IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

I?I?NOA?NOAI AOA?EUeII? I?IIENEIAINO?

A?AeAe?EAIIss O?CEEI-OAOI?*IEO A??IE*EO I?IAEAI AeIIAOeUeEIAI
O?CEEI-OAOI?*IIAI ?INOEOOOO ?i.I.I.AAEE?IA

??iaeia A?eoi? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 622.834

I?IAIIC CI?IE NOAIO I?Ae?IAEAIIAI A??IE*IAI IANEAO I?E CAE?EOO?
AOA?EUeIEO OAOO

05.15.11.-«O?ce/i? i?ioeane a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa»

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?aeae?eaii? o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO?
?i. I.I.Aaee?ia IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? aee?aeoi? A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo
a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? ?i. I.I.Aaee?ia IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?iaoaeai?iio
Oe?a?ie

Aeaen??a A.Ae.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? canooiiee aee?aeoi?a NEOA ?inoeoooo
aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Nio?enueeee E.E.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, caa?aeoaa/
eaai?aoi??? a??ie/iai oeneo Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oa i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeiai ?inoeoooo a??ie/i?
aaieia??, aaiiaoai?ee ? ia?eoaeaea?nueei? ni?aae IAI Oe?a?ie

Ae??aai A.I.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai “Eiiieaeniee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ? i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeee ?inoeooo c i?iaeai
Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiio Aeiiaano” (AeiiIAe?), i. Ai?e?aea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «22» eeiaiue 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E 11.184.02 o A?aeae?eaii? o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo
a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? IAIO ?i.I.I.Aaee?ia ca aae?anith: 340114,
aoe.?.Ethenaiao?a, 72.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?aeae?eaiiy OOAI
AeiiOO? IAIO ?i. I.I.Aaee?ia ca aae?anith: 340114, aoe. ?.Ethenaiao?a,
72.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «19» /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee, eaiae. oaoi. iaoe

?.?.I?oaeaiei

ANOOI

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. A i?ioean? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie iai?/aii cae?eooy a?eueoa 50 aoa?eueieo
oaoo, aenieoaoaoe?y yeeo a no/anieo oiiaao ? ia?aioaaaeueiith. Oi/a ca
a?eueo 200 ??/io ?noi??th Aeiiaano aoei cae?eoi oa caoiieaii a?eueoa 150
oaoo, ?acii c oei a?aenooi?e iaiao?aeiee aeina?ae c ioe?iee aieeao
aeieeath/eo i?e oeueiio i?ioean?a ia ci?ie noaio a?ae?iaaieia?/ii?
ianoaiiaee o a??ie/iio ianea? oa eiai aaiiaoai?/iiai noaio. sse iieacaa
aeina?ae cae?eooy oaoo o i. E?aniiaeii? oa Noaoai?anueeiio ?aa?ii?,
iaea?eueo neeaaeii oe? i?ioeane i?io?eathoue i?e e?ooiiioeeiio oa
e?ooiio caeyaaii? aoa?eueieo ieano?a. Caieiaeaiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae oa
ci?ia ?o o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Oaeiae ia
?ic?iaeai? iaae?ei? niiniae i?iaiicoaaiiy a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oa
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o a??ie/iio ianea? ? ia iiaa?oi?, ui i?e
iayaiino? non?aei?o ae?th/eo aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa aaeeei? aonoeie
caaoaeiae iiaa?oi? iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei aeieeiaiiy aaa??eieo neooaoe?e:
caaiei/aiiy oa canieaiiy oa?eoi??e, ci?ia ?aaeei?a iiaa?oiaaeo
aiaeii?eieea?a, iaaacia/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aoaeeie?a oa nii?oae ? o.ae.

Oiio aeooaeueiei aeey aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? oa ?aa?iio acaaae? ?
aea/aiiy i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o a??ie/iio ianea? i?e cae?eoo?
aoa?eueieo oaoo, oa noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee i?iaiicoaaiiy iaaacia/ieo
neooaoe?e, ui aeicaieyoue aea?aoe iio??ai? aa??aioe cae?eooy oaooe aai
a?oie oaoo.

Ca’ycie oaie aeena?oaoe?? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe io?eiai? a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy
IAe?, ye? i?iaaaeai? o A?aeae?eaii? o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai
AeiiOO? IAI Oe?a?ie (? Ae? 0199U002103 oa ? Ae? 0197U008905), aea aaoi?
i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee i?iaiicoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e oa in?aeaiiy
caiii? iiaa?oi? iaae iieyie cae?eoeo oaoo, yea aaco?oueny ia o?aooaaii?
ci?ie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae i?e ?o iaiieaii? oa
aeoea?caoe?? aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a a ianea? iaae ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii.

?aeay ?iaioe i?noeoueny o aeei?enoaii? iniaeeainoae i?iyaeaiiy
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o eaaao e?ooiai iaae?iiy i?e ??cieo niiniaao
oi?aae?iiy a??ie/ei oeneii oa aieeao ?o ia aeoea?caoe?th i?ioean?a
cnoaaiiy i?e caoiieaii? ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A aeena?oaoe?? aoa aeei?enoaiee eiiieaeniee
iaoiae, yeee aeeth/a? aei naaa: aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo
aea/aiiy a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oa aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e a?ae?iaoe?
ieano?a e?ooiai iaae?iiy o Oe?Ae c aeeth/aiiyi ia??iaeo i?eieiaiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o; aiae?oe/i?, eaai?aoi?i? oa oaooi? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue; ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeianaii ia caoeno, ?o iiaecia.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui aiaeiiane/aiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae ? aoa?eey i?e
iaaaeee?e ci?i? ?o ia’?iii? i?oeiino? a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia (a?eueoa /ei
o 2 ?ace) ciaioaiiy o??ueiino?eeino?. Oea i?eaiaea aei ??cei? ao?aoe
no?eeino? oe?eee?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? ciaioaiiy i?oeiino? a??ie/eo ii??ae oa ?o
ieanoeo?eaoe?? i?e caieiaeaii?, i?ioean iaaaeaiiy iie??ae? iaae
ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii iaea?eueoa aeoea?co?oueny a oeo eaaao, ye? aoee
a?ae?iaeai? c canoinoaaiiyi niinia?a oi?aae?iiy a??ie/ei oeneii
“oo?eiaiiy ia eino?ao” oa i?e ueoia?e ae?ioe?, ui aoaea i?e/eiith
aeiaeaoeiaiai cnoaaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia??iae caanaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a a ianea?
a??ie/eo ii??ae oa ia caii?e iiaa?oi? i?e ae?ioe? naeo e?ooiniaaeieo
aoa?eueieo ieano?a Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiio Aeiiaano ia aeaoi?iaoe??
iiaa?oi? neeaaea? 7-10 ?ie?a.

