OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AAOIIIA?EUeII-

AeI?IAEI?E OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

N?AeIA AIAe??E A?OAE?EIAE*

OAeE 625.004:625.768.5

I?IO?EAEOEEA ?OEIOAAIUe
AeI?IAEI?O

ANOAEUeOIAAOIIIEO IIE?EOO?A A AA?ANEAIEO

NA?AAeIAEUAO OEI?ENOEO I?IOEIAEAEAAeIEO

IAOA??AE?A

05.22.11 — Aaoiiia?euei? oeyoe oa aa?iae?iie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe??
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I?onaiei
?aaai

Aeieo?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-

aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe??
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?ao/oi
Aaea??e

?aaiiae/,Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia
aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa

oa a?o?oaeoo?e,caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoa-

??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e,

( i. Iae??aea);

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio Eeceia Noai?neaa

Noaiaiiae/,Oe?a?inueeee
o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aoae?aieoeoaa
oa aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiii-

a?eueieo aei??a ( i. Ee?a).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa . I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 7 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E64.059.01 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoa
(310002, Oe?a?ia, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai , 25).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (
310002, Oe?a?ia, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai , 25).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “1” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Eini?i I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Aoaeoeai?noue aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo oa aaciaea ?ooo a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae noaio
aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a ?, iniaeeai, aei?iaei?o iie?eoo?a. Iaea?eueoa
iioe?aiiy ia aaoiiia?eueieo oeyoao Oe?a?ie io?eiaee anoaeueoiaaoiii?
iie?eooy ? o iaeaeeae/iio iaeaooiueiio /anoea ianyao aei?iaei?o iaeya?a
c iie?eooyie oeueiai oeio aoaea neeaaeaoe ia iaio 90% ianyao on?o
oaeineiiaeaieo eai?oaeueieo iie?eoo?a. I?ae ae??th eiiieaeno
o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eooyo ca?iaeaeothoueny, ?icaeaathoueny oa
iaeiie/othoueny iioeiaeaeaiiy: aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy.

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth
a Oe?a?i? oa a na?o? (ca iaoa??aeaie I?aeia?iaeieo eiia?an?a c ceiiaiai
oo?eiaiiy aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a(1990,1994,1998 ??.) na?ae/eoue, ui
iaea?eueo iioe?aiiei caeeoa?oueny o?i?/iee niin?a ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith
neecuee?noth. I?e o?i?/iiio niinia? ii iaia?ceiio iie?eooth
?iciiae?eythoue oei?eaee iao??th, eaeueoe?th aai iaai?th, ye?
?icoiieththoue eueiae. Aieea aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ia ?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo aei?iaei?o iie?eoo?a ca?ac
aeine?aeaeaii iaaeinoaoiuei. Iaeiei c iniiaieo iaaeie?e?a aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaiiaiee iae?e eiiieaeniiai aieeao o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a ? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia aei?iaei? anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy a
?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??. Oea ia aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai?
niiniae i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a i?e ceiiaiio
oo?eiaii? oeyo?a. sseui a?aooaaoe, ui ia onoiaiiy ?oeioaaiue i?e ?aiiio?
iie?eoo?a ui??/ii aeo?a/athoueny aeoaea aaeee? iaoa??aeuei?, o?iainia? ?
o?oaeia? ?ano?ne, oi iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie uiaei aeooaeueiino?
ae??oo?ii? iaoeiai? caaea/?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aaoiaei?” ia 1996 ?., oaia ? 14 “I?aeaeuaiiy
?iaioicaeaoiino? aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeuao i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a”.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy niiniao ciaioaiiy ?oei?aii? ae??
aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia
anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy i?e ceiiaiio oo?eiaii? aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a
ia i?aenoaa? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?oeioaaiue iie?eoo?a i?e
eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

1 Aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?oeioaaiue anoaeueoiaaoiiiiai iie?eooy ye
/anoeie aei?iaeiuei? eiino?oeoe?? i?e eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a ? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a.

