i?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

iaooe ? aaco

OAeE 622.244.44 ; 622.245.33

EOAAI TH??e Aieiaeeie?iae/

i?iieai? ??aeeie ia iniia? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a aeey ao??iiy,
cae?i/oaaiiy oa ?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.10 — Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei

a a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e ii?nueeeo iaooiaaciaeo nii?oae

ss?AI?E*OE ?iiai Naiaiiae/

?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ao??iiy iaooiaeo

? aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei Ienethe Ieoaeei Aiae??eiae/

?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ?
aaco

2. Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe A?O?EE A?oae?e A?eai?iae/

aee?aeoi? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?aei?e?inoaa“Ao?iaa oaoi?ea”

Aea?aeiaooiaaci?iio Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo i?e?iaeieo
aac?a

“Oe?IAe?aac” Aea?aeiaooiaaci?iio
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 16 ” eeiiy 1999 ?. i 10-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 20.052.02
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco
ca aae?anith: 284019, Oe?a?ia, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Ea?iaonueea,
15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
A.?. Iaa?ioeueeee

2

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ao??iiy nieaaeo ? i?aenieaaeo a?aeeeaae?a iia`ycaia
c oe?eei ?yaeii oneeaaeiaiue: oaeo/?noth nieae, iecueeith no?ee?noth
aeeiiai?uoth/eo ii??ae, aa?aneaiith ae??th aeaeo?ie?o?a ia ia?aiao?e
i?iieaieo ??aeei. O?aaeeoe?eii, aeey ciaioaiiy oaeeo oneeaaeiaiue
aeei?enoiaothoueny ao?ia? ?ic/eie aaeeei? aonoeie, c aenieei ??aiai
i?ia?ae?caoe??, noaa?e?ciaai? ??cieie oeiaie ?aaaaio?a, na?aae yeeo:
e?ioiaeue, aenieiiieaeoey?i? ia?ee EIOe, e?aiinoeueoiiaoe, a?iai.
?nioth/? noaie ia?iaie aeiaaathoue aaeeeeo o?iainiaeo aeo?ao oa
canoinoaaiiy ?iii?oieo iaoa??ae?a. Oaoiieia?/i? ??aeeie, ye?
canoiniaothoueny i?e cae?i/oaaii? oa ?aiiio? naa?aeeiaei, /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaieo noaa?e?caoi??a eiioeaio?iaaieo nieaaeo
?ic/ei?a, ia caaacia/othoue caa?aaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee
eieaeoi??a. ?iaioa i?enay/aia ae??oaiith ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy aaeoc?
aenieiye?nieie i?iieaieie ??aeeiaie ia iniia? iaaeao?oeeoieo a?o/eciyieo
iaoa??ae?a, ye? i?aeaeuothoue aoaeoeai?noue i?ioean?a ao??iiy
naa?aeeiaei oa caa?aaeaiiy eieaeoi?nueeeo aeanoeainoae ieano?a.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiia-ia
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aea?aeathaeaeaoiith aeiaia??iith oaiaoeeith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo oaoiieia?? ao??iiy Aea?aeeiiaaieia??
Oe?a?ie. (Aeiaia?? ?1-95/6: ?ic?iaea iie?ia?ieo aacaeeienoeo ao?iaeo
?ic/ei?a aonoeiith aei 1900ea/i3 c iie?auaiith caeaoi?noth aei i/enoee
a?ae aeao?aii? ii?iaee. Aeiaia?? ?1-96/7: Aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia??
?ice?eooy iecueeii?iieeieo eieaeoi??a ? aeeeeeo i?eieeao c ieo a
neeaaeieo oiiaao AeAec. Aeiaia?? ?1-96/8: Oaeineiiaeeoe oaoiieia??
?ice?eooy i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei
i?e aeai?an?? ia ieano.)

Iaoa ?iaioe. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio
canoinoaaiiy e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo. ?ic?iaea ia eiai iniia? aoaeoeaieo
i?iieaieo ??aeei ??ciiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe.

1. ?ic?iaea e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo c i?aeaeuaiith aonoeiith ? aenieith
noaa?e?coth/ith caeaoi?noth, iicaaaeaiiai noeeueiino? aei
oa?iaioaoeaiiai ?iceeaaeaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaea aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieo ? ?ia?a??oaaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a, a
oaeiae niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei ??ciiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia iniia?
iiaiai ?aaaaioo.

3. I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo i?iieaieo ??aeei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo, a
iniiao iaea?aeaiiy yeiai iieeaaeaii niin?a eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth a
?ic/eiao a?oio?oo oa i?o?aoo eaeueoe?th.

Ia iniia? ?aaaaioo ?ic?iaeai? ? i?ieoee aei?iaiaoaaiiy i?iieai? ??aeeie
??ciiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? aeicaieythoue nooo?ai ?icoe?eoe
ae?aiacii aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai e?ioiaeth ye noaa?e?caoi?a
aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieo ? ?ia?a??oaaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a, oa niaoe?aeueieo
??aeei aeey cae?i/oaaiiy ? ?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

1. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee e?ioiaeaaee ?aaaaio, yeee, ii??aiyii c
o?aaeeoe?eiei, caaacia/o? ciaioaiiy aeo?ao e?ioiaeth ? iaaaaeithaa/?a,
ia iio?aao? canoinoaaiiy aioeoa?iaioaoi??a, a oaeiae nieae aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?iieaieo ??aeei.

2. ?ic?iaeai? ?aoeaioo?e ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe
aenieo nooi?iue ?ia?a??oaaiiy nieaaeo ? aeeiiai?uoth/eo ii??ae (ia ??ai?
o?aaeeoe?eiiai aenieieaeueoe??aiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio), oa eiao?oe??io
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iieeiino? eieaeoi??a, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei ??aiy
oei?eae??aiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio.

3. Oni?oia aei?iaiaoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?aoeaioo? i?iieaieo ??aeei i?e
ao??ii? naa?aeeiaei a Iieoaanueeiio oa O?anoeuainueeiio OA? AeI
“Oe?ao?aac” aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe nooo?ao aeiiii?th o?i?aaaaio?a o
ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie ?aoeaioo?aie aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieo ?
?ia?a??oaaieo i?iieaieo ??aeei. Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?aoeaioo?
niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei a AeI “Iieoaaaaaci?ii”, AeI “Oa?e?ao?ainaac” oa
AeAI “Iieoaaaiaooiaacaaieia?y” aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe a?aeiiaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? naa?aeeiaei i?ney aeoo?iiy ia ??ai? 85-100%.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

1. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaioa aeey ia?iaee ao?iaeo
?ic/ei?a ? niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei — e?ioiaea-nieaaee aaeue. Aecia/ai?
oiiae ooai?aiiy aae?a a ?ic/eiao ??cieo nieae ? aeine?aeaeai? ?o
aeanoeaino?.

2. ?ic?iaeai? ?aoeaioo?e aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaiiai, ?ia?a??oaaiiai ?
aacaeeienoiai iie?ia?iiai ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a ia iniia?
e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiiai aaeth.

3. ?ic?iaeaia aaia ?aoeaioo? niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei aeey cae?i/oaaiiy oa
?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei a ??cieo a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao. ?ic?iaeaia
oaoiieia?y ooai?aiiy oei/aniai aeieoth/eo ??aeei ia iniia?
e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a aaciina?aaeiuei a noiaao?? naa?aeeiaeie.

4. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iino?eeino? i?iieaieo ??aeei ia
iniia? e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiiai aaeth oeyoii ?o ia?iaee ?a/iaeiaie c
eoaeiith ?aaeoe??th.

5. I?iaaaeai? i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo i?iieaieo ??aeei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue oa
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaooa ? aac
Oe?a?ie-96” (Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.); ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? naeoe?e ao??iiy
oa ?ice?eooy ieano?a OIAA (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997 ?.); ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee eiioa?aioe?? “Ao??iiy-98” (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.); ia
i`yo?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? OIAA “Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie — 98”
(Iieoaaa, 1998 ?). O iiaiiio ia`?i? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue
ia ni?eueiiio nai?ia?? eaoaae? ao??iiy iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei oa
ii?nueeeo iaooiaaciaeo nii?oae ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco (4 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo), oa
can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo oaoiieia??
ao??iiy Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? Oe?a?ie (24 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? a oanoe
ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo ? a?aeia?aaeai? a o?ueio iaoaioao Oe?a?ie.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i`yoe
?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a.
Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 227 noi??iie, o oiio /ene? 57 oaaeeoeue,
27 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae iae?/o? 144 iaeiaioaaiiy.
Ianya 16 aeiaeaoe?a noaiiaeoue 58 noi??iie.

ci?no i?aoe?

a ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c canoinoaaiiy i?ia?ae?ciaaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei, noaa?e?ciaaieo e?ioiaeai, ia ??cieo aoaiao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? aenieoaoaoe?? naa?aeeiaei.

E?ioiaeue ? caaaeueiia?aeiiei ?aaaaioii-noaa?e?caoi?ii i?ia?ae?ciaaieo
ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oa i?aeoeea eiai canoinoaaiiy, ye?
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? caaaeueiei i?eioeeiai noaa?e?caoe?? aeenia?nieo nenoai,
aena?oeai? o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ?.A.Aaeaey, I.E.Aiaaeiioei, A.N.Aa?aiiaa,
C.I.Aoen, N.N.Aithoeueeiai, A.A?aey, A.A.Aea?ya?ia, E.O.AEeaa/a,
Ae.?.Ceioieea, A.A.E?noa?a, O.?.Eieani?eiai?, I.I.E?oaeeoeueeiai,
I.?.E?ieana, E.E.Ioo?ia, E.O.Iaona, I.A.?aa?iaea?a, A.A.?icaiaaooa,
O.E.Neaeuenei?, Ae.Oinoa?a oa ?io.

