OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AAOIIIA?EUeII-AeI?IAEI?E

OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IA?AAICIEE I?EIA AIAOIE??AIA

OAeE 621. 869

I?IAIICOAAIIss IA?AIAO?IA I IAAAIOAAEAIINOI

IAEIAAAA?EOIEO EIAOIAEO IAAAIOAAEOAA*IA C

?AAOEUeIAAIEIE A?Ae?IIA’?IIEIE IA?AAeA*AIE

05.05.04- iaoeie aeey caieyieo oa aei?iaei?o ?ia?o

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio

oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ia eaoaae?? Aoae?aaeueieo oa aei?iaei?o iaoei.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaca?ia Eaiiiae Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
aaoiiiaieueii-aei?iaei?e

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caaiaeoaa/
eaoaae?e

Aoae?aaeueieo oa aei?iaei?o
iaoei.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee aeiaoiaeiee Oe?aiie

Oia?a Eaiiiae Aiae?ieiae/, I?eaeiii?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
aoae?a-ieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e Aoae?aaeueieo oa
aei?iaei?o iaoei;

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Oia?ia Aieiaeeie? Aeaieeiae/,

Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao aoaeiaieoeoaa oa
a?oioaeoo?e, aeioeaio eaoaae?e Iaoaiicaoeii aoaeiaaeueieo i?ioeania.

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaoei ? nenoai IAI i I?ii?iiiie?oeee
Oe?aiie

(oeaio? o?aeoi?iiai ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy), i.
Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeeii ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.059.02 o
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a, oe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25,
OAeAAeOO.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a, oe Iao?ianueeiai, 25, OAeAAeOO.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 19 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiae?eaaei I.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O no/anieo oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee iaeei ?c
oeyo?a c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa iia’ycaiee ?c
noai?aiiyi aenieiaoaeoeaieo, iaae?eieo ? eiieo?aioiicaeaoieo ae?ia?a
aaaaoioe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy. Aei ?oiueiai /enea a?aeiinyoue
ei?ioeiaacia? iaaaioaaeoaa/? c ai?oiaith nenoaiith iiai?ioo, ui iathoue
aeae?eueea oaeaeeiceiiieo ?iai/eo i?aai?a. Aoaeoeai?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy
a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo iaoiiaeaia aenieith iaiaa?ai?noth,
ni?iiiaei?noth i?iaiaeeoe ??ciiiai?oi? ?iaioe i?ioyaii onueiai ?ieo.
Aeina?ae noai?aiiy oaeeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a a Oe?a?i? ? NIAe a?aenooi?e.
Iaaeinoaoi?e aeina?ae ?oiuei? ?ic?iaee ? i?ia?aeieie o na?o?
iaoeiiaoae?aieie o??iaie. O oeueiio ia?aeiio? oa, ui a iaei?e ? o?e aea
aaaia?e a?oi? aiie a?ae??ciythoueny aei 3 ?ac?a ca iiooaei?noth
aeaeaoi?a, oa aei 2 ?ac?a ca aaioaaei?noth. Aenieoaoaoe?y ei?ioeiaaciaeo
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeinoaoith aeiaaia?/i?noue ?oi?o
aeaoaeae ? aoce?a, i?i iacaaeia?eueiee oaieiaee ?aaeei ?iaioe
a?ae?iia?aaea/ oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo i?e oaiia?aoo?? aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y
a?eueoa 250N ? iaioa -50N. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aenieoaoaoe?eia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaoei aeaiiai oeio aei 35% iaioa i?iaeoii?.

Aeeeaaeai? ?icoi?iiy aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe aeooaeueiith ?iaioo,
ni?yiiaaio ia ae??oaiiy aaaeeeai? caaea/? noai?aiiy iaeiaaaa?eoieo
iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo iaoei ?c iaeaeueie o nai?io eean?
oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieacieeaie, ui aieiae?thoue aeinoaoiueith
iaae?ei?noth ? ni?iiiaei? i?aoethaaoe i?e oaiia?aoo?? aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y a?ae -350N aei +350N.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao caaaeueii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie
eaoaae?e Aoae?aaeueieo ? aei?iaei?o iaoei OAeAAeOO “Oaeineiiaethaaiiy
eiino?oeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy, iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo e aei?iaoaaiue AAeI” oa
aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee
i?iaiicoaaiiy aieiaieo ia?aiao??a ? iaaaioaaeaiino? iaeiaaaa?eoieo
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c ?aaoeueiaaieie a?o/io a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie,
iaiao?aeieo aeey i?iaeooaaiiy iaoei ?c iaeaeueie
oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieacieeaie oa oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoei, ui
aeioneathoueny na??eii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio??aii ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

— aeeiiaoe noaoenoe/iee aiae?c iniiaieo ia?aiao??a iaeiaaaa?eoieo
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaiio i?eaiae? e
iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo ?oiueiai i?iaiicoaaiiy aeey ciia noai?thaaieo
iaoei;

— ooi/ieoe caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy iii?o caaeeaeaiiy ei?ioeiai eiaoa
a iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, c o?aooaaiiyi iaoeeo eiai aeieua aei
iii?ii? iiaa?oi?;

— ?ic?iaeoe aeeiai?/io iiaeaeue iaaaioaaeoaa/a c ai?oiaith nenoaiith
iiai?ioo ? anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy
? oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo i?e ??ciiiai?oiiio ?o/iiio ea?oaaii? oyaiaeie
ianinaie, aeyaeoe oiiae iaea??oiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaoeie ? ?ic?iaeoe
iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee iaaaioaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a;

— onoaiiaeoe oaieiaee ?aaeei ?iaioe a?ae?ii?eaiaea iaoeie oeeee?/ii?
ae??, ui ia?aaea? anth iiooaei?noue aeaeaoia aeeiiaa/ei iaoai?ciai ca
aeiiiiiaith a?ae?iia?aaea/, ye? ?ici?uai? a iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi??,
cai?iiiioaaoe caoiaee, ui caaacia/othoue ii?iaeueio ?iaioo
a?ae?iia?aaea/ i?e oaiia?aoo?? aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y a?ae -350N aei
+350N.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaieo iiaeo
caeiiii??iinoyo iaaaioaaeaiiy oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo ei?ioeiaaciaiai
iaaaioaaeoaa/a c ?aaoeueiaaieie a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie, ui
caaacia/othoue ??ciiiai?oia oi?ioaaiiy iae?i?eieo oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
o i?ioean? noiii??iiy iaoeie ? ?ooo ?? oeaio?o ian ii o?ueio
eii?aeeiaoieo inyo c o?aooaaiiyi aneiao?e/iiai i?eeeaaeaiiy ciai?oi?o
coneeue ia ??aeo/?e e?iioe? eiaoa.

C?iaeaii ooi/iaiiy caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue
ia ?iai/iio iaeaaeiaii? iaoeie e aecia/ai? oiiae ?? iaea?eueo aaaeeiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeyaeaii oaieiaee ?aaeei ?iaioe a?ae?iia’?iieo oyaiaeo
ia?aaea/.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a
i?iaiicoaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a, ?ic?aooieiaeo aeeiai?/ieo coneeue ?
?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy ? oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c ai?oiaith nenoaiith iiai?ioo, a oaeiae a
oaeineiiaeaii? nenoaie oaieiiai?io a?ae?iia?aaea/.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaaia aeeiai?/ia
iiaeaeue, ?? iaoaiaoe/iee iien ? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
iaaaioaaeaiiy oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/a c ai?oiaith nenoaiith
iiai?ioo, aeyaeaiiy oaieiaiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe eiai a?ae?ii?eaiaea. O
/ioe?ueio iniiaieo ioae?eaoe?yo o niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiiyo /anoea
caeiaoaa/a neeaaea? 50% .