2 Aecia/aiiy e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a, ye aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu, ca e?eoa??yie ?icaeoeo ?oeioaaiue
iie?eoo?a (ciin, aoiieai?noue, i?oei?noue).

3 Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iano/o caeaoi?noue a?oioiai? iniiae aei?iaei?o iaeya?a.

4 Iaa?oiooaaiiy niiniao i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a o i?ioean? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth oei?enoeie
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieie iaoa??aeaie.

5 ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea a
aei?iaeiuei-aenieoaoaoe?eieo i?aai?caoe?yo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

-cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee ?oei?aiiai aieeao aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia anoaeueoiaaoiii?
iie?eooy c o?aooaaiiyi iai?oaeiuei-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aei?iaeiuei?
eiino?oeoe??;

-ooi/iaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a i?e eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a ? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a;

-aecia/aii e?eoe/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a, i?e yeeo iaeneiaeueii i?enei?ththoueny
??ci? aeaee ?oeioaaiue iie?eoo?a: eouaiiy oa aee?eooaaiiy iaoa??aeo
iiaa?oi?, ooai?aiiy o??uei oa aeai?i;

-iaa?oioiaaii niin?a i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a ?aaoethaaiiyi o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean?
ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— oaeineiiaeaii oaoiieia?? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yei? caaacia/o? ciaioaiiy ?oei?aiiai aieeao oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia aei?iaei? anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy oa
i?aeaeuo? aeiaaia?/i?noue iie?eoo?a;

— ia caiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aaoiaei?” ?ic?iaeai? oa
oaaaeai? aei ae?? “?aeiiaaeaoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith ?iaioicaeaoiino?
aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a”;

-aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea cai?iiiiiaaii? oaoiieia?? ai?ioueae ?c
ceiiaith neece?noueth cae?eniaia ia i?ioyc? 1997-1999 ?ie?a a
A?oai?anueeiio ?aeO?AO Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? oa Oa?e?anueeiio iaeaniiio
i?ae?yaeiiio niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? c ?aiiioo, aoae?aieoeoaa,
aenieoaoaoe?? aaoioeyo?a ? iino?a ia 116,5 ei aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a c
anoaeueoiaaoiiieie iie?eooyie. Aeei?enoaii 723,5o i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ?c cai?iiiiiaaieie aeii?oeaie. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue 71,6 oen.a?i.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

— aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? ?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a ye /anoeie aei?iaeiuei? eiino?oeoe?? i?e eiiieaeni?e ae??
iaaaioaaeaiue, oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a;

-?acii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii iaa?oioiaaii niin?a i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a o i?ioean? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith
neecuee?noth oei?enoeie i?ioeiaeaeaaeieie iaoa??aeaie;

— cai?iiiiiaai? aeii?oee aei i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a aeey ciaioaiiy
?oei?aii? ae?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu;

-a ?ic?iaoe? “?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii i?aeaeuaiith ?iaioicaeaoiino? aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a” a ??ai?e i??? i?eeiaee o/anoue an? ni?aaaoi?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Oaeineiiaeaiiy
o?ainii?oii-aenieoaoaoe?eieo yeinoae aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a” (i. I?ine,
1996 ?.), “I?iieneia?noue aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa aoae?aaeueia
?iaeono??y, aia?ai- oa ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue”
(i. Aaeai?iae, 1997 ?.). “?icaeoie oaoi?/ii? o?i?? a Oe?a?i?” (i.
Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.), “I?iaeaie o?ainii?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? o?ainii?oo
”(i. Na?aoia, 1997 ?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaoiaei?iaei?e
eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao: i?iaeaie ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo” (i. Ee?a,
1998 ?.), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?aae? Aea?aeoeyoIAe? (i. Ee?a, 1996 ?.),
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo nan?yo OAeAAeOO (i. Oa?e?a, 1997-1998 ?.?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 10
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o (a oiio /ene? 6 noaoae a aeo?iaeao ? ca??eao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, 3 oace aeiiia?aeae a iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?e,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aaoiaei?”).