E?ioiaeue iaeaaeeoue aei eeano aeueo iie?naoa?eae?a. Iae?iiieaeoea
e?ioiaeth neeaaea?oueny c eaiie aetheice, a nai e?ioiaeue yaey? niaith
i?e?iaeio noi?o iie?naoa?eae?a c caaaeueiith oi?ioeith N6I10I5, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeiiai ?ici??ii iae?iiieaeoe ? ?o
aoaeiaith. No?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie e?ioiaeth ? e?i?eiee iie?naoa?eae
ai?eica ? ?icaaeoaeaiee — ai?eiiaeoei.

I?eaiooaaiiy e?ioiaeaaeo ?aaaaio?a cae?enith?oueny oeyoii iiaeeo?eoaaiiy
oiaa?iiai e?ioiaeth. Oeueiio ni?ey? iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino?
o?i?/ii aeoeaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ia iiaa?oi? eiai iieaeoe.
Iaei?ino?o?e niin?a iiaeeo?eoaaiiy — eoaeia eeaenoa?ecaoe?y. Eeaenoa?e
e?ioiaeth eiei?aeii noaa?euei? ? iathoue i?aeaeuaio no?ee?noue aei
aa?an?? aeaeo?ie?o?a. Aeaiee oaeo, i?e iaaenie?e aa?oino? oa aeieia?/i?e
aaciaoe?, ?iaeoue e?ioiaeue i?eaaaeeaei i?e canoinoaaii? a
iaooiaaciaeaeiaoai?e aaeoc?.

E?ioiaeue aoaeoeaii ciaioo? o?eueo?aoe?th i?ia?ae?ciaaieo ?ic/ei?a,
iacaeaaeii a?ae ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? oa i?e?iaee nieae. Eiia?ioaaiiy
i?aeoe/ii c on?ia ?aaaaioaie i?aeaeuo? eiai noaa?e?coth/? aeanoeaino?.
Iaaeie?eaie o?aaeeoe?eiiai e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo ? iecueea
oa?iino?ee?noue oa noeeuei?noue aei oa?iaioaoeaiiai ?iceeaaeaiiy. E??i
oiai, ooai?aiiy ?aaaaioo iaoyaeo? ao?iao a?eaaaeo iaaacia/iith ?iaioith
c eaonoe/iith niaeith. Ia?iaea i?ia?ae?ciaaiiai ?ic/eio i??niei
eeaenoa?ii ciaioo? ??aaiue eiai i?ia?ae?caoe??. *a?ac cia/i? ia`?ie
ia?iaie oneeaaeith?oueny canoinoaaiiy ?ioeo oei?a ??aeeeo ?aaaaio?a ?
ciaioo?oueny aonoeia iaaaaeiaieo ?ic/ei?a. O?aaeeoe?eiee ?aaaaio, /a?ac
ai?no eoao, ciaioo? eia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? ?ic/eio ? iiaea iaaaoeaii
aieeaaoe ia eieaeoi?nuee? aeanoeaino? ieano?a. Ia iiaeieaiiy oeeo
iaaeie?e?a aoee ni?yiiaai? /eneaii? ?ic?iaee aiaei?ic/eiieo oi?i
e?ioiaeaaeo ?aaaaio?a.

Iiaeeo?eiaai? iaoa?iaioaoeai? e?ioiaeaa? ?aaaaioe oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? ia an?o aoaiao aoae?aieoeoaa
naa?aeeiaei. I?ioa, aeina?ae iieaco?, ui iaa?oue caaaeueiia?aeii? ia?ee
aiaei?ic/eiieo e?ioiae?a, i?e canoinoaaii? aac
?aaaaio?a-aioeoa?iaioaoi??a a nenoaiao c iaaeinoaoiueith
i?ia?ae?caoe??th, noeeuei? aei oa?iaioaoeaiiai ?iceeaaeaiiy. A Oe?a?i?
ae?iaieoeoai aoaeoeaieo aiaei?ic/eiieo e?ioiaeaaeo noaa?e?caoi??a
a?aenooi?. ?ic?iaeai? cai?iieee iiaeeo?eiaaiiai e?ioiaeth ia iicaaaeai?
iaaeie?e?a, aeanoeaeo eoaeiiio e?ioiaeaaiio ?aaaaioo.

I?ney ?iciaaeo N?N?, canoinoaaiiy oei?eae??aiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio,
iaea?eueo iioe?aiiai a Oe?a?i?, iia`ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth caeoi?ae?
iniiaieo eiai eiiiiiaio?a ca ei?aeiiii. Ne?iaeia aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ENNA
(EENO) ?iii?oo?oueny c ?in??, a oei?eae eae?th caeoiiao?oueny a
A?ea?on?. Oaeei /eiii, aeieeea iio?aaa ?ic?iaee ?ia?a??oaaii? i?iieaii?
nenoaie ia iniia? eiiiiiaio?a, ye? ae?iaeythoueny a Oe?a?i?.
Eia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? ??aeei i?aeaeuothoueny i?e ?o ia?iaeao nieyie,
ui ai?uothoue ?iie Mg2+, Na2+, K+. I?e oeueiio, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo
?ai?a??oth/eo ?ii?a aei ??aiy iane/aiino? no?ee?noue aeeienoeo ii??ae
??cei i?aeaeuo?oueny.

Aaaeeeaei ieoaiiyi ? aieea i?iieaii? nenoaie ia o?eueo?aoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? eieaeoi??a. Iaei??th c i?e/ei ciaioaiiy i?iieeiino? ?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a ieano aiaeiiai o?eueo?aoo oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei. I?e
canoinoaaii? ianoaa?e?ciaaieo ??aeei iaaiaeiaia ciia ieanoa ia?
oaiaeaioe?th aei iaiaiaaeaiiai ?inoo. I?e oeueiio, aei ii?iaiai i?inoi?o
iaaeoiaeeoue aaeeea e?euee?noue oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeithth/iai iaoa??aeo,
ui aeeeeea? eieueiaoaoe?th eaiae?a o?eueo?aoe??. Iaeiei c oeyo?a
caiia?aaiiy caa?oaeiaiith eieaeoi??a ? canoinoaaiiy caaouaieo iie?ia?aie
nieaaeo ?ic/ei?a c iecueeith o?eueo?aoe??th, aaeaea ciaioaiiy
o?eueo?aoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aaeueioaaiiy i?ioean?a i?iieeiaiiy ??aeeie a ieano. Na?oiaee aeina?ae
canoinoaaiiy iiae?aieo nenoai na?ae/eoue, ui aoaeo a?ae caiia?aaiiy
caa?oaeiaiith a?ae eieueiaoaoe?? oa i?iieeiaiiy aiaeii? oace ? a?eueoei,
i?ae a?ae ciaioaiiy i?iieeiino? ICI /a?ac aaeni?aoe?th iie?ia??a ia
iiaa?oi? eaiae?a o?eueo?aoe??. A oie aea /an, caoiaeaie uiaei ciaioaiiy
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao iie?ia??a ia eieaeoi?nuee? aeanoeaino? iiaeooue aooe:
canoinoaaiiy iaoeenio?iiieo ??aeei c inaaaeiieanoe/ieie aeanoeainoyie,
ui ni?ey? ?o aeeo/aiith c ieano?a; oieeiaiiy canoinoaaiiy ?aaaaio?a, ye?
ooai?ththoue ia?ic/eii? niieoee c ieanoiaith aiaeith aai ii?iaeith;
aeei?enoaiiy iie?ia??a, noeeueieo aei o?i?/iiai aai a?ieia?/iiai
?iceeaaeaiiy.

Oaeei aeiiaai a?aeiia?aeathoue ye?ni? iiaeeo?eaoe?? e?ioiaeth. ?o
canoinoaaiith i?e cae?i/oaaii? naa?aeeiaei ni?eythoue aenie?
eia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? oa ni?iiiaei?noue caaouoaaoe ? noaa?e?coaaoe
aenieieiioeaio?iaai? ?icniee iie?aaeaioieo nieae. A oie aea /an /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue oaeeo ?aaaaio?a a Oe?a?i? aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue a
?ic?iaoe? c?o/iiai aeey ae?iaieoeoaa niiniao iiaeeo?eoaaiiy e?ioiaeth,
ui aeicaieeoue oieeiooe aeanoeaeo eiio iaaeie?e?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? oa aeine?aeaeaiith aeanoeainoae
e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a — iiaiai oeio e?ioiaeaaeo ?aaaaio?a.

A iniia? ooai?aiiy ?ic?iaeaieo aae?a eaaeeoue niin?a eeaenoa?ecaoe??
e?ioiaeth aaciina?aaeiuei a ?ic/eiao nieae, i?e iaaiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii?
?o eiioeaio?aoe?? ? oaiia?aoo?e, aac aeei?enoaiiy eaonoe/ii? niaee.
Na?aae nieae, a ?ic/eiao yeeo iiaeeeaa ooai?aiiy aae?a, iaea?eueoee
?ioa?an aeey ae?iaieoeoaa yaeythoue a?oio?o, oei?eae ? i?o?ao
eaeueoe?th. Aeine?aeaeoaaee e?ioiaea-a?oio?oee (EAA),
e?ioiaea-eaeueoe??aee (EEA) oa e?ioiaea-i?o?aoiee aae? (EIA). O
ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei ?aaaaioii e?ioiaea-nieaa? aae?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ieceith oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aaaa. Cie?aia, aae? iathoue
a?eueo aenieo aonoeio, i?aeaeuai? ?aieia?/i? oa noaa?e?caoe?ei?
aeanoeaino?, ia i?ecaiaeyoue aei ciaioaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?iieaii?
nenoaie, iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue aeeiiai?uoth/eo ii??ae,
no?ee? aei oa?iaioaoeaiiai ?iceeaaeaiiy oiui.