Iaa?oioiaaii?noue oa a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny:

aeei?enoaiiyi ai?iaiaaieo iaoiaeee oa aia?aoo?e aeey aea/aiiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae, a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oa
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a a a??ie/iio ianea?;

aaeeeei ia’?iii aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
ae?eueieoeyo niinoa?aaeaiue;

ca?aii io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e aeeiiaii? ye aenia??iaioaeueieo, oae ?
aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe i?noeoueny o anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae
i?io?eaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o a??ie/iio ianea? i?e i?eieiaii?
a??ie/eo ?ia?o oa iaa?oiooaaiiy niiniao ?o i?iaiico.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe i?noeoueny o aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaieo
aaoi?ii iaoiae?a aiae?co noaio a??ie/iai ianeao i?e cae?eoo? oaoo aeey
noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee i?iaiico aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii? aaeocaaiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa
I?iaoaeai?iio “Oeiiaee ieai oi?aae?iiy iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai (IOIN)
oaoo, ui cae?eaathoueny (aeiiae aei i?iaeooaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?? ?ia?o c
cieaeaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao cae?eooy oaoo ia aeieia?/io neooaoe?th
aoaeai?iieneiaeo ?aeii?a)”, EAe 12.12.201-97.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa, ?aeay oa iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe. E??i oeueiai aaoi?ii aeeiiaiee aiae?c oa ?ic?iaeaiee
iaa?oioiaaiee niin?a i?iaiico noaio a??ie/iai ianeao i?e cae?eoo? oaoo
ia e?ooiio iaae?ii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oa ?? ie?ai? iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue oa io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia oaoi?/ieo
?aaeao AI “A?oaiaoa?eey” ? “Aeca?aeeinueeaoa?eey” oa ia a/aieo ?aaeao
AOOAI AeiiOO? IAIO (1997-1999??.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, a
oiio /ene? 1 eieaeea oa 5 noaoae o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 118 iaeiaioaaiue ?
i?noeoue 151 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 47 ?enoie?a, 26 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie noaio a??ie/iai ianeao i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieano?a oa
iniaeeainoyi i?io?eaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ?o
i?iaiicoaaiiy ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?ic?iaee aoa?eueieo ?iaeiaeu oa a
??cieo a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao i?ena’y/ai? ?iaioe E.A.A?aeaoaaa,
A.Ae.Aeaen??aa, A.O.Aoeaoa, I.I.Ai?eniaa, N.A.Aaa?oeia, A.I.Eociaoeiaa,
I.A.?io?na, Ae.I.Iaeiae?ia, A.I.Caienaaa, O.I.Aineiai?aa, A.I.Ci??ia,
TH.I.Aaa?eeaiei, TH.O.E?ai?aee, E.O.Naieoeueeiai, I.I.Cai?ueea,
A.Ae.Ne?na??aa, A.I.Ona/aiei, E.E.Nio?enueeiai, N.N.A?aaueiie?ia,
E.I.Oe??ia, A.I.?aaae, ?.?.I?oaeaiei, A.A.Iaceiei, A.A.E?oa?inueeiai,
E.ss.Ia?/aanueeiai, A.?.*a?iy?aa, A.I.Ae??aaia, ?.A.Naaeiaaiei,
TH.O.?icoiiiai, N.A.Eoe?aaae oa ?io.

Iaea?eueo neeaaeii i?io?eathoue oe? i?ioeane i?e a?ae?iaoe? naeo e?ooeo
oa e?ooiiioeeeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a o Oeaio?aeueiiio ?aeii? Aeiiaano,
eiee iaeeaaeothoueny ciie aieeao a?ae e?eueeio iaeii/anii a?ae?iey?ieo
aoa?eueieo ieano?a ia ??cieo aeeaeiao. Aaeeeee aieea ia oe? i?ioeane
/eia ? oaeoii?/ia ii?ooaii?noue aoa?eueieo ieano?a.

A i?ioean? o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo ?iaioe aoa?eueieo oaoo a Oe?Ae
aoaeaii?iaeiee ianea o cia/i?e i??? ci?iea nai? aeanoeaino?:
ca?eueoeeanue ai?cio?ii?y ii??ae c i?eieeiino? ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy
o?niiai a?ae?aae?/iiai ca’yceo i?ae aiaeiiinieie ai?eciioaie a
?acoeueoao? aaaaoi/eneaieo ca?eie oa eaa?oeaa?a, a a ?acoeueoao? eiai
i?ae?iaee iaae ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii eaa ooai?eeanue nenoaia
aiaeii?ia?aeieo o??uei, yea ia? aenioo aei 30-40 iiooaeiinoae
a?ae?iaey?iiai ieanoa, oa aiane?aeie iaeeo a?aenoaiae i?ae ieanoaie o
na?oao oaeiae ? caaaeueiith aiaeii?ia?aeiith nenoaiith. E??i oiai
ci?ieeenue ? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? a??ie/iai ianeao: ciaioeeanue
i?oei?noue neeaaeath/eo eiai ii?iaeieo oa??a, ca?eueoeeenue eiai
ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino?. sse iieacaa aiae?c ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo ?ia?o,
aaiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane o aoaeaii?iaeiiio ianea? i?e a?ae?iaoe? e?ooeo
aoa?eueieo ieano?a aea/aeenue i?e ?ioaineaiiio i?iaaaeaii? a??ie/eo
?ia?o c iino?eiei ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie. ?acii c oei, caeeoathoueny
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie ia?aiao?e i?ioeano aeaoi?ioaaiiy ianeao i?e
i?eieiaii? i?iaaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o ?, iniaeeai, i?e caoiieaii?
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o oaooiith aiaeith a ca’yceo c “iie?ith”
eiina?aaoe??th oaoo. ?ino?oiaioaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie
iiaa?oi? iaae caoiieaieie oaooaie ca aanue ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy a??ie/eo
?ia?o o Aeiiaan? ia aeeiioaaeenue, oi/a, ye iieacaa aeina?ae
a?aeiiaeaiiy oaoo o i?neyai?iiee ia??iae oa cae?eooy ?o o
Noaoai?anueeiio ?aa?ii?, caoiieaiiy a??ie/eo ae?iaie ni?e/eieei ia
o?eueee ci?io a?ae?iaaieia?/iiai ?aaeeio a ianea?, aea ? i?eaaei aei
i?aeoiieaiiy cia/ieo oa?eoi??e.

I?aeoe/ii ia aea/aii ci?io o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo
ii??ae oa aoa?eey i?e ca?eueoaii? ?o aieiaino?, iniaeeai a oiiaao ?o
?ioaineaii? ii?ooaiino? a ciiao i?ae?iaee. Oaeiae ia aeine?aeaeai?
aaiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane o ?ai?o a?ae?iaeaieo eaaao a oiiaao caiiaiaiiy ?o
aiaeith, ia aea/aiee aieea canoiniaaieo niinia?a oi?aae?iiy iie??aeath
ia oa?aeoa? aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano cnoaaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii c oeei aoee noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe, ye?
i?noyoueny a ianooiiiio:

aea/aiiy ?aaeeio oaooii? aiaee i?e i?eieiaii? aenieoaoaoe?? oaoo;

aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae i?e ?o
caieiaeaii? oaooiith aiaeith a ?acoeueoao? caoiieaiiy ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o;

aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a a ?ai?o i?ae?iaeaiiio a??ie/iio
ianea?; ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ?acoeueoao? i?eieiaiiy i?iaaaeaiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o oa ci?ie a?ae?iaaieia?/iiai ?aaeeio;

aea/aiiy ia?aiao??a aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano cnoaaiiy oa aeaoi?iaoe??
caiii? iiaa?oi? ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?o i?iaiico.

