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?INOEOOO IAAe?AO??? AEOOA?NOAA OA A?IAEIEIA??

AEAAeAI?? IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

IssIUeEIANUeEEE NA?A?E EAII?AeIAE*

OAeE: 616-053.3/.6-036-084:362.121

I?IAIICOAAIIss ?IAeEA?AeOAEUeIIAI ?ECEEO ?ICAEOEO OAI?IA ? I?IO?EAEOEEA
II?OOAIUe NOAIO CAeI?IA(ss Ae?OAE A OIIAAO AeEOss*I? IIE?EE?I?EE

14.01.10 – IAAe?AO??ss

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.
Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oe??ye–Ieaeiee Ci?aneaaa Aioii?aia
caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaaeeei–nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai ioi?iie caei?ia’y
iaoa?? oa aeeoeie Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

– aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiae?ouoe Ae?na Iiaian?aia,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e iaae?ao???;

– aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaai?ia Aioii?ia Iaenei?aia,
Oe?a?inueeee ?inoeooo A?iiaaenueeiai Caei?ia(y, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c
iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

– /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ni?yi
?aai Naiaiiae/, Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y
?i. ?.ss.Ai?aa/aanueeiai, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith aeeoy/eo oai?ia
iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oe?a?inueeee IAe? ioi?iie caei?ia(y ae?oae oa
i?aee?oe?a IIC Oe?a?ie (i. Oa?e?a).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “__18__”___/a?aiy_______ 1999 ?ieo
i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.553.01 ii
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe ca
niaoe?aeueiinoyie “Iaae?ao??y”, “Aeooa?noai ? a?iaeieia?y” i?e ?inoeooo?
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (252050, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaio?euenueeiai, 8).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (252050, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaio?euenueeiai, 8).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_14___” _______05______1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.A.Eaaoi?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Cia/ia iiai?oaiiy aeaiia?aoi/ii? neooaoei?, yaia
oaiaeaioeiy aei cieaeaiiy ?iaiy caei?ia’y iaiiaeyo oa aeioae iioeo
aieiaeo a?oi, iacaaeiaieueiee noai caei?ia’y no/anii? iiioeyoei? aeioae
caaino?eee i?iaeaio caa?aaeaiiy ?o caei?ia’y oa iaoiiaeee aeooaeueiinoue
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie c oeeo ieoaiue (I.O. Aic?aiia, 1996; I.I. Eoe’yiiaa,
1996; C.A. Oe??ye–Ieaeiee, 1996; A.E. Aiaianaiei, E.A. Iiiiaa, 1997;
I.A. Aieaea, 1997; ?.N. Ni?yi, 1997).

Aiaeic no/anieo iiaeoiaeia aei ioipiie caei?ia’y a ?icaeiaieo epa?iao
iieacaa, ui oniioe naioiai? iaaeeoeeie a aaeeeie iipi aecia/athoueny
iiaeie yeinieie iiaeoiaeaie aei i?ioieaeoeee, aeiaaiinoeee i eieoaaiiy,
yei caniiaaii ia oe?ieiio aeeipenoaiii eiii’thoa?ieo oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
nenoai, a oaeiae noaipaiii ?icaaeoaeaieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae,
?aaiiiaeueieo, caaaeueiiaeapaeaaieo i iiaeiaoeiiiaeueieo aac iaaee/ieo
aeaieo i aac ciaiue aaeeei? ?iiinoi (A.A. Eia?einuee?e, 1993;
TH.?.Aaeueo?uaa, 1994; A.I. Iiiiia?aiei, I.TH. Iaei?ia, 1996;
Haggerty R., 1995). Iniaeeaa aeooaeueiinoue aeeipenoaiiy no/anieo
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieiaie a cia/iie ii?i iia’ycaia ci oaeaeeith oa
iioaineaiith ciiiith i?e?iaeieo oa nioe?aeueieo oiia, ia?aaoaeiaith
nenoaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y, c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi aeaiaio?a n?iaeii? oa
no?aoiai? iaaeeoeeie, nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie, iaiao?aei?noth o?aooaaiiy
noeoiii? ae?? /eneaiieo oaeoi??a ?eceeo oa oaeoi??a caoenoo ia i?aai?ci
aeeoeie ? an??? n?i’? (A.A. Eia?einuee?e, 1993, A.E. Aiaianaiei,
E.A. Iiiiaa 1997). Ca?aeii c ?a?iiaenueeith eiioeaioe??th “Caei?ia’y
aeey on?o aei 2000 ?ieo” aea?aeaae ionyoue iaoe ae?yeuei? iaoai?cie,
iaiao?aei? aeey iii?oi?eiao, ioe?iee oa ai?ioueae c iaaacia/ieie aeey
caei?ia’y oaeoi?aie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (AEaiaaa, 1986). Oea
aeicaieeoue ia o?eueee aeyaeyoe nai? caoai?thaaiiy, a e cina?aaeeoe
coneeey ia iiooeo ?eceeo caoai?thaaiue o ee?i?/ii caei?iaeo ae?oae,
caaacia/eoe “?iaeaia??th na?aaeiaeua”, ui aeicaieeoue caanoe aei
i?i?ioio ia?ao?ae noai?a ?eceeo o ee?i?/io iaoieia?th, iiia?aaeeoe
caoai?thaaiiy ia ??ai? on??? aeeoy/i? iiioeyoe?? (e?a?ie, ?aa?iio,
i?noa, ?aeiio), ia ??ai? n?i’? ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai?, iaaeanoue
iiaeeea?noue ae?aaiinooaaoe ??aaiue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caei?ia’y,
ao?o/aoeny ia aoai? cieaeaiiy eiai ??aiy, i?iaiicoaaoe noai iaoe??ioa ia
iaeaeeae/? ?iee (TH.?. Aaeueo?uaa, 1994; A.A. Aiaianaiei, E.A. Iiiiaa,
1997).

Ia i?aeoeoei eiea?–iaaeiao? ia ia? iiaeeeainoi a?aoiaoaaoe o noeoiiinoi
aaeeeo eieueeinoue oaeoi?ia: aiieiai/ieo, aoii/ieo,
nioeiaeueii–aiai?ii/ieo, nioeiaeueii–aeiiiii/ieo, aeieiai/ieo,
ineoieia?/ieo oa iioeo, yei iathoue aieea ia i?aaiici aeeoeie, ?
a?aeiia?aeii, i?aai?coaaoe nenoaio aoaeoeaieo caoiae?a i?io?eaeoeee
ca?aeii iniiaieo i?eioeei?a aaeaieia??. Oea coiiaeth? iaiaoiaeiinoue
noai?aiiy iaaeeei–oaoiieiai/ii? nenoaie iino?eiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ae?oae
oa ?o n?iae. Oaeoe/ii iiaa ia? eoe i?i aeeiai?/io aaaaoioaeoi?io ioe?ieo
aeci– oa aiaeiaaiieo aieea?a, c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?oa?aioe?? iiceoeaieo ?
iaaaoeaieo aieea?a a i?ioean? ae?? oaeoi??a ?eceeo ia i?aai?ci, yeee
oi?io?oueny e ?icaeaa?oueny, ui iiaeeeai o?eueee i?e i?aai?caoe??
eiii’thoa?iiai iii?oi?eiao.