Iaea?aeaiiy e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a cae?enith?oueny a i?ioean?
ia?ai?ooaaiiy noniaic?? e?ioiaeaai?uoth/i? ?a/iaeie a ?ic/ei?
a?aeiia?aeii? nie?. A eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ia?ai?ooaaiiy cae?enithaaee ca
aeiiiiiaith eaai?aoi?ii? i?oaeee c? oaeaee?noth 200ia/oa i?ioyaii 1,5-2
aiaeei. sse e?ioiaeaai?uoth/o ?a/iaeio aeei?enoiaoaaee ea?oiieyiee oa
eoeo?oaecyiee e?ioiaeue, eoeo?oaecyiee oa ai?ioiaee aeno?oaeao,
ae?iaeai? ai?io ? eoeo?oaeco oa ?ioa.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioean eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth a
nieaaeo ?ic/eiao cae?i/o?oueny ca 20-120oa. Ia ooai?aiiy
e?ioiaea-nieaaiai aaeth aieeaathoue nieaaee neeaae na?aaeiaeua
eeaenoa?ecaoe??, eiai aonoeia ? oaiia?aoo?a. A oaae. 1 iaaaaeai?
i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy aonoeie ? oaiia?aoo?e ?ic/ei?a, ieae/a yeeo i?ioean
eeaenoa?ecaoe?? ia?aaeuo? 2 aiaeeie, ui aeciaii iaoaoiieia?/iei. C
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ? aonoeie ?ic/ei?a oaeaee?noue i?ioeano
eeaenoa?ecaoe??, aeey a?eueoino? nieae, c?inoa?.

Iniaeea?noth eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth a ?ic/ei? a?oio?oo ? c?inoaiiy
oaeaeeino? i?ioeano eeoa aei iaaii? aonoeie (a?ey 1290ea/i3), i?ney /iai
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeineoue ??cea ?? ciaioaiiy. Aeaiee oaeo iiaea aooe
iiyniaiee oae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eeaenoa?ecaoe?y e?ioiaeth a ?ic/eiao
o?i?/ii /enoiai MgCl2 ia a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioyaii e?eueeio ae?a.
Nai???aeiei eaoae?caoi?ii-i?enei?thaa/ai i?ioeano eeaenoa?ecaoe??
e?ioiaeth a oei?eae? iaai?th ? oei?eae iao??th, c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo
yeiai oaeaee?noue eeaenoa?ecaoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny. ?nio? i?i?iaeueia
e?euee?noue NaCl, i?e ye?e eeaenoa?ecaoe?y a ?ic/ei? aeaii? noi?o?
oei?eae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?eeiyoiee oa?i?i. A oie aea /an, c oiia
nieaai? ??aiiaaae, i?e noi?niiio ?ic/eiaii? nieae, aaaaeaiiy a?eueo
?ic/eiii? nie?, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo MgCl2, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
?ic/eiiino? ?ioeo, iaio ?ic/eiieo nieae, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo — NaCl.
Oiaoi, c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo oei?eaeo iaai?th, e?euee?noue oei?eaeo
iao??th a ?ic/ei? ciaioo?oueny, ui ? ? ?iia??iith i?e/eiith aaeueioaaiiy
i?oeano eeaenoa?ecaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 1 — I?i?iaeueia oaiia?aoo?a oa aonoeia ?ic/ei?a aeey ooai?aiiy
e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a.

Oei ?ic/eio nie?Oaiia?aoo?a, a?aae.Aonoeia ?ic/eio, ea/i3a?oio?o
121240oei?eae eaeueoe?th321230i?o?ao eaeueoe?th61220Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?enooi?noue nieae eaeueoe?th a ?ic/ei? a?oio?oo oiia?eueith?
eeaenoa?ecaoe?th. C oeei iia`ycaia ??cia oaeaee?noue eeaenoa?ecaoe??
e?ioiaeth a a?oio?oao ??cieo ?iaeiaeu. Anoaiiaeaia a?eueoa
oa?iino?ee?noue oa noaa?euei?noue o /an? aeey aae?a, i?ioeane ooai?aiiy
yeeo ? a?eueo iia?eueieie.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy i?eeiyoiiai ??aiy o?eueo?aoe??, iioeiaeueiee ai?no
e?ioiaea-nieaaiai aaeth a ?ic/ei? ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? 1,8-2% a
ia?a?aooieo ia nooo ?a/iaeio. Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? o?eueo?aoe?? a?ae
ai?noo ?aaaaio?a na?ae/eoue i?i iiae?aiee iaoai?ci ae?? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo
aae?a ? eoaeiiai e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo. C? ca?eueoaiiyi o ?ic/ei? ai?noo
iie?aaeaioieo nieae, aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a,
o ii??aiyii? c eoaeiei ?aaaaioii, i?aeaeuo?oueny. Cie?aia, iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei ?aaaaioii-noaa?e?caoi?ii oei?iaai??aiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio ?
EAA (oaae.2). Noaa?e?caoe?ei? aeanoeaino? EAA oa EIA a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? aei 100iN iiae?ai? i?ae niaith. Iaea?eueoith oa?iino?ee?noth
aei 120iN oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?ic/eie, noaa?e?ciaai? EIA. Noaa?e?caoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? ? oa?iino?ee?noue EEA cia/ii iaio?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaaee a?oio?oo a e?eueeino? 40% a?ae
ia’?io ?ic/eio aeicaieythoue oieeiooe i?ioean?a oa?iaioaoeaiiai
?iceeaaeaiiy e?ioiaeth a ni?eyoeeaeo aeey caaieaaiiy oiiaao (22-25iN)
i?ioyaii i?nyoey. I?e iaio?e e?eueeino? a?oio?oo, aai a ?ac? eiai
a?aenooiino?, ia?o? iciaee ?iceeaaeaiiy aeyaeythoueny i?ioyaii 3-15
ae?a. I?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo a?oio?oo i?ioeane ?iceeaaeaiiy
oiia?eueiththoueny ? i?e aeiaaaeao 50% a?oio?oo oa?iaioaoeaia
noaa?euei?noue ?ic/ei?a i?aeaeuo?oueny aei 5 i?nyoe?a. Oa?iaioaoeaio
noaa?euei?noue ?ic/eio i?ioyaii i?nyoey caaacia/othoue aeiaaaee oaiieo ?
oi?iae?io a e?eueeino? 1% a?ae ia`?io. Oaeei /eiii, aioeoa?iaioaoeaia
ae?y a?oio?oo iiaea aooe ii??aiyia c ae??th o?aaeeoe?eieo
aioeoa?iaioaoi??a.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Ia?aiao?e oei?iaai??aiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio.

Ia?aiao?e ?ic/eioNeeaae ?ic/eio,20iN85iN%aonoeia ea/i3ayce

?noue nae.NIC aeIao?eueo?a

oe?y ni3/30oaayce?noue nae.NIC aeIao?eueo?a

oe?y
ni3/30oa10aaio+40a?oio+25EENO10902125/27212119/222410aaio+60a?oio+25EENO
11002118/2122.51812/1924.510aaio+40a?oio+2E?1100248/1113246/101210aaio+6
0a?oio+3E?1100216/710215/6710aaio+2EAA11203658/6383036/38810aaio+3EAA114
04262/8752417/334.5I?ei?oea. Ooo ? aeae? a oaaeeoeyo, ai?no
e?ioiaeaai?uoth/eo ?aaaaio?a iiaeaiee o ia?a?aooieo ia nooo ?a/iaeio. E?
— eoaeiee e?ioiaeaaee ?aaaaio.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui e?ioiaea-nieaa? aae?
iathoue on? iiceoeai? aeanoea? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ?aaaaioo, iicaaaeai?
aaaaoueio eiai iaaeie?e?a, ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ooai?aii?
oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? aeeienoeo ? aacaeeienoeo ao?iaeo
?ic/ei?a ia iniia? EAA, aeine?aeaeaiith ?o aeanoeainoae oa
a?aei?aoethaaiith iaoiae?a ni?yiiaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a.

Canoinoaaiiy a?oio?oo, ye ?ia?a?oi?a i?iieaieo ??aeei, i?e ao??ii? a
oa?eaaiieo ?ic??cao aeiaaa? aea/aiiy ?ai?a??oth/eo aeanoeainoae MgCl2 ii
a?aeiioaiith aei aeeiiai?uoth/eo ii??ae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee
ca?aeii iaoiaeee, a yeeo ca e?eoa??e ?ia?a??oth/eo aeanoeainoae i?eeiyo?
iieacieee caieiaeoaaiiy ooo/ieo ac??oe?a i?aniaaiiai aaioii?oo oa
aeenia?aoaaiiy ooo/iiai oeaio a?a?e?oo, iaea?aeaiiai oeyoii ae?iaeaiiy
ea?iiaiai iaoa??aeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? ?iio Mg2+
ciaoiaeyoueny i?eaeecii ia ??ai? ?ia?a??oth/eo aeanoeainoae ?iio Ca2+.
A?eueo aoaeoeaieie, c oi/ee ci?o no?eeino? ii??ae oa yeino? ?ice?eooy
i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a, ? o?eueee ?ic/eie, ?ia?a??oaai? KCl. A oie aea
/an, aei inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y aenieieaeueoe??aee ao?iaee ?ic/ei
aeei?enoiaoaaany ye iniiaiee ?ia?a??oaaiee ?ic/ei aeey iaeneeaaei?oeo
oiia ao??iiy ? ?ice?eooy i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a. Oeae oaeo aea?
i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?ic/eie, ?ia?a??oaai? MgCl2, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e ao??ii? i?iaeoeoeaieo ? iai?iaeoeoeaieo oiau ia
a?eueoino? ieiu AeAec.

C? ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? ?ia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? ??aeei
ca?eueoothoueny. Iane/ai? ?icniee a?oio?oo oa nieae eaeueoe?th
caaacia/othoue aeuee ??aaiue ?ia?a??oaaiiy, i?ae o?eueo?ao oei?eae??aiai
?ic/eio. Oaeei /eiii, aeai? oeie ?icnie?a iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye
iniiaa niaoe??aeei aeey cae?i/oaaiiy naa?aeeiaei.

