.

Променева діагностика перинатальних мозковосудинних уражень у новонароджених і дітей грудного віку: Автореф. дис… д-ра мед. наук / О.А. Гончар, Укр.

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OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO IIEIEIA?? ? ?AAe?IEIA?? IIC
OE?A?IE

OAeE 616.83-053.2-073.75

AII*A? Ieaen?e Aiae??eiae/

I?IIAIAAA Ae?AAIINOEEA IA?EIAOAEUeIEO IICEIAINOAeEIIEO O?AAEAIUe

O IIAIIA?IAeAEAIEO ? Ae?OAE A?OAeIIAI A?EO

14.01.22 – i?iiaiaaa ae?aaiinoeea, i?iiaiaaa oa?ai?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?iiaiaai? ae?aaiinoeee Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaaeue A. TH. – i?ioani? eaoaae?e
i?iiaiaai? ae?aaiinoeee Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaaeaaae?a A. ?., canooiiee aee?aeoi?a
Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo iieieia?? ? ?aae?ieia?? IIC
Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?eia TH. I., caa?aeoaa/ ee?i?ee
iae?io??o?a?? aeeoy/iai a?eo Ee?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a?? ?i. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?eaeee A. I., caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iaaee/ii? ?aae?ieia?? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? IIC
Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo iaaee/ii?
?aae?ieia?? ?i.N.I.A?eai?’?aa IIC Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ____________ 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.619.01 a Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? iieieia?? oa ?aae?ieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie
(252022, i. Ee?a, aoe. Eiiiiiniaa 33/43; oae. 266-75-67).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo iieieia?? oa ?aae?ieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie
(252022, i. Ee?a, aoe. Eiiiiiniaa 33/43).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ‘’____’’ ______________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
Aeeeai ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Ia?eiaoaeuei? iiceiainoaeeii? o?aaeaiiy – iaea?eueo iioe?ai?
caoai?thaaiiy o iaiiaeyo (63,1%), ye? iio?aaothoue nai?/anii? e oi/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee (Iaeaeei E. TH.,1990; IaaeaeiaI.N., 1991). Ae?aaiinoeea e
e?eoaaiiy ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue – neeaaeia e
aaaaoii?io?eueia iaaeeei-nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia, yea ua aeaeaea a?ae
inoaoi/iiai ae??oaiiy (Aieaea I.A. ? ni?aaao., 1999; Aieaea I.A., 1997;
Oei?ye-Ieaeiee C.A., 1996; Eaoiieia N.I. e niaaoi?u, 1995).

No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo iaaeeoeeie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o
ee?i?/io iaae?ao??th oeueo?acaoeiaiai, ?aioaai?anueeiai eiii’thoa?iiai
oa iaai?oii-?aciiainiiai oiiia?ao?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
(Ei?ieaiei A.I. e niaaoi?u, 1987; Ei?ieaiei A.I., Ica?iaa A.E., 1993,
Noeiia I.A., Aieaea I.A., 1995; Eiiiaaeia A.I. e niaaoi?u, 1997).
Aoaeoeai?noue iae?i?aae?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aecia/a?oueny aaaaoueia
oaeoi?aie, i?ia?aeieie na?aae yeeo ? aea?? iae?ioi?iaoeai?oiai iaoiaeo
oa i?aaeeueia ioe?iea aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iiceiaeo
no?oeoo? o iaiiaeyo (Volpe J.J., 1987; De Vries L.S. et al.,1992;
Ei?ieaiei A.I., Ica?iaa A.E., 1993; Cohen A.M. 1996; Grattan-Smith J.D.
et al., 1996).

Aiae?c aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo
?aae?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee ua ia ? iaaeaaiiyi oe?iei?
ee?i?/ii? iaae?ao?e/ii? i?aeoeee. Aaaeaiiy io?eiaoe iaeneiaeueio
ae?aaiinoe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th aac ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy niiioea?
aeine?aeiee?a aei canoinoaaiiy iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieo, ia?aaaaeii
iaoe?aeeeaeo, ae?aaiinoe/ieo oaoiieia?e, yeeie ? iae?iniiia?ao?y (INA) ?
iaai?oii-?aciiainia oiiia?ao?y (I?O).

?icaeoie INA, ?aioaai?anueei? eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao?? (EO) oa I?O
aeicaieea ?iicaiiei aeine?aeieeai c?iaeoe /eiaei iia?aeiieaiue uiaei
iiaeeeainoae ?o canoinoaaiiy aeey ae?aaiinoeee ??cieo oei?a
ia?eiaoaeueieo aaii?aa?/ieo oa a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo iiceiainoaeeiieo
o?aaeaiue o iaiiaeyo (Volpe J.J., 1989; Yoneyama H.et al., 1992;
Zimmerman R.A.et al., 1992; Shankaran S., et al.1993; Boyer R.S., 1994;
Wallays C., et al.1995; Chen C.H.et al., 1995; Cohen A.M., 1996;
Grattan-Smith J.D.et al., 1996; ). I?ioa, aeniiaee ie?aieo aaoi??a
iaiaeiicia/i? ? aeineoue noia?a/eea?. Cia/ii ?ic??ciythoueny ?acoeueoaoe
oeueo?acaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaiiaeyo, iniaeeai o?, ui aeeiiai? ia
?aae?ieiaaie.

Aei oeueiai /ano a?aenooi? caaaeueiii?eeiyo? iaoiaee ? noaiaea?oe
i?iaaaeaiiy ?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo. Iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aia
i?iiaiaaa aiaoii?y ? ii?oiiao??y iiceiaeo no?oeoo? ? o a?eiaiio aniaeo?
c o?aooaaiiyi ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?ieeaino?. Aeey o?aeooaaiiy INA-, EO-,
I?O-nai?ioeee ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue ia??aeei
aeei?enoiaothoue ??cio oa?i?iieia?th, ui aeeeeea? cia/i? oo?oaeiaiiy ?
oiaiiaeeeaeth? ianooii?noue o ?ac? aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
oai?eie ae?oueie. Iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy aeaineoiiao?e/i?
iieacieee iiceiaeo no?oeoo?. A?aenooi?noue caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
ia’?eoeaieo INA-, EO-, I?O- e?eoa???a ii?ie no?oeoo? iiceo caeaaeii a?ae
aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo iaiiaeyo i?ecaiaeeoue aei noa’?eoeaii? ioe?iee noaio
aieiaiiai iiceo a?aeiia?aeii aeina?aeo ?aae?ieiaa.

Cia/i? o?oaeiiu? aeieeathoue o ?aii?e ae?aaiinoeoe? ia?eiaoaeueieo
a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue iiceiaeo no?oeoo? (Ia/eineay A.A., 1988;
No?eaeaeia A.I., Aoiei A.O., Iaaeaaaeaa I.A., 1990; Iaaeaeia I.N., 1991;
Aaoieei E.A., 1995; Iaeaeei E.TH., 1995), ui iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy EO /e
I?O, aea a?aeiiino? c oe??? i?iaeaie o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? oa a ?ioeo
e?a?iao NIAe i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

Ia a?aei?aoeueiaai? iieacaiiy aeey aeei?enoaiiy ie?aiiai iaoiaeo /e
eiiieaeno iaoiae?a ?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy. Ia aecia/ai? oa?i?ie
eiio?ieueieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aii i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy ?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy
iaiiaeyo. A?aenooi? ee?i?ei-iae?i?aae?ieia?/i? ae?aaiinoe/i? i?ia?aie
ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae o ?ac? i?aeic?e ia aeieeiaiiy ia?eiaoaeueieo
iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

A Oe?a?i? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao NIAe ua ia i?iaiaeeeinue eiiieaeniiai
?aae?ieia?/iiai aea/aiiy ieoaiue uiaei aecia/aii? iaie i?iaeaie. I?ioa,
ia i?aeeyaa? noii?ao, ui aeei?enoaiiy naia oaeiai iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue o
ae?oae aeicaieeoue nooo?ai aeiiiaieoe a?aeiiino?, yeeo oae a?aeo? a
iaiiaoieia?? oa iaae?ao???.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

?iaioa aeeiiaia ca ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e ?aae?ieia??
Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea ?
a?aeiia?aea? iai?yieo ?aae?caoe?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie “Ae?oe
Oe?a?ie”. Aea?aeaaia ?a?no?aoe?y oaie ? 0195 EO 27890.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

?ic?iaeoe iioeiaeueio oaeoeeo i?iiaiaai? ae?aaiinoeee ? i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy ??cieo oei?a ia?eiaoaeueieo
iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue oa ee?i?ei-iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai i?iaiico
?oi?o iane?aee?a.

A?aoiaoth/e neeaaei?noue ci?i oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie o a?eiaiio
aniaeo?, iniaeeaino? iaoiaaiaco ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo
o?aaeaiue o iaiiaeyo ? niaoeeo?eo i?iaaaeaiiy iae?i?aae?ieia?/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee, iaie iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

1. Iiaeeaeaii aea/eoe INA-, EO-, I?O-iniaeeaino? no?oeoo? aieiaiiai
iiceo o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? ae?oae a?oaeiiai a?eo a ii?i? c i?iaaaeaiiyi
i?iiaiaai? ii?oiiao???.