Aei inoaiiueiai /ano aea/aiiy oa ae?ioaiiy oeeo ieoaiue iineei
o?aaiaioa?iee oa?aeoa? /a?ac aiaenooiinoue ?aeeii? eiioeaiooaeueii?
iiaeaei oa aaeaeaaoieo aaoiiaoeciaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? o?aaiaioii aeaio IAe? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo: (Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy ae?oae ia?oiai ?ieo
aeeooy, ye? ia?iaeeeeny a?ae iaoa??a, ui ia?aianee iaoieia?/io
aaa?oi?noue oa iieiae, c iaoith noai?aiiy nenoaie aeeniaina?iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaee eiiieaeno i?io?eaeoe/ieo ? e?eoaaeueieo
caoiae?a( (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 79003040) ? (Iaaeeei-nai?oa?ia
caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ii i?eioeeio n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01930009045).

Iaoa ?iaioe. Oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio i?io?eaeoe/ii? oa i?aaaioeaii?
iaae?ao??? ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaenii? ioe?iee nioe?aeueieo, i?e?iaeieo oa
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ?eceeo c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o ?iaioo
iie?ee?i?e aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie, iaoiae?a
eiii(thoa?iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy noaio caei?ia(y ae?oae, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
?eceeo ?icaeoeo oai?ia oa iaoiae?a aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
ae?oueie c a?oi ?eceeo ca?aeii no/anieo iaoiae?a aaeaieia??.

Iniiaii caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe aaoiiaoeciaaio ?ioi?iaoe?eio nenoaio (A?N)
oa?eoi?iaeueii? aeeoy/i? iieieeiiiee aeey iii?oi?eiao noaio caei?ia’y
aeioae oa iaaeaii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, c o?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo oaeoi?ia
?eceeo, ye iiaeeeaiai iiaeoey iaoeiiiaeueii? iaaeeei-iioi?iaoeieii?
ia?aae?, yea a caaacia/oaaea iaeiie/aiiy ? caa??aaiiy o nai?o aacao
iniiaii? iaaee/ii?, i?aai?caoe?eii? ? nioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? noiniaii
ae?oae oa ?o n?iae, iaaeaii? iaaeeei–i?io?eaeoe/ii? aeiiiiiae,
aaoiiaoecoaaea i ia’?eoeaicoaaea io?eiaiiy iaaeeei-nioeiaeueii?
iioi?iaoei? c ia?aeiii? eaiee nenoaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y aeioae.

I?iaanoe aiae?c ia i?aenoaa? aeiaaio?eaaeiai eiii(thoa?iiai iii?oi?eiao
noaio caei?ia(y ae?oae, aecia/eoe i?ia?aei? eeane oai?ia oa ?o
iicieia?/io no?oeoo?o o aeaio aeeoy/eo iie?ee?i?eao, aecia/eoe
iioe?ai?noue caoai?thaaiue na?aae ae?oae ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi.

Ca aeaieie A?N i?iaanoe aiae?c iayaiino? oaeoi??a ?eceeo o caei?iaeo
ae?oae ? a a?oiao c ?iciiiai?oieie eeanaie oai?ia, aecia/eoe
iioe?ai?noue ie?aieo oaeoi??a ?eceeo a a?oiao ae?oae c ??cieie eeanaie
oai?ia.

?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue eiiieaenii? aei? oaeoi?ia ?eceeo ia
caei?ia’y aeioae aeey eiii’thoa?iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy noaio ?o caei?ia’y i
aecia/aiiy aaee/eie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?eceeo ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue.

Canoinoaaoe aecia/aiiy aaee/eie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?eceeo ?iia??iiai
?icaeoeo oai?ia aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?oi aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ?
?ic?iaeaiiy oaeoeee iiaeaeueoi? i?io?eaeoeee caoai?thaaiue, c iiiaioo
iinooieaiiy ae?oae i?ae niinoa?aaeaiiy aeeoy/i? iie?ee?i?ee.

Aaeaiooaaoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe i?ioieaeoe/ii-icaei?ia/? eiiieaene aeey ae?oae
a?oi ?eceeo aeey canoinoaaiiy a aeiiaoiio oiiaao, iiae niinoa?aaeaiiyi
aeieueie/iiai iaaeiao?a aai niiaeiiai eiea?y, ye? a aacoaaeeny ia
iniiaieo i?eioeeiao aaeaieia??.

Oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ae?oae ia i?aenoaa?
no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oeyoii aecia/aiiy eiiieaenii? aei?
oaeoi?ia ?eceeo oa oaeoi??a caoenoo, aaee/eie ?iia??iino? ?eceeo
?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue, canoinoaaiiy no/anieo i?eioeei?a aaeaieia??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oaeineiiaeaia nenoaia
aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie oa ?o n?i(yie, c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe no/ani? oaiaeaioe??
oi?ioaaiiy caei?ia(y ae?oae.

Aia?oa io?eiai? eiiieaeni? aeai?, ye? aecia/athoue ??aaiue caa?ice
caei?ia(th cia/ieo eiioeiaaio?a ae?oae.

Aia?oa, ia iniia? ?iaioe aaoiiaoeciaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai,
i?iaaaeaii aeiaaio?eaaea i?iniaeoeaia aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee noaio caei?ia’y
ae?oae Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie (ia iiaeae? i. Eueaiaa oa
i. *a?aiiia?aaea) ia aoai? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?.

Aia?oa, ia iniiai aeaieo, ui iaeiie/oaaeeny o aacao aeaieo A?N aeaio
aeeoy/eo iie?ee?i?e i?ioyaii 1993-1997 ?ie?a, aea/aia
?iciianthaeaeai?noue oaeoi??a ?eceeo na?aae caei?iaeo ? oai?eo ae?oae oa
?o n?iae, aecia/aia eiiieaenia aeiy iniiaieo oaeoi?ia ?eceeo ia
caei?ia’y aeioae ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi, aeeiai?ea ?o aieeao ia
?acenoaioi?noue ae?oae ? oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo eean?a oai?ia.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?y ia?eiaoaeueieo oaeoi??a ?eceeo ia ?acenoaioi?noue
ae?oae a i?ioean? ?o ?icaeoeo ? c?inoaiiy c aeinoia??i?noth o?eaa? aei
9-12 ?ie?a.

?ic?iaeaia i ai?iaaaeaeaia a ?iaioo aeeoy/eo iieieeiiie iiaeaeue
i?iaiicoaaiiy aaee/eie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy
caoai?thaaiue ia i?aenoaa? aaaaoiaei??iiai ?iia??i?niiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aieeao 51 oaeoi?a, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?iiai iiiioi?eiao,
yea iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny c /ano iinooieaiiy aeeoeie i?ae iaaeyae
aeeoy/i? iie?ee?i?ee.

Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ?aaoey?ii? ia?aioe?iee ni?aa?aeiinii? ?ie? oa
aieeao ie?aieo oaeoi??a ?eceeo oa ?o noeoiiinoae ia oi?ioaaiiy caei?ia(y
ae?oae oa aaee/eio ?eceeo ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui na?aae ae?oae c ??cieie eeanaie oai?ia cia/iee a?aenioie
neeaaeathoue ae?oe, ye? /anoi oai??thoue.

Noi?ioeueiaai? iia? iiaeoiaee aei aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
aeioueie a?oi ?eceeo ia iniia? oi?ioaaiiy a?oi c o?aooaaiiyi aaee/eie
iioaa?aeueiiai oaeoi?a ?eceeo ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue, ui ae?aoiao?oueny
ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo, ye? caa??aathoueny o aacao aeaieo A?N.

Iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy aaeaioiaaieo
i?ioieaeoe/ii-icaei?ia/eo eiiieaen?a aeey ia?aeiii? ? aoi?eiii?
i?io?eaeoeee o ae?oae ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi, aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
aiaoeaoi?ieo oiiaao c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue, ?o
i?ia?anoaaiiy ? o?iiicaoei? o aeioae a?oi ?eceeo, c iaaieinii ia
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ? n?iaeiee ??aaiue i?io?eaeoeee, ca?aeii iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue aaeaieia??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?ia?aei? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy
oa aeena?oaoe?ei? aeniiaee aaeaioiaaii aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa
canoinoaaiiy a ?aaeueieo oiiaao i?aeoe/ii? eaiee ioi?iie caei?ia(y
ae?oae.

?ic?iaeaia i ai?iaaaeaeaia o ?iaioo aeeoy/eo iieieeiiie A?N (Eaaaiy(,
yea ia ia? aiaeiaia a Oe?a?i?, iiaea i?aoethaaoe a nenoaii no?aoiai? oa
n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie, caaacia/o? aeeoy/i iieieeiiiee no/aniith
oaoiieiai?th niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeioueie i oi?aaeiiiy
iaaeeei-oaoiieiai/ieie i?ioeanaie, ca?eueith? e?ea??a a?ae iaaei??ii?
(iaia?iai?( ?iaioe i iiaea aooe iiaeoeai caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
iioi?iaoeieii? ia?aae?. Nenoaia na?oeoieiaaia IIC Oe?a?ie ca ? 2 aiae
01.10.1993 ?.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? A?N caaacia/eei ia(?eoeaia a?aeoai?aiiy
neooaoe?? a iaaeao aeeoy/i? iie?ee?i?ee, ae?eueieoe?, eiaeiiai e?ea?y,
aeeoy/i? onoaiiae, iaaieo eiioeiaaio?a ae?oae, ie?aii? aeeoeie c
o?aooaaiiyi noaio caei?ia(y ae?oae, no?oeoo?e caoai?thaaiino?,
nioe?aeueieo iniaeeainoae ?iaeei ? i?aai?caoe?? iie?ee?i?/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ae?oae, ui aeicaieeei iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaoe ia
??ciiiai?oi? ci?ie ? i?iaiaeeoe iaiao?aei? iaaeeei–i?aai?caoe?ei? ?
iaaeeei–nioe?aeuei? caoiaee, aecia/aoe i??i?eoaoe o ?iaio? e?ea??a
aeeoy/i? iie?ee?i?ee.

Eiiieaenia ioe?iea ??ciiiai?oii? iaaeeei-nioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui
iaeiie/oaaeanue a aacao aeaieo nenoaie, aeicaieeea canoinoaaoe no/ani?
iaoiaee aiae?co ? i?aeoe/ii ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?iaiicoaaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noaio caei?ia’y aeeoeie oa ?iia??iino? ?icaeoeo
caoai?thaaiue ca aeiiiiiaith aecia/aiiy aaee/eie iioaa?aeueiiai oaeoi?a
?eceeo, ii/eiath/e c ia??iaeo iiaiia?iaeaeaiino?.

Aecia/aiiy o ae?oae, ii/eiath/e c ia??iaeo iiaiia?iaeaeaiino?, aaee/eie
iioaa?aeueiiai oaeoi?a ?eceeo aeicaieeei nai?/anii aeyaeoe ae?oae ?c
caa?icith oi?ioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo caoai?thaaiue, ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei
oi?ioaaiiy a?oi ?eceeo ? canoinoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
i?ioieaeoe/ii-icaei?ia/eo eiiieaen?a aeey i?ioieaeoeee aeieeiaiiy
caoai?thaaiue i ?o o?iiicaoei?.

Canoinoaaiiy aeeiaii/iiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai iiaeoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy
a?oi ?eceeo ia i?aenoaa? eiii’thoa?iiai iii?oi?eiao ? aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie ?ioaa?aeueiiai oaeoi?o ?eceeo aeicaieeei cia/ii iiaeaeueoe
aoaeoeaiinoue aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy a aeeoy/eo iieieeiiieao,
ciaioeoe caoai?thaai?noue ae?oae a?oi ?eceeo, iiia?aaeeoe o?ii?caoe?th
caoai?thaaiue.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaia
i?aaiicaoeieii-oaoiieiai/ia nenoaia iii?oi?eiao noaio caei?ia’y aeioae
?c canoinoaaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieiaie.