EENO yaey? niaith ?aaaaio-aeenia?aaoi?, yeee i?ioeae?? eia?a??oth/?e
ae?? nie?-?ia?a?oi?a. A?eueo aeioe?eueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy a nenoaiao
?ia?a??oaaieo ?ic/ei?a e?ioiaeaaeo ?aaaaio?a. A oie aea /an, /a?ac
aaeee? ia`?ie e?ioiaeaaeo ia?iaie canoinoaaiiy ?ic/eio a?oio?oo ?
eoaeiiai ?aaaaioo oneeaaeiaii. I?iaeaia iiaea aooe ae??oaia i?e
canoinoaaii? EAA, eiee iaeii/anii c aaaaeaiiyi 2% nooiai e?ioiaeth a
?ic/ei aaiaeeoueny 9,4-10,5% oei?eaeo iaai?th. Oaeei /eiii
caaacia/o?oueny aenieee ?ai?a??oth/ee aoaeo ? oa?iaioaoeaia no?ee?noue
e?ioiaeth. I?e canoinoaaii? EAA a oei?iaai??aee ?ic/ei iiaeooue aooe
ia?aaaaeai? i??ni?, aenieii?ia?ae?ciaai? oa ?ia?a??oaai? nenoaie.

A oie aea /an, ia?iaea i?iieaii? nenoaie a?oio?oii nooo?ai ciaioo?
oa?iino?ee?noue e?ioiaeaaeo ?aaaaio?a. O?aaeeoe?ei? niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy
oa?iino?eeino? e?ioiaeth, cie?aia, eiia?iiaai? ia?iaee c
e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie, a nenoai? oei?iaai??aiai ?ic/eio ? iaei aoaeoeaieie.
?a/iaeiaie, ui ??cei i?aeaeuothoue oa?iino?ee?noue e?ioiaeth a aeai?e
nenoai?, ? eoae, cie?aia aaiii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ai?no? aaiia a
?ic/ei? ia ??ai? 2-3%, caaacia/o?oueny eiai oa?iino?ee?noue ia ??ai?
120iN. A nenoai? i?ia?ae?ciaaiiai ?ic/eio, yea ia ai?uo? ?iie iaai?th,
aaaaeaiiy aaiia aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy aiaeia?aeaea/?.

Aeey i?iieneiaiai aeei?enoaiiy ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny oei?iaai??aee ao?iaee
?ic/ei, noaa?e?ciaaiee EAA. Neeaae ?ic/eio aeey ao??iiy oaiiaaiieo oiau:
10% aaioii?oo; 40% ?ic/eio a?oio?oo (aonoeia a?eueoa 1250ea/i3); 2%
e?ioiaeth; ?aooa — aiaea. sse iaaaaeithaa/ iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue
e?aeaea, aa?eo, aaiaoeo. I?e iaiao?aeiino? i?aeaeuaiiy NIC aaiaeeoueny
NEII a e?eueeino? aei 10% aai ai?ioiaee aeno?oaeao 1-3%. I?e aea?ei?e
oaiia?aoo?? 100-110iN aeey i?aeaeuaiiy noaa?e?coth/i? ae?? e?ioiaeth
iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue e?aiinoeueoiiaoi? ?aaaaioe a e?eueeino? 3-5%.
Ia?aiao?e iaiaaaaeiaiiai ?ic/eio: aonoeia — 1130-1140 ea/i3; a’yce?noue
— 35-40 nae.; NIC — 3/9-5/12 aeIa; o?eueo?aoe?y — 4-5 ni3/30oa.; ?I —
6-6,5.

?ic/ei aeey ao??iiy o oa?eaaii?e oiau? c aea?eiith oaiia?aoo?ith aei
140iN aeiaeaoeiai ai?uo? 3% aaiia (i?e aeoeaiino? 100%). sse ianoeeueio
aeii?oeo — EIOIN, o e?eueeino? 4-5%. Aeey ciaioaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao
o?eueo?aoo — 1-1,5% IA? (noe??iie, iaiiie). Ia?aiao?e iaiaaaaeiaiiai
?ic/eio c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii aaiia ? oaeeie: aonoeia — 1130-1140 ea/i3;
a’yce?noue — 40-45 nae.; NIC — 20/30-30/40 aeIa; o?eueo?aoe?y —
3-4ni3/30oa., ?I — 6-6,5.

?aieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic/ei?a noaa?e?ciaaieo EAA, ? aeueie, i?ae
?ic/ei?a, noaa?e?ciaaieo eoaeiei ?aaaaioii. Aeey oeeo ?ic/ei?a ia ?
oa?aeoa?iei ooaeaa?iiy i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, iaaiaee, nenoaia ia?
oaiaeaioe?th aei oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ic??aeaeaiiy. Aeii?oee aaiia ?
iaaaaeithaa/?a i?aeaeuothoue eiinenoaioe?th nenoaie. I?e oeueiio aaiii ?
aa?eo a?eueoith i??ith aieeaathoue ia NIC ?ic/eio, a e?aeaea — ia
a’yce?noue. Eiia?ioaaiiy EAA c ?ioeie oeiaie ?aaaaio?a i?aeaeuo? eiai
aoaeoeai?noue. Iniaeeai aoaeoeaiei ? eiia?ioaaiiy EAA ? aeno?oc?eiiai
ai?ioiaiai ?aaaaioo, yea i?ecaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei ciaioaiiy
o?eueo?aoe??, a ? aei i?aeaeuaiiy NIC ?ic/eio.

Eiao?oe??io a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iieeiino? ea?i?a aeey ?ic/ei?a, ?ia?a??oaaieo
oei?eaeii iaai?th, iiae?aiee aei ??aiy, yeee caaacia/o?oueny i?e
canoinoaaii? aenieieaeueoe??aiai ?ic/eio. Ine?eueee i?e ooai?aii?
e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a e?ioiaeue eeaenoa?eco?oueny aac aeei?enoaiiy
eoa?a, ye? iaaiith i??ith iiaeooue ciaiooaaoe ?ia?a??oth/o ae?th
?ic/eio, oi eiao?oe??io a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iieeiino? aeey oei?iaai??aiai
?ic/eio, noaa?e?ciaaiiai EAA, ua a?eueoa i?aeaeuo?oueny ? iaaeeaea?oueny
aei ??aiy oei?eae??aiai ?ic/eio. Aeiaeaoeiai i?aeaeuo? eiao?oe??io
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iieeiino? aaaaeaiiy nieano?eeeo oei?a IA?.

Aeiaeaoeia? ia?aaaae i?e ?ice?eoo? i?iaeoeoeaieo ieano?a iathoue
aacaeeieno? i?iieai? nenoaie. Ia iniia? EAA ?ic?iaeaia ?aoeaioo?a
aacaeeienoiai iie?ia?iiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio (AIA?).

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith naaeeiaioaoe?eii? noaa?eueiino? aacaeeienoeo
?ic/ei?a ? iaaeaiiy ?i aeinoaoi?o oeenio?iiieo aeanoeainoae. Oea iiaea
aooe aeinyaiooi i?e aeei?enoaii? aoaeoo a’yce?nii? oeenio?ii??, yeee
iieyaa? a oiio, ui oo?eioth/a caeaoi?noue ?ic/eio aeinyaa?oueny ia ca
?aooiie o?ceei-o?i?/ii? aca?iiae?? aeoeaieo oeaio??a ia iiaa?oi?
aeeienoeo /anoie, a aiane?aeie iaiiaiaiiy ia’?io ?ic/eio ?ia?oiei
oiieiaeenia?niei iaiiaithaa/ai. ?ieue aeeienoiai eiiiiiaioa a AIA?
aeeiiothoue eeneioi?ic/eii? iaiiaithaa/? — e?aeaea oa NEII.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? AIA? i?i?iaeueiee
“e?eoe/iee” ai?no e?aeaee a ?ic/ei? ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? 20% (ia.).
Ia?aiao?e AIA?, iaaaaeiaiiai e?aeaeith, iaaaaeai? a oaae.3. Iaea?eueoa
aonoeia aacaeeienoiai ?ic/eio i?e eiai iaaaaeiaii? e?aeaeith aeinyaa?
1640-1650ea/i3. I?e ii?oaa? iaea?aeaiiy ?ic/eio c a?eueoith aonoeiith,
iaiao?aeia eiia?iiaaia iaaaaeiaiiy e?aeaeith ? aa?eoii (aaiaoeoii).
Ii??a iaaaaeiaiiy AIA? — 2200ea/i3. Noaa?euei?noue AIA? c aonoeiith,
iaioith i?ae 1460ea/i3, aeinyaa?oueny aeiaeaoeiaei aaaaeaiiyi NEII.
Oaeei /eiii, i?e iaaaaeiaii? AIA? eiai iaia’yceiaei eiiiiiaioii ?
e?aeaea. A caeaaeiino? a?ae iaiao?aeii? aonoeie ?ic/eio, e?aeaea
canoiniao?oueny o eiia?iaoe?? c? NEII, aa?eoii aai aaiaoeoii.

Oaaeeoey 3 — Aieea e?aeaee ia ia?aiao?e AIA?.