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 143
iaeiaioaaiue ia 11 noi??ieao ? 11 aeiaeaoe?a ia 40 noi??ieao. I?noeoue
138 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, na?aae ieo 53 iaethiea ( 44
noi??iee) ? oaaeeoeue 9 (11 noi??iie).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeaii iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
io?eiai? aaoi?ii, a?aeaeca?eaeaii ?oi? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaiee iaeyae ? aiae?c aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao
o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia
aei?iaeith eiino?oeoe?th a oe?eiio ? aac-iina?aaeiuei ia
anoaeueoiaaoiiia iie?eooy. Iaeyioo? iniiai? aeaee ?oeioaaiue oa i?e/eie
?o ooai?aiiy, a oaeiae aecia/ai? oaeoi?e, ye? iathoue iaea?eueoee
?oei?aiee aieea ia iie?eo-oy. Aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a ?icaeoeo
?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o iie?eoo?a oa i?e/eiai ?o ooai?ai-iy i?enay/ai?
?iaioe I.E.A??oey, A.?. A?ao/oia, I.A. Aoi?ia, Ae.?. Aaaae?y, E.A.
Aacaioeaay,

A.A.Aieiaea, N.I.Ai?ae??aa, A.?. Caai?eoeueeiai, A.I.
Cieioa?ueiaa, I.I.?aaiiaa, N.N. Eeceie, A.E. Eo??iiaa,
A.?. Eaaeea?ia, ?.?. Eaiiiae/a, I.I. Iao?iniaa, N.A.
Ieoiae/a, A.A. Iicaiaiai, A.A. Ia/aiiai, ?.Ae. I?onaiea,
A.N. Oeoa?y, A.N. ?aaeianueeiai, A. I. N?aeaiea, A. A.
?oaeainueeiai, I.A. Ni??iiaa, ?. E. ssoeaa?/a,

A.E. A?aaianueeiai, ?. Oaaaa, A.Aaioea, ?. A?aioa oa ?ioeo a/aieo.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeaii, ui aieea oaeoi??a
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua cia/ii ?ioaineo?eo? i?ioeane ?oeioaaiue
aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a. Iaeiei c oaeeo oaeoi??a ?
aa?aneai? na?aaeiaeua i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e ai?iouea? ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie A.N. Eo??iiaa aeiaaaeaii, ui a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao
oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ci?ith?oueny a?oiiaee neeaae
a?ooio a anoaeueoiaaoii?, c?inoa? /anoea anoaeueoai?a oa ciaioo?oueny
/anoea niie oa ianae. Oea iiaea aeeeeeaoe cieaeaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?
anoaeueoiaaoiio, ?icaeoie eouaiiy oa aee?eooaaiiy iie?eoo?a.A ?iaioao
eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??aeia OAeAAeOO i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a A.I.Cieioa?ueiaa aecia/aii aieea aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue
anoaeueoiaaoiio, i?ioeane cii/oaaiiy oa ?ico?eaiiy na?aaeiaeu ii
iiaa?oi? eai’yieo iaoa??ae?a oa a?ooio.

Aeaye? caeiiii??iino? ?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a aecia/ai?
ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?.Ae. I?onaiea. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaa, ui aa?aneai? na?aaeiaeua i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a i?enei?ththoue ?oeioaaiiy iie?eoo?a. Aea io?eiai?
caeiiii??iino? ia a?aoiaoaaee a iiai?e i??? oiiae ?iaioe
anoaeueoiaaoiiiiai iie?eooy ye /anoeie aei?iaeiuei? eiino?oeoe?? i?e
eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e?iaei?o oaeoi??a oa
aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a. Oea, a naith /a?ao,
ia aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai? iaoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?oeioaaiue
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a i?e ceiiaiio oo?eiaii? aei??a. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co noaio ieoaiiy noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c eiiieaenii? ae??
o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a oa aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a. Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
cai?iiiiiaaii aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? ?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a o aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a c
o?aooaaiiyi iai?oaeiuei-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aei?iaei?o eiino?oeoe?e i?e
eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (?en.1). Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea aecia/eoe caeiiii??iino?
?oeioaaiue, ye? a a?eueo?e i??? a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aaeueiei oiiaai
aenieoaoaoe??.

