? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aiaeiiai ?ic/eio a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
e??ii?ioaeoi?a /a?ac i?enooi?noue a a?eo?ioeeoao aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino?
a?eueii? aiaee.

5. A?aei?iiino? i?ae cia/aiiyie *EIAe ciiaeo OAIIII a iicaee?oeiiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ? oeeoiieaci? a?eo?ioeeo?a aecia/athoueny ?o neeaaeii oa
eiioeaio?aoe??th ?a/iaei.

6. I?e aea?e?a?aoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a a a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao iao??th oa
eae?th oei?eaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia eiioi?iaoe??
aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai aaiiaeia?io, ia ui aeaco? ci?ia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiai oi?i (iene-, aeaciene- oa iaoaaiiaeia?i) ? ia?oeo
iio?aeieo niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy.

7. A a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao iao??th oa eae?th oei?eaeo ooeiaeaeothoueny
a ia?oo /a?ao a?eo?ioeeoe, ui i?noyoue a?eueoo e?euee?noue
ieneaaiiaeia?io, a a?eueo no?eeeie ? ee?oeie, ui i?noyoue a?eueoo
e?euee?noue iaoaaiiaeia?io, aiane?aeie ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a eeniai a
ia?oeo oa ooai?aiiy eiiieaen?a i?ae iieaeoeaie aaiiaeia?io,
oeeoineaeaoo, iaia?ai a inoaii?o.

8. E?euee?noue iioeiaeaeaieo ee?oei neaaei ei?aeth? c? nooiaiai
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy. I?e/eiaie ca?eueoaiiy iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei i?e
ia?aioieiaeaeaii? ? noeneaiiy ? aeaoi?iaoe?? cnoao ia iaae?
e?eonoae?/ieo o?iio?a, ui ?inoooue, i?e ianooii?e e?enoae?caoe??.

9. Oai?aoe/iee i?aeo?ae, cai?iiiiiaaiee aeey noai?aiiy e??ieiina?aaio?a
c iaoith e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ee?oeiieo noniaic?e, aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe
aoaeoeai?, aeiiii?/i? oa iaio o?oaeii?noe? niiniae ?o eiina?aoaaiiy.

10. Ii?aeiaiiy aeniei- oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo e??ii?ioaeoi??a aeicaiey?
ciaioeoe eiioeaio?aoe?th iecueeiiieaeoey?iiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a,
ca?eueoeoe ae?aiacii oaeaeeinoae caii?iaeoaaiiy, i?e yeeo caa?aaeaiiy
ee?oei caeeoa?oueny aenieei, a oaeiae iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy i?e iii??ii iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao, aiane?aeie
niaoeeo?/ii? aca?iiae?? aenieiiieaeoey?iiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a c iaia?aiaie
ee?oei, ca?eueoaiiy a`yceino? iicaee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeua oa iecueeiai
iniioe/iiai oeneo eiai ?ic/ei?a i?e aenieeo a?aenioeiaeo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo.

11. I?e/eiith i?aeneeaiiy ooeiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a ?ic/ei? iao??th
oei?eaeo 3,2 iieue/e a i?enooiino? aoeeaiae?eieth oa 1,2-IAe 20% ? aeua
? ?o oiene/ia ae?y ia a?eo?ioeeoe.

12. A i?enooiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a, ii/eiath/e c iaaii? ?o eiioeaio?aoe??,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aenoeioe?? o?iiioi?ii? a?oie iicaee?oeiiiai
iaoaaiiaeia?io /a?ac ia?aaea/o eiai aia?a?? eiiiiiaioai iaia?ai
a?eo?ioeeo?a. Ciaioaiiy aenoeioe?? iaoaaiiaeia?io iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue
/a?ac ianiaoeeo?/io (1,2-IAe, ae?oea?ei) aai niaoeeo?/io (IAI-12600)
ae?th e??ii?ioaeoi??a.

Iaaeeaeia N.O. » I?iieoeaaiinoue y?eo?ioeeoia aeey e?eii?ioaeoi?ia e
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea eiiiiiaioia eo oeeoiieaciu ia
yoaiao e?eieiina?ae?iaaiey».