2. Aea/eoe oa nenoaiaoecoaaoe INA-, EO – ? I?O – nai?ioeeo ??cieo oei?a
ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

3. Aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino?, iieacaiiy oa ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue INA, EO ?
I?O aeey ae?aaiinoeee ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

4. Ooi/ieoe iae?i?aae?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee
ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

5. Aea/eoe iiaeeeaino? iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy iane?aee?a
ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

6.Iaa?oiooaaoe oa ?ic?iaeoe oaeoeeo i?iiaiaaiai ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae c
aecia/aiiyi iioeiaeueieo oa?i?i?a, iine?aeiaiino? e ianyao
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Ae??oaia aeooaeueia i?iaeaia iaae?ao?e/ii? iae?i?aae?ieia??, ui iieyaa?
a ?ic?iaoe? oaeoeee eiiieaenii? i?iiaiaai? ae?aaiinoeee,
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy e i?iaiicoaaiiy iane?aee?a ia?eiaoaeueieo
iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue. ?aae?caoe?y oeueiai oaoiieia?/iiai ??oaiiy
aiineoue aeeaae o iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an a aaeoc? i?iiaiaai?
ae?aaiinoeee oa iaae?ao???, ine?eueee ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
ae?aaiinoeee.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue nenoaiaoeciaaia INA-, EO-,
I?O-aiaoii?y oa iae?i?aae?iii?oiiao??y iiceiaeo no?oeoo? o iaiiaeyo
??ciiai aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo. Oia?oa ooi/iaia e nenoaiaoeciaaia INA-, EO-,
I?O-nai?ioeea ??cieo oei?a ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.
Aea/ai? iiaeeeaino? ?aae?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a o aeyaeaii? e
aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?e ae?aaiinoeoe? ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo
o?aaeaiue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aea?? iaoiaeo, /e canoinoaaiiy iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai
ae?aaiinoe/iiai eiiieaeno caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio oa noaae??
ia?eiaoaeueiiai iiceiainoaeeiiiai o?aaeaiiy. Aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno ?aae?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?aaiinoeee ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

Ia i?aenoaa? aaeeeiai ianyao aa?eo?eiaaieo ee?i?/ieo ?
iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue ae?oae ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy oia?oa
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oa ?ic?iaeai? iioeiaeuei? i?ia?aie ae?aaiinoeee e
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui aioo??oiueii’yciaa ?i’?eoe?y o?iiaioaeo iao??th (8-10
ia/ea iane o?ea) ? aoaeoeaiei ? aacia/iei niiniaii aaaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo o
iaaeeeaiaioiciee nii aeey i?iaaaeaiiy EO – /e I?O – aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Noeoii?noue anoaiiaeaieo oaeo?a ? aecia/aieo iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, ii?yae
c oai?aoe/iei, iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey i?aaeeueii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeaieo ?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo.

Aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo iaie aeaieo uiaei i?iiaiaai? aiaoii?? aieiaiiai
iiceo a ii?i?, a oaeiae nenoaiaoeciaaieo INA-, EO-, I?O-iciae
iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue aeeoa?aioe?aeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iiicoaaiiy ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue o
iaiiaeyo ??ciiai aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo e aeae?eeoe a?oio ?eceeo aeey
eiio?ieueieo ?aae?ieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue.

Io?eiai? aeai? uiaei ianyao, iine?aeiaiino? oa oa?i?i?a aeeiiaiiy
iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo ? aaciaeie aei iaa?oioiaaiiai
canoinoaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai iaoiaeo ae?aaiinoeee (aai eiiieaeno)
caeaaeii a?ae iiaeeeaiai oeio ? noaae?? ?icaeoeo ia?eiaoaeueiiai
iiceiainoaeeiiiai o?aaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeai? e ai?iaaaeaeai? a ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
i?ia?aie ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo ni?eythoue i?iaaaeaiith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
i?iiaiaaiai ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae ? aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
iae?i?aae?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee ? aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy iiceiainoaeeiieo
o?aaeaiue ia 8 – 10%. Cai?iiiiiaaia iioeiaeueia iaoiaeeea naaeaoe??
iaiiaeyo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy EO – ? I?O – ianoaaeaiue ia aeeeeea?
oneeaaeiaiue ? aeicaiey? o iiaiiio ianyc? i?iaanoe EO – /e I?O –
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
“Iae?i?aae?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy a iaiiaoieia?? ? iaae?ao???” iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a iaae?ao?e/ieo ee?i?eao aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai
iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?aeoeeo aeeoy/eo
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a (A?iieoeueea iaeania ee?i?/ia
e?ea?iy; Oa?e?anueeee i?nueeee ia?eiaoaeueiee oeaio?, 6-oa i?nueea
ee?i?/ia iaiiaoieia?/ia e?ea?iy i. Oa?eiaa; Ee?anueeee i?nueeee
ae?aaiinoe/iee oeaio?; Ee?anueea iaeania aeeoy/a e?ea?iy; Ee?anueea
i?nueea niaoe?ae?ciaaia aeeoy/a e?ea?iy “Ioiaoaeeo”; Ee?anueea aeeoy/a
e?ea?iy ?1; ?anioae?eainueeee iaaee/iee ae?aaiinoe/iee oeaio? i.
Eacai?).

Iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aianai? a iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie
i?neyaeeieiiii? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a ?c ?aioaaiieia?? e oeueo?acaoeiai?
ae?aaiinoeee Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.
I.E. Ooieea oa Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia naiino?eii aac aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae aai
?ic?iaie, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai, ?acii, c yeeie iioae?eiaai? iaoeia?
i?aoe?. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue ?aeay eiiieaeniiai
ee?i?ei-?aae?ieia?/iiai aea/aiiy iiceiaeo no?oeoo? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?
iaiiaeyo, a oaeiae ?oi? iniaeeaino? o ?ac? ia?eiaoaeueieo
iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aeeiiai? iae?i?aae?ieia?/i?
ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae, i?iaiae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iaienai?
e i?aeaioiaeai? aei ae?oeo an? iioae?eiaai? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??
noaoo?.

Ae?aaeath ue?o aaey/i?noue ? iniaeeai oe?ioth aeiiiiiao i?ioani?a Aaa?y
ss.N. o aeeiiaii? oe??? i?aoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Ai?iaaoe?y i?iaaaeaia ia noi?niiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? i?iiaiaai?
ae?aaiinoeee, iaaee/ii? ?aae?ieia??, iaae?ao??? 1 ? 2, iaiiaoieia??,
iaa?ieia?? c eo?nii aeeoy/i? iaa?ieia?? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea .

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ii?eethaeiai? oa iaaiai?ai? ia VO
c’?cae? ?aioaaiieia?a ? ?aae?ieia?a O?N? (A?iieoey, 1989); 1 c’?cae?
Anioe?aoe?? niaoe?ae?no?a oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee a iaaeeoeei?
(Iineaa,1991); ?V ? V eiia?anao NOOEO (Oa?e?a,1992 ? Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1994); ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Nia?aiaiiay eiiiuethoa?iay e
iaaieoii-?aciiainiay oiiia?aoey a iiiaii?ioeeueiie eeeieea” (Iineaa,
1997); “Iaaieoiue ?aciiain a iaaeeoeeia “(Eacaiue, 1997); ia
iaoeiai-i?aee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oe?a?ie (E??iaia?aae, 1991; Aeiiaoeuee,
1993; Iaeana, 1994 ? 1998; Oa?e?a, 1997); can?aeaii? anioe?aoe??
?aae?ieia?a Ee?anueei? iaeano? (Ee?a, 1998); iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
EIAII ?i. I.E. Ooieea (Ee?a,1993, 1997 ? 1998); 20-io i?aeia?iaeiiio
eiia?an? c ?aae?ieia?? (?iae?y, Aeae?, 1998); 1-io Oe?a?inueeiio
eiia?an? oao?aoe?a c oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee (Ee?a, 1999);
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaai?oiiai ?aciiaino a iaaeeoeei? ?
a?ieia?? (Ee?a, 1999).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 310 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiae?a ? nieneo 318 aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, a oiio /ene? 79 aeaea?ae c Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo e?a?i NIAe. ?iaioa
ai?uo? 48 oaaeeoeue ? 70 ?ethno?aoe?e.

Ioae?eaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o o?aaiaioao 3-o iiiia?ao?e, 21
noaooyo o i?ia?aeieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a oaeiae o 14
ioae?eaoe?yo iaoa??ae?a ? oac aeiiia?aeae ia c’?caeao, eiia?anao ?
eiioa?aioe?yo ??ciiai ??aiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ianoaaeaieo iaiiaeyo ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iniiaith oe??? ?iaioe ? ii??aithaaeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
eiiieaeniiai ee?i?ei-?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy 4270 ae?oae ??ciiai
aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo e noao? (a?ae 3-o ae?a aei 5 ?ie?a aeeooy), ye?
i?ioiaeeee ianoaaeaiiy e e?eoaaiiy o aeeoy/eo ee?i?eao i. Ee?aa i?ioyaii
1990-1998 ?ie?a. INA aeeiioaaee o aeeoy/eo ee?i?eao, a EO ? I?O – ia
aac? Ee?anueeiai i?nueeiai eiinoeueoaoeaii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai oeaio?o.