?enoiie 1- Aieea oaeoi??a ia aei?iaeith eiino?oeoe?th

A nenoai? oaeoi??a aecia/ai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aenenoaie, a yeeo ae?y
aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy
iie?eoo?a aeyaey?oueny o iaea?eueoiio nooiai?. Aeey noai?aiiy iiaeae?
eiiieaeniiai aieeao o?ainii?oiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a ?
aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa?eae?a ia i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy
aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a aoee aecia/ai? iaea?eueo aieeaia?
oaeoi?e (?en.2). Aei oaeeo oaeoi??a iaeaaeaoue: iaaaioaaeaiiy ia a?nue:
?ioaineai?noue ?ooo, ai?eciioaeuei? coneeey, oaiia?aoo?iee oa aieia?niee
?aaeei aei?iaeiuei? eiino?oeoe??, ?ic/eie oei?eae?a.

?enoiie 2.2 — Aieea oei?eae?a ia ?oeioaaiiy aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a i?e

eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a

I?ae aieeaii o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue o aei?iaeiueiio iaeyc? oa
caieyiiio iieioi? ooai?ththoueny iai?oae ? aeaoi?iaoe??, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a. I?ioeane
?oeioaaiiy caeaaeaoue ia o?eueee a?ae aaee/eie o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, aea e a?ae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a ? aei?iaeiuei? eiino?oeoe?? a oe?eiio, ia
ye? aieeaathoue i?e?iaei? oaeoi?e ? aa?aneai? na?aaeiaeua
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a
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(1)

aea R — o?ceei-iaoaie/i? aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo iie?eooy;

Ac.i. — iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? caieyiiai iieioia;

t — oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y;

W — aieia?noue;

N — eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a.

?ic/eie oei?eae?a ia aeyaeythoue aeniei? o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei anoaeueoiaaoiio. Aea iayai?noue o aiae?
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo nieae ci?ith? aeanoeaino? ??aeeie, ui iieaaoo? ??
i?iieeiaiiy aei iie?eooy.

Oai?aoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aa?aneaiee aieea aiaeieo
?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a aecia/a?oueny o?ceei-o?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie cii/oaaiiy
anoaeueoiaaoiio ? iaeiie/oaaiiyi a?a?ineiie/ieo nieae o aa?oiueiio oa??
caieyiiai iieioia.

I?ioean ?oeioaaiiy iie?eoo?a o?nii iia’ycaiee c i?a?aoe??th ?ic/ei?a ii
i?e?io??ueiai oa a?aee?eoei ii?ai a anoaeueoiaaoiiiiio iie?eoo?,
iaoai?ci yeiai iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o ca’yceo c eai?ey?ieie yaeuaie.
A?aeiia?aeii aei oai??? i?aeiyooy ??aeeie o eaieey??, aeeaeio
iane/oaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio cai?iiiiiaaii oa?aeoa??coaaoe caeaaei?noth
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picscalex134010009000003000200000300170000000000050000000902000000000400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(2)

aea h — aenioa i?aeiyooy ??aeeie ii eai?ey?o; — /an i?aeiyooy ??aeeie
ii eai?ey?o;

— iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ??aeeie; — e?aeiaee eoo cii/oaaiiy;

r — ?aae?on eai?ey?a; — u?euei?noue ??aeeie ; —
a’yce?noue ??aeeie .

Aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua a iie?eooy caeaaeeoue a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae ci?iaiiy , , a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?eae?a. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aecia/a?ii, ui ?nio?
e?eoe/ia(aeno?aiaeueia) eiioeaio?aoe?y oei?eae?a a ?ic/ei? Cext , i?e
ye?e ?oei?aiee aieea aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua aoaea iaeneiaeueiei.

I?ae ae??th o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue a anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eooyo
aeieeathoue ?icoyaoth/? iai?oae, ye? ni?eythoue ?o ?oeioaaiith. Iniaeeai
oea noa? iaaacia/iei o oieiaeiee ia??iae ?ieo, eiee i?ae ae??th iecueei?
oaiia?aoo?e iie?eooy noa? e?eoe?i, oaeiae a iueiio aeieeathoue
aeiaeaoeia? ?icoyaoth/? iai?oae, ui ni?eythoue iaea?eueo oaeaeeiio
?icaeoeo ?oeioaaiue.

E??i oeueiai, a i?ioean? aaaaoi?aciaiai caii?iaeoaaiiy-?icii?iaeoaaiiy
anoaeueoiaaoiio, a anoaeueoia’yaeo/iio oa a cii? eiai eiioaeoo c
i?ia?aeueieie iaoa??aeaie aeieeathoue i?e?io??ueie, /a?ac ye? ?ic/eie
oei?eae?a i?iieeathoue aei iie?eooy. Aiane?aeie oeueiai a
anoaeueoiaaoii? c?inoa? iane/aiiy ? ciaioo?oueny i?oei?noue.

A i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? ?ic/eie oei?eae?a i?iieeathoue a aei?iaeith
eiino?oeoe?th. Iaeiie/oaaiiy ?o a a?oio? caieyiiai iieioia, iniaenoi a
eiai ?iai/?e cii?, ni?ey? cieaeaiith eiai iano/i? caeaoiino?. A
?acoeueoao? oeueiai cieaeo?oueny i?oei?noue aei?iaeiueiai iaeyao,
ca?eueoothoueny i?iaeie aei?iaeiueiai iie?eooy i?ae ae??th o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ?, ye iane?aeie, a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie
?oeioaaiue.

Ine?eueee i?ioeiaeaeaaei? iaoa??aee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ai?iouea?
?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth, ?ioaineo?eothoue i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy
aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a, oi iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei niiniaii
i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a ?
?aaoethaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu
oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith
neecuee?noth. Ciaioaiiy aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a
caaacia/o?oueny aaaaeaiiyi a noi?o? ?iaea?oi?o ?oeioaaiiy — nieae
oinoi?ii? eeneioe. ?ia?a?oi?e ?oeioaaiiy ci?iththoue no?oeoo?o aiaeiiai
?ic/eio oei?eae?a, yeee ooai?th?oueny i?ae /an ?icoaaaiiy eueiaeo.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai ciaioo?oueny cii/oaaiiy oa aeeaeia i?ini/oaaiiy
anoaeueoiaaoiio aiaeiei ?ic/eiii oei?eae?a, ui ciaioo? ?o ?oei?aiee
aieea ia anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a i?iieeiaiiy aa?aneaieo
??aeeeo na?aaeiaeu a anoaeueoiaaoiiia iie?eooy, i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy
anoaeueoiaaoiio o aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a oa aieeao oei?eae?a ia ?ic?aooieia? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?oio?a
iniiae.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaany ae??aiica?ienoee
anoaeueoiaaoii (AINO 9128-84), oei?eaee iao??th (OO 4234-77) ?
eaeueoe?th (AINO 460-70), oinoao eae?th (OO 10075-75), iaeiicai?uaiee
oinoao eaeueoe?th (OO10091-75).