A?ae?iaea aoa?eueieo ieano?a o Oe?Ae, yea cae?enith?oueny ia i?ioyc?
a?eueoa 100 ?ie?a i?eaaea aei ?nioth/i? ci?ie a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii?
ianoaiiaee a cii? aieeao aoa?eueieo oaoo. A ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi??/ii?
a?aeea/ee oaooii? aiaee o iaaeao oaooieo iie?a ooai?eeenue aeai?an?ei?
ai?iiee, ye? aeinyaathoue aeeaeie ia aeayeeo oaooao 600-700 i.
Iniaeeaino? o?eueo?aoe?? i?aecaiii? aiaee aaaeeea? aeey aecia/aiiy
aiaeii?eieea?a ia o?eueee ia ae?th/eo oaooao, ?o cia/aiiy c?inoa? i?e
cae?eoo? oaoo, eiee a?aeea/ea aiaee c oaooe i?eieiy?oueny, a aanue
aiaeii?eieea ?iciiae?ey?oueny i?ae noi?aeieie oaooaie. sse iieacaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeeiiai? a oiiaao oaoo AI “A?oaiaoa?eey” oa
“I?aeaeii?e?aecaaoa?eey”, oaeaeeino? o?eueo?aoe?? i?aecaiii? aiaee
iiaeooue aeinyaaoe a?ae nioi? /anoeie aei e?eueeio aeanyoe?a e?o??a ia
aeiao, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?oo aiaee ocaeiaae oaeoii?/ieo o??uei oa
ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?o noi?aeieo oaoo. Anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? i?ae
aaee/eiaie eiao?oe??ioa o?eueo?aoe?? aeeaeiith i?iaaaeaiiy a??ie/eo
?ia?o, yea aeey ae?aiaciio aeeaei a?ae 500 aei 1000 i ia? aeaeyae:

Eo=a(a-I,

aea a oa a — aii???/i? eiao?oe?aioe, cia/aiiy yeeo aeey oiia Oe?Ae
a=0,89-0,90; a=9900-9950; I — aeeaeia i?iaaaeaiiy ?ia?o, i.

Oaeaee?noue caoiieaiiy ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai ia’?io
c aeeth/aiiyi oaoiiaaiii? o??ueioaaoino?, a oaeiae a?ae ?ie?noieo
ia?aiao??a eai’yii-aoa?eueieo ii??ae. C aeina?aeo caoiieaiiy aoa?eueieo
oaoo o 1941-1944 ?ieao a?aeiii, ui ?ie?noue oaoiiaaiii-ii?ooaieo ii??ae
a cii? a?ae?iaeaieo aoa?eueieo ieano?a ioe?ith?oueny o 1,5-2% a?ae ?o
caaaeueiiai ia’?io. Aiae?c aeaieo i?i oaeaeeino? oa /an caoiieaiiy ?yaeo
oaoo iieacaa, ui i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aiaee o oaooao a?aeaoeinue cia/ii
oaeaeoa, /ei oea iiaeiii aoei a a?aeaooeny i?e caoiieaii? aiaeith iaaieo
ia’?i?a a??ie/eo ae?iaie i?eieeaii aiaee, ye? ?ic?aoiaoaaeenue c
i?yiie?i?eii? caeaaeiino?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ia’?i ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o ia iiaeia aecia/aoe ye aeiaooie a?ae?iaeaii? ieiu? ia
iiooaei?noue ieanoa. Iaiao?aeii o?aoiaoaaoe aaiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny i?e iaaaeaii? ii??ae iaae ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii, oa
noai?aiiy cii ?iciooaieo ii??ae. I?i neeaaei?noue a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny i?e ?ooo aiaee o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??,
na?ae/eoue ? anoaiiaeaiiy oo?aoeaioiiai ?aaeeio ?ooo o o??ueioaaoeo
ii?iaeao. Aiae?c aeina?aeo ?ice?eooy caoiieaieo ae?iaie iieaco?, ui i?e
o?eaaeiio caoiieaii? ii?iaee iane/oaaeenue aiaeith, ui i?eaiaeeei aei
ciaioaiiy ?o i?oeiino? o 2-3 ?ace oa ca?eueoaiith a??ie/iai oeneo. ?acii
c oei a?aecia/aeinue, ui ia?aiao?e ci?ie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
a??ie/eo ii??ae i?e caieiaeaii? caeaaeaoue a?ae nooiaiy ?o iaoaii?o?cio
oa ii?ooaiino?.

A??ie/? ii?iaee yaeythoue niaith i?e?iaei? aa?aaaoe a?eueo aai iaio
iino?eiiai neeaaeo oa iiaoaeiae, ye? noi?ioaaeenue a ?acoeueoao?
aaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa caeyaathoue o caii?e ei?? o aeaeyae?
naiino?eieo e?oieia?/ieo ??cieoeue, iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? yeeo
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeanoeainoyie c?acea a??ie/i? ii?iaee.

Aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith a??ie/eo ii??ae ? ?o iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? —
eean o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iiaaae?ieo (noai) ii??ae a
oiiaao ??cieo iaoai?/ieo neeiaeo ae?e.

Iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? a??ie/eo ii??ae ?icae?eythoueny ia aeaoi?iaoe?ei?,
ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue caeaoi?noue ii??ae aeaoi?ioaaoenue i?ae
iaaaioaaeaiiyi, i?oeiino?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ii?? ii??ae ??cii? ae??,
oa ?aieia?/i?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioeane aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii??ae ca
/anii.

sse a?aeiii, a??ie/? ii?iaee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeith ci?ii?noth
nai?o o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeee ianya
aeeiiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio iai?yieo,
a?eueo?noue ieoaiue iio?aaothoue naiai aea/aiiy. Iniaeeai aino?i aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue o aea/aii? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae
i?e caieiaeaii? ?o oaooiith aiaeith.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia oi?eaeuei?e onoaiiaoe?
ia??aiieiiiiiaioiiai o?ueioinueiaiai noeniaiiy OION, yea ?ic?iaeaia oa
noai?aia o A?aeae?eaii? o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai (AOOAI)
AeiiOO? ?i. I.I.Aaee?ia IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, yea
oaeiae ?ic?iaeaia a AOOAI c aeei?enoaiiyi aeina?aeo AIAeI?, ?AAe
?i.A.A.Nei/einueeiai oa ?io. Iniiaiith iniaeea?noth aeacaii? iaoiaeeee ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy (?aeaioeo?eaoe?y) oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaieo
c?ace?a, a yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny oiiaii aeae?eaiee aeaiaioa?iee ia’?i
ii?iaee (aoa?eey) ona?aaeei? a??ie/iai ianeao.