Aeeiai?/io aeieoiaioiaaio iae?iniiia?ao?th cae?enithaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi
aia?ao?a M?cro?mager 1000 ? 2000 o??ie “Auson?cs” (Aano?ae?y) ? Aloka –
630 (ssiii?y), eiii’thoa?io oiiia?ao?th – ca aeiiiiiaith aia?aoa NO 9000
NP (NOA), a iaai?oii?aciiainio oiiia?ao?th – ia aia?aoao Magnetom P8
o??ie S?emens”(I?ia//eia) ? G?roscan T5-NT o??ie “Ph?l?ps” (Aieeaiae?y)
ca iaae?ao?e/ieie i?ioieieaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaith oiiaith aoaeoeaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy EO ? I?O ? noai niieith e
ia?ooiiino? aeeoeie i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy. C iaoith iioei?caoe??
naaeaoeaii? i?aeaioiaee ae?oae aei i?iaaaeaiiy EO- ? I?O- ianoaaeaiue a
aiaoeaoi?ieo oiiaao ae?aaiinoe/iiai oeaio?o ie aeei?enoiaoaaee
aioo??oiueii’yciao ?i’?eoe?th o?iiaioaeo iao??th c ?ic?aooieo 8-10 ia/ea
iane o?ea, ui aoei aoaeoeaiei ? aacia/iei niiniaii aeinyaiaiiy
iaaeeeaiaioiciiai nio o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? ae?oae a?oaeiiai a?eo. O
aeiaaeeao iaiao?aeiino? i?enei?aiiy iaaeeeaiaioiciiai nio o iaiiaeyo
ii?aeioaaee aaaaeaiiy o?iiaioaeo iao??th c eae?inieii (aei 0,1 ia/ea
iane) oa eaceenii. Ee?i?/i? iaiaaeaiiy aeey aeei?enoaiiy eae?inieo:
a?ae?ioeaoae?y, i?aeaeuaiiy aioo??oiuei/a?aiiiai oeneo, noai noaeiiii?
aioiaiino?.

Ca aeiiiiiaith INA ianoaaeaii 77,9%, EO – 17,1% ? I?O – 5,0% ae?oae.

Aeey ooi/iaiiy ae?aaiico 486 c 4270 ae?oae canoiniaai? eiiieaene
iaoiae?a iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy: ii?aeiaiiy INA ? EO
aeei?enoaii aeey 50,4%, INA ? I?O – aeey 29,0 %, EO ? I?O – aeey 9,7%,
INA, EO ? I?O aeey 10,9% ae?oae (oaae. 1 – 2).

246 (16,5%) ae?oae niinoa??aaee o eaoaiiac? i?ioyaii 5 ?ie?a.

O 1514 c 4270 (35,5%) ae?oae aeyaeai? ??ci? oeie ia?eiaoaeueieo
iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue, ye? neeaee iniiaio a?oio niinoa?aaeaiue
(oaae.3-5).

Oaaeeoey 1.

?iciiae?e ae?oae caeaaeii a?ae iaoiae?a iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy

Iaoiaee iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae Anueiai

INA – n – % EO – n – % I?O – n – % n – %

3328 – 77,9 730-17,1 212-5,0 4270 -100,0

Oaaeeoey 2.

?iciiae?e ae?oae caeaaeii a?ae eiiieaen?a iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy

Eiiieaene iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a

INA ? EO INA ? I?O INA, EO ? I?O EO ? I?O Anueiai

n – % n – % n – % n – % n – %

245 -50,4 141-29,0 53 -10,9 47 – 9,7 486 -100,0

Oaaeeoey3.

?iciiae?e ae?oae caeaaeii a?ae ?acoeueoao?a iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy

?acoeueoaoe iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue ae?oae E?euee?noue ae?oae n
– % E?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue

E?iaiaeeeae 1135-26,6 4542

A?iiene/ii-?oai?/i? o?aaeaiiy iiceo 214-5,0 1248

Iane?aeee iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue 165-3,9 485

?io? caoai?thaaiiy iiceo 549-12,8 852

Iaoieia?? ia aeyaeaii 2207-51,7 3658

?ACII: 4270 -100,0 10785

Oaaeeoey 4.

?iciiae?e ae?oae caeaaeii a?ae aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo

Aanoaoe?eiee a?e – oeaei?a / n – %

2500 Anueiai

33-2,2 264 -17,4 360-23,8 485 – 32,0 372 – 24,6 1514-100,0

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeeyaee noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? ca
aeiiiiiaith IAII oeio ?BM PC AT ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoa “M?crosoft
Iff?na” oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ia?iaoe? iaaee/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (Iieyeia
E.A. e ae?., 1975; Aa?oaaeneee A.A. e ae?., 1991; Ieioea? I.I. e ae?.,
1991). A??ia?aei?noue ?ica?aeiinoae aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith
ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co, e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa-O?oa?a.

Ii??aiyiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo iciae i?iaiaeeeinue ia iniia? aecia/aiiy
iieacieea a??ia?aeiino? – (2. O aeiaaeeao iaaee?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy (2 >
3,84 ??cieoeth i?ae /anoeaie iciae aaaaeaee noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeiith
(?iia??i?noue 99,95%). Aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue aecia/aee ?iaeaene
/ooeeaino?, niaoeeo?/iino? e oi/iino?.

Aa?eo?eaoe?th iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue cae?enithaaee oeyoii
c?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iiaiaaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieie aeaieie (aiae?c nieiiiiiceiai? ??aeeie /e ai?noo
oeoii/e?a iiceo), aeeiai?eith caoai?thaaiue, eaoaiianoe/iei
niinoa?aaeaiiyi ? aeaieie aaoiin?e.

I?iaaaeaii 230 ee?i?ei-iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo ? iaoieiai-aiaoii?/ieo
c?noaaeaiue. I?e/eie nia?o? – oaae. 6.

Oaaeeoey 6.

I?e/eie nia?o? ae?oae ca aeaieie iaoieiai-aiaoii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

A?e (Ae?a) Ee?i?/iee ae?aaiic Aeniiaie I?I I?e/eia nia?o? Anueiai

3-7 A*E, A?O, IIE III nooiaiy A*E Ianeaiee A*E 144 – 62,6

8-15 A*E, IIE II -III nooiaiy I?AE 3-4 nooiaiy I?AE 3-4 nooiaiy 22- 9,6

15-30 A?O I?AE ? A?O I?AE ? IAE 34-14.8

>30 Nainen, A*E ? A?O, IIE II-III, N?Ae Aaio?eeoe?o, a?ae?ioeaoae?y,
ii?ia Nainen, aioeaoaeii??e?o, ?io? caoai?thaaiiy 30-13,0

?acii: 230 -100,0

Nei?i/aiiy: I?I – iae?i?aae?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy; A*E –
aioo??oiuei/a?aiiee e?iaiaeeea; A?O – a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ia o?aaeaiiy
aieiaiiai iiceo; IIE – ii?ooaiiy iiceiaiai e?iaiia?ao; N?Ae – neiae?ii
?iceaaeo aeeoaiiy; I?AE – ia?e-?io?aaaio?eeoey?iee e?iaiaeeea.

O 87% ae?oae i?e/eiith nia?o? noaee aioo??oiuei/a?aii? e?iaiaeeeae oa
a?iiene/ii-?oai?/i? o?aaeaiiy iiceo, ?io? caoai?thaaiiy – o 13,0%
ae?oae. ?noeiii-iiceoeaia ?aae?ieia?/ia aeeaaiinoeea iiceiainoaeeiieo
o?aaeaiue eiinoaoiaaia o 85,7% iaiiaeyo; ?noeiii-iaaaoeaia -o ?3, 0%;
inaaaei-iiceoeaia o 0,9%; inaaaei-iaaaoeaia – o 0,4%.

Iniaeeaino? ?aae?ieia?/ii? aiaoii?? aieiaiiai iiceo
o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? ae?oae a?oaeiiai a?eo

I?iiaiaaa aiaoii?y oa ii?oiiao??y aea/aia ia eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? 535
ae?oae ??ciiai a?eo, o yeeo oea?aa?aeueii? iaoieia?? ia aoei aeyaeaii:
257 – 48,0% ae?oae ianoaaeai? ca aeiiiiiaith INA; 233 – 43,6% ae?oae ca
aeiiiiiaith EO ? 45 – 8,4% ae?oae – ca aeiiiiiaith I?O.

O ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui
iae?iniiia?ao?th iiceiaeo no?oeoo? o iaiiaeyo ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe ca
noaiaea?oeciaaiith iaie noaiith c io?eiaiiyi 6 neai?a o o?iioaeuei?e,
ia?ao?iioaeuei?e (ei?iia?i?e) ieiueiao, 7 neai?a o naa?oaeuei?e,
ia?anaa?oaeuei?e ? 3 – a ai?eciioaeuei?e (aen?aeuei?e) ieiueiao (?en.
1).

?en. 1. Noaia neai?a o o?iioaeuei?e – ei?iia?i?e ? ia?ao?iioaeuei?e (?),
naa?oaeuei?e ? ia?anaa?oaeuei?e (??) ? ai?eciioaeuei?e – aen?aeuei?e
(???) ieiueiao /a?ac: A – eiaia? /anoee iiceo; A – ia?aaei? ?iae a?/ieo
oeoii/e?a; A – i?aeoeoii/eiaee ioa?? ? ??? oeoii/ie; A – o?ei a?/iiai
oeoii/ea; Ae – o?eeooieee a?/ieo oeoii/e?a; ? – iioeee/i? /anoee iiceo;
AE – na?aaeeii? no?oeoo?e iiceo; C – eaoaeaeueii-oaeai?/io ai?icio; ? –
a?/iee oeoii/ie; E – ino??aoeaao /anoeo iiceo; E – i?aeee iiceo; I – ???
oeoii/ie ? oaeaione; I – o?ea a?/ieo oeoii/e?a.