?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.19 — e?eiaeieiaey e
e?eiiaaeeoeeia. Einoeooo i?iaeai e?eiaeieiaee e e?eiiaaeeoeeiu
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1999 a.

A ?aaioa iaoiaeii YI? enneaaeiaaii aeeyiey oaiia?aoo?u ia
i?iieoeaaiinoue iaia?ai y?eo?ioeeoia /aeiaaea aeey e?eii?ioaeoi?ia
1,2-IAe, aeeoea?eia (AE), AeINI e yoeeaiaeeeiey (YA). Eiyooeoeeaiou
i?iieoeaaiinoe (?) ?ann/eoaiu ia aaca o?aaiaiee ia?aaiiaaniie
oa?iiaeeiaieee. ?ann/eoaiu oaeaea yia?aee aeoeaaoeee i?ioeanna eo
i?iieeiiaaiey e a?aiy iieoi?iieeiiaaiey. Ii aaee/eia eiyooeoeeaioa
i?iieoeaaiinoe iaia?ai y?eo?ioeeoia i?e oaiia?aoo?a 10 iN e?eii?ioaeoi?u
ia?acotho ?yae: 1,2-IAe > YA > AeINI > AE ((7,31,9)10-5, (4,90,4)10-5,
(3,91,3)10-5, (0,520,07)10-5 ni/iei niioaaonoaaiii). I?e eciaiaiee
oaiia?aoo?u ia 10 iN nei?inoue i?iieeiiaaiey e?eii?ioaeoi?ia
oaaee/eaaeanue a 7, 1.8, 4 e 1.8 ?aca niioaaonoaaiii. Cia/aiea yia?aee
aeoeaaoeee a aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? 0-10 iN auei 26.8, 6.2, 18.5 e 5.7
eeae/iieue niioaaonoaaiii. Oeacaiiue auoa ?yae ii aaee/eia ? ia
niaeanoaony n ?yaeii, eioi?ue iie ia?acotho ii eo eeio?iiiui,
aeeyeaeo?e/aneei naienoaai, a oaeaea ii ?acia?ai eo iieaeoe, eiee/anoao
naycuaaaiie aiaeu e o.ae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii cia/aiea

? e?eii?ioaeoi?a ii?aaeaeyaony eiiieaenii anao aai oeceei-oeie/aneeo
naienoa.

Eco/aiea aeeyiey eiioeaio?aoeee aioo?eeeaoi/iiai aaiiaeiaeia ia
i?iieoeaaiinoue iaia?ai y?eo?ioeeoia (y?eo?ioeeou e eo oaie) iieacaei,
/oi i?e eciaiaiee eiioeaio?aoeee aaiiaeiaeia i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea
eiyooeoeeaioa ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeioi?uo aauanoa e nei?inoe i?iieeiiaaiey
aeeoea?eia.

Caaeneiinoe iee?iayceinoe oeeoiieaciu y?eo?ioeeoia io eiioeaio?aoeee
?acee/iuo aauanoa iineo eeiaeiue oa?aeoa? aei 0,8 iieue/e, a i?e aieaa
aunieeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo i?ienoiaeeo ioeeiiaiea io eeiaeiie caaeneiinoe,
/oi naycaii n auoiaeii ec y?eo?ioeeoia iniiaiie iannu naiaiaeiie aiaeu.

I?e iaee/ee a n?aaea e a oeeoiieacia y?eo?ioeeoia 1,2-IAe eiathony
ioee/ey a iee?iayceinoe oeeoiieaciu a caaeneiinoe io aai eiioeaio?aoeee
aei eiioeaio?aoeee iao?ey oei?eaea 0,8 iieue/e, /oi naycaii n iaee/eai a
iae aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa naiaiaeiie aiaeu.