Ooo/ia caieiaeaiiy c?ace?a cae?enithaaeinue oeyoii aaciai??iiai
iane/aiiy o niaoe?aeuei?e onoaiiaoe?. Ciaaaaeaeaiiy c?ace?a
i?iaiaeeeinue a aeneeaoi?? c a?a?ineii?/iith ?a/iaeiith i?e
aaeooi??iaaii? oa oa?i?/iiio aenoooaaii?. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
ia?iaethaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a ca
niaoe?aeueiith iaoiaeeeith ?ic?aooieo i?oei?noieo oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae, yea aaco?oueny ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo
iaoai?ee nooe?eueieo na?aaeiaeu aeey ia’?iiiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio.

A ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ioe?iaii aieea
aieiaiiane/aiino? ia iniiai? iaoai?/i? oa aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
a??ie/eo ii??ae (i?neiaee?a, a?a?e?o?a oa aoa?eey (??cieo ia?ie) oae?
ye: i?oei?noue ia iaeiiinueiaa noeniaiiy oa ia’?iia i?oei?noue, iiaeoeue
THiaa, eiao?oe??io Ioaniia, iiaeoeue cnoao, ia’?iiee iiaeoeue
aeaoi?iaoe??, iiaeoeue niaaeo, aonoeia aia?a?? oi?iici?ie, aonoeia
aia?a?? ci?ie ia’?io, aonoeia aia?a?? ?oeioaaiiy, aoaeoeaia iiaa?oiaaa
aia?a?y oa ?io.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iieaco?, ui aieiaiiane/aiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae oa
aoa?eey oaooiith aiaeith aeoaea nooo?ai aieeaa? ia ?o o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino?. Oae aeey i?neiaee?a i?e c?inoaii? ?o aieiaino? aei 3%
ciaioothoueny iiaeoeue i?oaeiino?, iiaeoeue cnoao a 1,3-1,5 ?ac?a, a
aia?a?y ?oeioaaiiy a 3,4 ?ace. Ciaioaiiy ??ai?a i?oaeieo iiaeoe?a,
aonoeie aia?a?? ci?ie ia’?io oa ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioo Ioaniia ?
aonoeie aia?a?? oi?iici?ie na?ae/eoue i?i ieanoeo?eaoe?th ii??ae. Aiae?c
caeaaeiinoae “aeaa?aoi? iai?oaeaiue-aeaa?aoi? aeaoi?iaoe?e”, ye?
io?eiai? i?e aeaoi?ioaaii? c?ace?a c ??cieie oeiaie oeaiaioo a oiiaao
ia’?iiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, iieacothoue, ui i?e c?inoaii? aieiaino? (aei
3%) niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy iiaeoey niaaeo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
noeeuei?noue ?o aei a?eueo a’yceiai ?oeioaaiiy.

I?oei?noue aoa?eey (ia?ee AE, E, O) ia iaeiiinueiaa noeniaiiy c
ca?eueoaiiyi aieiae a?ae 0,15 aei 3% ciaioo?oueny o 2,8-3,5 ?ace.

Aeoaea aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith a??ie/eo ii??ae ? aoaeoeaia
iiaa?oiaaa aia?a?y (AIA), ui oa?aeoa?eco? o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??aeo, —
oea aia?a?y, yea iaiao?aeia aeey ooai?aiiy iiaiai aeaiaioo iiaa?oi? o
o?e?.

Ia ?en.1 cia?aaeaia ci?ia AIA ii??ae a?ae aieiaino?, aea e?eaa 1 —
i?neiaee c aeeienoi-nethaeyiei oa aeeienoi-e?ai?iiei oeaiaioii, 2 —
i?neiaee c aeeienoi-ea?aiiaoiei oeaiaioii. O??ueiino?ee?noue c?ace?a c
ca?eueoaiiyi ?o aieiaino? a?ae 0,15% aei 2% ciaioo?oueny o 8 oa 2,5
?ace. O.o. ii?? i?neiaee?a iioe?aiith o ieo aeaoaeo?a oeio o??uei i?e ?o
caieiaeaii? cia/ii ciaioo?oueny.

?en.1. Caeaaei?noue AIA i?neiaee?a a?ae ?o aieiaino?:

1 — i?neiaee c aeeienoi-nethaeyiei oa aeeienoi-e?ai?iiei oeaiaioii, 2 —
i?neiaee c aeeienoi-ea?aiiaoiei oeaiaioii.

O ae?iaie/iio i?inoi?? oaooiiai iiey, aea cae?eniaia ae?iea aoa?eueieo
ieano?a, a?aeaoeinue iaaaeaiiy oi?uoth/eo ii??ae, ianea ia? ??ciee
nooi?iue no?oeoo?ieo ii?ooaiue: a?ae iiaiiai ?oeioaaiiy a?ey
a?ae?iaeaiiai ieanoa aei aeayeiai ?icaeoeo (ca?eueoaiiy) i?e?iaeii?
o??ueioaaoino? i?e caa?aaeaii? iiiie?oiino? ia a?aeaeaeaii? aeanyoee
iao??a a?ae ieanoa. Oea icia/a?, ui nooi?iue aiaeiiane/aiiy c?oeiiaaieo
oa /anoeiai ii?ooaieo ii??ae aoaea ??ciei ? iia’ycaiee c iei ci?ia
oa?aeoa?enoee ii??ae aoaea ??ciith.

C oeueiai ?icoi?iiy iaie i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeiiane/aiiy ii??ae
ia niaoe?aeueii i?aeaioiaeaieo c?aceao.

Aeai? aei?iaoaaiue c?ace?a ii??ae iieacothoue, ui c ca?eueoaiiyi
no?oeoo?ii? ii?ooaiiino? oa aiaeiiane/aiino? ii??ae ca?eueoo?oueny
onaaeea i?eaeecii o 2,0-2,5 ?ace oa cieaeo?oueny i?oei?noue o 2,0 ?ace.
Oe? oeeo?e a?aeiinyoueny aei iaea?eueo c?oeiiaaieo ii?iae. I?e/iio
ii/aoeiaa o??ueioaao?noue (3 oa 8 aeaeeieo o??uei ia c?aceo) aiina
cia/ii iaioee aianie a onaaeeo ii??ae, /ei aiaeiiane/aiiy.

*a?ac oa, ui o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?? iiaeooue aooe caeeoai? aoa?euei?
oe?eeee aaeeeeo ?ici???a (ioi?iii? oe?eeee, caeeoai? ae?eueieoe? ieano?a
oa ?io.) aeieea? ieoaiiy aieeao ?o ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai oa
cnoaaiiy a??ie/iai ianeao i?ney caoiieaiiy a??ie/eo ae?iaie oa
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia OION c?ace?a aoa?eey c ci?iith ?o
aieiaino? aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaee. Oe?eee aoa?eey, ui ia? iaaaeeeo
i?e?iaeio aieia?noue, a ?acoeueoao? ia’?iiiai noeniaiiy iiaea aooe
aeineoue aei?noeith (oaa?aeith) iii?ith aeey ii?iaeii? oiau? oa
ia?aoeiaeaeaoe ci?uaiith ?? oiec. sseui oe?eee aoa?eey ia? aaeeeo
i?e?iaeio aieia?noue, oi a oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?i yaey? niaith a?eueo
i?aeaeaoeeao iii?o ca ?aooiie ciiacaiiy /anoeiie oa i?e?iaeie?a ?
ou?eueiaiiy aoa?eey a iueiio.