Neeaae ?ic/eioIa?aiao?e i?ney oa?iinoaooaaiiy 120iN%aonoeia
ea/i3a’yce?noue naeNIC aeIao?eueo?aoe?y ni3/30oa1.iniiaa
AIA?+100e?aeaea1430212/552.iniiaa AIA?+150e?aeaea1530404/853.iniiaa
AIA?+200e?aeaea1640806/125I?ei?oea. Iniiaa AIA? —
aiaea+3EAA+10aaiii(aoae?aaeueia)

Ia?aiao?e AIA? ? no?eeeie aei aieeao nieae, oaiia?aoo?e ?
oiieiaeenia?nieo caa?oaeithaa/?a. Oa?iino?ee?noue AIA? ciaoiaeeoueny ia
??ai? 140iN. Iieioee a?a?e?o o?aeoe?? iaioa 1ii i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth
aeiaaea? c ?ic/eio a inaae. Oei?eae iao??th iaeaea ia aieeaa? ia
iieacieee ?ic/eio i?e oaiia?aoo?? aei 120iN. Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ?ic/eio
oa ?aaoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ?ic?iaeaia a?aeiia?aeia
iaoiaeeea.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei aeey
cae?i/oaaiiy oa ?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei.

Oeyoii canoinoaaiiy e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a iiaea aooe ae??oaia i?iaeaia
?aaoethaaiiy o?eueo?aoe?eieo oa ?aieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a niaoe??aeei aac
oaa?aei? oace aac ciaioaiiy ?o aonoeie. Aonoeia e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a
aecia/a?oueny aonoeiith nieaaiai ?ic/eio, ia iniia? yeiai aiie
ooai?ththoueny. A?aeiia?aeii, aeey ?ic/eio a?oio?oo aonoeia aaeth
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao — 1240-1300ea/i3, oei?eaeo eaeueoe?th —
1230-1330ea/i3, i?o?aoo eaeueoe?th — 1230-1450ea/i3.

I?iaeaiith canoinoaaiiy aaaeeeo ?icnie?a ? e?enoae?caoe?y nieae i?e
ciaioaii? oaiia?aoo?e. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioeane
e?enoae?caoe?? nieae ?c ?ic/ei?a iiaeooue aooe caaaeueiiaai? e?ioiaeai.
Oae, i?e oaiia?aoo?? -20iN, a ?ic/ei? Ca(NO3)2 i?e aonoei? 1400ea/i3
niinoa??aa?oueny aeiaaeaiiy e?enoae?a, a a EIA e?enoaee nieae a?aenooi?
iaa?oue i?e aonoei? 1450-1470ea/i3. Iioeiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y e?ioiaeth
a nieaaeo ?ic/eiao aeey ?ia?a??oaaiiy i?ioean?a e?enoae?caoe??
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 2-3%.

O?eueo?aoe?y e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a c oaiia?aoo?ith i?aeaeuo?oueny. O
iaeiaio?e i??? noeeueiee aei oaiia?aoo?iiai aieeao EIA. Cie?aia,
o?eueo?aoe?y i`yoei?ioeaioiiai EIA i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy noaiiaeoue
2,5-3,5ni3/30oa, i?e oaiia?aoo?? 80iN — 11-12ni3/30oa, a i?ney
oa?iinoaooaaiiy i?e 80iN — 4-5ni3/30oa. Aeey ii??aiyiiy, EAA c
o?eueo?aoe??th i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy 3,5ni3/30oa., i?ney oa?iinoaooaaiiy
ia? o?eueo?aoe?th 10-11ni3/30oa., a EEA — 23-25ni3/30oa.

sse ? a nenoaiao ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a, oa?iino?ee?noue niaoe??aeei ia iniia?
EAA i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e aaaaeaii? eoa?a, cie?aia aaiia oa eaonoe/ii?
niaee. I?e ai?no? aaiia ia ??ai? 3-5% oa?iino?ee?noue nenoaie
ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? 140iN. I?ioa, aaaaeaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? aaiia
a iaoeenio?iiiee ?ic/ei oneeaaeiaii. A?eueo oaoiieia?/iei ? i?aeaeuaiiy
oa?iino?eeino? oeyoii aaaaeaiiy NaOH (oaae. 4). I?aeaeuaiiy
oa?iino?eeino? niaoe??aeei iiaeeeaa i?e aaaaeaii? a nenoaio AE?, i?ioa
aeo?aoe AE? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iino?eeino? ? aeineoue aenieeie.

Oaaeeoey 4 — Aieea a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th ia oa?iino?ee?noue niaoe??aeei
ia iniia? EAA.

O?eueo?aoe?y ?ic/eio ni3/30oaNeeaae ?ic/eio,i?neyi?ney
oa?iinoaooaaiiy%ia?iaee85iN120iN140iNEAA-1,88%,
aiaea-?aooa418>40—-?1+0,3NaOH57515?1+0,6NaOH544,512?1+1,25NaOH11568?1+
1,88NaOH1467,511Niaoe??aeeie, iaaaaeiai? oaa?aeeie iaaaaeithaa/aie,
i?iaeiaaeothoue oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoenue o ae?iaieoeoa?, ia caaaeath/e
ia a?eueoo caa?oaeithth/o ae?th ia i?iaeoeoeai? ieanoe. Oeueiio ni?ey?
?o iaioa aa?o?noue oa a?eueo i?ino? iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a.
Aeei?enoaiiy ii??aiyii iaaei?iaiai Ca(NO3)2 aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe
??aeeie c aonoeiith aei 1450-1470ea/i3. O ca`yceo c iaiao?aei?noth a
??aeeiao c a?eueoith aonoeiith, ia iniia? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a
?ic?iaeai? ?aoeaioo?e niaoe??aeei, iaaaaeiaieo oaa?aeeie
iaaaaeithaa/aie.

A iniia? iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo niaoe??aeei eaaeeoue i?eioeei, aiaeia?/iee
ooai?aiith AIA? — oeenio?iiio no?oeoo?o iaea?aeothoue oeyoii ia`?iiiai
caiiaiaiiy nenoaie oaa?aeith oacith. Ca oaeith noaiith ?ic?iaeaia aaia
?aoeaioo? niaoe??aeei ia iniia? eiia?ioaaiiy ??cieo oei?a iaaaaeithaa/?a
oa iaiiaithaa/?a. sse i?eeeaae a oaae. 5 iaaaaeai? ia?aiao?e
niaoe??aeei, iaaaaeiaieo aa?eoii. A caeaaeiino? a?ae a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo
oiia oa oaoiieia?/ieo caaea/ ia?aiao?e niaoe??aeei iiaeooue
?aaoethaaoeny o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?.

Oaaeeoey 5 — Ia?aiao?e niaoe??aeei ia iniia? EAA iaaaaeiaieo aa?eoii.

Ia?aiao?e ?ic/eioNeeaae ?ic/eio,

%aonoeia ea/i3a’yce?noue naeNICaeIao?eueo?aoe?y ni3/30oanoaa?euei?noue
1,8EAA+2NaI+10NEII+100aa?eo180021023/413.50i?ney oa?iinoaooaaiiy
85iN180028020/3530i?ney oa?iinoaooaaiiy
120iN180020019/292.501,8EAA+2NaI+5NEII+100aa?eo180018011/253.50i?ney
oa?iinoaooaaiiy 85iN18002009/2130i?ney oa?iinoaooaaiiy
120iN18001207/1920. 01I?ei?oea: Aonoeia EAA-1270ea/i3. NaI-o?i?/ii /enoa
aaiii.

?ioei iai?yieii canoinoaaiiy e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a ? ooai?aiiy ia ?o
iniia? oei/aniai aeieoth/eo ??aeei (OA?), ye? canoiniaothoueny i?e
aeoo?ii? naa?aeeiaei c iaoith caiia?aaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiith ??aeeie
aeoo?iiy aei ii?iaiai i?inoi?o eieaeoi??a.

Ia/ea OA? ?icoaoiao?oueny a ?ioa?aae? ciie ia?oi?aoe??. *a?ac
aeiaeaoeiaee ii?? i?e oa/??, yeee aeieea? aiane?aeie i?aeaeuaieo
?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa iecueei? o?eueo?aoe??, e?euee?noue ??aeeie
yea iaaeoiaeeoue o i?iaeoeoeaio ciio nooo?ai ciaioo?oueny. I?ney
cae?i/aiiy ?ia?o aeieoth/ee ?ic/ei eaaei aeiineoueny ia iiaa?oith i?e
i?iieaaii? aai iioieii ieanoiaiai oeth?aeo. Canoinoaaiith
e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a, ye iniiae OA?, ni?ey? ?o aeniea aonoeia, iecueea
o?eueo?aoe?y, no?ee?noue aei iie?aaeaioii? aa?an?? oa eaae?noue
?aaoethaaiiy ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oeyoii ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe??
e?ioiaeth. Iioeiaeueiei aeey aeieoaaiiy ieano?a ? aeei?enoaiiy 8-10
i?ioeaioieo aae?a.

?aieia?/i? aeanoeaino? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a aeine?aeaeoaaee ia
?ioaoe?eiiio a?neiceiao?? Reotest-2RV i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 20iN oa 80iN.
Aeoiaey/e c oyaeaiue, ui i?ioeane oa/?? aae?a, ye ?ic/ei?a iie?ia??a,
iienothoueny iiaeaeeth inaaaeiieanoe/ii? ??aeeie Inaaeueaea-aea Aaaea:

= E. n ,
(1)

aea, — iai?oaa cnoao, Ia; E — iieaciee eiinenoaioiino? nenoaie, Ia. nn;
— a?aae??io cnoao ??aeeie, n-1; n — iieaciee iae?i?eiino?, aoee
aecia/ai? eiinoaioe aeaiiai aeaiia?aiao?e/iiai ??aiyiiy (oaae. 6).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee EAA ? EIA iiae?ai? i?ae
niaith. A?ae eoaeiiai ?aaaaioo aae? a?ae??ciythoueny a?eueo aenieeie ?
noaa?eueieie o /an? ?aieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie, iaioei oaiia?aoo?iei
?ic??aeaeaiiyi. EEA nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo aae?a aenieith
noeeuei?noth aei oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ic??aeaeaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 6 — ?aieia?/i? eiinoaioe e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiiai aaeth.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y

%Iieaciee eiinenoaioiino? nenoaie — E, aeIa. nnIieaciee iae?i?eiino?

nenoaie — ni?e 20iNi?e 80iNi?e 20iNi?e
80iN24.41.20.770.86316.34.30.690.855442.29.10.680.85585.3160.6520.847699
.718.40.6470.819716432.50.6240.7938244.869.40.6040.704939093.90.5320.670
10459135.50.5280.623Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy OA? i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e
ciaioaii? ?o oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ic??aeaeaiiy, ui iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi i?e
ooai?aii? aae?a ?c eoeo?oaecyiiai e?ioiaeth, ai?ioiaiai aeno?oaeaoo,
iiae??aiaiiai ai?ioo oiui. Iaiiaia oiia?eueiaia eeaenoa?ecaoe?y oaeeo
?a/iaei i?e ii?iaeueieo oiiaao ?ioaineo?eo?oueny ae??th oaiia?aoo?e.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai, i?ioeanai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ic??aeaeaiiy i?ioeae?thoue
i?ioeane oaiia?aoo?ii? aeieeaenoa?ecaoe?? o naa?aeeiaei?.