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
? aeena?oaoe?y a oe?eiio ?icaeyaeaeeny e iaea?aeaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo
ia:

— iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a ? ani??aio?a OAeAAeOO a
1996…1999 ?.

— iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e AAeI OAeAAeOO -1999 ?.(aeena?oaoe?y a
oe?eiio);

— ION EIEN IAI ? I?ii?iiiie?oeee Oe?a?ie -1999 ?. (aeena?oaoe?y a
oe?eiio);

— can?aeaii? eaoaae?e AAeI IAeAAA – 1999 ?. (aeena?oaoe?y a oe?eiio);

— i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

1. I?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?? ? iaoeie aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aoaeiaoa??ae?a,
ae?ia?a ? eiino?oeoe?e. – Iieoaaa, 1996 ?.

2. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe eie?nieo ? aonaie/ieo iaoei o
noai?eo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??. – Othiaiue, 1996 ?.

3. ?ioa?aoaeiao -98. Ai?ii?ae, 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 8
?iaioao, na?aae yeeo 4 noaoo? a niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 112 iaeiaioaaiue, aeiaeaoe?a. Aiia
aeeth/a? 2   noi??iie, c iniiaiei oaenoii ia 1 noi??ieao, 31
oaaeeoeth, 75 ?enoie?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOECI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, ui aeeth/a?
ia??oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? oaie, iaoo ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiao
iiaecio, i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Noai ieoaiiy” ?icaeyioo? noaoenoe/i? aeai?
iaeiaaaa?eoieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaiio
i?eaiae?. Iieacaii ?iceeae iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? ?
aaioaaeii?ae?eiaeueiino? iaaaioaaeoaa/?a o eiaei?e ?c aaaiaeo a?oi. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo a i?iaeooaaii? iaoei
oeio, yeee aiae?co?oueny.

Na?aae ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo i?ecia/aiith ia?aiao??a ? iaaaioaaeaiith CI ?
II, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy A.O. Iiaeue/aiea, N.A.
Aa?aiiaa, A.ss. Ai?eiae/a, Aiaoaoa Iana?a, A.E. Aaeaaeeinueeiai, A.O.
Aacaiiaa, A.?. Aaeiai?aa, A.O. A?n?ae?ia, A.A. Aiiaea?iae/a, TH.A.
A?o?iaa, Ae.I. Aieeiaa, A.I. Aaenea?a, I.Ae. Aieeea, A.I. A?a/eoieeiaa,
I.A. Aeiia?ianueeiai, I.A. ?oeiaiea, A.A. Caa?aaeiaa, A.I. ?noii?ia,
A.I. Eaca?eiiaa, TH.E. Ea?oaaeeoa?e?, N.A. E?aaoey, ?.I. Eoc?ia, A.N.
Eia?ee?ia, A.I. Eoe?ia, ?.TH. Iae?iianueeiai, O.?. Iooe, E.A. Iaca?iaa,
?.A. Iaaei??ciaa, A.I. Ianoa?iaa, I.?. I?eoe?ia, A.A. I?/ea, A.A.
?iae?iiiaa, A.I. Noiaiaa, A.E. N?aei, A.I. Oa?aniaa, ?.?. Oeiioaiea,
I.A. Oeueyiiaa, Ae.?. Oaaei?iaa, E.A. Oia?e, A.I. Oieiaeiaa, A.Ae.
Oia?iaa, A.I. Oaa/aiea oa ?i..

Iniiaia oaaaa a/aieo cina?aaeaeaia ia aeine?aeaeaii? ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ?
oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy iaoei o?aaeeoe?eii?
eiino?oeoe??. A ie?aieo ?iaioao ?icaeyaeaeiny iaaaioaaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo
o?aini?n?e iaoei. A?aeiiino? i?i aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiino? oyaiaiai
i?eaiaea ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie
a?aenooi? acaaae?. Aiae?c ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ? oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c ai?oiaith nenoaiith iiai?ioo na?ae/eoue, ui caaaeyee
ei?ioe?e eie?ni?e aac? ? ?o/iiio ?aaoethaaiith ianin?a oyaiaiai i?eaiaea
iaaaioaaeoaa/? oeio, yeee aiae?co?oueny, iathoue ?yae i?eioeeiiaeo
iniaeeainoae. ?i aeanoeaa ??ciiiai?oia oi?ioaaiiy oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
? eieeaaiiy ii o?ueii eii?aeeiaoiei inyi o i?ioean? noiii??iiy iaoeie. O
oeueiio ca’yceo anoaiiaeai? ?ai?oa caeiiii??iino? ia iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ioe?iee iaaaioaaeaiiy ?oiueiai ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy
? oyaiaiai i?eaiaea. Nie?ath/enue ia aeai? aiae?co ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a ei?ioeiaaciaeo
eiaoiaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c ?aaoeueiaaieie a?o/io a?ae?iia’?iieie
ia?aaea/aie oyaiaiai i?eaiaea” ?icaeyioo? iniaeeaino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoei, iaa?oioiaai? ?ic?aooieiaa iiaeaeue ? iaoaiaoe/iee iien
iaaaioaaeoaa/a, i?eaaaeai? aeiee i?ia?ai aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a ia AII. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeni?an-iaoiae ioe?iee iaaaioaaeaiue,
?icaeyiooi oaieiaee ?aaeei ?iaioe a?ae?iia’?iieo ia?aaea/ iaaaioaaeoaa/a
c ai?oiaith nenoaiith iiai?ioo.

No?oeoo?iee aiae?c ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo
cia/eieie ? iane iaoiaeea aeaeaoia ? naii? iaoeie.

Iana /anoeie o?aini?n??, ?ici?uaii? i?ae oyaiaeie iioi?aie ? oiaeiaeie
ei eanaie, yea i?eaaaeaia aei iinooiaeueiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, i?e
?aaoethaaii? iiaea/? oyaiaeo ianin?a a?ae 0 aei Qmax ia ia?aaeuo? 5%
iane iaoiaeea. Iana ?ooeeaeo /anoei ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy neeaaea? ia
a?eueoa 7% iane iaoeie. O i?ioean? noiii??iiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a c
ii/aoeiaeie oaeaeeinoyie ?ooo aei 7 ei/aiae aei iiiaioo aeinyaiaiiy ia
?iai/iio iaeaaeiaii? iaeneiaeueieo coneeue iaa?oe aeaeaoia cieaeothoueny
ia 5…10%. Ia?a?aoiaaia aeua aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe ?ic?aooieiao
iiaeaeue iaaaioaaeoaa/a o aeaeyae?, cia?aaeaiiio ia ?enoieo 1. O ca’yceo
c ?aaoethaaiiyi a?o/io iiaea/? oyaiaeo ianin?a iiaeeeai ??ciiiai?oia
oi?ioaaiiy oyaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee (ae?aa?ai) iaoeie.