O aeai?e ?iaio?, e??i noaiaea?oieo, i?eeiyoi ieceo niaoe?aeueieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue: aecia/aiiy e?aeiaiai eooa cii/oaaiiy ?ic/ei?a,
ciinino?eeino? anoaeueoiaaoiio, ?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio a?ae
oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiue aeeiiai? ia i?eeaaeao, ?ic?iaeaieo o
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?.

Oai?aoe/ieie aeie?aeaeaiiyie aeyaeaii, ui aieea ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a ia
anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy caeaaeeoue a?ae iane/aiiy ieie iie?eooy. Ia
oeae i?ioean aieeaa? eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/eio i?ioeiaeaeaaeiiai iaoa??aeo.

sse aeyaeee ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aenioa
eai?ey?iiai i?aeiyooy ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a a?eueoa, i?ae o aiae?.
Iaea?eueo iaaacia/iith ? i’yoea?aenioeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y NaCl. Aeey
oe??? eiioeaio?aoe?? aenioa eai?ey?iiai i?aeiyooy ??aeeie ca?eueoo?oueny
ia 29%, o ii??aiyii? c aiaeith. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ii aecia/aiith e?aeiaiai eooa cii/oaaiiy ia i?aeeiaeeao —
eaa?oeiaa neei(1), a?ai?o(2), ia?io?(3), eaa?oe (i?ia?ae) (4); a?ooi(5)
— aeicaieythoue anoaiiaeoe, ui i?e i’yoea?aenioeia?e eiioeaio?aoe??
?ic/eio NaCl e?aeiaee eoo cii/oaaiiy ciaioo?oueny ia 21-27% ia eai’yiiio
iaoa??ae?, ia

6% — ia a?oi? (?en.3)

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oai?aoe/iee aeniiaie uiaei ?nioaaiiy
e?eoe/iie eiioeaio?aoe??, i?e ye?e i?iieeiaiiy ?ic/eio aoaea
iaeneiaeueiei. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iane/aiiy ? iaa?yeaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio
i?iaiaeeeeny o aiae? oa aiaeieo ?ic/eiao oei?eaeo iao??y. A ?acoeueoao?
aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii, ui iane/aiiy oa iaa?yeaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio o
i’yoea?aenioeiaiio ?ic/ei? NaCl a?eueo?, i?ae o aiae?, ia 31% ? 58%
a?aeiia?aeii (?en. 3).

6% — ia a?ooi? (?en.3)

?enoiie 3 — Caeaaei?noue e?aeiaiai eooa cii/oaaiiy (O), iane/aiiy (W) oa
iaa?yeaiiy (I) anoaeueoiaaoiiieo c?ace?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio
NaCl (C).

Aeey aecia/aiiy aieeao aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a
ia i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a aeeiiai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aeyaeaiiy iaae? no?eeino?
anoaeueoiaaoiio aei ?icoyao i?e caei?, noeneo, ciinino?eeino?,
?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio a?ae ciaeici?iieo oaiia?aoo? ? oeeee?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe??. Ia?aae
aei?iaoaaiiyie c?acee caciaaaee iane/aiiy o aiae? ? aiaeieo ?ic/eiao
oei?eae?a ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe??.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aenia??iaioo aeyaeaii, ui aiane?aeie
aieeao aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?eae?a cieaeo?oueny no?ee?noue
anoaeueoiaaoiio aei noeneo ? ?icoyao i?e caei?. Iaea?eueo iaaacia/iith ?
i’yoea?aenioeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y NaCl, i?e ye?e no?ee?noue
anoaeueoiaaoiio aei noeneo cieaeo?oueny ia 26%, no?ee?noue aei ?icoyao —
ia 14%. Ciinino?ee?noue anoaeueoiaaoiio aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ieoiiith aia?a??th ciino
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(3 )

aea r -?aae?on c?acea; q -oene a cii? eiioaeoo c?acea c iiaa?oiath
e?oao; — eiao?oe??io oa?oy; R — ?aae?on aei??aeee ia e?oao noe?aiiy, ii
ye?e c?acie eiioaeoo? c iiaa?oiath e?oao; n — e?euee?noue iaa?o?a
e?oao.