Noaiaea?oeciaaia iaie iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy EO – ? I?O -aeine?aeaeaiue
aieiae iaiiaeyo iieyaa? a ianooiiiio. Aeey iioeiaeueiiai ?aae?ieia?/iiai
EO- ianoaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii io?eiaiiy 9-oe oiieeo c??c?a o aen?aeuei?e
ieiuei? c ?aeiino?oeoe??th EO-cia?aaeaiiy a ?ioeo ieiueiao ?
i?iaaaeaiiyi aeaineoiiao??? iiceiaeo no?oeoo?. Eiio?ieueio EO ae?oyi
aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aeaioe/i? c??ce a?aeiia?aeii aei
?ai?oa aeyaeaieo iaoieia?/ieo ci?i. I?O iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe ca
iaae?ao?e/ieie (iaiiaoieia?/ieie) i?ioieieaie, i?eiaeii? o 2-o ieiueiao
c iaia’yceiaei io?eiaiiyi SE O1- ? O2- caaaeaieo cia?aaeaiue.
Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei aoei aeeiiaiiy ?R ? GRE I?- ?iioeuenieo
iine?aeiaiinoae, iniaeeai o ?ac? i?aeic?e iaa?yeo iiceo /e aeey
aeyaeaiiy iaoaaieeo?a aaiiaeia?io.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee noaiaea?oecoaaoe iaoiaeeeo
oeueo?acaoeiai? ii?oiiao??? (?en.2) ? ooi/ieoe ?ici??e no?oeoo? iiceo.

a a

?en. 2. Noaie iae?iniiiii?oiiao???. Aecia/aiiy ?iaeaeno oeoii/ea ?
aei??thaaiiy aiaoii?/ieo no?oeoo? iiceo a ei?iia?i?e (A) ?
ia?anaa?oaeuei?e (A) ieiueiao. A – a?aenoaiue a?ae iicaeiaaeiuei?
ai?icie aei iaea?eueo a?aeaeaeaii? oi/ee ia?aaeiueiai ?iao a?/iiai
oeoii/ea; A – a?aenoaiue a?ae iicaeiaaeiuei? ai?icie aei aioo??oiuei?
iiaa?oi? e?noee /a?aia. 1. Iaea?eueoee ai?eciioaeueiee ?ici?? (oe?eia)
a?/ieo oeoii/e?a; 2. Ia?anaa?oaeueiee (einee) ?ici?? ia?aaeiueiai ?iao
a?/iiai oeoii/ea; 3. Oe?eia ii?iaeieie Aa?aa; 4. Oe?eia ??? oeoii/ea. 5,
6, 7. A?aenoaiue (oiaueia) ia?aio?ie iiceo; 8. Ia?anaa?oaeueiee ?ici??
o?ea a?/iiai oeoii/ea ia ??ai? na?aaeeie ca??’y. 9. Ia?anaa?oaeueiee
?ici?? caaeiueiai ?iao a?/iiai oeoii/ea.

?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy e?i?eieo ?ici???a iiceiaeo no?oeoo? oa ?iaeaeno
oeoii/e?a o iaiiaeyo eiio?ieueii? a?oie a ii?i? ca aeaieie
iae?iniiia?ao?? i?aenoiiaai? a oaae. 7, 8.

Oaaeeoey 7.

E?i?ei? ?ici??e no?oeoo? aieiaiiai iiceo o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ??ciiai
aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo – I ± m – ii (iaae? eieeaaiue – ii)

Aanoaoe?e-

iee a?e

(oeaei?a)

n Ia?ao?iioaeue-iee (einee) ?ici?? eiaiaiai ?iao Ia?anaa?oaeue-iee
?ici??

o?ea a?/iiai oeoii/ea Oe?eia

III

oeoii/ea Oe?eia ii?iaeieie i?ici?i? ia?aai?iaeee

2 – 5 ?ie?a

Iaaeiiioai? Aeiiioai?

1 a?oia 2 a?oia 3 a?oia 4 a?oia

I?aeoe? iiceo: – a?ea ?a/iaeia – n??a ?a/iaeia 16,8 ± 0,3 28,8 ± 0,2
25,9 ± 0,5

33,0 ± 0,3 26,0 ± 0,5

32,9 ± 0,2 28,9 ± 0,7 35,8 ± 0,4

Iici/ie:

– a?ea ?a/iaeia – n??a ?a/iaeia 22,6 ± 0,4 29,0 ± 0,5 29,6 ± 0,1

36,2 ± 0,4 29,5 ± 0,3

36,1 ±0,2 31,0 ±0,2 38,3 ± 0,5

E?noee /a?aia 93,9 ± 6,3 97,5 ± 2,1 328 ± 11,3 637±321

Nieiiiiiceiaa ??aeeia: 0 0 0 0

Noaoenoe/i? iieacieee ? 1-2 0,05; ? 3-4 0,05 (oaae.
11).

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie I?O -aeine?aeaeaiue eiio?ieueii? a?oie ae?oae ie
aaaaea?ii iiaeeeaei noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui o ii?i? o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae
oe?eia ia?aaei?o ?ia?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a noaiiaeoue 13 – 14 ii (13,5 (
0,5 ii), ?iaeaen ia?aaei?o ?ia?a – 28,7% – 30,9% (29,8 (1,1 %); oe?eia
na?aaeeie o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a noaiiaeoue 15,3 ( 0,4 ii, ?iaeaen
oeoii/e?a neeaaea? 29,9 ( 1,2%.O aeiiioaieo ae?oae a ii?i?: oe?eia
ia?aaei?o ?ia?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a neeaaea? 17,3 ( 0,8 ii, ?iaeaen
ia?aaei?o ?ia?a – 26,5 ( 1,4%; oe?eia na?aaeeie o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a –
noaiiaeoue 24,4 ( 0,5 ii, ?iaeaen oeoii/e?a – 26,4 ( 1,5% (oaae. 12).
Iayai?noue ii?iaeieie i?ici?i? ia?aai?iaeee ia aieeaa? ia a?aeiini?
iieacieee ?ici???a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo.

Oaaeeoey 11

?iaeaene ia?aaei?o ?ia?a ? o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo o ae?oae o ii?i?
ca aeaieie eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao??

A?e n ? – ?iaeaen ia?aaei?o ?ia?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a I ± m % ?? – ?iaeaen
o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a I ± m %

0,05

I?ei?oea: * – iaaeiiioai? iaiiaeyoa; ** – aeiiioai? iaiiaeyoa.

Oaaeeoey 12.

?iaeaene ia?aaei?o ?ia?a ? o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo o ae?oae

o ii?i? ca aeaieie I?O

Iaiiaeyoa n ? – ?iaeaen ia?aaei?o ?ia?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a I ± m % ?? –
?iaeaen o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a M ± m %

Iaaeiiioai? Aeiiioai? 24

21 29,8 ± 1,1

26,5 ± 1,4 29,9 ± 1,2

26,4 ± 1,5

Ca aeaieie I?O-aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae
oe?eia a?/ii? yiee a?ae aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? e?noee /a?aia aei
ino??aoey aa??th? a?ae 6 aei 10 ii. Oea ? iciaeith iaaei?icaeiaieo
eiaiai? e ne?iiaai? /anoie iiceo. O aeiiioaieo ae?oae oe?eia a?/ii? yiee
neeaaea? 2 – 3 ii, a a?/ia u?eeia Y-iiae?aia. Ioaea, a?/ia yiea
iioiaaiaoe/ii aaeeea, aea aei 42 oeaei?a aanoaoe?? aiia iinooiiai
ciaioo?oueny a i??o ?inoo ne?iiaaeo ? o?i’yieo /anoie iiceo. Oe?eia
eiiaaeneoaeueiiai i?aeiaaooeiiiai i?inoi?o e iicaeiaaeiuei? u?eeie a
ii?i? o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae aa??th? o iaaeao 3 – 4 ii, a o aeiiioaieo –
1 – 2 ii. Aea, iacaeaaeii a?ae aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo ae?oae aiia ia
ia?aaeuo? 4 ii.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiiaaeneoaeueiee i?aeiaaooeiiee i?ino?? oe?eiith aei 3
ii a ii?i? o ae?oae ia INA- ? EO – neaiao ia a?aeia?aaea?oueny, i?ioa
?icoe?aiee aei 5 – 6 ii – aeyaey?oueny aeia?a.

Aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui o an?o iaaeiiioaieo ? o 49,9% aeiiioaieo
iaiiaeyo o ii?i? ia? i?noea ?icoe?aiiy i?aeiaaooeiiiai i?inoi?o i?ae
eiaiaeie /anoeaie iiceo ? eiaiaith e?noeith aei 5 – 6 ii. ?icoe?aiiy
oe??? ae?eyiee i?aeiaaooeiiiai i?inoi?o iia’ycaii c ai?eciioaeueiei
iieiaeaiiyi aeeoeie, yea eaaeeoue ia niei?, aeieea? caaaeaee ? ia ia?
ee?i?/iiai cia/aiiy.

Oe?eia ??? oeoii/ea iacaeaaeii a?ae aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo iaiiaeyo o ii?i?
ia ia?aaeuo? 4 ii (2,9 ( 1,2 ii).

Ioaea, a?aeiini? aaee/eie a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo iacaeaaeii a?ae
?aae?ieia?/iiai iaoiaeo e ??aiy aecia/aiiy ? iaeiaeiai iaae?eieie
ia’?eoeaieie e?eoa??yie. O ii?i? iacaeaaeii a?ae aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo
iaiiaeyo ?iaeaen oeoii/e?a ia ia?aaeuo? 32 %. Aecia/aiiy ?iaeaeno
oeoii/e?a aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe noai a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo ca aeiiiiiaith
on?o ?aae?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aaaeeeai aeey
aeeiai?/iiai c?noaaeaiiy aeaieo.

Iaea?aeai? iaie aeai? I?O-aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei ?ici???a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a
iiceo ? i?aeiaaooeiiiai i?inoi?o ia ni?aiaaeathoue c aeaieie EO –
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iaaaaeai? o iiiia?ao?? Ei?ieaiei A.I., Ica?iaa A.E.
(1993). Oea, iiaeeeai, iia’ycaii c iaioith ?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth EO.