O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo oyaia? ae?aa?aie a aac?ici??ieo eii?aeeiaoao
iienothoueny ae?acii

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c/aieaiiyi ?oo??a c iii?iith iiaa?oiath; a, b — iino?ei? eiao?oe??ioe,
ui caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio o?aini?n??; x – iioi/ia cia/aiiy ae?enii?
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?MathType??P????u?th??????Oaeei /eiii, o aeiaaeeao ??ciiiai?oiiai
oi?ioaaiiy oyaiaeo ae?aa?ai aiie iienothoueny iae?i?eieie caeaaeiinoyie.

Ii?? caaeeaeaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a a neio/a na?aaeiaeua iae?i?eii
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?ai?uaiiy x. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo aiii aecia/a?oueny
ae?acii

wmetafile8? ??~???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyya??G?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uOye?????yeee a?aoiao? eoo iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa aei
iii?ii? iiaa?oi? a, aeanoeaino? neio/iai na?aaeiaeua ? eiino?oeoe?th
eiaoa, ui a?aeia?aaea?oueny eiao?oe??ioaie b, a1…a3. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe?? ei?ioeiaacia? iaoeie c
a?aie/ii aeecueeei ?icoaooaaiiyi eiaoa aei ia?aaei?o eie?n o oiae?
noiii??iiy noeeuei? aei ia?ai?uaiiy oeaio?o iane o iiaeiaaeiueiio,
aa?oeeaeueiiio ? iiia?a/iiio iai?yieao. ?oi? i?yioaaiiy a i?ioean?
aei??ithaaiiy eiaoa a neio/a na?aaeiaeua (?en. 1) iienaii ae?acaie

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@1???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy?1??5?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????I???Z???e ???C??????
???????x???ae»???p$???’???Y’???u?th??????
wmetafile8? ??ue???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a>???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy >??5?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????????@???S???ss???p???L
???a???i????????

???!???u!???A&???N(???a,???i-???~0???Z1???„7
???u8???„<???>???u?th??????

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A3???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy?3??5?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-????? ???i ??????

O i?eaaaeaieo ??aiyiiyo:

m -iana iaaaioaaeoaa/a; x, y, z – ia?ai?uaiiy eiai oeaio?o iane ocaeiaae
eii?aeeiaoieo inae;wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????

?en.1 Iiaeaeue iaaaioaaeoaa/a a i?ioean? aei??ithaaiiy a neio/ee
iaoa??ae

??aiyiiy (6) a?aeiinyoueny aei eaoaai??? ?noioii iae?i?eieo. ?oi?
??oaiiy aeeiiaia ca aeiiiiiaith AII. C oe??th iaoith ?ic?iaeaiee iaeao
i?ia?ai, yeei ia?aaeaa/aii iiooe iaaaioaaeaiue ia ?iai/iio i?aai? e o
oyaiaiio i?eaiae? iaaaioaaeoaa/a i?e o?ueio aa??aioao caaaeaiiy cania?a
?aaoethaaiiy oyaiaiai i?eaiaea (2)…(4) a i?ioeanao caaeeaeaiiy eiaoa a
neio/? iaoa??aee (uaa?iue, i?nie) ? i?e iicaoeaio?iaiio oaea?? ??aeo/i?
e?iiee eiaoa o aaaeeo aei?noeo ia?aoeiaeo. Ia AII aa??thaaeeny ia 4…6
??aiyo ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue iaaaioaaeoaa/a, eoo iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa aei
iii?ii? iiaa?oi?, eii?aeeiaoe wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy`??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??Y???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy? ??ss?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uLthA?????aea g – i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy;,
wmetafile8? ??o????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????h???yyyh ????? ???&?
?MathType??@????uLthA????? wmetafile8? ??¦???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy??? ?? ???&?
?MathType???????u0thY?????i?e iaeneiaeueiiio ?ici??? wmetafile8?
??‡???1???????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????   ???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyya??‡?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uAye????? wmetafile8? ??u???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy@??§?? ???&?
?MathType???????uAye?????aea wmetafile8? ??i????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@ ???&??yyyy?????? ??G???X??‡?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??¦???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??o?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????aea V – oai?aoe/ia oaeaee?noue iaoeie
(i/n).

Ai?eciioaeueia coneeey ia eiao? aecia/aeiny a caeaaeiino? a?ae caniao
?aaoethaaiiy oyaiaeo

ianin?a. I?e ia?iuoaaii? ?oi?o iiaea/

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A.???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy?.??5?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????A???M???TH???????r???t
h???

Aeey ?ioeo aa??aio?a ?aaoethaaiiy oyaiaiai i?eaiaea

wmetafile8? ??s???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a)???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy )??5?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????a???o???????Ue???”???
???±???

Ii?yae c ioe?ieith ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy ?
oyaiaiai i?eaiaea, aeeiiaiee iiooe a?aeiia?aeieo eiao?oe??io?a
aeeiai?/iino?

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyya ????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??O???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy`??§?? ???&? ?MathType??Aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a ia AII aeaa i?aenoaao
cai?iiiioaaoe ni?iuaio iaoiaeeeo aeni?an-aiae?co iaaaioaaeaiue ia eiao?
e o oyaiaiio i?eaiae?. I?e oeueiio caeaaei?noue iii?o caaeeaeaiiy eiaoa
a neio/a na?aaeiaeua (5) a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e A.I. Oieiaeiaa
aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe ?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy coneeue ia eiao? – A

wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a`

???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy

????? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-????????c???u?yA?????aeawmetafile8
? ??O???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?@???&??yyyy?????+??I???k??I?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
?#???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA»??O?? ???&? ?MathType??o yeiio: f –
eiao?oe??io iii?o ia?aei/oaaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a; wmetafile8?
??I???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?????&??yyyy?????a ??X???a??X?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Iaea?eueoee oene ?iai/i? ??aeeie oyaiaeo
a?ae?iiioi??a ii ni?iuai?e iaoiaeeoe? aecia/a?oueny caeaaei?noth

wmetafile8? ??V???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya

????? ???&? ?MathType???????uYya?????Aiae?c ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy
oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/a i?ioyaii ?iai/iai oeeeeo aeicaieea
onoaiiaeoe ao?aoe iiooaeiino?, ui ia?aoai?eoueny a oaiei. I?e oeueiio
a?aoiaoaaeeny oaeaee?ni? ?aaeeie i?yioaaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a, ui
?icaaiy?oueny (ui aaeueio?oueny) ?c i?enei?aiiyi

wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`
???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??b?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????H????H‡ ???u?th??????aea
wmetafile8? ??E????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
@???&??yyyy?????J??oyyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????Noaea oaiia?aoo?a ?iai/i? ??aeeie
a?ae?ii?eaiaea ioe?ithaaeany ocae/a?ieie iaoiaeaie c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeaiai i?aenino iaa??oiai aeecaeai iia?o?y a nenoaio aaioeeyoe??
oaieiiai?iieea.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ‘‘I?ia?aia ? iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a iaaaioaaeoaa/a’’ aeeeaaeaia
iaa?oiooaaiiy i?ia?aie e oiia iinoaiiaee aeine?ae?a, iienai? iaeaaeiaiiy
? i?eeaaee, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a aenia?eiaioao, iaaaaeaia oaoiieia?y
iinoaiiaee aeine?ae?a.