Oaeei /eiii, ine?eueee aiaeiiane/aiiy nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? a??ie/eo ii??ae oa aoa?eey, i?e
i?iaiicoaaii? ci?ie noaio i?ae?iaeaiiai a??ie/iai ianeao ia oaooao, ui
cae?eaathoueny, iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
?acoeueoaoe.

Ci?ia aieiaino? oa, ye iane?aeie, o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
a??ie/eo ii??ae i?eaiaea aei a?aeiiaeaiiy i?ioeano aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
iaaaeaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae iaae ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii eaa. Oea iia’ycaii a
ia?oo /a?ao c iniaeeainoyie niinia?a oi?aae?iiy a??ie/ei oeneii ia
ieanoao e?ooiai iaae?iiy oa aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui i?e oeueiio
a?aeaoaathoueny. Iaea?eueo iioe?aiei niiniaii oi?aae?iiy a??ie/ei oeneii
i?e a?ae?iaoe? ieaei?o 3-4 ai?eciio?a (o.o. aeeaeie 500-1100 i) ? niin?a
oo?eiaiiy ia eino?ao. Ianya eiai canoinoaaiiy o ??ci? ?iee neeaaea? a?ae
70% aei 50%. Oaeiae aaeeeee ianya canoinoaaiiy o niinia?a ieaaiiai
iioneaiiy (12%) oa iaaaeaiiy ia ueoiaee aa?aaao — 22%. I?e niinia?
oo?eiaiiy ia eino?ao o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?? caeeoa?oueny aaeeea
e?euee?noue i?ea?a?eiiai (aea?aa’yi? noiyee aonoeiith aei 3,33
noiye?a/i2) oa niaoe?aeueiiai (eino?e c e?oaeiai aea?aaa aai oiaeueiiai
a?ona /a?ac 4-6 i ocaeiaae iaae?iiy oa i?inoyaaiiy) e??ieaiiy, yea oi/a
? ?ioaineaii aeaoi?iiaaia o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??, i?ioa caa??aa
caeeoeiao iano/o caeaoi?noue oa i?aeo?eio? /anoeio iie??ae?, ui a?ey
e??ieaiiy. I?e ciaioaii? i?oeiino? ii??ae iie??ae? oa i?aeioae /a?ac
caieiaeaiiy a?aeaoaeaoueny ao?aoa eiioaeoo e??ieaiiy c ii?iaeaie, ui
noaia i?e/eiith iiiiaeaiiy i?ioeano iaaaeaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? oa
aeoea?caoe?? aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o aeuaeaaea/iio a??ie/iio ianea?.

O ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?? ueoiaeie aa?aaaoaie, ye iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
AIAeI? oa AOOAI AeiiOO? IAIO, i?ae iiioaaeiith i?oith ooai?ththoueny
ii?iaeia/?, ye? ia caiiaiai? ii?iaeith ia aenioo aei 6 iiooaeiinoae
ieanoa oa ?ici??aie ocaeiaae iaae?iiy aei 20-30 i. ?aooa ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o caiiaiaii iaaaeaiith ii?iaeith ??cieo ca ?ici??ii eone?a oa
nooiaith ou?eueiaiiy: iaea?eueo ae??ai? o?aeoe?? c iaea?eueoei
ou?eueiaiiyi ciaoiaeyoueny o ieaei?e /anoei? a?ae?iaeaii? nioae. O
aeiaaeeo caoiieaiiy ne?ae /aeaoe iiiiaeaiiy ia?aioneo ii??ae oiec
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o c ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici???a ii?iaeieie i?ae
aaioeeyoe?eiei ai?eciioii ye ocaeiaae iaae?iiy, oae ? oaa?o ia 20-30%.

I?aeaoaaei? oe?eeee aoa?eey, ye? ca o?eaaeee ia??iae ciaoiaeaeaiiy a
ciiao iii?iiai oeneo ?ioaineaii ii?ooai?, i?e iaiieaii? iiaeooue
iaaaeeoenue, ui aeeee/a ia?aione iaaaeaieo ii??ae o ae?iaeaiee i?ino??.
Oiio i?ioean aeoea?caoe?? cnoaaiiy a??ie/iai ianeao caoiieoue anth ieiuo
a?ae?iaee, ui ?aae?co?oueny o aeiaeaoeiaiio in?aeaii? caiii? iiaa?oi?.

A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiai a ?iaio? aiae?co aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a
anoaiiaeaii, ui aieia? ii?iaee iiaeooue ia?ai?noeoenue iaae ae?iaeaiei
i?inoi?ii ia 10-20% a?ae aeeiyoi? iiooaeiino? aoa?eueieo ieano?a.

Aaiiaoai?/ia noaia aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano cnoaaiiy i?e caoiieaii?
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o cia?aaeaia ia ?en. 2.

?en. 2. Aaiiaoai?/ia noaia aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano cnoaaiiy i?e caoiieaii?
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o: a) aei caoiieaiiy; a) i?ney caoiieaiiy.

Aeeiiaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee i?iaiicoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e
caiii? iiaa?oi? i?e ?ic?iaoe? na?oe e?ooiniaaeieo ieano?a, a oiio /ene?
? aeeth/aieo aei ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaio?a, iieacaa, ui
?ic?aooiee ca ieie i?eaiaeyoue aei cia/ieo iiieeie.

Oea iiaeia iiynieoe neaaeeie iaae?ei?noth oa iaa?oioiaaii?noth
ia?aiao??a i?ioeano cnoaaiiy a?ae ie?aieo ae?iaie. Ii-ia?oa, aei iiiaioo
?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo, a aiia ia ci?ithaaeanue c na?aaeeie 60-o
?ie?a, aoa a?aeiinii iaeee ia’?i niinoa?aaeaiue. C ae?oaiai aieo, aiae?c
niinoa?aaeaiue i?e aaeee?e e?eueeino? iaeii/anii aieeaath/eo ae?iaie
iiaeeeaee o?eueee i?e iayaiino? iiooaeieo i?ia?ai aeey AII, ye? a oie
ia??iae aoee a?aenooi?.

Oiiae oa caeiiii??iino? noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo onooi?a, a iniiaiiio,
aea/ai? aeey iai?aioeueaee ocaeiaae iaae?iiy a ia??iae c?inoaiiy
onooi?a. Onooiai a iai?aioeueae? ca i?aeiyooyi i?aeoe/ii ia
i?eae?eyeanue oaaaa ye i?e oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, oae ? i?e
i?aai?caoe?? niinoa?aaeaiue. Iaeiae c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie onooie a
iai?aioeueae? ocaeiaae iaae?iiy aoaeooue ciaiooaaoeny, a a iai?aioeueae?
ca i?aeiyooyi iaaiaee. Oiio aeooaeuei?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy onooi?a a
iai?aioeueae? ca i?aeiyooyi c?inoa?.