Onoaiiaeaii yaeaiea oaaee/aiey yenoeieoeee iaoaaiiaeiaeia, iaoiaeyuaainy
ai aiaeeaoi/iie n?aaea, a i?enoonoaee y?eo?ioeeoia e eco/aii aeeyiea ia
iaa eiioeaio?aoeee y?eo?ioeeoia, NaCI e e?eii?ioaeoi?ia. I?e yoii
onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee NaCI e y?eo?ioeeoia
oaaee/eaatho yenoeieoeeth iaoaaiiaeiaeia. E?eii?ioaeoi?u aa oiaiueoatho,
ia/eiay n ii?aaeaeaiiie eo eiioeaio?aoeee a neeo niaoeeoe/aneiai
(IAI-12600) e ianiaoeeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey (aeeoea?ei, 1,2-IAe).

Enneaaeiaaia caaeneiinoue niioiioaiey oi?i aaiiaeiaeia aioo?e
y?eo?ioeeoia io eiioeaio?aoeee naoa?icu, iao?ey e eaeey oei?eaea. I?e
yoii onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ?anoai?ao iao?ey e eaeey oei?eaea 3,6 iieue/e
oiaiueoaaony eiee/anoai eeaoie, niaea?aeaueo aieueoaa eiee/anoai
ieneaaiiaeiaeia, a oi a?aiy eae eiee/anoai eeaoie, niaea?aeaueo aieueoaa
eiee/anoai iaoaaiiaeiaeia, oaaee/eaaaony.

Enneaaeiaaiea ia?auo i?iecaiaeiuo niaeo?a iiaeiuaiey (IINI)
aioo?eeeaoi/iiai aaiiaeiaeia a aeia?oiie/aneeo ?anoai?ao iao?ey oei?eaea
iieacaei, /oi a caaeneiinoe io aai eiioeaio?aoeee i?ienoiaeeo aeeeiii-
eee ei?ioeiaieiiaie naeaea iaeneioia IINI. I?e eiioeaio?aoeee iao?ey
oei?eaea 3,6 iieue/e i?ienoiaeeo ei?ioeiaieiiaie naeaea e iiyaeyaony
aeiiieieoaeueiay no?oeoo?a ia IINI. Yoe aeaiiua e aeaiiua ii eciaiaieth
niioiioaiey oi?i aaiiaeiaeia aioo?e y?eo?ioeeoia oeacuaatho ia eciaiaiea
eiioi?iaoeee aioo?ey?eo?ioeeoa?iiai aaiiaeiaeia a aeia?oiie/aneeo
?anoai?ao.

Eco/aii aeeyiea ia?aioeaaeaeaiey ia nio?aiiinoue y?eo?ioeeoia e
onoaiiaeaii, /oi iia neaai ei??aee?oao n aaee/eiie ia?aioeaaeaeaiey.
Nicaeaiea aeaoi?iaoeee naeaeaa e naeaoey ia a?aieoea ?anooueo
e?enoaeee/aneeo o?iioia iieacaei, /oi iie i?eaiaeyo e au?aaeaiiiio
iia?aaeaeaieth eeaoie.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeai iiaeoiae aeey ioeaiee oiene/iinoe
e?eii?ioaeoi?ia

ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia. Eniieueciaaiea yoiai iiaeoiaea iicaieeei iieacaoue,
/oi 1,2-IAe, yoeeaiaeeeieue, aeeoea?ei i?e eiioeaio?aoeeyo aei 15%
iiauoatho nio?aiiinoue y?eo?ioeeoia, a oi a?aiy eae i?e eiioeaio?aoeeyo
auoa 20% oneeeaatho eo iia?aaeaeaiea (eneeth/aiea aeeoea?ei).

Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeanna ioiuaee eeaoie iooai ia?aaiaea eeaoie a oio aea
aeia?oiie/aneee ?anoai?, a eioi?ii iie iaoiaeeeenue ia?aae
oeaio?eooae?iaaieai iicaieeei iieacaoue, /oi iia?aaeaeaiea y?eo?ioeeoia
i?ienoiaeeo ia/eiay n eiioeaio?aoeee iao?ey oei?eaea 0,6 iieue/e.