I?iiaiaaa ae?aaiinoeea ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue ?
?oi?o iane?aee?a

Aaii?aa?/i? o?aaeaiiy

A no?oeoo?? ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue ia?aaaaeaee
e?iaiaeeeae (80,2%), iniaeeai o iaaeiiioaieo iaiiaeyo – 85,8% (oaae.
13). Iicaiiceia? e?iaiaeeeae iaee i?noea o 5,1% ae?oae. Eaoaeiaaiaoiia
ae?aaiinoiaaia o 11 c 58 (19%) aeiiioaieo iaiiaeyo aiane?aeie
a?aeoa?oaaiiy ie?noy ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? /a?aia i?ney aaaeei? iieiaiai?
o?aaie.

Oaaeeoey 13.

?iciiae?e iaiiaeyo caeaaeii a?ae oeio aaii?aa?/iiai o?aaeaiiy ?
aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo

Oeie e?iaiaeeea?a Iaaeiiioai? n-% Aeiiioai? n-% Anueiai n-%

Iicaiiceia? e?iaiaeeeae: EA, AAeE, NAeE, NAE 7-0,6 51-4,5 58-5,1

I?AE: 1 nooiaiy

2 nooiaiy

3 nooiaiy

4 nooiaiy 577-50,8

134-11,9

213-18,7

4-0,4 34-3,0

22-2,0

16-1,4

9-0,8 611-53,8

156-13,9

229-20,1

13-1,2

E?iaiaeeeae, ii?aeiai? c A?O iiceo 39-3,4 29-2,5 68-5,9

?acii: 974 – 85,8 161 -14,2 1135-100,0

Nei?i/aiiy: EA – eaoaeiaaiaoiia; AAeE – ai?aeo?aeueiee e?iaiaeeea; NAeE-
noaaeo?aeueiee e?iaiaeeea; NAE – noaa?aoii?aeaeueiee e?iaiaeeea. I?AE
-ia?e-?io?aaaio?eeoey?iee e?iaiaeeea; A?O – a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ia
o?aaeaiiy.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa ae?aaiinoeea eaoaeiaaiaoiie ia aeeeeea? oo?oaeiaiue
iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio aeei?enoaiiai OC -ia?aoai?thaa/a, ine?eueee
iieiaiaa iooeeia neoaeeoue nai???aeiith ?ia?n?eiith i?ieeaaeeith.
Na?iiiiae?aia no??/ea aiaoiaaiii? eaoaeiaaiaoiie aeyaey?oueny ieae/a
aiiiaaiii? na?aaeiuei? aoiaaiiino? o?i? iieiaiai? iooeeie i?ae ie?noyi ?
e?noeith /a?aia. Aeae? a?ae ia? niinoa??aathoueny iiiaeeii? aeniei?
aoiaaiiino? ?aaa?aa?aoe??. O ?ac? iaaii?iiy eaoaeiaaiaoiie ie?noy noa?
ia??aiii??ii noiauaiei, a ai?eia ??aeeie noai?th? aaoa?iaaiio oaeeynoo
no??/eo. Eaoaeiaaiaoiia iaiaaeo?oueny aeaiia oaaie /a?aia ? ia
ia?aoiaeeoue ia non?aeith e?noeo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae eaoaeiaaiaoiie,
e?iaiaeeea i?ae aiiiaa?ic ia iaiaaeo?oueny iiaa?oiath iaei??? e?noee, a
?iaeiaa iooeeia ia ca?eueoo?oueny a ia?o? aei? aeeooy.

Iicaiiceia? e?iaiaeeeae aeyaeai? ia?aaaaeii o aeiiioaieo ae?oae (51 c 56
– 87,9%). Ia INA-neaiao ai?aeo?aeueiee e?iaiaeeea ae?aaiinooaaee ca
iciaeith iaiaaeoaaiiy nioaeee aiaoiaaiii? e?ia? iiaa?oiath iaei???
e?noee i?ae oaaie /a?aia.

Ianeai? noaaeo?aeuei? ? noaa?aoii?aeaeuei? e?iaiaeeeae oaeiae oiaaiaii
ae?aaiinooaaee ia INA-neaiao aac ooi/iaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith EO /e I?O.
Oa?aeoa?ieie INA-iciaeaie noaaeo?aeueiiai, noaa?aoii?aeaeueiiai
e?iaiaeeea?a ? iaeiie/aiiy ??aeei? (aiaoiaaiii?) /e cai?iooi? e?ia?
(o?iiae aeniei? aoiaaiiino?) o ?icoe?ai?e iicaeiaaei?e, a?/i?e u?eeiao
aaeeeiai iiceo, eieia?e ai?ici? ino??aoey e a?aeiaaeoaaiiy ia?aio?ie
aieiaiiai iiceo a?ae e?noie /a?aia. Noaaeo?aeueiee e?iaiaeeea o caaeith
/a?aiio yieo i?ney iaae?eao iaiaoo aai iaaei??iiai ci?uaiiy iioeee/ieo
e?noie, noai?th? aiaoiaaiio nioaeeo i?ae iaiaoii iici/ea /e i?ae iaiaoii
? i?aeoeyie iici/ea. Aeey ae?aaiinoeee oeeo e?iaiaeeea?a aaaeeeaei ? OC
-neaioaaiiy /a?ac ne?iiaao e?noeo a aen?aeuei?e ieiuei?. I?aeic?a
iayaiino? noaa?aoii?aeaeueiiai e?iaiaeeeao ? iieacaiiyi aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
eiio?ieueieo ianoaaeaiue ae?oae c iaoith nai?/anii? ae?aaiinoeee
ia?e-?io?aaaio?eeoey?iiai e?iaiaeeeao.

Aeey aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy noaaeo?aeueiiai, noaa?aoii?aeaeueiiai
e?iaiaeeea?a iacia/ieo ?ici???a a?ae iciae iaaeic??eiai aieiaiiai iiceo
oi/i?noue INA iecueea (23,4%). O iaaeiiioaieo iaiiaeyo i?aeiaaooeiiee
i?ino?? ? a ii?i? aeineoue oe?ieee, oiio ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe iayai?noue
??aeei? e?ia? iaiiaeeeai, a caonoie e?ia? noai?th? cia?aaeaiiy
?ciaoiaaiia c e?noeaie /a?aia. O oeeo aeiaaeeao aaaeeeai canoinoaaiiy EO
/e I?O.

Canoinoaaiiy EO ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeyaeaiiy noaaeo?aeueieo ?
noaa?aoii?aeaeueieo e?iaiaeeea?a o aeiaaeeao iayaiino? caonoe?a e?ia?
(3,9% niinoa?aaeaiue). EO-iciaeaie iicaiiceiaeo e?iaiaeeea?a ?
a?ia?aeaineai? ciie oa?aeoa?ii? oi?ie e eieae?caoe??, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue eiao?oe??ioo aani?aoe?? caonoe?a e?ia?: ai?- ,
noaaeo?aeueii, a aacaeueieo oeenoa?iao, a?/ieo ? iicaeiaaei?e u?eeiao,
ocaeiaae i?yii? iacooe. E?iciiiae?aia iaeiie/aiiy e?ia?, iaiaaeaia oaaie
/a?aia – EO-iciaea ai?aeo?aeueiiai e?iaiaeeeao. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui na?i
iiceo o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae iiaea ?i?ooaaoe noaa?aoii?aeaeueiee
e?iaiaeeea.

Oa?aeoa?i? I?-aoaeoe ?ioaineaiino? neaiae?a ia ??cieo noaae?yo
aaiethoe?? e?iaiaeeeao caeaaeaoue a?ae aeii?ioth/iai eiiiiiaioo
iaoaaieeo?a aaiiaeia?io (oaae. 14).

Oaaeeoey 14.

Iniaeeaino? I? – cia?aaeaiue e?iaiaeeea?a

Noaae?y e?iaiaeeeao Aeii?iaioiee eiiiiiaio O? -neaiae O2 -neaiae

E?iaioa/a

( 7 ae?a) Iaoaaiiaeia?i:

-aioo??oiueiee?oeiiee,

-iicaee?oeiiee

Aenieee Aenieee

Iecueeee Aenieee

Caeeoeia? yaeua Aaiineaea?ei Iecueeee Iecueeee

Aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iith I?O-iciaeith ai?aeo?aeueiiai
e?iaiaeeeao a?ae noaaeo?aeueiiai ? iecueeee neaiae oaa?aei? iiceiai?
iaieiiee i?ae aaiaoiiith e iiceii.

Iae/ano?oa (611 c 1135 – 53,8%) aeyaeai? noaaiaiaeeiaeuei? e?iaiaeeeae c
aa?i?iaeueiiai iao?eeno ia?aaaaeii o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae (50,8%).
Iae?iniiia?ao?y aoea aeeeth/ii ?aeeiei ?aae?ieia?/iei iaoiaeii
ianoaaeaiiy iiceo o ae?oae ?O nooiaiy iaaeiiioaiino?. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe,
ui aeey ae?aaiinoeee noaaiaiaeeiaeueiiai e?iaiaeeeao ? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
eiai aaiethoe??th aeei?enoaiiy EO ? I?O iaaeioe?eueii, ine?eueee INA
iaaea? ae/a?io ?ioi?iaoe?th.