?ici??e ciie aieeao a?ae aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano cnoaaiiy iaae noa?eie
a??ie/eie ae?iaeaie, oa?aeoa? oa o?eaae?noue cnoaaiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae
ianooiieo oaeoi??a:

a) iiooaeiino? a?ae?iaeaiiai ieanoa aoa?eey, eooa iaae?iiy oa aeeaeie
?icoaooaaiiy ae?iaie;

a) ?ici???a i/enieo ae?iaie, ?icoaooaaiiy oa ?ici???a caeeoaieo
oe?eee?a;

a) o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ii??ae;

a) no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ianeao a??ie/eo ii??ae (i?enooi?noue
iiooaeieo i?oeieo oa??a ii??ae).

Aeey ?ic?aooie?a cnoaaiiy oa aeaoi?iaoe?e caiii? iiaa?oi? a?ae
aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano cnoaaiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae i?e caoiieaii? a??ie/eo
ae?iaie cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiaeeeo TH.I.Aaa?eeaiei, aea
iaeiei ?c iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ? oae iacaaia aieeaath/a iiooaei?noue
ieanoa ia i?ioean aeoea?caoe??.

O oi?ioeao aeey ?ic?aooieo cnoaaiiy aeoea?caoe?? aeei?enoiao?oueny oae
iacaaia aieeaath/a iiooaei?noue ieanoa ia i?ioean aeoea?caoe??.

Aieeaath/a iiooaei?noue aecia/a?oueny aeey eiaeii? a?ae?iaeaii? ae?iaee
a iaaeao ai?eciioo c oi?ioee:

ma=K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 ma,

aea ma — aieeaath/a iiooaei?noue a?ae?iaeaiiai ieanoa i?eeia?oueny a
?ic?aooieo aeaoi?iaoe?e caiii? iiaa?oi? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeoea?caoe??
i?ioeano cnoaaiiy i?e caoiieaii? a??ie/eo ae?iaie;

E1 — eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith iaoaii?o?cio aoa?eey;

E2 — eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio ii??ae aaciina?aaeiuei?
iie??ae?;

E3 — eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae iaaiaeiaiiino? a??ie/eo ii??ae;

E4 — eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeaeie a??ie/eo ii??ae;

E5 — eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao oi?aae?iiy iie??aeath;

ma — aeeiyoa iiooaei?noue ieanoa.

Aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith aeey oiia oaooe
“Ei/aaa?ea” iieacaee, ui i?e caoiieaii? ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aaee/eia
iaeneiaeueiiai in?aeaiiy a?ae eiaeiiai ai?eciioo (a ae?aiacii? 500-1100
i) neeaaea? 0,4-0,5 i, ui aeceaa? i?e??no aenioe onooio 20-30 ii.

Oea iaaea? iiaeeea?noue cacaeaeaa?aeue ioe?ieoe ??aaiue caoiieaiiy
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o c o?aooaaiiyi i?i?iaeueieo iioeiaeaeaiue caaoaeia.

Oaeiae iaeiaea/aiei ia?aiao?ii i?ioeano cnoaaiiy ia e?ooiniaaeieo
ieanoao ? ia??iae, i?ae /an yeiai aeieea? aieea a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia
aeaoi?iaoe?? caiii? iiaa?oi?.

A ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ye? io?eiai? ia
iacaiieo noaioe?yo niinoa?aaeaiue, ui aoee caeeaaeai? a ciiao aieeao
oaooe “Ei/aaa?ea”, aea i?iaaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o i?eieiaii o ca’yceo c
cae?eooyi, anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioean aeaoi?iaoe?e ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei
caanaiiy. Ia ?en. 3 cia?aaeai? a?ao?ee in?aeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae /ano
c noaioe?? niinoa?aaeaiue ia oaoo? “Ei/aaa?ea”. Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe, ui ia??iae caanaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e caiii? iiaa?oi? neeaaea? 7-10 ?ie?a, ui o 2-2,5 ?ace aeua
ii?iaoeaiiai.

?en. 3. A?ao?e in?aeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae /ano.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaiee ?iciiae?e caeeoeiaiai
aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o oa i?ioean?a aeoea?caoe?? i?e caoiieaii? c
?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue ia caii?e iiaa?oi?.

AENIIAEE

A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ae??oaia aeooaeueia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia caaea/a, ui ca’ycaia c i?iaiicoaaiiyi aeoea?caoe??
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e caoiieaii? oaoo a Oeaio?aeueiiio ?aeii?
Aeiiaano.

Iniiai? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe i?noyoueny o ianooiiiio:

I?iaiicoaaiiy i/?eo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e caiii? iiaa?oi? ca iaoiaeeeaie
?nioth/eo ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaio?a cae?enith?oueny c cia/ieie
iiieeeaie. Oea aeeeeeaii neaaeeie iaae?ei?noth oa iaa?oioiaai?noth
i?ioeano cnoaaiiy a?ae ie?aieo ae?iaie.

A i?ioean? a?ae?iaee aoa?eueieo ieano?a o Oe?Ae ??cei ci?ieany
a?ae?iaaieia?/iee ?aaeei, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ooai?aiiyi aeai?an?eieo
ai?iiie aeeaeiith aei 700 i oa i?aeaeuaiith i?iieei?noth aoaeaii?iaeii?
oiau? aiane?aeie ?ice?eooy ?? ae?iaeaie ocaeiaae i?inoyaaiiy oa iaao?ano
i?inoyaaiiy, a oaeiae ?ioaineaiith i?ae?iaeith i/enieie aeaiyie c
ooai?aiiyi nenoaie oaoiiaaiieo o??uei.

Eiao?oe??io o?eueo?aoe?? a??ie/iai ianeao aeey ieano?a e?ooiai iaae?iiy
oa aeeaeie o ae?aiacii? a?ae 500 aei 1000 i iiaeeeai aecia/eoe c
aii??e/ii? caeaaeiino? Eo = a a-I, aea a oa a — aii??e/i? eiao?oe??ioe;
I — aeeaeia ?ia?o, i.

A i?ioean? aiaeiiane/aiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae oa aoa?eey ciaioothoueny ?o
i?oaei? oa i?oei?noi? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ui i?eaiaea aei ieanoeo?eaoe??
a??ie/iai ianeao.

Aiaeiiane/aiiy a??ie/eo ii??ae oa aoa?eey aeeeeea? noeeuei?noue ?o aei
a?eueo a’yceiai ?oeioaaiiy.

I?e ca?eueoaii? aieiaino? a??ie/eo ii??ae oa aoa?eey aei 6% ??aaiue ?o
o??ueiino?eeino? ciaioo?oueny aei 8 ?ac?a.

Ci?ia i?oei?noieo aeanoeainoae a??ie/eo ii??ae i?eaiaea aei iiiiaeaiiy
i?ioeano iaaaeaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae.