Ia’?eoii aei?iaoaaiue neoaeea iaaaioaaeoaa/ IION-1200. Noaoe/ieie
?nieoaie ia?aaeaa/aeiny aecia/aiiy iii?o ia?anoaaiiy iaoeie ia
iaeaeai/eeao ?c oaa?aeei iie?eooyi ? ia aei?iaao i?n/aieo ea?’???a,
iii?e aei??ithaaiiy eiaoa c eooii iaoeeo eiai aeieua a?ae 0 aei 300 o
iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, ioe?iea a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ao?ao o
oyaiaiio i?eaiae?, a?aie/ia ca c/aieaiiyi ?oo??a c iii?iith iiaa?oiath
oyaiaa coneeey, oaeaee?ni? ?aaeeie ?ooo ia aeenoaioe?yo 5…30 i,
oaieiaee ?aaeei a?ae?ii?eaiaea, aei?noe?noue ?iai/iai iaeaaeiaiiy.
Aeeiai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ioiiethaaee iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? aeiaaeee
aeeiiaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a i?e ia?aaaioaaeaii? uaaaith, i?neo
i?e?iaeiiai caeyaaiiy ? i?e iioa?iaiio ??caii? noaeeieo ae?oai? a?oie.

Aei??thaaeueia aia?aoo?a c aaoiiiiiei aeaea?aeii aeeaeaiiy ?ici?uoaaeany
ia ai?oo iaaaioaaeoaa/a. O a?ae?ie?i?yo aeeaeaiiy a?ae?iiioi??a ?iai/ith
??aeeiith anoaiiaethaaeeny ia?aoai?thaa/? oeneo IAe-40, ia
a?ae?ioeee?iae?ao ea?oaaiiy ?iai/ei iaeaaeiaiiyi – aeao/eee I-200, /enea
iaa?o?a aeecaey (oyaiaeo ianin?a) ? a?ae?iiioi??a aei??thaaeeny
oaoiaaia?aoi?aie, ia?ai?uaiiy aaaeae?a ea?oaaiiy oyaiaeie
a?ae?iia?aaea/aie – iioaioe?iiao?aie, oeyo ia?ai?uaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a ?
eiai ae?enii? oaeaeeino? – i’yoei eieanii. ?a?no?aoe?y aei??thaaeueieo
aaee/ei aaeany inoeeeia?aoii E-12-22.

Noaoe/i? aei?iaoaaiiy aeeiiai? ?c noaeeie oaeaeeinoyie ?ooo iaoeie.
Aecia/aiiy aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue c?iaeaii a i?ioeanao caaeeaeaiiy
eiaoa a ooaaaeue iaoa??aeo, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, e oaea?? ?iai/iai
i?aaia o aaoiii? ieeoe c aeiaaaeaiiyi ?oo??a aei iiaiiai aoenoaaiiy aai
aeaeaoia – aei caaeoooaaiiy. ?aaoethaaiiy oyaiaiai i?eaiaea a oiae?
aeeiiaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a aaeiny o?ueiia niiniaaie: ?c ia?iuoaaiiyi ?
cieaeaiiyi iiaea/? oyaiaeo ianin?a ? i?e iaci?iiiio ?oiueiio ?iai/iio
ia’?i? c ii/aoeiaeie oaeaeeinoyie caaeeaeaiiy a iaoa??ae, ui
ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, a?ae 0 aei 2,8 i/n.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e ‘‘Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a iaaaioaaeoaa/a
c ?aaoeueiaaieie a?o/io a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaiio
i?eaiae?’’ i?enay/aiee aiae?co ? ii??aiyiith aeaieo aenia?eiaio?a ?
iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeoaa/a ia AII, a oaeiae
aeni?an-iaoiaeii.

O ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiy noaoe/ieo aei?iaoaaiue iaaaioaaeoaa/a
anoaiiaeaii.

Eiao?oe??ioe iii?o ?ooo iaoeie ia anoaeueoiaaoiiiiio iaeaeai/eeo ? ia
noi?n/ai?e ou?eueiai?e aei?ic? i?e oeneo iia?o?y a oeiao 260-508, yeee
aei??aith? 0,35 iIa, ci?iththoueny a?ae 0,025 aei 0,05. A?aie/ia ca
c/aieaiiyi ?oo??a c iii?iith iiaa?oiath oyaiaa coneeey iaoiiaeaia
eiao?oe??ioii c/aieaiiy 0,7 – ia anoaeueoiaaoiiiiio iie?eoo? ? 0,58 – ia
noi?n/ai?e noo?e aei?ic?.

O i?ioean? caaeeaeaiiy eiaoa iaaaioaaeoaa/a a iaoa??ae ui
ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, a?aie/ia oyaiaa coneeey ia oiaeiaeo eieanao
caeaaeeoue a?ae eooa iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa aei iii?ii? iiaa?oi?, ui ?ai?oa
ia a?aoiaoaaeiny a ioe?ioe? aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia ?iai/iio
iaeaaeiaii?. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eooa iaoeeo aeieua a?ae 0 aei 300 a?aie/ia
oyaiaa coneeey i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 10…18 %, ui iaoiiaeaii ?ici??ii ?
iai?yieii aa?oeeaeueii? ?aaeoe?? ia ??aeo/?e e?iioe? eiaoa. I?i?iaeueia
aeiaaioaaeaiiy oiaeiaeo eie?n aa?oeeaeueiith ?aaeoe??th ia eiao? ?
a?aenooi?noue naiiaeia?eueiiai aeaeeaeaiiy eiaoa a?aeiia?aeathoue iaoeeo
aeieua aia?aae ia 5…100. Eaac?noaoe/ia caaeeaeaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a
IION-1200 o iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoee
oaii ia?inoaiiy iii??a ia eiai eiao?, i?ae o iaaaioaaeoaa/?a
o?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe??. Oea ? iaei??th c i?e/ei a?eueo aenieiai
aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c
a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaiio i?eaiae?. Iiynith?oueny oey
ianoaaeia a?aeiinii iaeith aeeaeiith eiaoa ? a?aenooi?noth ieaaieo
ia?aoiae?a o i?noeyo c/eaioaaiiy eiai aeieua c caaeiueith no?ieith ?
eice?eii. C ?inoii eooa iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa aei iii?ii? iiaa?oi? a?ae 0
aei 100, ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia, ii?? ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,3…1,4 ?ace. C
i?aeaeuaiiyi oeueiai eooa aei 300 noaoe/ia coneeey ia ??aeo/?e e?iioe?
c?inoa? a 3,75…4,6 ?ac?a.

Iaeaeuei aeyaeany oaii ?inoo coneeue ia eiao? i?e eiai caaeeaeaii? a
i?nie i?e?iaeiiai caeyaaiiy, ui i?i??n ei?aiyie o?aa’yiiai iie?iao.

O ca’yceo c ?ici?uaiiyi a?ae?iiaoei oyaiaiai i?eaiaea a o?niiio i?inoi??
? iaaei??iiio ne?eaeaii? ?oeaa?a aenieiai oeneo a?ae?ie?i?e aeeaeaiiy
?iai/ith ??aeeiith oyaiaeo iioi??a a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? oo?aoe aeyaeeeny
aeinoaoiuei aenieeie. Oeei iiynith?oueny a?aeiinii iaeee caaaeueiee eeae
oyaiaiai i?eaiaea iaoeie, ??aiee 0,73…0,75 ? iaaei??ia iaa??aaiiy
?iai/i? ??aeeie i?e oaiia?aoo?? aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y a?eueo 250N.