Aecia/aii, ui i?e e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ciin anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a ia 32% a?eueoee, i?ae o aiae? (?en. 4).

A i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy caciathoue iaeii/anio
ae?th o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa ciaeici?iieo oaiia?aoo?. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? oaeoi?e, ye?
iaea?eueo aieeaathoue ia ?oeioaaiiy iie?eoo?a o ceiiaee ia??iae
aenieoaoaoe??: oaiia?aoo?a oa eiioeaio?aoe?y oei?eae?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeinue ca aeiiiiiaith i?eeaaeo aeey aei?iaoaaiiy
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo c?ace?a oeeee?/ieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeacothoue, ui noi?nia ae?y ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a ?
ciaeici?iieo oaiia?aoo? ?noioii aieeaa? ia i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a. Aieea aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/ei?a.

?enoiie 5 — Caeaaei?noue e?eueeino? oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiue (N) aei
?oeioaaiiy a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?eae?a (N) oa e?eueeino? oeeee?a
caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?aeoaaaiiy (F).

Nooi?iue aieeao oeeee?a caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?aeoaaaiiy ia i?ioeane
?oeioaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a. ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?eae?a ciaioo?oueny ii?icino?ee?noue
anoaeueoiaaoiio (?en. 5a).

Aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oaeiae aeyaeaii, ui iane/aiiy
a?oio?a ?ic/eiaie oei?eae?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ?o iiaeoey
i?oaeiino? ia 37-50%.

Ine?eueee iaea?eueo iaaacia/iith ? i’yoea?aenioeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y
?ic/eio NaCl, oi aeey ia? aoee aeeiiaie aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aieeao
nieae oinoi?ii? eeneioe ia i?ioeane i?iieeiaiiy aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu o
anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy. Iayai?noue oeeo aeii?oie aeicaieeea cieceoe
iane/aiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio ia 50% (?en. 6)

?enoiie 6 — Caeaaei?noue iane/aiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo c?ace?a (W) o
i’yoea?aenioeiaiio ?ic/ei? NaCl a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? Ca(H2PO4)2 (C).

Aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaeaaaiiy oeeo
?a/iaei ca?eueoo? ia 26% ciinino?ee?noue iie?eooy (?en.4) oa eiai
no?ee?noue aei ae?? oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue o na?aaeiueiio ia 50-60%.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/i?
ia?aa??ee canoinoaaiiy oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a c
aeii?oeaie oinoao?a. Aeey oeueiai o 1996 ?ioe? aoee aecia/ai? aeine?aei?
? eiio?ieuei? ae?eyiee ia aaoiiia?eueieo oeyoao caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy
oa i?nueeeo aoeeoeyo o ??cieo aei?iaeiuei-ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao: a
Oa?e?anueeie oa Aeiiaoeueeie iaeanoyo. A yeino? i?ioeiaeaeaaeiiai
iaoa??aeo canoiniaoaaeanue noi?o o??eoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo c oei?eaeii
iao??y. ?ia?a?oi?e ?oeioaaiiy aeiaeaaaeenue o i?aeaioiaeaio noi?o. Ii?ia
aeo?ao — 1% a?ae iane nie?.

?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee noaio iie?eooy aeine?aeieo ?
eiio?ieueieo ae?eyiie aeiaaee, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? ye ?ia?a?oi?a
?oeioaaiiy iaeiicai?uaiiai oinoaoo eaeueoe?y (Ca(H2PO4)2) a?aeiinia
ieiua eouaiiy iaioa, i?ae ia eiio?ieueieo ae?eyieao ia 25-54%, a?aeiinia
ieiua aee?eooaaiiy ia 12-21%, yieia?noue — ia 10-13%. I?e canoinoaaii? a
yeino? ?ia?a?oi?a ?oeioaaiiy oinoi?iieeneiai eae?th (E3?I4) ia
aeine?aei?e ae?eyioe? a?aeiinia ieiua eouaiiy ? aee?iooaaiiy aeyaeeanue
ia 16% iaioith, i?ae ia eiio?ieuei?e, yieia?noue — ia 14% iaioa.