Aeei?enoaiiy A?N o ?iaio? aeeoy/eo iie?ee?i?e aeicaieeei i?iaanoe aiae?c
iieaciee?a noaio caei?ia(y ae?oae oa iniiaieo iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino?
iie?ee?i?e c a?aooaaiiyi ae?oae, ye? caa?oathoueny aei e?ea??a
iie?ee?i?e, aea ia i?iaeeaathoue o ?aeii? ?? ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo 16 aeeoy/eo
iie?ee?i?e Euea?anueei?, Aieeinueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei?, Caea?iaonueei?
iaeanoae. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiio i?ioeani ia iaaeiao?e/iiio, iaaee/iiio
oaeoeueoaoao oa a iioa?iaoo?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae aenaioeththoueny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioeiyo iaaeiao??a Caoiaeiiai ?aaiiio Oe?a?ie oa eiea??a
caaaeueii? iaaee/ii? ia?aaei Eueaianueei? iaeanoi. Ca iaoa??aeaie
aeena?oaoe?? aeaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno IIC Oe?a?ie “Eiii’thoa?ia
nenoaia oi?aaeiiiy aeeoy/ith iieieeiiieith (EAAAIss” (E., 1995),
io?eiaiee Na?oeo?eao IIC Oe?a?ie ca ? 2 a?ae 1 aeiaoiy 1993 ?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aecia/ea iaoo oa caaaeaiiy iaoeiai? ?iaioe,
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, noi?ioaaa
a?oie ae?oae oa ?o n?iae, ui i?aeeyaaee aeine?aeaeaiith. ?ic?iaea
i?ea?iaeueio aeie-noaio A?N “Eaaaiy”, aecia/ea caaaeaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a A?N ? iniiaieo aeai?eoi?a ?? ?iaioe, ?ic?iaea
c?acee ?a?no?aoe?eieo oa aiaoeaoi?ieo oaeii?a, oaeii?a aeeniaina?iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy ? oaeii?a i?io?eaeoe/ieo uaieaiue aeey ?iaioe c A?N, 169
i?ea?iaeueieo oi?i io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, i?iaiaeea ?iaioe ii
ai?iaaaeaeaiith A?N oa ?? iiaea?i?caoe?? a iie?ee?i?eao (noai?aiiy
?a?no?aoe?eieo aac aeaieo, iaa/aiiy e?ea??a oa iia?aoi??a eiii(thoa??a,
i?iaaaeaiiy ?aaoey?ieo nai?ia??a c iaaee/ieie i?aoe?aieeaie oa
ea??aieeaie iie?ee?i?e, ?ic?iaea a?aeiia?aeieo ?ino?oeoe?e aeey
iaaee/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a oa iia?aoi??a ca an?ia aniaeoaie ?iaioe A?N,
iaa/aiiy iia?aoi??a io?eioaaiith ??ciiiai?oii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o aeaeyae?
a?aeiia?aeieo ca?o?a, i?iaaaeaiiy eaa?oaeueieo ? ??/ieo ?ia?o,
a?o?aaoe?y aeaieo, i/enoea aac aeaieo nenoaie), ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeuei?
iai?yiee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ae?? oaeoi??a ?eceeo. A i?ioean?
?iaioe i?aai?coaaa oa ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aea/aiiy
noaio caei?ia’y ae?oae Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. Aecia/ea ? ioe?iea
iniiai? oaeoi?e ?eceeo o ae?oae c ??cieie eeanaie caoai?thaaiue ca
I?aeia?iaeiith eeaneo?eaoe??th oai?ia (IEO), ?o aieea ia ?acenoaioi?noue
aeeoeie o ??cieo a?eiaeo ia??iaeao. Aaeaiooaaa i?io?eaeoe/ii–icaei?ia/?
eiiieaene aeey ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? i?io?eaeoeee caoai?thaaiue o
ae?oae c iaaieinii ia n?iaeiee oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ??aaiue
i?io?eaeoeee. Aecia/ea iniiai? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?eii–oaoiieia?/iiai
iii?oi?eiao noaio caei?ia’y ae?oae c aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e. Nenoaiaoe/ii i?iaiaeea aoaeeo ?iaioe e?ea??a aeeoy/eo
iie?ee?i?e oa ?iaioe A?N. I?ia?a aiae?c oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th aeaieo
noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee. Aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?? ?aea?, a?iioace, iaoeia?
aeniiaee ? i?eioeeiia? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaai? aaoi?ii
naiino?eii. Aeiyoie neeaaea? eeoa aaeaioaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?io?eaeoe/ii–icaei?ia/eo eiiieaen?a aeey ae?oae ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy
(aeey aeeoy/i? iie?ee?i?ee i. *a?aiiia?aaea) oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iciianthaeaeaiinoi oai?ia o ae?oae ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy oe???
iie?ee?i?ee, ye? cae?eniai? ni?eueii c ani??aioii I. Eiaaeuenueeei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? aenaioeaii
oa iaaiai?aii ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo Eueaianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai iinoeoooo (Eueaia, 1992-1998), eiioa?aioeiyo Eueaianueeiai
oiaa?enoaa iaaeiao?ia (Eueaia, 1994-1998 ?.), I C’?caei iaaee/ieo
aaiaoeeia ONN? (Eueaia, 1988), I Ananithciiio c’?caei iioiieiaia (Ni/i,
1989), Ananithciie iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei? “Aeooaeueii ieoaiiy
i?ioieaeoeee iaiioaeoeieieo caoai?thaaiue” (Iineaa, 1990), iaoeiaie
eiioa?aioei? “Iaaeeoeeia i oa?iaoeiy – aeinyaiaiiy i ia?niaeoeae”
(Eueaia, 1990), ?anioaeieainueeiio ieaioii iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa aeeoy/eo
eiea?ia Oe?a?ie “Iaaeeei-nioeiaeueii oa i?aai?caoe?ei? aniaeoe i?iaeaie
cieaeaiiy aeeoy/i? nia?oiinoi oa caoai?thaaiinoi aeioae” (Ee?a, 1991),
aenoaaoei-naiiia?i “Iioi?iaoeea i caei?ia’y – 92” (Ee?a, 1992),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei? “Iaaee/ia aeiaaiinoeea. I?aaiicaoeiy oa
oi?aaeiiiy, iaoiaee i caniae, aeai?eoie i iaa/aiiy, oaoiieiai? i
eiii’thoa?ecaoeiy” (Eueaia, 1992), eiioa?aioei? “Oai?aoe/ii i eeiii/ii
ieoaiiy aeeoy/i? ea?aeiieiai?” (Oa?eia, 1993), XXXYI iiaenoieiaie
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioei? c o/anoth iieiaeeo a/aieo (Oa?iiiieue, 1993),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei? “Eiii’thoa?ia oaoiiea i i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy a iaaeeoeeii” (Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1993), IX C’?caei
aeeoy/eo eiea?ia Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1993), aenoaaoei-naiiia?i
“Eiii’thoa?ii oaoiieiai?: canoinoaaiiy aei oaoii/ieo, eiia?oeieieo,
eaaeano?iaeo, aeaeaaie/eo oa iaa/aeueieo i?iaeai” (Eueaia, 1994), ia?oie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei? “Iaoeiiiaeueia no?aoiaa iaaee/ia
caaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie” (Eueaia, 1995), ieaioii iaoeiai-iaaee/iiai
oiaa?enoaa aeeoy/eo eiea?ia (Ee?a-Oa?iiiieue, 1995), C’?caei iaaeiao?ia
Iieueui (Iieueua, Ethaeii, 1992).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaaeai? o 1 iiiia?ao??, 14
noaooyo o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 7 noaooyo o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, 4 aeaiiiiaaieo ?oeiienao, 10 iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e,
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo a?ioo?ao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa (ianya 326 noi??iie i?eioa?iiai
oaenoo) neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, i`yoe ?icae?e?a
aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (472
aeaea?aea: 313 oe?a?inueeith oa ?in?enueeith iiaaie, 159 – ?iicaiieie),
aeiaeaoeo c oaaeeoeyie ? c?aceaie oaeii?a aeey ?iaioe c A?N. ?iaioa
i?noeoue 22 oaaeeoe? ? 58 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