?en.2 Ci?ia iaaaioaaeaiue o oyaiaiio i?eaiae? iaaaioaaeoaa/a, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eooa iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa aei iii?ii? iiaa?oi? a
iiaeaethaaiiyi ia AII (1- a=00; 2- a=100; 3- a=200; 4 — a= 300)

AEi?noe?noue iaa?niiai iaeaaeiaiiy wmetafile8? ??A????????????
??????? |

?en.3 Eiao?oe??io aeeiai?/iino? oyaiaiai i?eaiaea. 1- iiea
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo; 2 — ?ic?aooieiaa caeaaei?noue

Iaoeia c ?aaoeueiaaieie a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie i?eionea?
caaeeaeaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a a iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, ?c
aoaeue-yeeie ii/aoeiaeie oaeaeeinoyie a?ae 0 aeiwmetafile8?
??»???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th???????noioii iaioee aieea ia ?ici?? eiao?oe??ioa
aeeiai?/iino? a ii??aiyii? ?c oaeaee?noth aea? eoo iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa a
? aenioa ?icoaooaaiiy ??aeo/i? e?iiee iaae iii?iith iiaa?oiath hx. Ci?i?
eooa a?ae 0 aei 100 ? aenioe a?ae 0 aei 30 ni a?aeiia?aea? i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aeeiai?/iino? ia 4…6% (?en.4).

?en. 4 Ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa aeeiai?/iino? Eae? iaaaioaaeaiiy oyaiaiai
i?eaiaea o aca?iica’yceo c VH ? a (a); VH ? hx (a)

Ii??aiyeuei? aeeiai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy iaaaioaaeoaa/a IION-1200 ia
ia?aaaioaaeaii? uaaaith, noaeeieo 2 a?oie, i?neo i?e?iaeiiai caeyaaiiy
iieacaee iaea?eueo aaaeea iaaaioaaeaiiy iaoeie i?e aei??ithaaii? eiaoa a
i?nie.

O i?ioeanao oaea?o ?iai/iai i?aaia iaaaioaaeoaa/a ia aei?noeo ia?aoeiaeo
anoaiiaeai? iaeaeu? coneeey ia ?iai/iio i?aai? e o oyaiaiio i?eaiae?. O
oeueiio aa??aio? iaaaioaaeaiiy iaea?eueo eiia??iith ? ii/aoeiaa
oaeaee?noue, yea aei??aith?wmetafile8? ??±????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????C?noaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i
aeeiai?/io iaaaioaaeai?noue ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c
?ic?aooieiaeie iieacieeaie i?aeoaa?aeeee i?eeiyoi?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaoiae?e ?ic?aooieo coneeue ? ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy. Iaocaiaeaeai?noue
i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie e aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?ici??aie a ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? ia ia?aaeuo? 8…12%.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiaiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe a?ae?ii?eaiaea
iaaaioaaeoaa/a IION-1200 aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui i?e oaiia?aoo??
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y a?eueo 250N ?iai/a ??aeeia /a?ac 45…60 oae. i?ney
ii/aoeo ?iaioe iaa??aa?oueny iiiaae i?eionoeiee ??aaiue. I?e/eia oeueiai
? iaaeinoaoiy iiaa?oiy oaieiiai?iieea ? caeo/aiiy iaa??oiai aeecaeai
iia?o?y a nenoaio aaioeeyoe?? oaieiiai?iieea. I?e oaiia?aoo??
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y iaioa -50N ?iai/a ??aeeia ia ?ic?a??aa?oueny aei
i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeii? oaiia?aoo?e. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
oaeineiiaethaaiiy nenoaie oaieiiai?io iaoei ?c a?ae?iia’?iieie
ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaiio i?eaiae?.

Oaoiieia?/i? ia?a?ae iaaaioaaeoaa/a c a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie a
aea?eee /an ?ieo neeaaeathoue 30…35 % o?eaaeino? ci?ie ? ? i?e/eiith
cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoei aei 35% .

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??” iaaaaeai? iaoiaeeee
i?iaiicoaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ? iaaaioaaeaiiy iaeiaaaa?eoieo
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a, i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaethaaiith nenoaie oaieiiai?io
a?ae?ii?eaiaea ? niiniaai ea?oaaiiy oyaiaei i?eaiaeii. Ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a, ui
aeioneathoueny aieiaieie o??iaie, cai?iiiiiaai? aca?iica’ycee i?ae
?oi?ie iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie.

Iiooaei?noue aeaeaoia iaaaioaaeoaa/a wmetafile8? ??I????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyya??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??…???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????Iaiao?aeio iaea?eueoo iiaea/o eiaeiiai c
oyaiaeo ianin?a wmetafile8? ??I????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy’??????’?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??U???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 @???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy???G?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uYya?????i?e iii?iaeueiiio oeneo ?iai/i? ??aeeie
wmetafile8? ??’???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy`??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aaioaaeii?ae?eiaeuei?noue iaaaioaaeoaa/a
aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

wmetafile8? ??u???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `a
???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy  ???? ???&?
?MathType??P????uuyi?????Cai?iiiiiaaii caeaaeiino? i?ecia/aiiy
i?noeino? eiaoa ? eiai oe?eie, eie?nii? eie?? ? aace, iieiaeaiiy oeaio?o
aaae.

Aiae?c oaeaee?nieo ?aaeei?a ?ooo iaeiaaaa?eoieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a aeaa
i?aenoaao ioe?ithaaoe o?eaae?noue ?iai/iai oeeeeo wmetafile8?
??I???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????Ii?yae c ooi/iaieie iaoiaeaie ioe?iee
iaaaioaaeaiiino? iaaaioaaeoaa/?a, caniiaaieie ia aeei?enoaii? AII,
cai?iiiiiaaia ni?iuaia iaoiaeeea i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo coneeue
oaea?iiai oa?aeoa?o ia ?iai/iio iaeaaeiaii? e o oyaiaiio i?eaiae?.
Ciai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eiao? aecia/athoueny ??ai?noth (15) i?e
oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeoaa/a wmetafile8? ??§???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????? ???&?
?MathType???????u1ya?????aea wmetafile8? ??/???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyyA????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????Iaiao?aeio aeey ?ic?aooieo iaaaioaaeaiue
?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy iii?o caaeeaeaiiy eiaoa a iaoa??ae ia?aaeaa/aii
aecia/aoe ae?acii

wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA!???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?!??s?? ???&?
?MathType???????u‡ye?????i?e

wmetafile8? ??D???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyyA??a?? ???&? ?MathType??aea
wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@@???&??yyyy???????@???C????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????Iaea?eueoee oene ?iai/i? ??aeeie a oyaiaiio
i?eaiae? a?aeooeo?oueny ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi (8). Iaeneiaeuei?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iaeii ?c eie?n oiaeiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy ei?ioeiaaciaiai
iaaaioaaeoaa/a aeinyaathoueny a i?ioean? aea?ooaaiiy iaoeie i?e
cauaieaii? e?iiee ?? eiaoa

wmetafile8? ??v???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??o?? ???&? ?MathType??aea
wmetafile8? ??A???????????? ??????? |?????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u
y??????C iaoith iaiaaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo coneeue iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c
a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a i?ioean? caaeeaeaiiy
eiaoa a iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, ieaaii cieaeoaaoe iiaea/o
oyaiaeo ianin?a. Aeey caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueii? ?iaioe oyaiaiai i?eaiaea
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a oeio IION-1200 iaiao?aeii aei 1,5 ?ac?a ca?eueoeoe
iiaa?oith oaieiiai?iieea, aeeeth/eoe caeo/aiiy iaa??oiai aeecaeai
iia?o?y a nenoaio eiai ioieiaeaeaiiy. O ceiiaee ia??iae cai?iiiiiaaiee
i?ae?a??a ?iai/i? ??aeeie, iai?eeeaae, a?aei?aoethaaieie aacaie AeAA.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy ia EANC