Ia?e-?io?aaaio?eeoey?i? e?iaiaeeeae (I?AE) eaaei aeyaeyee ia INA-neaiao
o aeiaaeeao ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? caonoe?a e?ia?. I?AE 2, 3 ? 4 nooiai?a
ae?aaiinoiaai? a?aeiia?aeii o 31% iaaeiiioaieo ? 4,2% aeiiioaieo
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae. O aeiaaeeao iaaaeeei? aneiao??? noaeeiieo
nieao?iue a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo (o iaaeao 1 – 2 ii) aeieeaee o?oaeiiu?
ae?aaiinoeee aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e?iaiaeeeao – I?AE 2 nooiaiy (11,
9% iaaeiiioaieo ? 2% aeiiioaieo iaiiaeyo). I?ioa, caa?oaei ia naaa oaaao
noiauaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoiaaiiino? aiaiaeeie a?/ieo oeoii/e?a.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai oaiiiaio aeicaieeei ooi/ieoe, ui
iioiauaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoiaaiiino? aiaiaeeie aeieea? o ae?oae c I?AE 2
? 3 nooiaiy (34% niinoa?aaeaiue), ye ?acoeueoao i?aeaino?iai
aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e?iaiaeeeao. Oea iaoiiaeaii a?aeeeaaeaiiyie
iaoaaieeo?a aaiiaeia?io a aiaiaeeiaeuei?e, noaaiaiaeeiaeuei?e ciiao, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith I?O. I?enooi?noue oa?aeoa?ii? iaeyi?aee
eiioo?o aiaiaeeie a?/iiai oeoii/ea iiceo iaaea? iiaeeea?noue ?aiiuei?
(ca aeiiiiiaith INA) ? iaa?oue ?ao?iniaeoeaii? (I?O-iciaee
aaiineaea?eio) ae?aaiinoeee aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e?iaiaeeeao,
i?eiaeii? i?ioyaii 2 i?nyoe?a i?ney cieeiaiiy ?ioeo iciae e?iaiaeeeao.

C aeieeiaiiyi aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e?iaiaeeeao ??aeea e?ia caiiaith?
a?/iee oeoii/ie iiceo, ci?oo?oueny c? nieiiiiiceiaith ??aeeiith, a iio?i
cn?aea?oueny ia noaeeiieo nieao?iiyo. Aaeee? caonoee e?ia? iiaeooue
“oaiiiioaaoe” a?/iee oeoii/ie. Caonoie e?ia? i?ney ?ao?aeoe?? ia EO-
cia?aaeaii? ia? aenieo u?euei?noue a?aeiinii a?iiaeaineaii?
nieiiiiiceiai? ??aeeie. A e?ioe? ia?oiai oeaeiy i?ney e?iaiaeeeao c
aaoie?cii caonoeo e?ia ciiao noa? ??aeeith – a?iiaeaineaiith.

Oiio canoinoaaiiy EO iaea?eueo aaaeeeaa o i?aeaino?o noaae?th
e?iaiaeeeao.

*a?ac 10 – 14 aei?a o?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith INA ia i?noe? o?iia?a
aeyaeythoueny inaaaeie?noe, a i?ioyaii 3 – 4 oeaei?a INA-iciaee o?iia?a
cieeathoue. O an?o aeiaaeeao e?iaiaeeea?a 3 nooiaiy niinoa??aa?oueny
INA-iciaea iioiauaiiy e i?aeaeuaiiy aoiaaiiino? aiaiaeeie.

I?AE 4 nooiaiy ca eeaneo?eaoe??th Papile L.A. (1978) i?aaenoaaey? niaith
iioe?aiiy aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e?iaiaeeeao o ia?aio?io iiceo /a?ac
aeaoaeo aiaiaeeie oeoii/ea. I?ioa, o 0,4% iaaeiiioaieo ? 0,8% aeiiioaieo
iaiiaeyo ia ia?oiio oeaei? aeeooy ca aeiiiiiaith INA ie ae?aaiinooaaee
iaeiia?/i?, aneiao?e/i?, o?eeooii? /e noa?e/ii? oi?ie ooai?e aeniei?
aoiaaiiino? c? noeniaiiyi, a ia ?icoe?aiiyi noi?aeiiai a?/iiai oeoii/ea
iiceo. Aiie i?ecaiaeeee aei oi?ioaaiiy ii?aioeaoae?/ii? e?noe. Oe?
iciaee oa?aeoa?i? aeey ia?eaaio?eeoey?iiai aaiiciiai ?ioa?eoo c iae?icii
a?ei? ?a/iaeie iiceo (Boyer R.S., 1994). Aeieeiaiiy ii?aioeaoae?/ii?
e?noe a?aeaoaaeinue i?ioyaii 2 – 3 oeaei?a i?ney ?ioa?eoo, aea o 2-o
ae?oae (0,17%) ii?aioeaoae?y aoea noi?iiaaia i?ioyaii iaeiiai oeaeiy.

I?O-ae?aaiinoeea I?AE oa ?ioa?eoo ia?aio?ie iiceo o iaiiaeyo aaco?oueny
ia oa?aeoa?ieo iciaeao aaiethoe?? aaiiaeia?io a?aeiia?aeii?
eieae?caoe??. I?AE aeyaeythoueny aiane?aeie a?eueo ei?ioeiai O2
aaiaoiie, i?ae O2 iiceo. C ?icaeoeii aaii?aa?/iiai ?ioa?eoo
niinoa??aathoueny oeaio?e a?eueo aeiaaeo O1 ? O2 ?c iiaeaeueoei
oi?ioaaiiyi ii?aioeaoae?/ii? e?noe. Ine?eueee ?ioa?eo o iaiiaeyo
i?iyaey?oueny ciiith iiaeiaaeaieo O1 ? O2, aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy eiai a?ae
iai??e?i?ciaaii? a?ei? ?a/iaeie iiceo oo?oaeithaaeinue, i?ioa
ii?aioeaoae?? aeyaeyee aeia?a. Ia I?- cia?aaeaii? ca ei?ioeei O2 (iciaea
aaiineaea?eio) a?eueoa, i?ae /a?ac 1 ??e niinoa??aaee iane?aeie
aaii?aa?/iiai ?ioa?eoo, a iane?aeie aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e
noaa?aoii?aeaeueiiai e?iaiaeeea?a – /a?ac 3 – 4 i?nyoe?. A iaeiiio
aeiaaeeo o?iaeaeaii? a?ae?ioeaoae?? ca aeiiiiiaith I?O ae?aaiinoiaai?
caeeoeia? yaeua aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai oaoaeueiiai e?iaiaeeeao.

Ii?aeiaiiy I?AE ?c a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieie o?aaeaiiyie aieiaiiai iiceo
aeyaeaii o 68 – 5,9% ae?oae ??ciiai aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo (o 3,4%
iaaeiiioaieo ? o 2,5% aeiiioaieo ae?oae). I?iiaiaaa ae?aaiinoeea o oeeo
aeiaaeeao oo?oaeiaia ? iio?aao? eiio?ieueieo aeeiai?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Oneeaaeiaiiyi I?AE 3 nooiaiy ? aoi?eiia iinoaaii?aa?/ia
aai?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?y (100%), yea ?icaeaa?oueny i?ioyaii 1 – 3 oeaei?a. C
aeieeiaiiyi aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?? ia?aaei? ?iae a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ae?aaeaiei caie?oaeaiiyi ciai?oi?o eoo?a oa
cieeiaiiyi e?ai?aeueii? aeioeeino?. Ae?aooaaiiy ?iaeaeno oeoii/e?a o
ae?oae c iiceiainoaeeiieie o?aaeaiiyie aeicaieeei eiinoaooaaoe
ca?eueoaiiy eiai aaee/eie o 83,6%. O oeeo aeiaaeeao
aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?? iaea i?noea iaa?aeiia?aei?noue a?aeiinieo aaee/ei
ia ??aiyo ia?aaei?o ?ia?a ? o?e (33, 1% ? 35,8%). ?iaeaen o?e a?/ieo
oeoii/e?a aeinoia??ii ia?aaeuoaaa ?iaeaen ia?aaei?o ?ia?a. Ie??i oiai,
iaei i?noea noiioaiiy ia?aio?ie iioeee/ieo /anoie iiceo aiane?aeie
ca?eueoaiiy ia?anaa?oaeueiiai ?ici??o caaei?o ?ia?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeaieo ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui
aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?y iioe?th?oueny a?ae caaei?o aei ia?aaei?o ?ia?a
a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo, a ia iaaiaee, ye noaa?aeaeo?oueny a e?oa?aoo??
(Aaoieei E.A., 1995; Ei?ieaiei A.I., Ica?iaa A.E., 1993; Ia/eineay I.A.,
1988). Iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe??, ia iaoo
aeoieo, ? ?aoeaeoi?iee iaoai?ci ae?? a?ae?inoaoe/ii? neee aiane?aeie
ia?aaaaeiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy aieiae iaiiaeyoe iioeeeoeath
aiec.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?icoe?aiiy
iicaeiaaeiuei? u?eeie aaeeeiai iiceo ? eiiaaeneoaeueiiai i?aeiaaooeiiiai
i?inoi?o iiiaae 5 – 6 ii o iaiiaeyo aeieea? aiane?aeie e?iaiaeeeao, aai
iaeiie/aiiy nieiiiiiceiai? ??aeeie (ciai?oiy a?ae?ioeaoae?y) oa ao?io??
aieiaiiai iiceo.

?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ?iaeaeno oeoii/e?a o iaiiaeyo c oneeaaeiaiiyie
ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue o aeeiai?/iiio niinoa?aaeaii?
na?ae/aoue, ui ca?eueoaiiy ?iaeaeno a iaaeao a?ae 34% aei 39% ? iciaeith
aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe??, a iiiaae 39% – i?iyaii aioo??oiuei?
a?ae?ioeaoae??. Ia INA-neaiao aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?? a?aeiia?aeathoue
iaai? aaee/eie ia?anaa?oaeueiiai ?ici??o o?ea a?/iiai oeoii/ea iiceo: 8
– 10 ii – 1 nooi?iue; 11 – 15 ii – 2 nooi?iue; iiiaae 15 ii – 3 nooi?iue
aeeeyoaoe??, ui a?aeiia?aea? a?ae?ioeaoae??.