Niinoa??aaeeny aeioe oa ?o n?i(? aeaio oa?eoi??aeueieo iieieeiiie: 10000
aeioae 1 iinueei? aeeoy/i? iieieeiiiee iinoa Eueaiaa i 19000 aeioae
iinueei? aeeoy/i? iieieeiiiee i. *a?aiiia?aaea Eueaianueei? iaeanoi, aea
aoee ai?iaaaeaeaii A?N “Eaaaiy” aeanii? ?ic?iaee. Niinoa?aaeaiiy o
i. Eueaiai i?iaiaeeeiny c 1992 ?. ? i?eieieeiny o /a?ai? 1995 ?., /a?ac
?ai?aaiicaoeith aeeoy/i? iieieeiiiee; niinoa?aaeaiiy o iieieeiiioei i.
*a?aiiia?aaea i?iaiaeeoueny c 1993 ?. ii nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue. Aeey
aiaeico iaoa?iaeo ie aeei?enoiaoaaee aecia/aiiy caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
iieacieeia aeiyeueiinoi aeeoy/eo iieieeiiie ? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo,
aecia/aiiy ei?aeyoeieii? caeaaeiinoi iiae aeaeieueeiia yeinieie iciaeaie
ca aeiiiiiaith eiaoioei?ioa aca?iii? niieo/aiino? (iie?oi?e/iee iieaciee
ca’yceo). Iiaeaethaaiiy noaio caei?ia’y ae?oae i aecia/aiiy ?eceeo
?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue o ae?oae i?iaiaeeee ia i?aenoaa? aaaaoiaeii?ii?
iiiai?i?nii? iiaeae? ?iciiaeieo iciae o N–aeii?iiio i?inoi?i c /eneii
eii?aeeiao N=51. Iniaeea?noue ?iaioe c aacaie aeaieo A?N coiiaeea
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy niaoeiaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai ia?iaee
iioi?iaoei?, yei aoee iaienaii ia iiaao i?ia?aioaaiiy Klipper–5.1 i
Fox–pro. Aeey noai?aiiy oaaeeoeue i aiaeoai?aiiy a?aoi/iiai cia?aaeaiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny eiii’thoa?ii nenoaie Graffer,
Surfer a oaeiae aeaeo?iiii oaaeeoei Exnel i iiaeeeainoi ?aaeaeoi?o
Microsoft Word. Aiaeic i?iaiaeeany ca aeiiiiiaith IBM–noiinieo
eiii’thoa?ia, yei iinoeee ?iai/i aace aeeoy/eo iieieeiiie i i?ia?aie
ia?iaee iioi?iaoei?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeey iii?oi?eiao ae?oae o iie?ee?i?oe? oa ioe?iee ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a
?? ?iaioe iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia eiii’thoa?ia nenoaia “Eaaaiy” – aeey
niinoa?aaeaiiy aeioae o aeeoy/ie iieieeiiioei, yea iiaea aooe iiaeoeai
aea?aeaaii? ia?aae? (aeiii/a eiinoeueoaoeiy, iieiaiaee aoaeeiie, aeeoy/a
iieieeiiiea, aeipinea iieieeiiiea, noaoeiiiap) i caaacia/o? iii?oi?eia
aeeoeie oa ?? n?i’? aiae iiiaioo ieaioaaiiy aaaioiinoi aei ia?aaea/i
aeaieo o AIN aei?inei? iieieeiiiee, c iaeiie/aiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
?icaeoie, caoai?thaai?noue, i?ioieaeoe/ii oa eieoaaeueii caoiaee, ui
iaaeaaaeenue eiaeiie aeeoeii, c o?aooaaiiyi ?? aeieiai–aeaiia?aoi/ieo oa
nioeiaeueieo iniaeeainoae. A?N “Eaaaiy” a?aecia/a?oueny
oi?aa?naeuei?noth, oei, ui i?e caeaoiino? iaeiie/oaaoe o nai?o aacao
aeaieo cia/io e?euee?noue anaa?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aiia ia iiopaao?
aaeeei? eieueeinoi eiii’thoapia (aeinoaoiuei 2–3 eiii’thoape), ia
iiopaao? eapaeeiaeueii? iapaaoaeiae ieneaiiy eieapia, i?inoa oa iaaeieia
a piaioi, aeicaiey? eieapyi i nopoeoopai oipaaeiiiy aio/ei ? oaeaeei
iopeioaaoe ??ciiiai?oio iioipiaoeith, iiaea i?aoethaaoe ca aoaeue–yeeo
oiia aeiiiii/iiai picpaooieo, nopaoiai? iaaeeoeeie. Nenoaia ?aaeiciaaia
o na?aaeiaeui CLIPPER–5.01.

I?e aiaeici aeaiia?aoi/ii? neooaoei? aeaio iieieeiiie ie aecia/eee
ciaioaiiy ai?iaeiaae 1993–1996 ?ieia eieueeinoi iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?
aeioae aei ?ieo ia 11,4-17,3%, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e
(C.A. Oe??ye-Ieaeiee, 1996; I.A. Aieaea, 1997; ?.N. Ni?yi, 1997). ?ioa
oaiaeaioeiy, yea ia? ye iiceoeai?, oae ? iaaaoeai? ?ene, ? yeo ie
niinoa??aaee – ciaioaiiy eieueeinoi aeioae, ye? aiaeaiaeothoue
aeioeieueii onoaiiae (aeeoy/i naaei/ee). Oae ?o eieueeinoue ca oeae
i?iiiaeie /ano ciaioeeanue o Eueaiai a 2,4, o *a?aiiia?aaei – a 1,7
?ace.

I?e aiaeici no?oeoo?e caoai?thaaiue o iieieeiiieao, aea i?iaiaeeeeny
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie aecia/eee, ui caaaeueia no?oeoo?a oai?ia iaio
iie?ee?i?e ? iiae?aiith, i?ioa ieoiia aaaa ??cieo eean?a oai?ia
?icieoueny ye a /an?, oae ? ca oa?eoi?iaeueiith iciaeith (oaae. 1).
I?ia?aeieie caoai?thaaiiyie a iaio iie?ee?i?eao (ae?oe a?ae 0 aei 15
?ie?a) aeyaeeeny oai?iae i?aaiia aeeoaiiy (VIII eean ca IEO). Oae, o
eueaianueeee iieieeiiioei aiie neeaaeaee i?ioyaii 1993–1994 ?ieia 61,5 i
49,9% onio caoai?thaaiue. O iieieeiiioei *a?aiiia?aaea aiaenioie oeeo
oai?ia aoa iiae?aiei: o 1994 ?ioei – 61,3%, o 1995 – 62,6%, o 1996 –
60,7%. Ae?oaa iinoea a iaio iieieeiiieao caeiaee oai?iae ia?aiai?
nenoaie i i?aaiia /oooy (VI eean ca IEO): 16,8–19,4% i 14,9–14,3–10,9%
aiaeiiaiaeii. Oe? aeai? ni?aiaaeathoue c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e
(O.ss.*a?oie, A.I?ao, 1987; I.E. Ee?eeaiei, 1989; A.TH. Aeuea?oeueeee,
A.A. Ni?ie?i, N.A. Aiaiue?i, 1993), oi/a ?.Ae. Aeoa?inueea, O.ss. *a?oie
(1975), I.I. Aaeea?i (1990) ia ae?oaa iinoea a no?oeoo?i oai?ia
noaaeyoue iioaeoeieii i ia?aceoa?ii oai?iae.