A ?aaioa i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua ii enneaaeiaaieth caaeneiinoe nio?aiiinoe
y?eo?ioeeoia io eiioeaio?aoeee, ni/aoaiey ?acee/iuo auniei- e
ieceiiieaeoey?iuo aauanoa e nei?inoe caii?aaeeaaiey. E?iia oiai,
oai?aoe/anee iainiiaai iiaeoiae aeey nicaeaiey yeiiiie/iuo e iaiaa
o?oaeiaieeo e?eieiina?aaioia aeey e?eieiina?ae?iaaiey eeaoi/iuo
noniaicee.

I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iicaieeee i?aaeeiaeeoue yeiiiie/iua, iaiaa
o?oaeiaieea niiniau e?eieiina?ae?iaaiey y?eo?ioeeoia i?e acioiuo e
oia?aiii ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao. 

Eeth/aaua neiaa: YI?, ssI?, niaeo?ioioiiao?ey, y?eo?ioeeou,
i?iieoeaaiinoue, oaiia?aoo?a, oeeoiieacia, iee?iayceinoue, aaiiaeiaei,
e?eieiina?ae?iaaiea.

Iaaeeaeia N.O. «I?iieei?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a aei e??ii?ioaeoi??a ?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai eiiiiiaio?a ?o oeeoiieacie ia aoaiao
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy».

?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.19 — e??ia?ieia?y ? e??iiaaeeoeeia.
?inoeooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoiaeaie AI?, ssI? aea/aii aieea oaiia?aoo?e ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eea ia i?iieei?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a
ethaeeie aei ??cieo e??ii?ioaeoi??a. ?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe
i?iieeiino?, ?iciiae?eo, aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? e o.?. Iieacaii, ui
eiioeaio?aoe?y aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io aieeaa? ye ia
?iciiae?e, oae ? ia oaeaee?noue i?iieeiaiiy ae?oea?eio.

Iaoiaeaie AI? oa niaeo?ioioiiao??? iieacaii, ui a a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao
??cieo ?a/iaei a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?aaeai? ci?ie i?e?ia`yceino? oeeoiieacie
? eiioi?iaoe?? aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai aaiiaeia?io.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaia caeaaei?noue caa?aaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe??, ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aeniei- oa iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo
?a/iaei ? oaeae-

eino? caii?iaeoaaiiy. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii i?aeo?ae ? noai?ai?
aeiiii?/i?

e iaio o?oaeii?noe? niiniae e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: AI?, ssI?, niaeo?ioioiiao??y, a?eo?ioeeoe, i?iieei?noue,
oaiia?aoo?a, oeeoiieacia, i?e?ia`yce?noue, aaiiaeia?i,
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy.

Mezhidov S.Kh. “Erythrocyte permeability for cryoprotectants and
structural-funktional state of their cytoplasm contents at the stades of
cryopreservation”. Manuscript. Thesis for obtaining scientific degree of
Doctor on biological sciences on the speciality 03.00.19 — cryobiology
and cryomedicine. Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and
Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of the Uklraine,
Kharkov, 1999.

In this thesis the effect of temperature and intracellular protein
concentration on human erythrocyte permeability for different
cryoprotectants has been studied by means of EPR and NMR methods. The
coefficients of permeability, redistribution, activation energy were
calculated. It has been shown, that intracellular haemoglobin
concentration affects redistribution and cryoprotectant penetration
rate.

It was demonstrated by means of the EPR and spectrometry methods,
that manifested changes of cytoplasm microviscosity and
intraerythrocytic haemoglobin conformation occurred in
hypertonic solutions of different substances.

The dependence of erythrocyte preservation on concentration,
combination of different highly- and low-molecular substances
with freezing rate has been studied in the work. The approach is
theoretically substantiated, economical and less labour-intensive
methods of erythrocyte cryopreservation are created.

Key words: EPR, NMR, spectrophotometry, erythrocytes, permeability,
temperature, cytoplasm, microviscosity, haemoglobin,
cryopreservation.

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A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie A.?. A?euaiei

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