?ic?iaeai? ?aoeaioo?e i?iieaieo ??aeei aeey ao??iiy, cae?i/oaaiiy oa
?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei, caoeuai? iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie.

A i`yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei ia iniia? EAA, yea neeaaea?oueny c 4
aoai?a:

a) aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa aei?iaoaaiiy e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiiai aaeth;

a) i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a, noaa?e?ciaaieo EAA, i?e
ao??ii? oaiiaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a;

a) i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy i?e ao??ii? i?aenieaai? oa?eaaiii? oiau?;

a) i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy oei/aniai aeieoth/eo ??aeei ia iniia? EAA i?e
aeoo?ii? naa?aeeiaei.

Aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy EAA, c iaoith a?aei?aoethaaiiy
oaoiieia?? i?eaiooaaiiy oa ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao,
i?iaiaeeee ia naa?aeeiaei? ?2 Oinoae?anueei? ieiu? AeAI
“*a?i?a?aiaooiaacaaieia?y”. EAA aeaioiaeyee a aa?aaao? i?eaiooaaiiy
i?iieaii? ??aeeie (AII?). ?aaaaio, iaea?aeaiee a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao, iaa
aeinoaoi? noaa?e?coth/? aeanoeaino? ? canoiniaoaaany aeey ia?iaee
ao?iaiai ?ic/eio. Ainaie, i?ney ciaioaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ieae/a
iaae? eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth, AII? aoa aeiaeaoeiai iaeaaeiaiee
ia?iaei ?aae?aoi?ii. Oaiia?aoo?o ?ic/eio a?oio?oo aeiaiaeeee aei
19-20iN, i?ney /iai aaiaeeee e?ioiaeue. sse?noue ?aaaaioo i?e oae?e
noai? aeaioiaeaiiy ia iia??oeeany. ?ic/ei, yeee noaa?e?coaaee EAA, aoa
aeei?enoaiee i?ney eiina?aaoe?? naa?aeeiaeie, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? noaiea
aei nioneo 245ii ianaaeii? eieiie a ?ioa?aae? 320-2868i. Ia?aiao?e
?ic/eio a?aeiia?aeaee AOI, ui ni?eyei aacaaa??eiiio i?iaaaeaiith ?ia?o.
I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy aeicaieeee a?aei?aoethaaoe
oaoiieia?th i?iieneiaiai aeaioiaeaiiy EAA a ??ci? ia??iaee ?ieo oa
i?aeoaa?aeeee aeioe?euei?noue eiai aeei?enoaiiy ye
?aaaaioa-noaa?e?caoi?a i?ia?ae?ciaaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a.

Iniiaiee ia`?i i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a, noaa?e?ciaaieo
EAA, aoa i?iaaaeaiee a AeI “Oe?ao?aac” i?e ao??ii? naa?aeeiaei ?55 oa
?53 ia No?aeii-Iieoaanuee?e ieiu?. Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei ia
No?aeii-Iieoaanuee?e ieiu? oneeaaeiaii iayai?noth ieano?a a?oio?oo, ui a
ieioeiio iaiaeii?aciai i?ecaiaeeei aei aaaeeeo aaa??e. I?ia?aiith
aei?iaoaaiue ia?aaeaa/aeiny ao??iiy c aeei?enoaiiyi iiai? i?iieaii?
nenoaie a ?ioa?aae? caeyaaiiy oaiiaaiii? oiau? ii??ae 2150-3300i.

EAA aeaioiaeyee o aeeiii?oaeoe?, eoaee ca aeiiiiiaith oeaiaiooaaeueiiai
aa?aaaoo iiaeaaaany a?oio?o. Aaeue ooai?thaaany i?e ia?ai?ooaaii? ca
30-40oa. Ia?aiao?e ?ic/eio aei ia?iaee: aonoeia — 1330ea/i3, a’yce?noue
— 180nae., NIC — 108/132aeIa, o?eueo?aoe?y — 35ni3/30oa., caaaeueia
nieii?noue — 13%. Caieaiiaaiee ??aaiue o?eueo?aoe?? aoa aeinyaiooee
i?ney aaaaeaiiy 30-35% EAA, yeee ai?uoaaa i?eaeecii 1,8-2,2% e?ioiaeth
a?ae aeo?aeiiai ia`?io ?ic/eio. I?ioyaii ao??iiy ia?aiao?e ?ic/ei?a ia
iaio naa?aeeiaeiao aoee noaa?eueieie ? ciaoiaeeeenue a iaaeao: aonoeia —
1670-1680ea/i3, a’yce?noue — 75-180nae., NIC — 14/28-96/123aeIa,
o?eueo?aoe?y — 3-7ni3/30oa., caaaeueia nieii?noue — 26%, ai?no Mg2+ —
6,5-10,5%, ?I — 5,5-6,5. Ia?iaee ?ic/ei?a i?e ao??ii? aoee iacia/ieie.
*a?ac aenieo eiioeaio?aoe?th ?ii?a Mg2+ e?ioiaeaaee eeaenoa?
ooai?thaaany aaciina?aaeiuei o i?iieai?e nenoai?. Oiio ia?iaee ?ic/eio
cae?enithaaee nooei e?ioiaeai /a?ac ONI. Canoinoaaiiy ao?iaiai ?ic/eio
ia iniia? EAA ni?eyei caaacia/aiith no?eeino? ii??ae ia no?ieao
naa?aeeiaei. Oneeaaeiaiue, iia`ycaieo c ieanoe/iith oa/??th a?oio?oo, ia
aeieeaei. ?ioa?aae aei?iaoaaiiy aoa ia?ae?eoee ianaaeieie eieiiaie. Aoea
caaacia/aia nooo?aa aeiiii?y o?i?aaaaio?a ? iaaaaeithaa/?a. O?eueee ii
e?ioiaeth caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ii aacia?e naa?aeeiaei? ia?aaeuoaaee aeo?aoe
ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo naa?aeeiaeiao ia 46,6% ? 66,9%.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a canoinoaaiiy EAA a oaiiaaii?e oiau? iieacaa
aeioe?euei?noue eiai iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy ia naa?aeeiaei? ?55 i?e
ao??ii? i?aenieaaeo oa?eaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a. Ia?aiao?e ?ic/eio i?e
ao??ii?: aonoeia — 1260-1320ea/i3, a’yce?noue — 75-120nae., NIC —
63/105-96/123aeIa, o?eueo?aoe?y — 6-8ni3/30oa., caaaeueia nieii?noue —
24-26%, ai?no Mg2+ — 3,5-2%. Ia?iaeo ?ic/eio i?iaiaeeee nooei e?ioiaeai,
a i?ney ciaioaiiy ai?noo ?iio Mg2+ ciiao ia?aeoee ia aeaioiaeaiiy EAA o
aeeiii?oaeoe?. Noaa?e?coth/a ae?y e?ioiaeth, iacaaaeath/e ia aea?eio
oaiia?aoo?o 102iN, aoea o?eaaeith. Naa?aeeiaeia aeiao?aia aei i?iaeoii?
aeeaeie — 4600i. Oneeaaeiaiue i?e ao??ii? ia aoei. ?acii c oeei
iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe aeaui i?aeaeuai? ?aieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ?ic/eio oa
aeaye? neeaaeiiu? i?e ciaioaii? eiai aonoeie aei i?iaeoieo cia/aiue.

Ia naa?aeeiaei? ?53 a i?ioean? nioneo 245ii eieiie aeieeei iiaeeiaiiy. C
iaoith iinooiiaiai ciaioaiiy aonoeie ?ic/eio iiaeaeueoo noaa?e?caoe?th
i?iieaii? ??aeeie aaee eoaeiei e?ioiaeaaei ?aaaaioii. Caiaeii, i?ney
ii??niaiiy ?ic/eio ia?aeoee ia ia?iaeo a?iaiii. ?ia?a??oaaiiy ?ic/eio
cae?enithaaee KCl. Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaeie aei i?iaeoo i?iaaaeaii aac
oneeaaeiaiue. I?e ii??aiyi? aeo?ao o?i?aaaaio?a i?e ao??ii? i?aenieaaeo
a?aeeeaae?a ia naa?aeeiaeiao ?55 ? ?53 anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy
oei?iaai??aiai ?ic/eio ia iniia? EAA caaacia/eei aeiiii?th 30a?i ia 1i
i?ioiaeee.

Oaoiieia?/i? ??aeeie aeey oei/aniaiai aeieoaaiiy ieano?a (OA?) i?e
aeoo?ii? naa?aeeiaei aei?iaiaoaaeenue ia ?iaeiaeuao AeI
“Iieoaaaaaci?ii”, AeI “Oa?e?ao?ainaac” oa AeAI
“Iieoaaaiaooiaacaaieia?y”. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?aaci?iio
i?iaiaeeeinue ni?eueii c Iieoaanueeei EIAeA Oe?IAe?aac oa IAI
“Iaooiaacoaoiieia?y”. sse OA? aeei?enoiaoaaee EAA c aeiaaaeaie eoaeieo
eiiiiiaio?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iino?eeino?.

Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? aeaioiaeaiiy OA? cae?enithaaee ia niaoe?aeueiiio
aoce?, a aeaioiaeaio niaoe??aeeio caaiceee ia naa?aeeiaeie iaeeaiei
o?ainii?oii. A iiaeaeueoiio aoea ?ic?iaeaia ? a?aei?aoeueiaaia
oaoiieia?y ooai?aiiy OA? aaciina?aaeiuei a noiaao?? naa?aeeiaeie.
Ia?aaaae oaeiai niiniao aeaioiaeaiiy iieyaathoue o ciaioaii?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ianini? aa?aaaoe, oieeiaii? ao?ao ??aeeie, a?aenooiino?
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?ic/eio, iiaeeeaino? ooai?aiiy aaeth
i?aeoe/ii iaiaiaaeaii? eiinenoaioe??. Ooai?aiiy ??aeeie cae?enith?oueny
oae. A aoiea? oeaiaiooaaeueiiai aa?aaaoo iaae?a?oueny iaiao?aeiee ia`?i
nieaaiai ?ic/eio. I?e ?iaio? aa?aaaoo “ia naaa”, i?ae no?oi?iue ??aeeie
aaiaeyoue e?ioiaeue. Noi?o ia?ai?oothoue 10-15 oaeeei aei ??aiii??iiai
?iciiae?eaiiy e?ioiaeth a ia`?i?. Iaea?aeaio noniaic?th caea/othoue o
o?oaiee i?ino?? naa?aeeiaeie. ?aaeei i?iea/oaaiiy i?aeae?a?oueny oae,
uia ia onoaiiaeo ia/ee OA? aeo?a/aeiny 40-60 oaeeei. I?ney cae?i/aiiy
iia?aoe?? naa?aeeiaeia caeeoa?oueny o niiei? i?ioyaii aeiae, i?ney /iai
i?iaiaeyoue iiaeaeueo? ?iaioe. Oey oaoiieia?y i?ieoea oni?oia i?iieneiaa
aei?iaiaoaaiiy ? i?iaeiaaeo? canoiniaoaaoenue o ae?iaieoeoa?. O?eueee a
AeI “Iieoaaaaaci?ii” OA? ia iniia? EAA aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? ia 8
naa?aeeiaeiao ??cieo ?iaeiaeu. A?aeiiaeaiiy aei?aiiioieo aeaa?o?a a on?o
aeiaaeeao aeinyaaei 85-100%.

iniiai? aeniiaee.

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co ?nioth/iai aeina?aeo, i?iaaaeaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/eo ?ia?o aeiaaaeaia
iiaeeea?noue nooo?aiai ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio aeei?enoaiiy e?ioiaeth ye
noaa?e?caoi?a aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieo ? ?ia?a??oaaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a, oa
iie?ia?ii? iniiae niaoe?aeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo — e?ioiaea-nieaaee aaeue,
a iniiao iaea?aeaiiy yeiai iieeaaeaii niin?a eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth a
?ic/eiao a?oio?oo oa i?o?aoo eaeueoe?th. ?aaaaio o aaeee?e i???
iicaaaeaiee iaaeie?e?a o?aaeeoe?eiiai e?ioiaeaaiai ?aaaaioo,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith noaa?e?coth/ith ni?iiiaei?noth, i?aeaeuaiith
aonoeiith ? i?ia?ae?caoe??th, ia iio?aao? canoinoaaiiy
aioeoa?iaioaoi??a.

3. Ia iniia? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a ?ic?iaeai? i?iieai? ??aeeie ??ciiai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy:

— oei?iaai??aee ao?iaee ?ic/ei aeey ao??iiy oaiiaaiieo oa oa?eaaiieo
a?aeeeaae?a;

— aacaeeienoee iie?ia?iee ao?iaee ?ic/ei c aonoeiith aei 2200ea/i3 aeey
ao??iiy oa ?ice?eooy i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a;

— niaoe??aeeie aac oaa?aei? oace oa niaoe??aeeie, iaaaaeiai? oaa?aeeie
iaaaaeithaa/aie, aeey cae?i/oaaiiy ? ?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei;

— oei/aniai aeieoth/? ??aeeie aeey aeoo?iiy naa?aeeiaei.

Ii??a oa?iino?eeino? i?iieaieo ??aeei ia iniia? e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiiai
aaeth ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? 140iN. ?aoeaioo?e caoeuai? iaoaioaie
Oe?a?ie.

4. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiaaaeaii, ui
?ia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? oei?eaeo iaai?th aeecuee? aei ??aiy
?ia?a??oth/eo aeanoeainoae oei?eaeo eaeueoe?th. I?iieai? ??aeeie,
?ia?a??oaai? oei?eaeii iaai?th, a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a?aeiia?aeathoue
a??ie/i-aaieia?/iei oiiaai ao??iiy a Oe?a?i?, aea oe?iei canoiniaoaaany
aenieieaeueoe??aee ao?iaee ?ic/ei. Ae?iaie/eie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui noaa?e?caoe?y i?iieaieo ??aeei e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiei
aaeai caaacia/o? caaeia?eueio no?ee?noue ii??ae ia no?ieao naa?aeeiaei
i?e ao??ii? oaiiaaiieo oa oa?eaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a a neeaaeieo oiiaao
AeAec.

?ia?a??oth/? aeanoeaino? eiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/ei?a a?oio?oo oa i?o?aoo
eaeueoe?th aeu?, i?ae o o?eueo?aoo oei?eae??aiai ao?iaiai ?ic/eio, ui
aeaco? ia iiaeeea?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy ye iniiae niaoe??aeei aeey
cae?i/oaaiiy naa?aeeiaei.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?iieai? ??aeeie ia iniia? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a
caaacia/othoue caa?aaeaiiy ?ie?nii-o?eueo?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
eieaeoi??a. Noaiaeiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??io
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iieeiino? i?e aeei?enoaii? oeeo ??aeei aeecueeee aei
??aiy, yeee caaacia/o?oueny i?e canoinoaaii? o?aaeeoe?eiiai
oei?eae??aiai ?ic/eio.

6. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th ooai?aiiy oei/aniai aeieoth/eo ??aeei
aaciina?aaeiuei a noiaao?? naa?aeeiaeie. Oaoiieia?y caaacia/o? ciaioaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ianini? aa?aaaoe oa caiia?aa? ao?aoai ??aeeie i?e
i?iaaaeaii? iia?aoe??. Aeoo?iiy naa?aeeiaei oei/aniai aeieoth/eie
??aeeiaie ia iniia? e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiiai aaeth caaacia/o? a?aeiiaeaiiy
?o i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia ??ai? 85-100%.

7. I?iieneiaeie ai?iaaaeaeaiiyie ?ic?iaeaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ?o aeniea oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?e ao??ii?
nieaaeo ? i?aenieaaeo a?aeeeaae?a a neeaaeieo oiiaao AeAec. Iaeaea
aaea?/? ciaioai? aeo?aoe e?ioiaeth i?e ao??ii? oaiiaaiii? oiau?. A
?ioa?aae? oa?eaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a ciaioaiiy aa?oino? ia?iaee noaiiaeoue
30a?i ia 1i ao??iiy.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAI? O I?AOessO:

1. ?icaiaaoo A.A., Eoaai TH.A., Oa??a ?.TH., ss?ai?e/oe ?.N., Iaiiiiyuee
A.N. E?ioiaea-a?oio?oiee aaeue — iiaee noaa?e?caoi? i?ia?ae?ciaaieo ?
?ia?a??oaaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a. // I?ia?aeuei? ?ano?ne Oe?a?ie. — 1997.
— ?3. — N. 36-39.

2. Eoaai TH.A. I?i aieea i?iieaieo ??aeei, ?ia?a??oaaieo oei?eaeii
iaai?th, ia ye?noue ?ice?eooy i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a. // Iaooiaa ?
aaciaa i?iieneia?noue. — 1998. — ?6. — N. 22, 23.

3. Eoaai TH.A. Aieea enaioaiiaiai a?iiie?ia?a ia ia?aiao?e
i?ia?ae?ciaaieo ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a. // ?ica?aeea ? ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo ?
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?. Aaieia?y, ?ic?iaea oa aenieoaoaoe?y iaooiaeo ?
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu: Aea?aeaaiee i?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ca??iee. —
?aaii-O?aie?anuee: ?OAeOOIA. — 1995. — Aei. 32. — N. 127-133.

4. Eoaai TH.A. Canoinoaaiiy ao?iaiai ?ic/eio, noaa?e?ciaaiiai
e?ioiaea-a?oio?oiei aaeai, i?e ao??ii? oaiiaaiieo oa oa?eaaiieo
a?aeeeaae?a. A ei: Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie. Iaoa??aee 5i? I?aeia?iaeii?
eiioa?aioe?? «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie — 98», Iieoaaa, 15-17 aa?aniy. —
Iieoaaa: Oe?a?inueea iaooiaaciaa aeaaeai?y (OIAA). — 1998. — n.112, 113.

5. ?icaiaaoo A.A., Eoaai TH.A., Oa?ea ?.TH. E?aoiaeueii-nieaaua aaee —
iniiaa iieeia?iuo ao?iauo ?anoai?ia. // Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie-96:
Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (Oa?e?a, 14-16 o?aaiy 1996 ?.)
— Oa?e?a: Oe?IAe?aac. — 1996. — N. 174.

6. Eoaai TH.A. Aeei?enoaiiy e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a o oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioeanao ao??iiy oa cae?i/oaaiiy naa?aeeiaei. // Noai ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo ?ica?aeoaaeueiiai oa aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ao??iiy e cae?i/oaaiiy
naa?aeeiaei a Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
(Oa?e?a, 20-22 o?aaiy 1998 ?.) — Oa?e?a: Oe?a?inueea iaooiaaciaa
aeaaeai?y (OIAA). — 1998. — N. 93, 94.