Ieoiia aaaa ?ioeo eean?a oai?ia aoea aa??aaaeueiith a ??cieo
iie?ee?i?eao ? a ??ci? ?iee niinoa?aaeaiiy. sseui o eueaianueeie
iieieeiiioei a 1993–1994–o ?ieao ia o?aoueiio ?aiaiaiio iinoei
ciaoiaeeeeny iioaeoeieii i ia?aceoa?ii oai?iae: 5,5 i 10,7%
aiaeiiaiaeii, oi a /a?aiiia?aaenueeie iieieeiiioei i?ioyaii 1994–1996
?ieia o?ao? iinoea noieei caeiaee o?aaie i io?o?iiy: 6,8 – 6,4 – 7,9%, a
iioaeoeieii i ia?aceoa?ii oai?iae o 1994–1995 ?ieao aoee ia /aoaa?oiio –
3,2–3,0%, a 1996 ?ioe? ia 6 i?noe? – 2,8%. Ia /aoaa?oiio iinoei a
iieieeiiioei i.Eueaiaa o 1993 ?ioei aoee oai?iae aiaeie?eiii? nenoaie,
?iceaaee oa?/oaaiiy, ii?ooaiiy iaiiio ?a/iaei i iioiioaoo – 3,1%; ia
i’yoiio iinoei – oai?iae i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy – 2,7%. O 1994 ?ioei ia
/aoaa?oiio iinoei o euea?anuee?e iie?ee?i?oe? aoee oai?iae i?aaiia
o?aaeaiiy – 3,9% ia i’yoiio – oai?iae oei?e i iiaeoei?ii? iniiae – 3,2%.
O iieieeiiioei *a?aiiia?aaea i’yoa iinoea oi?iaeiaae o?ueio ?ieia
caeiaee oai?iae oe??e i iiaeoei?ii? iniiae – 2,6–2,5–3,0%, oinoa –
oai?iae einoeiai–i’ycaai? nenoaie oa niieo/ii? oeaieie – 2,5–2,5–3,6% .
C?inoaiiy a oe?e iie?ee?i?oe? ieoiii? aaae XIII eeano oai?ia i?ioyaii
1996 ?ieo aeaaei ?o ia /aoaa?oa i?noea o no?oeoo?? caoai?thaaiino?.
Iii??i? eieeaaiiy niinoa?iaaeeny i na?aae iioeo eean?a oai?ia, i?ioa
aiie, ye i?aaeei, aoee iacia/i?.

Oaaeeoey 1

No?oeoo?a caoai?thaaiue ae?oae an?o a?eiaeo a?oi a iieieeiiieao
i.Eueaiaa oa i.*a?aiiia?aaea o 1993-1996 ??.

Nei?i/ai? iacae eean?a ? Eeane Oeo?e i.Euea?a, % i.*a?aiiia?aae, %

ie?aieo oai?ia IEO ca IEO 1993 1994 1994 1995 1996

?ioaeoe?ei? ? ia?aceoa?i? I 001-139 5,5 10,7 3,2 3,0 2,8

Iiaiooai?aiiy II 140-239 0,2 0,3 0,3 0,4 0,5

Aiaeie?eii?, iai?ii?, ?ioii? III 240-279 3,1 3,0 0,2 0,2 0,4

Oai?iae e?ia? IV 280-289 0,2 0,5 0,5 0,5 1,3

Ineo?/i? ?iceaaee V 290-319 1,0 0,2 1,4 1,6 1,5

Oa. ia?a. neno. ? i?a. /oooy VI 320-389 16,8 19,4 14,9 14,3 10,9

Oa. nenoaie e?iaiia?ao VII 390-459 1,5 1,0 0,3 0,3 0,3

Oa. i?aai?a aeeoaiiy VIII 460-519 61,5 49,9 61,3 62,6 60,7

Oa. i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy IX 520-579 2,7 3,9 2,2 2,1 2,8

Oa. na/inoaoaai? nenoaie X 580-629 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,5 2,6

Oa. oe??e ? i?aeoe. iniiae XII 680-709 2,3 3,2 2,6 2,5 3,0

Oa. e?noie ? niie. oeaieie XIII 710-739 0,8 1,4 2,5 2,5 3,6

A?iaeaeai? aiiiae?? XIV 740-759 0,3 0,4 1,2 1,2 0,4

Ie?ai? ia?eiaoaeuei? noaie XV 760-779 0,4 1,2 0,6 0,5 0,8

Ia oi/ii aecia/ai? noaie XVI 780-799 0,9 0,6 0,4 0,4 0,4

O?aaie, io?o?iiy XVII 800-999 1,6 2,9 6,8 6,4 7,9

Ii??aithth/e no?oeoo?o caoai?thaaiue o ae?oae ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi, ie
aecia/eee, ui i?ia?aeieie caoai?thaaiiyie o an?o a?eiaeo a?oiao ae?oae,
ye ? o iie?ee?i?oe? a oe?eiio, aoee oai?iae i?aai?a aeeoaiiy oa oai?iae
ia?aiai? nenoaie ? i?aai?a /oooy. Ieoiia aaaa oai?ia i?aai?a aeeoaiiy
iii??ii eieeaaeany a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oiao ae?oae, caeaaeaea a?ae
oa?eoi??? ? ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy ?, a iniiaiiio, ci?ithaaeany a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?aeai?ieia?/ii? neooaoe??, c?inoath/e i?ae /an
ai?aeai?e ?ani??aoi?ieo ?ioaeoe?e. Ieoiia aaaa oai?ia ia?aiai? nenoaie ?
i?aai?a /oooy iaea oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy c a?eii ae?oae, ui
a?eueo /?oei i?ine?aeeiao?oueny ca aeaieie iie?ee?i?ee i.Eueaiaa, ?
??cieeany ca oa?eoi???th ? ia??iaeii niinoa?aaeaiiy. O ae?oae ia?oeo
?ie?a aeeooy iniiaia e?euee?noue caoai?thaaiue oeueiai eeano oai?ia
i?eiaaeaea ia caiaeuei? caoai?thaaiiy i/ae oa ioeoe, aiiiene/ii
o?aaeaiiy oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie (OeIN) i aioeaoaeiiaoi?. O
noa?oeo ae?oae oa ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo nooo?ai ca?eueooaaeanue
e?euee?noue caoai?thaaiue, iia(ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyie ?ao?aeoe??,
aeiiiaeaoe?? ? ?ioeie ?iceaaeaie ci?o.

I?aeoe/ii a on? a?eia? ia??iaee aeinoaoiuei nooo?aith aoea e?euee?noue
?ioaeoe?eieo oa ia?aceoa?ieo oai?ia. No?oeoo?a oeueiai eeano oai?ia
a?ae??ciyeany o ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee. O ae?oae ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy
a?eueoa o?aoeie caoai?thaaiue i?eiaaeaei ia ??ciiiai?oi? eeoeia?
?ioaeoe??, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny i?iiinii. O noa?oeo ae?oae i?ia?aneaii
ca?eueooaaeanue e?euee?noue aeeoy/eo ?ioaeoe?e, a??oniiai aaiaoeoo,
no?aioieieiaeo ?ioaeoe?e, ?ioaeoe?eiiai iiiiioeeaico ? aaeuei?io?a.

A iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ie niinoa??aaee eieeaaiiy ieoiii? aaae ?ioeo
eean?a oai?ia ye a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oiao, oae ? ia ??cieo oa?eoi??yo
i?ioyaii ??cieo ia??iae?a niinoa?aaeaiiy. Neeaaea?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui
aeeiai?/ia ci?ia oa?aeoa?enoee ioi/aiiy ae?oae aeeeeea? aeiaie? nooo?a?
ci?ie caaaeueii? no?oeoo?e oai?ia ? ie?aieo eean?a oai?ia ? aeiaaa?
iino?eiiai iii?oi?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy.

Aeey ii?iaiyiiy iicieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e aeaio i?ia?aeieo eeania
caoai?thaaiue, o ?icieo iieieeiiieao, ie i?iaaee iaiaoiaeiee aiae?c ca
?acoeueoaoaie 1994 ?ieo. A oeieiio ea?oeia no?oeoo?e oai?ia i?aaiia
aeeoaiiy a aeaio ?icieo oa?eoi??aeueieo iieieeiiieao ? iiaeiaiith ca
iniiaieie caoai?thaaiiyie. Ia?aaaaeaee aino?i ?anii?aoi?ii ai?onii
iioaeoei? i ?o oneeaaeiaiiy. I?ioa i?e oaaaeiiio ?icaeyaei ie
canaiae/eee c?inoaiiy a 2 ?ace ieoiii? aaae aea?ai/ieo ?eiioia,
o?iii/ieo a?iioioia i a?iioiaeueii? anoie a /a?aiiia?aaenueeie
iieieeiiioei, ui iiaea naiae/eoe i?i aeieiai/ia iaaeaaiiieo//y oei??
oa?eoi???, ia yeie ?iciiuaia cia/ia eieueeinoue aoaeaaeiaoaieo oaoo oa
caaiae?a o?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee.

I?e aiaeici iioeo eeania oai?ia ie aecia/eee, a iniiaiiio, iiaeiaiinoue
ieoiii? aaae iicieiai/ieo iaeeieoeue a ?icieo iieieeiiieao, i?ioa i?e
aeaoaeueiiio aiaeici, iniaeeai a eiie?aoieo aieiaeo a?oiao, c’yaeyeeny
?icaiaeiinoi, ui i?eoaiaiii iieieeiiieai.

I?e aiaeici aaniethoii? eieueeinoi aeiaaeeia caoai?thaaiue, ui aoee
ca?a?no?iaaii o iieieeiiieao i?ioyaii eaeaiaea?iiai ?ieo, i eieueeinoi
aeiaaeeia caiaeii iniiaieo eeania ca IEO ie caoaaaeeee, ui iaeaieueoi
eieeaaiiy eieueeinoi ca?a?no?iaaieo i?ioyaii eaeaiaea?iiai ?ieo
aeiaaeeia oai?ia aiaeii/ai? na?aae o?ueio eeania: oai?iae i?aaiia
aeeoaiiy, oai?iae ia?aiai? nenoaie i i?aaiia /oooy (ia?aaaaeii ye
iane?aeie ?ani??aoi?ieo caoai?thaaiue), iioaeoeieii i ia?aceoa?ii
oai?iae. Oei oai?iae cia/iith ii?ith iaeaaeaoue aei oae caaieo
“a?aeiinii ea?iaaieo caoai?thaaiue”, ia e?euee?noue yeeo iiaeia aieeaaoe
/a?ac aiaeiiaiaeii iaaeeei–i?aaiicaoeieii i iaaeeei–nioeiaeueii caoiaee.

Iii?oi?eia ae?oae o aeaio iie?ee?i?eao iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
aaniethoio e?euee?noue ? iioe?ai?noue caoai?thaaiue a ??cieo a?eiaeo
a?oiao ae?oae. I?e aiaeici iieacieea iioe?aiino? caoai?thaaiue /ioei
oieno?oueny oieueee iaeia caeiiiii?iinoue, ui iaea iinoea a iaio
iieieeiiieao a oni ?iee niinoa?aaeaiiy. Oea aenieee ?iaaiue iieacieea
i?ioyaii ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy i ciaioaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiinoi oai?ia
i?ioyaii ae?oaiai ?ieo aeeooy aeioae. O iiaeaeueoiio iaeiicia/ia aieiaa
caeaaei?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiinoi oai?ia aoea aiaenooiy. A ?icii ?iee i a
?icieo iieieeiiieao aoee nai? iiee i iaaeiiiy ?iaiy oeueiai iieacieea o
ae?oae ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aa?iio i?iaeeaaiiy.
Eiii’thoa?iee iii?oi?eia, ui oieno? i, aiaeiiaiaeii, eeaneoieo? eiaeai
eiioaeo aeeoeie i iaaee/ii? onoaiiae, caaacia/o? ia’?eoeaia aiaeoai?aiiy
neooaoei? a iaaeao iieieeiiiee, ie?aii? aeieueieoei, e?ea?y oiui. Aeaii,
ui io?eiothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith AIN, aeicaieythoue nai?/anii aecia/eoe
i?ia?aei? eeane caoai?thaaiue i ie?aii iicieiai/ii iaeeieoei na?aae
aeioae ??cieo aieiaeo ia?iiaeia, ioeiieoe ?iciianthaeaeaiinoue
??ciiiai?oieo caoai?thaaiue, a oiio /ene? aeieia?/ii caeaaeieo, a/anii
nei?aaoaaoe ?iaioo a?aeiia?aeieo iaaee/ieo oa oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo neoaea a
caeaaeiinoi aiae iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue.

A?aoiaoth/e /anoioo, aeooaeuei?noue i i?iaiinoe/io oeiiiinoue
?iciiiaiioieo caoai?thaaiue, aeey iiaeaeueoiai aiaeico c caaaeueii?
aea??ee o 19 000 ae?oae aoee aiaeia?aii a?oie ae?oae ?c caoai?thaaiiyie
a 9 eeanao oai?ia caiaeii c IEO (IX ia?aaeyaeo). Ie?aii ie aeaeieeee
a?oio aeioae, yei /anoi oai?iee (Ae*O). Eiio?ieai aoee aeioe, ui
aaaaeaeeny caei?iaeie (1–2 a?oia caei?ia’y) i ia iaee aeiaaeeia aino?eo
caoai?thaaiue i?ioyaii eaeaiaea?iiai ?ieo (oaae. 2).

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia eiioeiaaioi aeioae aeeoy/i? iieieeiiiee
i.*a?aiiia?aaea i?ioyaii 1994–1996 ?ieia. Eieueeinoue aeioae a a?oiao
aoea a?aei?iiith, ui ia?aaeon?i iia(ycaii c ??ciith ?iciianthaeaeaiinoth
ie?aieo caoai?thaaiue na?aae aeioae. A?oie oi?ioaaeeny oaeei /eiii, uia
aeeeth/eoe iiaeeea?noue ii?aeiaiiy aeae?eueeio caoai?thaaiue ??cieo
eean?a oai?ia o iaeiiai oai?iai. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino? oeii/eeia i
aeia/ao a a?oiao aoei aac ?noioii? ??cieoe?. A?eiaee neeaae a?oi aoa
iiae?aiee.