(i.E?aiai/oe) i?e i?iaeooaaii? iaaaioaaeoaa/a IO-04 ? a?ae?iia’?iiiai
i?eaiaea ia?aaeiueiai iinoa aaoia?aeaea?a AeCE-251.

AENIIAEEAENIIAEE

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaee ii ?iaio? a oe?eiio.

1. Iaeiaaaa?eoi? iaaaioaaeoaa/? c ai?oiaith nenoaiith iiai?ioo, caaaeyee
aenie?e iaiaa?aiino? ? iaai?ia? oaeaeeiceiiieo ?iai/eo i?aai?a, ?
iaoeiaie aaaaoioe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy ? e?oaei??/iiai canoinoaaiiy.
?oiy i?iaeoeoeai?noue /a?ac iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia ei?ioeeo
aeenoaioe?yo ii??aiyia c i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?eueo aaaeeeo iaoei
o?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe??.

2. Aeina?ae i?iaeooaaiiy iaeiaaaa?eoieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a iaaeinoaoi?e,
i?i ui na?ae/eoue iaaei??iee ?iceeae oaoi?/ieo iieaciee?a ?nioth/eo
iaoei. O iaei?e ? o?e aea aaaia?e a?oi? aiie a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai ca iiooaeiinoth aeaeaoia a 1,5…3 ?ace, ii
aaioaaeii?ae?eiaeueiino? aei 2 ?ac?a. Nenoaia oaieiiai?io ?oiueiai
oyaiaiai i?eaiaea ia oe?eeii i?enoiniaaia aei ?iaioe i?e oaiia?aoo??
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y a?eueo 250N ? iaioa – 50N, ui aaaea aei cieaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoeie aei 35 % i?ioe i?iaeoii?.

3. Aacoth/enue ia noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo e?aueo ?nioth/eo iaoei ? o?ce/ieo
oyaeaiue i?i aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
i?ecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a iaeiaaaa?eoieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a.
Iiooaei?noue aeaeaoia iaoiiaeaia ianith iaoeie i?e oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy
oiaeiaeo eie?n o i?ioean? aoenoaaiiy a 1,2…1,5 i/n,
aaioaaeii?ae?eiaeuei?noue neeaaea? 23…27 % iane iaaaioaaeoaa/a. Eiaeia
c aeaio a?ae?iia’?iieo o?aini?n?e iiaeiia aooe ni?iiiaeiith ia?aaeaoe
anth iiooaei?noue aeaeaoia ia eieana iaeiiai ai?oa.

4. Anoaiiaeaii ci?io iii?o caaeeaeaiith eiaoa iaaaioaaeoaa/a a iaoa??ae,
ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, c o?aooaaiiyi iaoeeo eiai aeieua aei iii?ii?
iiaa?oi?. *a?ac iaeo aeeaeio ? a?aenooi?noue cae?oaeaieo ia?aoiae?a i?ae
aeieuai, caaeiueith no?ieith ? eice?eii eiaoa ?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy
iii?o eiai caaeeaeaiith a iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny, o 1,5…2
?ace aeua, i?ae o eiao?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe?? ? caeaaeeoue a?ae
eooa iaoeeo aeieua. Aeey aeeeth /aiiy naiiaeia?eueiiai aeaeeaeaiiy
eiaoa, caiia?aaiiy aaoieieeaaiue iaaaioaaeoaa/a e iaiaaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe ?iai/ee i?ioean ?c iaoeeii oia?aae
aeieua eiaoa aei iii?ii? iiaa?oi? i?ae eooii 5…100.

5. Iiaeaethaaiiyi ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ia AII anoaiiaeai? ?
aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii i?aeoaa?aeaeai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue o oyaiaiio i?eaiae? ? ia ?iai/iio i?aai?
iaaaioaaeoaa/a c a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie, ?aaoeueiaaieie a?o/io
o?ueiia niiniaaie: ia ca?eueoaiiy iiaea/? oyaiaeo ianin?a, ia ??
cieaeaiiy ? i?e iaci?ii?e iiaea/? a oiae? caaeeaeaiiy eiaoa a iaoa??ae,
ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny. C o?ueio aa??aio?a ?aaoethaaiiy iaea?eueo?
coneeey aeinyaathoueny i?e iaci?ii?e iiaea/? ianin?a. I?i?iaeuei?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaea?eueoee nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy eiaoa caaacia/othoueny
i?e ieaa iiio cieaeaii? iiaea/e oyaiaeo ianin?a. Inoaii?e niin?a
ea?oaaiiy oyaiaei i?eaiaeii ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ye iniiaiee. A?i
aeinyaa?oueny i?eaeecii ?o/iei ?aaoethaaiiyi, a aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei?
i?e onoaiiaoe? a a?ae?iia’?iiiio oyaiaiio i?eaiae? ?aaoeyoi?a
iiooaeiino? aai i?e aeei?enoaii? a nenoai? iiaea/e ianin?a ai?oiaeo AII.

6. I?e iaci?ii?e iiaea/? ?aaoeueiaaieo a?o/io oyaiaeo ianin?a aeeiai?/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy a oyaiaiio i?eaiae? ? ia ?iai/iio iaeaaeiaii?
ei?ioeiaaciaiai iaaaioaaeoaa/a a iaea?eueo?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae
ii/aoeiai? oaeaeeino?. O iaioiio nooiai? ia ieo aieeaa? iieiaeaiiy eiaoa
a i?inoi??. *a?ac a?eueo aenieo ?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy iii??a ia eiao?
? ii/aoeiai? oaeaeeino? ?ooo eiao?oe??io aeeiai?/iino? iaaaioaaeaiiy
ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a o 1,5…1,8 ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/iee
iieaciee iaoei o?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe??. sse ?ic?aooieia? oiiae aeey
ioe?iee aeeiai?/ieo coneeue ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a o ii?iaeueieo
?iai/eo i?ioeanao ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny:

— iaoa??ae, ui ia?aaaioaaeo?oueny – i?nie i?e?iaeiiai caeyaaiiy;

— eoo iaoeeo aeieua eiaoa – 100;

— ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue ?ooo, aei??aith? iiaeai?iiio ?? cia/aiith,
iaoiiaeaiiio iiaiei aoenoaaiiyi ?oo??a ca iiooaeiinoth aeaeaoia;

— iii?ia iiaa?oiy i?e ?ic?aooieo coneeue ia ?iai/iio iaeaaeiaii? –
a?oioiaa aei?iaa, i?e ioe?ioe? iaaaioaaeaiue o oyaiaiio i?eaiae? –
oaa?aea iie?eooy.