Ia iniia? ee?i?ei-iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo ? iaoieiai-ii?oieia?/ieo
c?noaaeaiue anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie ca?eueoaiiy
ia?anaa?oaeueiiai ?ici??o o?ea a?/iiai oeoii/ea (ia INA-neaiao), c
ia?eiaoaeueiei iiceiainoaeeiiei o?aaeaiiyi, ui aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe a?oio
?eceeo aeey eiio?ieueieo ?aae?ieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e (Ia/eineay A.A., 1988), ie ia
niinoa??aaee ?icoe?aiiy ??? oeoii/ea iiceo o aeiaaeeao
aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?? 1 ? 2 nooiaiy. Aiii iaei i?noea o ?ac?
a?ae?ioeaoae??. O?aoiaoth/e anoaiiaeaiee iaie oaeo, ui
aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?y iioe?th?oueny a?ae caaei?o aei ia?aaei?o ?ia?a
oeoii/e?a, aecia/aiiy ?iaeaeno ia ??ai? na?aaeeie o?e a?/ieo oeoii/e?a
iiceo ? a?eueo iaae?eiei e?eoa???i ii/aoeiai? noaae?? ?icoe?aiiy a?/ieo
oeoii/e?a, i?ae ?iaeaen ia?aaei?o ?ia?a.

O 67,3% aeiaaee?a aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?y cieeea niiioaiii, o 32,7% aiia
i?ecaaea aei ia?nenooth/i? aaio?eeoeiiaaae??, yea iio?aaoaaea
i?iaaaeaiiy iiia?aeiaeo ioieoe?e. O aeiaaeeao ?icaeoeo a?ae?ioeaoae??
(2,9% iaiiaeyo) aoea iaiao?aeiith aaio?eeoeinoii?y /e iaeeaaeaiiy
aaio?eeoei-ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ooioa.

Ca?aeii ?acoeueoao?a eiiieaeniiai ee?i?ei-iae?i?aae?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oae ??ciiai aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo iiaeeeai
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiaiaeei?o, yeee aeieea? iaa?oue o ?ac? iacia/ii?
e?eueeino? e?ia? a a?/ieo oeoii/eao iiceo ? iaoiaiiiii?/iith
INA-iciaeith aioo??oiueioeoii/eiaiai e?iaiaeeeao. Aeey oaeaeeiai
ianoaaeaiiy iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae o e?eoe/iiio noai? ? ae?aaiinoeee I?AE
iioeiaeueiei ? aeeiiaiiy EO ia 3 – 5 aeia? aeeooy aeeoeie, aea ca
iiaeeeaino? ?? ne?ae cai?ieoe ia I?O. O ?ac? i?aeic??iiy ia aaii?aa?/iee
?ioa?eo eiio?ieueio EO ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe o e?ioe? ia?oiai oeaeiy aeeooy.
EO iiaea aooe iieacaia aeey ooi/iaiiy ??aiy iano?oeoe?? nenoaie
oeoii/e?a ? iaiao?aeiino? ooiooaaiiy, iniaeeai o aeiaaeeao a?aenooiino?
iiaeeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy I?O-aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?O iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiee
iaoiae aeyaeaiiy e ooi/iaiiy ianyao aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo e?iaiaeeea?a,
ine?eueee: aenieee I?-neaiae aaii?aa?? oo?eio?oueny a?ae 2 aei 11
oeaei?a, caaaeyee /iio iiaeia aeyaeoe iaa?oue aeoaea iae? e?iaiaeeeae;
ca iniaeeainoyie I? -neaiae?a iiaeeeai anoaiiaeoe oa?i?i aeieeiaiiy
e?iaiaeeeao. O?eueee I?O aeicaiey? ia?aeiii aeyaeoe o?ii?/io noaae?th
e?iaiaeeeao (a oiio /ene? e aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy) ca I?-
iciaeith aiaiaeeiaeueiiai a?aeeeaaeaiiy aaiineaea?eio.

A?iiene/ii-?oai?/i? o?aaeaiiy

Iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy /anoioe, INA-iciae ? ia?aa?ao “ooieoe?iiaeueieo
a?iiene/ieo ii?ooaiue” (Eaoiieia N.I. e niaao., 1995), “o?c?ieia?/iiai
iaa?yeo” iiceo (Aaoieei E.A., 1995; oa ?io?) o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae
aeicaieeei iai aeyaeoe aaaeeea? aeiaeaoeia? aeai? uiaei
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy a?ae iaa?yeo iiceo ? eaeeiiaeyoe??.

O 89,2% iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae aeyaeai? ciie i?aeaeuaii? ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii?
aoiaaiiino? o aeaeyae? no??/ie ocaeiaae eaoa?aeueieo eoo?a ia?aaei?o,
ieaei?o ?ia?a ? o?eeooiee?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo – “o?c?ieia?/iee
iaa?ye”. O an?o aeiaaeeao aoiaaii?noue oeeo cii ia ia?aaeuoaaea
noaeeiieo nieao?iue a?/ieo oeoii/e?a. Caeaeie e ai?icie eiiaaeneoaeueii?
iiaa?oi? i?aeoeue aaeeeiai iiceo aeia?a i?inoaaeoaaeenue, ui iaaeaaaei
aiaaiaiino? a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? “o?c?ieia?/iiai iaa?yeo” a?ae
ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii? eaeeiiaeyoe??. O 98,9% iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae ciie
i?aeaeuaii? ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii? aoiaaiiino? aoee a?eueo-iaio aiiiaaiieie,
ciaiooaaeenue ? cieeee i?ioyaii 2 – 3 oeaei?a aeeooy. I?ioa o 1,1%
ae?oae ia ?? i?noe? aeieeee iaeaiuee? inaaaeie?noe. Oe? aeiaaeee ie
a?aeianee aei ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii? eaeeiiaeyoe?? eaaeiai nooiaiy. O an?o
aeiaaeeao iaeiia?/iiai aiaieuaaiai noaei?oeeaeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aoiaaiiino? oi?ioaaeenue inaaaeie?noe, ui na?ae/eei i?i ia?aa?a
oieaeueiiai a?iiene/ii-?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiue iiceo (7 c 1152 – 0,3%).
Ioaea, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y i?aeaeuaii? ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii? aoiaaiiino? a?ae
iaa?yeo iiceo ? aeano?oeoeaii? oi?ie a?iiene/ii-?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy
iiceo (eaeeiiaeyoe??) o iaaeiiioaieo iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae neeaaeia e
iio?aao? o?eaaei? eiio?ieueii? aeieoiaioiaaii? iae?iniiia?ao??.

Eeaneo?eaoe?th aeano?oeoeaieo a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue iiceo
i?iaiaeeee ca Hill A., Volpe J.J. (1992). Ae?aaiinoiaai? ??ci? oeie
a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue aieiaiiai iiceo iaiiaeyo (oaae. 15).

Anoaiiaeaii ui, ae?aaiinoeea iaa?yeo iiceo (15,4%) iio?aao? na???
eiio?ieueieo aeieoiaioiaaieo iae?iniiia?ao?/ieo ianoaaeaiue. Aeey
aiaieuaaiai ? aeeoociiai iaa?yeo iiceo ia INA – neaiao oa?aeoa?ii
aaoa?iaaiia aai aeeoocia i?aeaeuaiiy aoiaaiiino? ia?aio?ie iiceo,
cieaeaiiy /e a?aenooi?noue aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? caeaei, ai?icai oa a?/ieo
oeoii/e?a iiceo, cieaeaiiy ioeuenaoe?? a?oa???. O ?ac? aaeaeaaoii?
oa?ai?? oe? ci?ie cieeathoue i?ioyaii 3 – 5 ae?a.

Aeieeiaiiy o cii? iaa?yeo iiceo iae?ioe/ieo ci?i (8 c 33 – 24,2% ae?oae)
noai?th? INA-ea?oeio “nyth/eo” ae?eyiie c ianooiiei oi?ioaaiiyi
inaaaeie?no – yaeua eaeeiiaeyoe??. Oiio iaaeiiioaieo iaiiaeyo c
ia?eaaio?eeoey?iei iaa?yeii ne?ae a?aeianoe aei a?oie aenieiai ?eceeo
?icaeoeo eaeeiiaeyoe?? ? i?iaiaeeoe eiio?ieueio INA 2-3 ?ace ia
oeaeaeaiue. Iaa?ye iiceo iio?aao? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a?ae “o?c?ieia?/iiai
iaa?yeo” iiceo iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae ? IAE, ui iiaeeeai cae?enieoe ca
oa?i?iii ?nioaaiiy eiai iciae.

Oaaeeoey 15.

?iciiae?e iaiiaeyo caeaaeii a?ae oeio a?iiene/ii-?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy ?
aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo.

Oeie Iaaeiiioai? Aeiiioai? Anueiai

a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue n – % n – % n – %

Iaa?ye iiceo 18-8,4 15-7,0 33-15,4

Ia?eaaio?eeoey?ia eaeeiiaeyoe?y:

– eaaea nooi?iue 13-6,1 17-7,9 30 -14,0

– na?aaeiy nooi?iue 3? -14,5 – 31 -14,5

– aaaeea nooi?iue 15-7,0 – 15 – 7,0

?oai?/i? ?ioa?eoe e iae?ice:

– ia?anaa?oaeuei? – 15 – 7,0 15-7,0

– oieaeuei? 3-1,4 14-6,5 17-7,9

– aeeooci? – 10-4,7 10-4,7

O?aaeaiiy aacaeueieo yaea? ? ca??’y 14-6,5 49 – 23,0 63 – 29,5

?acii: 94 – 43,9 120-56,1 214-100,0

Ca aeiiiiiaith EO iaa?ye iiceo oaeiae aeia?a aeyaey?oueny o ia?o? 3-5
ae?a i?ney eiai aeieeiaiiy. Ia EO-neaiao n??a ?a/iaeia iiceo
a?iiaeaineaia (90 Noaa?eueia iinoaaii?aa?/ia a?ae?ioeaoae?y

33-37

6 ± 5 ?io?a-ia?eaaio?eeoey?i? e?iaiaeeeae. Iaa?ye iiceo.
Ia?eaaio?eeoey?ia eaeeiiaeyoe?y. Aace?noicia ia?eaaio?eeoey?ia
eaeeiiaeyoe?y.