Oaaeeoey 2

?iciiaeie aeioae ca a?oiaie aeineiaeaeaiiy

Eean ca IEO Eiaee ae?aaiic?a ? a?oie E?euee?noue ae?oae

Eiio?ieue Caei?ia? 1 1546

I 001-009 2 85

II 140-239 3 106

III 240-270 4 58

IV 280-289 5 176

VI 380-389 6 1238

VIII 466, 480-486 7 2912

IX 520-579 8 599

X 580-599 9 346

XI 690-687 10 251

Ae*O

11 1500

I?e iiia?aaeiueiio aiaeici iayaieo oaeoi?ia ?eceeo ie ei?enooaaeeny ?o
aaeueieie ioeiieaie. Aieueo aeaoaeueiee aiaeic i?iaiaeeany ia iniiai
niaoeiaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai.

O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? caei?iaeo ae?oae ia?aaaaeia eieueeinoue iaoa?ia
(94%) aoee caei?iai, ?o aaaioiinoue ia?aaiaaea ii?iaeueii (91,8%),
iieiae i?ioiaeeee aac oneeaaeiaiue (90,9%), ui, iiaeeeai, coiiaeei
iecueeee aiaenioie iaoieiai/ieo noai?a i oai?ia o iaiiaeyo i?ney ?o
ia?iaeaeaiiy (8%). 84% iaoa?ia ciaoiaeeeeny a iioeiaeueiiio
aeioi?iaeiiio aioei, na?aaeiie aie iaoa?ia aoa 24,9±0,1 ?ie. O 7,6%
iaoa?ia ?aiioa aoee aeeeaeii aai aai?oe, 1,9% iaoa?ia iaee eiioaeo c?
oeiaeeeainoyie ia ?iaioi aei aaaioiinoi i 0,2% – iiae /an aaaioiinoi,
nioeiaeueii oaeoi?e ?eceeo aiaeii/aeeny a 6% iaoa?ia. Na?aae inoaiiio
ia?aaaaeaee iaeicaaacia/aii iaoa?i oa oaei, ui i?iaeeaaee a ao?oiaeeoeo.
Ani ?iaeeie aoee iiaieie, oieueee iaeeieoei aaeeaaee aeeiaieue /e
iaeeee. Na?aae aaoueeia iaee eiioaeo c? oeiaeeeainoyie ia ae?iaieoeoa?
3,5%, nioeiaeueii oaeoi?e ?eceeo ? iiaai? cae/ee – 30,4% (na?aae yeeo
88% i?eiaaeaei ia eo?iiiy i 11,5% ia noeeuei?noue aei aaeeaaiiy
aeeiaieth).

84,9% aeioae oei?? a?oie ia?iaeeeeny c aeiaaeeiith 50–53 ni ? 74,2% c
ianith a?ae 3000 aei 3700 a, ui o iiaeaeueoiio ie aaaaeaee iioeiaeueiei.
Ioeiieo ca oeaeith Aiaa? a 8–10 aaeia ia 5 oaeeei? aeeooy io?eiaee 93,5%
aeioae. Aieueoa iiae o?aoeia aeioae aoee i?eeeaaeaii aei a?oaeae o ia?oi
aeai aiaeeie iiney ia?iaeaeaiiy (33,6%), o oa?iii iiney 24 aiaeei
oieueee 5,6%. Na?aaeiie oa?iii ia?oiai i?eeeaaeaiiy aeioae a a?oiao –
11,21±0,31 aiaeeie. I?aeoe/ii ani aeioe (99,1%) iinooieee iiae iaaeyae
iieieeiiiee c nooith ioieiaith ?aieith, 98,4% ciaoiaeeeeny ia
i?e?iaeiiio aeaiaeiaoaaiii o ia?oee iinyoeue aeeooy, 92,4% caa??aaee
eiai i?ioyaii 2 oa 3 i?nyoe?a aeeooy.

Oaeei /eiii, iniiaia iana aeioae c aenieith ?acenoaioiinoth iaee
caei?iaeo aaoueeia, iaoneeaaeiaiee ia?aaia aaaioiinoi i iieiaia o
iaoa??a, ia?iaeeeeny c iioeiaeueieie iieacieeaie ?inoo oa iane oiea,
aoee i?eeeaaeaii aei a?oaeae o ia?oo aeiao, ciaoiaeeeeny ia i?e?iaeiiio
aeaiaeiaoaaiii, iaee ia?oo a?oio caei?ia’y iaiiaeyo. Iao? niinoa?aaeaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeoieo TH.?.Aaeueo?uaaa (1994), C.A.Oe??ye–Ieaeiee
(1996), ?.N. Ni?yia (1997), ui caei?iaa aeeoeia ia?iaeaeo?oueny o
caei?iaeo aaouee?a, i?e ii?iaeueiiio ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino? ? iieia?a.

Ca aecia/aieie ia?aiao?aie ie ii?iaiyee a?oie aeioae, ui oai?iee, c
eiio?ieueiith a?oiith caei?iaeo aeioae. A?eueo?noue iieaciee?a o an?o
a?oiao oai?eo ae?oae nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Ca
a?aeii i?noey ie iaaiaeeii iniiai? ii??aiyeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaea?eueoi? a?oie ae?oae c aecia/aiei eeanii oai?ia ca IEO.

O nueii?e a?oi? (2912 aeioae, ye? ia?aoai?iee a?iioioii aai iiaaiiii?th)
o?aoeia iaoa?ia (31,8%) iaea ?iciiiaiioii niiaoe/i? caoai?thaaiiy, 34,8%
– oneeaaeiaiee ia?aaia aaaioiinoi, 35,4% – ii?ooaiiy ii?iaeueiiai
ia?aaiao iieiaia, aaeai/i /anoioa cono?i/aeeny iiia?aaeii aeeeaeii i
aai?oe, ?noioii /ano?oa oeiaeeeainoi ia ae?iaieoeoa? aei aaaioiinoi
(16,5%) i iiae /an aaaioiinoi (8,7%), nioeiaeueii oaeoi?e ?eceeo ?
oe?aeeea? cae/ee (23,0%). O aaoueeia a /ioe?e ?ace /anoioa cono?i/aeeny
oeiaeeeainoi ia ae?iaieoeoa? (16,4%), iaeaea eiaeai ae?oaee iaa
nioeiaeueii oaeoi?e ?eceeo aai oe?aeeea? cae/ee (47,1%).

I?e ?ao?iniaeoeaiiio aecia/aii? o 50,6% ae?oae oe??? a?oie aaea a
iieiaiaiio aoaeeieo aoee aeiaaiinoiaaii ??ciiiai?oi? iaoieiai/ii noaie
aai caoai?thaaiiy, 15,4% ae?oae i?e ia?iaeaeaii? iaee iaaeinoaoith ?
22,3% – iaaei??io iano, aeinoia??ii iaioeie aoee na?aaeii iieacieee
c?inoo – 51,38±0,05 ni (?

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