Aeoea?caoeey aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e caieiaeaii? a??ie/eo ii??ae
iiaea i?eaanoe aei aeiaeaoeiaiai in?aeaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi? o
na?aaeiueiio aei 500 ii a?ae eiaeiiai a?ae?iaeaiiai ai?eciioo c 500 aei
1200 i.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo aeaoi?iaoe?e caiii? iiaa?oi?
aiane?aeie aeoea?caoe?? aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??,
yea aeicaiey? o?aooaaoe a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? oa o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? aoaeaii?iaeiiai ianeao, a oaeiae niiniae oi?aae?iiy a??ie/ei
oeneii a i/enieo aeaiyo.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii a ianooiieo ia/aoieo
?iaioao:

A?iaeia A.I., Oeeoeeee I.A., Niiaeaeei A.E. Eciaiaiea
aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaeeia oaoo i?e caoiieaiee // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. —
1998. — ?6. — N. 11-13.

A?iaeia A.I., Iao?aiei N.ss. Ia eciaiaiee eiioeaioeee i?eiyoey i?iaeoiuo
?aoaiee a oeaeyo nieaeaiey ?anoiaeia ia eeeaeaeaoeeth oaoo // Oaieue
Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — ?6. — N. 7-10.

Aii?inu oi?aaeaiey ai?iui aeaaeaieai ia oiieeo e?oouo ieanoao Aeiiaanna
/ A.A.Aeaenaiae?ia, A.A.Aenaiia, I.A.Aeuoaa, I,A.Oaiiaae, A.E.Ieoaeaiei,
TH.A.Ieaaiue, A.E.Eo?eoeui, TH.A.Eeoaeiia, Y.A.Ai?enaiei,
Ae.I.AEeoeaiie, A.I.A?iaeia, — Aeiiaoee: Eaaaaeue, 1998. — 288 n.

Aeaenaaa A.Ae., Ieoaeaiei A.E., Iaaaneee A.N., A?iaeia A.I.
Aeaoi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a ai?iii ianneaa i?e cae?uoee oaieueiuo oaoo
// Oeceei-oaoie/aneea i?iaeaiu ai?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. — Aeiiaoee,
AeiiOOE. — 1998. — N. 5-9.

?aaaa A.I., Iaaeiaeaaa I.A., A?iaeia A.I., Oeeoeeee I.A. Eciaiaiea
oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo naienoa oaey e aiauathueo ii?iae i?e aiaeiianuuaiee
// Ecaanoey Ai?iiai Einoeoooa. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 31-32.

A?iaeia A.I., Iao?aiei N.ss., Eaneiia I.E., Ei/a?aa A.I. I
i?aaeioa?auaiee auaeaeaiey aacia ec eeeaeaee?oaiuo oaoo Noaoaiianeiai
?aaeiia // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. — 1999. — ?5. — N.15-17.

Aaoi?nueeee aianie: iinoaiiaea caaea/? [4,5], nenoaiaoecaoe?y io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a [1,3], aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae [4,5], aiae?c aieeao
oaeoi??a [2,6].

Caeiaoaa/ ??iaeia A.I.

AIIOAOe?ss

??iaeia A.I. I?iaiic ci?ie noaio i?ae?iaeaiiai a??ie/iai ianeao i?e
cae?eoo? aoa?eueieo oaoo – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.11 – o?ce/i? i?ioeane a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa. —
A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? IAIO ?i.
I.I.Aaee?ia, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue ??oaiiy iiai? aeooaeueii? iaoeiai? ?
oaoi?/ii? caaea/?, ui iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? iaoai?cio aeoea?caoe??
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o ?aeii? a?ae?iaeaiiai a??ie/iai ianeao, yea
aeeeeeaia caoiieaiiyi cae?eoeo aoa?eueieo oaoo, ?c iaoith i?iaiico
iiaeeeaeo aaa??eieo neooaoe?e.

Aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e caieiaeaii?
a??ie/eo ii??ae ?oiy o??ueiino?ee?noue ciaioo?oueny a 8 ?ac?a, i?e/iio
iaeii/anii ca?eueoothoueny ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? ianeao. Ioe?iaii
a?ae?iaaieia?/io neooaoe?th a ?aeii? oaoo aoa?eueieo ieano?a, yeu
a?aei?aoeueiaothoue naeoe e?ooeo ieano?a o Oeaio?aeueiiio ?aeii?
Aeiiaano, iiaeeea? aa??aioe ?? ci?ie i?e cae?eoo? oaoo. O ?acoeueoao?
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o
eaaao e?ooeo ieano?a ? i?ioeano aeaoi?ioaaiiy a??ie/iai ianeao
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaiico ?ici??o in?aeaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi? iaae
ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii, yea aeeeeeaia aeoea?caoe??th.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoa?eueia oaooa, a?ae?iaaieia?y, o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino?, aaiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane, aeaoi?ioaaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi?.

AIIIOAOeEss

A?iaeia A.I. I?iaiic eciaiaiey ninoiyiey iiae?aaioaiiiai ai?iiai ianneaa
i?e cae?uoee oaieueiuo oaoo — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.11 – oece/aneea i?ioeannu ai?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. —
Ioaeaeaiea oeceei-oaoie/aneeo ai?iuo i?iaeai AeiiOOE IAIO ei.
A.A.Aaeeeia, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa niaea?aeeo iiaia ?aoaiea aeooaeueiie iao/iie e
i?aeoe/aneie caaea/e — onoaiiaeaiea iniaaiiinoae i?ioaeaiey
aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia a ?aiaa iiae?aaioaiiii ai?iii ianneaa i?e
caoiieaiee au?aaioaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa n oeaeueth i?iaiice?iaaiey
oa?aeoa?a e aaee/eiu inaaeaiey caiiie iiaa?oiinoe, aucaaiiiai
aeoeaecaoeeae i?ioeanna naeaeaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?aieao i?ia?aiiu ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?ienoiaeeo ianniaia cae?uoea oaoo, a oii /enea n
i?ae?auaieai aiaeiioeeaa ec au?aaioaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa, /oi i?eaaaeao e
aai caoiieaieth e eciaiaiea aeae?iaaieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee e
aaiiaoaie/aneiai ninoiyiey ai?iiai ianneaa. Aei neo ii? ia ?ac?aaioaii
iaaeaaeiuo niiniaia i?iaiice?iaaiey yoeo i?ioeannia.

A i?ioeanna aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea ?aaiou oaieueiuo oaoo a Oe?Ae
oaeaii?iaeiue iannea a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eciaiee naie naienoaa:
oaaee/eeanue aiecio?iiey ii?iae ii i?iieoeaaiinoe ca n/ao nicaeaiey
oaniie aeae?aaee/aneie nayce iaaeaeo aiaeiiiniuie ai?eciioaie a
?acoeueoaoa iiiai/eneaiiuo naiae e eaa?oeaaia e cii o?aueiiaaoinoe iaae
au?aaioaiiui i?ino?ainoaii, aeinoeaathueo a aunioo aei 10-40 iiuiinoae
io?aaaouaaaiiai ieanoa. Iiieii yoiai eciaieeenue e oeceei-iaoaie/aneea
naienoaa ai?iiai ianneaa: oiaiueoeeanue i?i/iinoue neaaathueo aai
ii?iaeiuo neiaa, oaaee/eeenue aai ieanoe/aneea naienoaa. Aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eco/aiee oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo naienoa ai?iuo ii?iae i?e
oaeaaeiaiee eo oaooiuie aiaeaie.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeeenue ia onoaiiaea
ia?aaiieiiiiiaioiiai o?aoiniiai naeaoey, ?ac?aaioaiiie e nicaeaiiie a
Ioaeaeaiee oeceei-oaoie/aneeo ai?iuo i?iaeai AeiiOOE.