60 ± 30 E?noicia ia?eaaio?eeoey?ia eaeeiiaeyoe?y. Ao?io?y aaeeeiai
iiceo.

38-42

12 ± 10 Iaa?ye iiceo. Ioeueoee?noicia eaeeiiaeyoe?y. Noaei?oeeaeueia
eaeeiiaeyoe?y. O?aaeaiiy aacaeueieo yaea? ? oaeaiona. Iaiiaoaeueiee
?ioa?eo

75 ± 35 Ao?io?y aaeeeiai iiceo, ii?aioeaoae?y

3. O ae?oae c ee?i?/ieie ii?ooaiiyie ooieoe?e oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie EO oa I?O aeicaieyoue ae?aaiinooaaoe iane?aeee ia?eiaoaeueieo
iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue: aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?th, a?ae?ioeaoae?th,
ii?aioeaoae?th, e?noe, noaei?oeeaeueio e ia?eaaio?eeoey?io ao?io?th,
ao?io?th iicieenoiai o?ea, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue caeeoeiaei yaeuai
ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii? eaeeiiaeyoe?? ? aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo e?iaiaeeea?a.
Aaaeeeaei aeey ooi/iaii? ae?aaiinoeee iane?aee?a ??cieo oei?a
a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue o ae?oae noaia aeeiiaiiy
I?O-aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniaeeai eiee a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iaiiaeyoai
ia i?iaiaeeeinue ?ioa iae?i?aae?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy. Ia?aeiia EO aeey
ae?aaiinoeee aino?i? noaae?? ia?eiaoaeueieo a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo
o?aaeaiue ia iieacaia /a?ac iecueeo niaoeeo?/i?noue iaoiaeo (44,6%).

4. O aeyaeaii? aino?i? noaae?? ia?eiaoaeueieo aaii?aa?/ieo o?aaeaiue
aaeeeiai iiceo o iaaeiiioaieo ae?oae ae/a?iio ae?aaiinoe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th
iaaea? INA (oi/i?noue – 97,8%), ine?eueee e?iaiaeeeae o oeeo ae?oae
ia?aaaaeii aeieeathoue ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii o cii? aa?i?iaeueiiai iao?eeno.
O aeiiioaieo ae?oae ia INA aeyaeythoueny eeoa ?cieueiaai? aaii?aa?? aac
iayaiino? ia?eoieaeueieo a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo ci?i (oi/i?noue – 70,3%).
Canoinoaaiiy EO aaaeeeaa aeey aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee aino?i?
noaae?? ii?aeiaieo ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue oi/i?noue –
90,3%, /ooeea?noue – 96,7%, niaoeeo?/i?noue – 93,7%).

5. Aeey aeyaeaiiy aino?i? noaae?? a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue iiceo o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae ae?aaiinoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue INA ? I?O iaeaea
ni?aiaaea? ? aeinoia??ii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny (oi/i?noue a?aeiia?aeii 85,6
? 87,5%). Ioaea, aeeiiaiiy I?O ? aeioe?eueiith eeoa o aeiaaeeao
iaaaoeaieo /e noii?aieo ?acoeueoao?a INA, a oaeiae aeey ooi/iaiiy
eieae?caoe?? oa iioe?aiino? iaoieia?/ieo ci?i.

6. Ae?aaiinoeeo i?aeaino?i? noaae?? ia?e-?io?aaaio?eeoey?ieo
e?iaiaeeea?a, a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo ? ii?aeiaieo iiceiainoaeeiieo
o?aaeaiue aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno INA oa I?O
(oi/i?noue a?aeiia?aeii 96,1% ? 98,3%). Iieacaiiyi aeey aeeiiaiiy EO
ne?ae aaaaeaoe i?aeic?o ia iayai?noue aoi?eiiiai e?iaiaeeeao o cii?
ia?eaaio?eeoey?ii? eaeeiiaeyoe?? (oi/i?noue – 98,4%).

7. Aacia?a/iith ia?aaaaith canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno iae?i?aae?ieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a (INA, EO, I?O) ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo ? iiaeeea?noue c aenieith
aoaeoeai?noth ae?aaiinooaaoe ia?eiaoaeuei? iiceiainoaeeii? o?aaeaiiy o
ae?oae (/ooeea?noue – 99, 5%; niaoeeo?/i?noue – 93, 8%; oi/i?noue – 98,
7%), cae?enieoe aeeoa?aioe?aeueio ae?aaiinoeeo aaii?aa?/ieo ?
a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo iaoieia?/ieo ci?i (oi/i?noue – 89,8%), a oaeiae
i?iaiicoaaoe iiaeaeueoee ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiiy ? eiai
iane?aeee (oi/i?noue 79,1%).

AENIIAEE

1. I?iiaiaaa ianoaaeaiiy aieiaiiai iiceo o iaiiaeyo iiaeiii aeeth/aoe:
16 noaiaea?oieo INA-neai?a o o?ueio ieiueiao; 9 EO-neai?a o aen?aeuei?e
ieiuei? /e I?O uiiaeiaioa o 2-o ieiueiao (aen?aeuei?e oa naa?oaeuei?e) c
io?eiaiiyi O1- ? O2-caaaeaieo cia?aaeaiue ca iaiiaoaeueieie i?ioieieaie.
Aeey i?aaeeueii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? noaio iiceiaeo no?oeoo? o iaiiaeyo
iaiao?aeii aecia/aiiy EO -eiao?oe??ioo aani?aoe?? oa o?aooaaiiy a?eiaeo
iniaeeainoae i??e?i?caoe??, ui aeyaeythoueny ca aeiiiiiaith I?O. O
iaaeiiioaieo iaiiaeyo o ii?i? ??cieoey EO -eiao?oe??ioo aani?aoe?? n??i?
e a?ei? ?a/iaei iiceo ia ia?aaeuo? 12 iae I, o aeiiioaieo – 7,1 iae. I.

2. Aea?? iaoiaeo i?iiaiaaiai ianoaaeaiiy /e canoinoaaiiy ?aae?ieia?/iiai
ae?aaiinoe/iiai eiiieaeno caeaaeeoue a?ae ee?i?/ii ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai oeio
e noaae?? ia?aa?ao ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue iiceo.

3. Aeeiai?/ia iae?iniiia?ao?y ? iniiaiei iaoiaeii ae?aaiinoeee e
eiio?ieth ia?aa?ao ia?eiaoaeueieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue o aeeaiei
iaaeiiioaieo iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae.

4. Aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?y aeieea? e iioe?th?oueny o iai?yieo a?ae caaei?o
aei ia?aaei?o ?ia?a a?/ieo oeoii/e?a iiceo. Aeey eiinoaoaoe??
aaio?eeoeiaeeeyoaoe?? ia INA- neaiao aeioe?eueii aecia/aiiy oiaueie
ia?aio?ie iiceo a?ae caaeiueiai ?iao a?/iiai oeoii/ea aei iioeee/ii?
e?noee, naa?oaeueiiai ?ici??o o?ea a?/iiai oeoii/ea ia ??ai? na?aaeeie
oaeaion?a (o ii?i? ia ia?aaeuo? 8 ii), einiai ?ici??o ia?aaei?o ?ia?a
a?/ieo oeoii/e?a (o ii?i? noaiiaeoue 1 – 4 ii). Iacaeaaeii a?ae
aanoaoe?eiiai a?eo iaiiaeyo, ?iaeaen oeoii/e?a ia ia?aaeuo? 34%. Eiai
aecia/aiiy a?eueo aaaeeeaa, i?ae aei??e einiai ?ici??o ia?aaei?o ?ia?a
a?/ieo oeoii/e?a ? aeicaiey? c?noaaeoe aeai? on?o ?aae?ieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a ianoaaeaiiy iaiiaeyo.

5. I?yieie INA-iciaeaie aino?i? noaae?? e?iaiaeeeao ? aiaiaeei?o
(noiauaiiy e i?aeaeuaiiy aoiaaiiino? aiaiaeeie iaa?oue o aeiaaeeao
iacia/iiai ?io?aaaio?eeoey?iiai e?iaiaeeeao), caonoee e?ia? aeniei?
aoiaaiiino? noaaiaiaeeiaeueii?, ?io?aaaio?eeoey?ii? /e
?io?aia?aio?iaeueii? eieae?caoe??. Ia EO- neaiao caonoee e?ia?
noai?ththoue a?ia?aeaineai? aiaieua, a ia I?O – neaiaee a?aeiia?aei?
iaoaaieeoai aaiiaeia?io.

6. ?aae?ieia?/ieie iciaeaie aino?i? noaae?? ia?eiaoaeueieo
a?iiene/ii-?oai?/ieo iiceiainoaeeiieo o?aaeaiue ? aiaieuaa? aai iioe?ai?
ciie i?aeaeuaii? aoiaaiiino? ia INA-neaiao, a?aeiia?aei? ?i
a?iiaeaineai? (

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