7. O i?ioeanao ni?aoaea?o e?ath ??aeo/i? e?iiee ?iai/iai i?aaia
iaaaioaaeoaa/a c aei?noeith aaaeeith ia?aoeiaeith /a?ac iiia?a/iee cnoa
iaoeie ?ia?oe?eia neeaaeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eiao? i?eaeecii ia 10 %
iaio, i?ae i?e oeaio?aeueiiio oaea?? eiaoa ia ia?aoeiaeo, oea iio??aii
a?aoiaoaaoe a ?ic?aooieao.

8. Oyaiaee i?eaiae ei?ioeiaaciaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ni?eeia? aei 1,5 ?ac?a
iaio? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?ae ?iai/a iaeaaeiaiiy. Eiao?oe??io aeeiai?/iino?
o?aini?n?e o a??oiio aeiaaeeo ia ia?aaeuo? 1,8.

9. Oaieiaee ?aaeei a?ae?iia?aaea/ oyaiaiai i?eaiaea ei?ioeiaaciaeo
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee oe?aeeeaeie ao?aoaie aia?a??,
aea ? iaaeineiiae?noth nenoaie oaieiiai?io a?ae?iia?aaea/. C iaoith
noaa?e?caoe?? oaiia?aoo?e ?iai/i? ??aeeie ia iaiao?aeiiio ??ai? i?e
?iaio? iaaaioaaeoaa/?a o e?oi?e ? ceiiaee ia??iaee cai?iiiiiaai? i??e
iiaea?i?caoe?? nenoaie oaieiiai?io a?ae?ii?eaiaea. Aiie aeeth/athoue
ca?eueoaiiy ioieiaeaeoth/eo iiaa?oi?noae ?aae?aoi??a, ui aeioneathoueny
a NIAe iaoei o 1,5 ?ace, aeeo/aiiy iaa??oiai aeecaeai iia?o?y c nenoaie
aaioeeyoe?? oaieiiai?iieea, onoaiiaeo oa?iinoaoa, ui iaiaaeo?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iai/i? ??aeeie a oaieiiai?iiee ? nenoaio i?aeia??aaiiy
?iai/i? ??aeeie aacaie aeecaey, ui a?aei?aoethaaee, (o ceiiaee ia??iae).

10. I?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii i?e
noai?aii? caaiaeii “?EOI”, i. E?aiai/oe eiaoiaiai iaaaioaaeoaa/a IO-04 ?
iiaiii?eaiaeiiai aaoia?aeaea?a AeCE-251 c a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie
eie?n ia?aaeiueiai iinoa. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? 3000 a?i. o ??e ia iaeei aaoia?aeaea? ? 2000 a?i
– ia iaaaioaaeoaa/.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II ?IA?O C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??NIENIE
IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II ?IA?O C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iaca?ia E.A., Ia?aaiciee E.A. Iaa?ocee ia ?aai/aa iai?oaeiaaiea e
oyaiaue i?eaiae ei?ioeiaaciaiai eiaoiaiai iia?oc/eea // Aaoiiiaeeueiue
o?ainii?o.- 1998.- Auione 1. – N. 50-53.

2. Iaca?ia E.A., Ia?aaiciee E.A. ?aaeeiu iaa?oaeaiey e nenoaia
oaieiiaiaia aeae?iiauaiiuo ia?aaea/ oyaiaiai i?eaiaea iaeiaaaa?eoiuo
iia?oc/eeia // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Iieeoaoie/aneiai
Oieaa?neoaoa. – 1999. – ? 43. – N. 54-62.

3. Iaca?ia E.A., Eaonaiei A.I., Ia?aaiciee E.A. Aeeiaie/aneea iaa?ocee
ei?ioeiaaciaiai eiaoiaiai eieaniiai iia?oc/eea n ?aaoee?oaiuie a?o/ioth
aeae?iiauaiiuie ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaii i?eaiaea // Aaoiiiaeeueiue
o?ainii?o. Na. iao/. o?. OAAAeOO Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoei aeey caieyiuo
?aaio e aei?iaeiuo iaoei.-1999. Auione 2. – N.74-82.

4. Iaca?ia E.A., Ia?aaiciee E.A., Ei?iaeia A.Ae. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea iaa?ocie aeae?ii?eaiaeia caiea?ieiuo e iia?oci/iuo iaoei
// Na. iao/. o?. “Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia a i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e eiino?oeoeee”.-
Aaeai?iae.-1998.- N.201-203.

5. Ia?aaiciee E.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea nii?ioeaeaiee ia eiaoa iaeiaaaa?eoiiai
iia?oc/eea n aeae?iiauaiiuie ia?aaea/aie (ANO) a oyaiaii i?eaiaea //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. – 1998. – ? 108 (175). – N. 96-100.

6. Iaca?ia E.A., Ia?aaiciee E.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea aeeiaie/aneeo iaa?ocie
ei?ioeiaaciaiai iia?oc/eea n ?aaoee?oaiuie aeae?inoaoe/aneeie
ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaii i?eaiaea // Iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaeoia?. iao/. eiio.
(EIOA?NO?IEIAO-98). Ai?iiaae. – 1998. – N. 79- 80.

7. Iaca?ia E.A., A?a/eoieeia A.A., Aaoooie E.A. Aeeiaie/aneea iaa?ocee
ia oiaeiaia iai?oaeiaaiea e eiia/iua yeaiaiou o?ainiennee iiaaiieieaniuo
COI // Na.o?. Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou eieaniuo
e aonaie/iuo iaoei a no?iauo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee. -Othiaiue 1996.-N.
98-103.

8. Iaca?ia E.A., Aaoooie E.A., Oia/aiei TH.I. Aeeiaie/aneea iaa?ocee ia
eiaoa iiaaiieieaniiai iia?oc/eea n aeae?inoaoe/aneeie ia?aaea/aie a
oyaiaii i?eaiaea // Oacenu aeieeaaeia ia?aie Anaoe?aeineie eiio.
I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee e iaoeiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieiaoa?eaeia,
ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee. – Iieoaaa – 1996. – N. 126-128.

AIIOAOeIssAIIOAOeIss

Ia?aaiciee ?.A. I?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aiao??a ? iaaaioaaeaiiino?
iaeiaaaa?eoieo eiaoiaeo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c ?aaoeueiaaieie
a?ae?iia’?iieie ia?aaea/aie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.04 – Iaoeie aeey caieyieo ? aei?iaei?o ?ia?o.
– Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?e i?iaiicoaaiiy aieiaieo
ia?aiao??a ? iaaaioaaeaiino? iaeiaaaa?eoieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a ?c
?aaoeueiaaieie a?o/io a?ae?iia’?iieie o?aini?n?yie a oyaiaiio i?eaiae?,
iaiao?aeieo aeey i?iaeooaaiiy iaoei ?c iaeaeueie
oaoi?ei-aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieacieeaie e oaeineiiaethaaiith iaoei ui
aeioneathoueny na??eii.