A ?acoeueoaoa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee auei ioeaiaii aeeyiea
aeaaiianuuaiiinoe ia iniiaiua iaoaie/aneea e yia?aaoe/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee ai?iuo ii?iae e oaeae oaeea, eae: i?i/iinoue ia
iaeiiiniia naeaoea e iauaiiay i?i/iinoue, iiaeoeue THiaa, eiyooeoeeaio
Ioanniia, iiaeoeue naeaeaa, iauaiiue iiaeoeue aeaoi?iaoeee, iiaeoeue
niaaea, ieioiinoue yia?aee oi?iieciaiaiey, ieioiinoue yia?aee eciaiaiey
iauaia, ieioiinoue yia?aee ?ac?ooaiey, yooaeoeaiay iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey
e ae?.

Oae aeey ian/aieeia n ?inoii aeaaeiinoe eo aei 3% oiaiueoathony iiaeoeue
oi?oainoe, iiaeoeue naeaeaa a 1,3-1,5 ?aca, a yia?aey ?ac?ooaiey a 3,4
?aca. Oiaiueoaiea o?iaiae oi?oaeo iiaeoeae, ieioiinoe yia?aee eciaiaiey
iauaia e oaaee/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa Ioanniia e ieioiinoe yia?aee
oi?iieciaiaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ieanoeoeeaoeee ii?iae e neeiiiinoe e
aieaa ayceiio ?ac?ooaieth. I?i/iinoue oaeae ia iaeiiiniia naeaoea n
oaaee/aieai aeaaeiinoe io 0,15 aei 3% oiaiueoaaony a 2,8-3,5 ?aca.

Eciaiaiea aeaaeiinoe e oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo naienoa ai?iuo ii?iae aea/ao
ca niaie aiciaiiaeaiea i?ioeanna aeaoi?iaoeee e ia?ooaiee aieiauo ii?iae
iaae au?aaioaiiui i?ino?ainoaii eaa. Yoi naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ni
niiniaaie oi?aaeaiey ai?iui aeaaeaieai ia ieanoao e?ooiai iaaeaiey e
iniaaiiinoyie i?ienoiaeyueo i?e yoii aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii oi?aaeaiey ai?iui aeaaeaieai i?e
io?aaioea ieaeieo 3-4 ai?eciioia (o.a. aeoaeiu 500-1100 i) yaeyaony
niinia oaea?aeaiey ia eino?ao. Iauai aai i?eiaiaiey a ?aciua aiaeu
ninoaaeye io 70% aei 50%. Oaeaea aieueoie iauai i?eiaiaiey o niiniaa
ieaaiiai iioneaiey (12%) e ia?ooaiey ia ueoiaie aa?aaao — 22%. I?e
niiniaa oaea?aeaiey ia eino?ao a au?aaioaiiii i?ino?ainoaa inoaaony
aieueoia eiee/anoai i?ecaaieiie e niaoeeaeueiie e?aie, eioi?ay oioy e
eioaineaii aeaoi?ie?iaaia a au?aaioaiiii i?ino?ainoaa, oai ia iaiaa
nio?aiyao inoaoi/ioth ianouoth niiniaiinoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaao /anoue
e?iaee, i?eeaaathuoth e e?aie. I?e oiaiueoaiee i?i/iinoe ii?iae e?iaee e
ii/au ec-ca oaeaaeiaiey i?iecieaeao iioa?y eiioaeoa e?aie n ii?iaeaie,
/oi yaeony i?e/eiie aiciaiiaeaiey i?ioeanna ia?ooaiey ii?iae e?iaee e
aeoeaecaoeee aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia a auoaeaaeauai ai?iii ianneaa.

A au?aaioaiiii i?ino?ainoaa, io?aaioaiiii ueoiauie aa?aaaoaie, eae
iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey AIEIE e IOOAI AeiiOOE IAIO, iiae iiioaaeiie ieoae
ia?acothony ionoiou, ia caiieiaiiua ii?iaeie ia aunioo aei 6 iiuiinoae
ieanoa e ?acia?aie ii iaaeaieth aei 20-30 i. Inoaeueiia au?aaioaiiia
i?ino?ainoai caiieiaii ia?ooaiiuie ii?iaeaie ?acee/iuo ii ?acia?ai
ia?ooaiiuo eoneia e noaiaie oieioiaiey: iaeaieaa iaeeea o?aeoeee n
iaeaieueoei oieioiaieai iaoiaeyony a ieaeiae /anoe io?aaioaiiie iieinu.
A neo/aa caoiieaiey neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue aiciaiiaeaiea ia?aionea ii?iae
aiec ii au?aaioaiiiio i?ino?ainoao n oaaee/aieai ?acia?ia iieinoe iiae
aaioeeyoeeiiiui ai?eciioii eae ii iaaeaieth, oae e aaa?o ia 20-30%.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca auiieiaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea
ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaoi?iaoeee iiaa?oiinoe,
aucaaiiuo aeoeaecaoeoae aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia i?e oaeaaeiaiee
ai?iiai ianneaa. Aeey Oe?Ae neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue i?e caoiieaiee oieueei
iaeiiai ai?eciioa oaoou aeiiieieoaeueiuo inaaeaiee caiiie iiaa?oiinoe
aei 500 ii, /oi niioaaonoaoao i?e?auaieth auniou onooia aei 30 ii. A?aiy
caoooaiey i?ioeanna naeaeaeaiey i?e iieiii i?ae?auaiee ai?iuo ?aaio
iiaeao ninoaaeoue ieiei 10 eao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieueiay oaooa, aeae?iaaieiaey, oeceei-iaoaie/aneea
naienoaa, aaiiaoaie/aneea i?ioeannu, aeaoi?iaoeey caiiie iiaa?oiinoe.

SUMMARY

Ermakov V.N. Forecasting the modification of underworked rock mass
condition due to abandonment of coal mines — Manuscript.

The thesis submitted for a candidate of technical science degree in the
field 05.15.11 – physical processes in mining — The Department of
Physico-Technical mining problems DonPTI, Ukrainian National Academy of
sciences, Donetsk, 1999.

The dissertation includes a solution, with the aim of forecasting
possible emergent conditions, of new urgent research and technological
problem consisting in deferminig the activation mechanism of
geomechanical processes in underworked rock mass due to flooding of
abandoned coal mines.

It has been established experimentally that moistening of rocks reduces
their fracture touphness up to of initial value, plasticity of the mass
being increased. The hydrogeological condition in mine field with
pitching coal seam suites in Central region of Donbass is estimeted as
well as possible alternatives of its modification due to abandonment of
the mines.A forecasting method is developed for earth surface subsidence
amount over the goaf due to activation, based on analysis of
experimental study of geomechanical processes in faces of pitching seams
as well as rock mass deformation process.

Key words: a colliery, hydrogeology, mechanical properties,
geomechanical processes, deformation of a terrestrial surface

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