7. Iao. 10314 A Oe?a?ia, IIE5 N09E7/02. ?aaaaio aeey ia?iaee ao?iaeo
?ic/ei?a. / Eoaai TH.A., ?icaiaaoo A.A., Oa??a ?.TH.

8. Iao. 222804 A Oe?a?ia, IIE6 A21A21/00, A21A43/12. ?ic/ei aeey
aeoo?iiy naa?aeeiaei. / Eoaai TH.A., ?icaiaaoo A.A., Oa??a ?.TH.

9. Iao. 23758 A Oe?a?ia, IIE6 A21A21/04, 43/12. ?ic/ei aeey ?aiiioo ?
?ioaineo?eaoe?? naa?aeeiaei. / ?icaiaaoo A.A., Eoaai TH.A., Oa??a ?.TH.,
ss?ai?e/oe ?.N.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eoaai TH.A. I?iieai? ??aeeie ia iniia? e?ioiaea-nieaaeo aae?a aeey
ao??iiy, cae?i/oaaiiy oa ?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.10 — ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei. — ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe oa aaco, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ia?o i?e
aoae?aieoeoa? oa aenieoaoaoe?? naa?aeeiaei oeyoii ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?aoeaioo? i?iieaieo ??aeei ia iniia? iaaeao?oeeoieo
a?o/eciyieo iaoa??ae?a. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei ?aaaaioo —
e?ioiaea-nieaaee aaeue. A iniia? iaea?aeaiiy ?aaaaioo eaaeeoue niin?a
eeaenoa?ecaoe?? e?ioiaeth a ?ic/eiao nieae iaaiiai oeio, aonoeie ?
oaiia?aoo?e, aac aeei?enoaiiy eaonoe/ii? niaee. ?aaaaio
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/ieie oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aaaaaie, ye? aeicaieythoue
iioe?eoe iaae? canoinoaaiiy e?ioiaeaaeo ?aaaaio?a. Ia iniia?
?ic?iaeaiiai ?aaaaioo cai?iiiiiaai? ?aoeaioo?e ao?iaeo ?ic/ei?a aeey
ao??iiy oaiiaaiieo ? oa?eaaiieo a?aeeeaae?a, oa niaoe?aeueieo ??aeei
aeey cae?i/oaaiiy oa ?aiiioo naa?aeeiaei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?iieaia ??aeeia, ?aaaaio, e?ioiaea-nieaaee aaeue,
ao?iaee ?ic/ei, niaoe?aeueia ??aeeia aeey cae?i/oaaiiy oa ?aiiioo
naa?aeeiaei.

Annotation

Louban Y.V. The flushing fluids on the basis of starch-salt gels for
drilling, completion and workover wells. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate`s degree by speciality 05.15.10 — drilling of
wells. — The Ivano-Frankivsk State Technical University of Oil and Gas,
Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to increasing of effective drilling and
operating wells by means of working out and using new types of flushing
fluids on the basis of widely-distributed and home-produced materials.
The new type of reagent worked up in this thesis is starch-salt gel. The
main principle of obtaining of the reagent is a way of starch
gelatination in brines of certain type, density and temperature without
using of caustic soda. The reagent is characterised by important
technological advantages which make it possible to expand the sphere of
applying of the starch reagents. On the basis of the worked up reagent
were offered the new compositions of drilling muds for drilling salt and
shale rock formations, and fluids for completion and workover wells.

Key words: flushing fluids, reagent, starch-salt gel, drilling mud,
completion and workover fluids.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eoaai TH.A. I?iiuai/iua aeeaeeinoe ia iniiaa e?aoiaeueii-nieaauo aaeae
aeey ao?aiey, caeai/eaaiey e ?aiiioa neaaaeei. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.10 — ao?aiea neaaaeei. — Eaaii-O?aieianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao iaooe e aaca. Eaaii-O?aieiane,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaio i?e
no?ieoaeuenoaa e yenieoaoaoeee neaaaeei iooi ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey
iiauo ?aoeaioo? i?iiuai/iuo aeeaeeinoae ia iniiaa iaaeaoeoeeoiuo
ioa/anoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioai iiaue oei ?aaaaioa
— e?aoiaeueii-nieaaie aaeue. A iniiaa iieo/aiey ?aaaaioa eaaeeo niinia
eeaenoa?ecaoeee e?aoiaea a ?anoai?ao aeoioeoa e ieo?aoa eaeueoeey, i?e
ii?aaeaeiiie ieioiinoe e oaiia?aoo?a, aac i?eiaiaiey eaonoe/aneie niaeu.
?aaaaio oa?aeoa?ecoaony cia/eoaeueiuie oaoiieiae/aneeie i?aeiouanoaaie,
eioi?ua iicaieytho ?anoe?eoue iaeanoue o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?eiaiaiey
e?aoiaeueiuo ?aaaaioia. A /anoiinoe: iiauoaiiuie noaaeeece?othueie e
eiaeae?othueie naienoaaie, aieueoae ieioiinoueth, onoie/eainoueth e
oa?iaioaoeeiiiiio ?aceiaeaieth.

Ia iniiaa e?ioiaeueii-nieaauo aaeae ?ac?aaioaiu i?iiuai/iua aeeaeeinoe
?acee/iiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iacia/aiey:

-oei?iaaieaaue ao?iaie ?anoai? aeey ao?aiey oaiiaaiiuo e oa??eaaiiuo
ioeiaeaiee;

— aacaeeienoue iieeia?iue ao?iaie ?anoai? n ieioiinoueth aei 2200ea/i3
aeey ao?aiey e ane?uoey i?iaeoeoeaiuo ai?eciioia;

— niaoeeaeueiua aeeaeeinoe aac oa?aeie oacu e niaoeaeeaeeinoe
ooyaeaeiiua o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ooyaeaeeoaeyie, aeey caeai/eaaiey e ?aiiioa
neaaaeei;

— a?aiaiii aeiee?othuea ninoaau aeey aeooaiey neaaaeei.

Ii?ia oa?iinoieeinoe i?iiuai/iuo aeeaeeinoae ia iniiaa
e?aoiaeueii-aeoioeoiiai aaey iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia 140iN. ?ac?aaioaiiua
?aoeaioo?u caueuaiu iaoaioaie Oe?aeiu.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiaeae?othuea naienoaa oei?eaea iaaiey iaoiaeyony ia
o?iaia eiaeae?othueo naienoa oei?eaea eaeueoeey. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?iiuai/iua aeeaeeinoe, eiaeae?iaaiiua oei?eaeii iaaiey, a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa ioaa/atho ai?ii-aaieiae/aneei oneiaeyi ao?aiey neaaaeei ia
Oe?aeia, aaea o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiyeny aunieieaeueoeeaaue ao?iaie
?anoai?. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?iiuai/iua aeeaeeinoe ia iniiaa
e?aoiaeueii-nieaauo aaeae iaania/eaatho nio?aiaiea
ieinoii-oeeueo?aoeeiiiuo naienoa eieeaeoi?ia. Noaiaeiauie
enneaaeiaaieyie iieacaii, /oi eiyooeoeeaio ainnoaiiaeaiey i?iieoeaaiinoe
i?e eniieueciaaiee yoeo ninoaaia i?eaeeaeaaony e o?iaith, eioi?ue
iaania/eaaaony i?e i?eiaiaiee oei?eaeeaaiai ?anoai?a.

Eiaeae?othuea naienoaa eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ia aeoioeoa e ieo?aoa
eaeueoeey auoa, /ai o oeeueo?aoa oei?eaeeaaiai ao?iaiai ?anoai?a.
Aeaiiue oaeo oeacuaaao ia aiciiaeiinoue eo i?eiaiaiey eae iniiau
niaoeaeeaeeinoae aeey caeai/eaaiey neaaaeei. I?eiaiaiea
e?aoiaeueii-nieaauo aaeae iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey
oeeueo?aoeeiiiuo e ?aieiae/aneeo naienoa nieaauo ?anoai?ia aac nieaeaiey
eo ieioiinoe, iaeiia?aiaiii nieaeaaony iianiinoue auiaaeaiey
e?enoaeeeciaaiiie niee i?e nieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u. ?ac?aaioaiiay
oaoiieiaey iieo/aiey a?aiaiii aeiee?othueo ninoaaia iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
noaiea neaaaeeiu iicaieyao nouanoaaiii nieceoue caa?yciaiea eieeaeoi?ia
aeeaeeinoueth aeooaiey.

I?iiuoeaiiuie eniuoaieyie iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu auaiaeu, naeaeaiiua i?e
i?iaaaeaiee eaai?aoi?iuo enneaaeiaaiee. N eniieueciaaieai ao?iauo
?anoai?ia ia iniiaa EAA, aac ineiaeiaiee i?iao?aiu aeaa neaaaeeiu a
eioa?aaeao oaiiaaiiuo e iiaenieaauo oa??eaaiiuo ioeiaeaiee. I?aeoe/anee
aaeaia nie?auaiu ?anoiaeu e?aoiaea, nieaeaiea noieiinoe ia?aaioie a
iiaenieaaie oieua ninoaaeei 30 a?eaai ia 1i ao?aiey. Aeooaiea neaaaeei
a?aiaiii aeiee?othueie ninoaaaie ia iniiaa EAA iaania/eaaao
ainnoaiiaeaiea eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia o?iaia 85-100%.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iiuai/iay aeeaeeinoue, ?aaaaio, e?aoiaeueii-nieaaie
aaeue, ao?iaie ?anoai?, niaoeeaeueiay aeeaeeinoue aeey caeai/eaaiey e
?aiiioa neaaaeei.

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