Iiaeaethaaiiyi aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a ia AII ? iaoo?ieie ?nieoaie
iaaaioaaeoaa/?a onoaiiaeai? ?aaeeie iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaea?eueo? coneeey
ia ?iai/iio iaeaaeiaii? e o oyaiaiio i?eaiae?. Aeyaeaii oaieiaee ?aaeei
?iaioe a?ae?iia’?iiiai oyaiaiai i?eaiaea ? aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
oaeineiiaethaaiith eiai nenoaie oaieiiai?io. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo
i?iaiicoaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a iaeiaaaa?eoieo iaaaioaaeoaa/?a.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaaaioaaeoaa/a
IO-04 ? aaoia?aeaea?a AeCE-251.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaeiaaaa?eoiee iaaaioaaeoaa/ ?c a?ae?iia’?iieie
ia?aaea/aie a oyaiaiio i?eaiae?, ia?aiao?e, i?iaiicoaaiiy, eieeaaiiy,
aeeiai?/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaieiaee ?aaeei.

ABSTRACTABSTRACT

I. A. Perevoznik. Prediction of parameters and loading of small-size
bucket loaders with adjustable hydraulic voluminous transmissions. – A
manuscript.

Dissertation for degree of Candidate of Science (Technology), speciality
05.05.04 – Earth-moving and Road-building Machines. Kharkiv State
Automobile and Highway Technical University, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to development of prediction methodsfor
basic parameters and loading of small-size loaders with manually
adjustable hydraulic voluminous transmissions in traction drive. The
work permits to design machines with the efficacy in operation and to
improve the efficiency of currently manufactured machines.

Computer simulation of dynamic processes and full-scale tests of loaders
revealed loading modes and the largest forces at working equipment and
in traction drive. Thermal conditions of hydraulic voluminous traction
drive has been found, recommendations proposed concerning the
improvement if its heat exchange system. A method has been proposed to
basic parameters of small-size loaders. The results of study were
applied to development of IO-04 loader and AeCE-251 motor grader.

Keywords: small-size loader hydraulic voluminous transmission in
traction drive, parameters, prediction, oscillations, dynamic loads,
thermal conditions.

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Ia?aaiciee E.A. I?iaiice?iaaiea ia?aiao?ia e iaa?oaeaiiinoe
iaeiaaaa?eoiuo eiaoiauo iia?oc/eeia n ?aaoee?oaiuie aeae?iiauaiiuie
ia?aaea/aie. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.04 – Iaoeiu aeey caieyiuo e aei?iaeiuo ?aaio. –
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeee i?iaiice?iaaiey aeaaiuo
ia?aiao?ia e iaa?oaeaiiinoe iaeiaaaa?eoiuo iia?oc/eeia n ?aaoee?oaiuie
a?o/ioth aeae?iiauaiiuie o?ainienneyie a oyaiaii i?eaiaea, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey iaoei n iaeaunoeie oaoieei-yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie
iieacaoaeyie e niaa?oainoaiaaieth na?eeii auioneaaiuo iaoei.

Aiaeec ?aai/eo i?ioeannia e oneiaee iaa?oaeaiey iaeiaaaa?eoiuo
iia?oc/eeia n aeae?iiauaiiuie ia?aaea/aie iieacae, /oi iie iaeaaeatho
?yaeii i?eioeeieaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae. Ei i?enoue iiiaiaa?eaioiia
oi?ie?iaaiea iaeeiaeiuo oyaiauo oa?aeoa?enoee, eioaineaiua
eieaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu inoiaa iaoeiu, iaeeiaeiia ii ia?aiauaieth
eciaiaiea nii?ioeaeaiey aiaae?aieth eiaoa a ia?aa?oaeaaiue iaoa?eae,
i?iecaieueiay, a i?aaeaeao io ioey aei iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey
ia/aeueiay nei?inoue aiaae?aiey iaoeiu a ia?aa?oaeaaiue iaoa?eae.

Iiaeaee?iaaieai ia YAI aeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia iia?oc/eeia e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaiu ?aaeeiu ii?iaeueiiai
iaa?oaeaiey ?aai/aai iai?oaeiaaiey e oyaiaiai i?eaiaea, iaeaeaiu oneiaey
aeaenoaey iaeaieueoeo oneeee.

Aia?aua iieo/aiu caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey aeeiaie/aneeo iaa?ocie a
?aaoee?oaiii a?o/ioth aeae?iiauaiiii oyaiaii i?eaiaea. Iaeaieueoea
oneeey a iai aeinoeaathony i?e aiaae?aiee iia?oc/eea a ia?aa?oaeaaiue
iaoa?eae noiaeo n iaeciaiiuie ?aai/eie iauaiaie oyaiauo ianinia.

?an/aoiay ia/aeueiay nei?inoue aiaae?aiey iaoeiu a ia?aa?oaeaaiue
iaoa?eae i?eia?ii aaeaia i?aauoaao nei?inoue neieueaeaiey oiaeiauo eiean
ii iii?iie iiaa?oiinoe i?e eo iieiii aoeniaaiee e ?aaeecaoeee
aeaeaaoaeai iaeneiaeueiie iiuiinoe. Eiyooeoeeaio aeeiaie/iinoe
iaa?oaeaiey oyaiaiai i?eaiaea ia i?aauoaao 1,8. Iaa?ocee ia ?aai/ai
iai?oaeiaaiee ei?ioeiaaciauo iaeiaaaa?eoiuo iia?oc/eeia a 1,5…1,8 ?ac
aieaa oneeee iia?oc/eeia eeanne/aneie eiiiiiiaee, a eiyooeoeeaio
aeeiaie/iinoe aeinoeaaao cia/aiee 2,2…3,0.

Iaeiaiueoaa iaa?oaeaiea iia?oc/eea e iaeaieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea aai
oyaiauo aiciiaeiinoae iaania/eaathony i?e /a?iaiee iaoa?eaea ni
nieaeaieai iiaea/e oyaiauo ianinia. Aeaiiue niinia eo ?aaoee?iaaiey
?aeiiaiaeoaony a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai. Auyaeai oaieiaie ?aaeei ?aaiou
aeae?iiauaiiuo ia?aaea/ oyaiaiai i?eaiaea iia?oc/eea. I?aaeeiaeaiu ia?u
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu eo oaieiiaiaia, iaania/eaathuea ii?iaeueioth
yenieoaoaoeeth iaoeiu a eeeiaoe/aneeo ciiao n ia?aiaaeii oaiia?aoo?
aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa io +350N aei -350N.

Iniiauaaynue ia aiaeeca ?aai/eo i?ioeannia e noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo
iia?oc/eeia enneaaeoaiiai oeia i?aaeeiaeaiu caaeneiinoe aeey
i?iaiinoe/aneie ioeaiee iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia aiiaue i?iaeoe?oaiuo iaoei.

?acoeueoaou auiieiaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey eniieueciaaiu i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee
iia?oc/eea IO-04 e aeae?iiauaiiuo ia?aaea/ i?eaiaea ia?aaeiaai iinoa
aaoia?aeaea?a AeCE-251.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaeiaaaa?eoiue iia?oc/ee n aeae?iiauaiiuie ia?aaea/aie
a oyaiaii i?eaiaea, ia?aiao?u, i?iaiice?iaaiea, eieaaaiey, aeeiaie/aneea
iaa?ocee, oaieiaie ?aaeei.

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