O 1998 oa 1999 ?.?. aoee i?iaaaeai? iiaoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
eiio?ieueieo ? aeine?aeieo ae?eyiie. Ia’?ie ?oeioaaiue ia aeine?aeieo
ae?eyieao ia 13-30% iaio, i?ae ia eiio?ieueieo.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeeea oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee uiaei cai?iiiiiaaiiiai niiniao
ciaioaiiy ?oei?aii? ae?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie eaai?aoi?ieo ? iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? oa
cai?iaaaeaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a o aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? eiao?oe??ioe ciaioaiiy
i?ae?aiiioieo oa?i?i?a neoaeae aei?iaei?o iaeya?a ? iie?eoo?a(oaae. 1),
ui a?aoiaothoue ?oei?aiee aieea aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a.

.

Oaaeeoey 1 — Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a i?ae?aiiioieo oa?i?i?a neoaeae
aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a

?ioaineai?noue

?ooo

aao/aeiao Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a i?ae?aiiioieo oa?i?i?a neoaeae
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a S aeey e?eueeino? aei?a c iaeaeaaeaeth ca
ceio aei 55-1010-2020-30a?eueo 30Iaio 1000

1000-3000

3000-7000

A?eueo 70001,00(1,00)

1,00(0,95)

1,00(0,90)

1,00(0,85)1,00(1,00)

1,00(0,93)

1,00(0,88)

1,00(0,83)1,00(0,97)

1,00(0,90)

0,95(0,85)

0,90(0,80)1,00(0,95)

0,98(0,88)

0,93(0,80)

0,85(0,75)1,00(0,90)

0,95(0,85)

0,90(0,75)

0,80(0,70)I?ei?oea: o aeoaeeao iaaaaeai? cia/aiiy eiaoeoe?aio?a aeey
iaaacia/ieo ae?eyiie oeyo?a

I?iiiio?oueny ciaiooaaoe aa?aneaiee aieea oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ia anoaeueoiaaoiiia iie?eooy aeiaeaaaiiyi aei
i?ioeiaeaeaaeii? noi?o? ?ia?a?oi?ia ?oeioaaiiy iie?eoo?a. Aecia/ai?
ii?ie canoinoaaiiy i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? ai?uothoue
?ia?a?oi?e ?oeioaaiiy.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth. Aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a 1997-1999 ?ieao
noaiiaeoue 71,6 oen.a?i.

AENIIAEE

1. Aiae?c caoiae?a ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth aeyaea, ui o
iaeaeeae/?e ia?niaeoea? a?aenooiy aeueoa?iaoeaa o?i?/iiio niiniao, i?e
yeiio ii iiaa?oi? iaia?ceiai iie?eooy ?iciiae?eythoue o?i?/i?
i?ioeiaeaeaaei? iaoa??aee. C oaeeo iaoa??ae?a iae/ano?oa canoiniaothoue
oei?eaee NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2. Aiaei? ?ic/eie i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa?eae?a,
ye? ooai?ththoueny i?e ?icoaaaii? eueiaeo aai ni?ao, i?enei?ththoue
i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a.

2. Ia i?aenoaa? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? i?ioeano
?oeioaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a o aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a c o?aooaaiiyi iai?oaeiuei-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio aei?iaei?o eiino?oeoe?e i?e eiiieaeni?e ae?? o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue oa oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A nenoai? oaeoi??a,
ui aecia/athoue i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy iie?eoo?a, aeae?eai? oa
i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aenenoaie, o yeeo ae?y aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a aeyaey?oueny o iaea?eueoiio nooiai?.
Aeyaeaii, ui aa?aneaia ae?y aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a aecia/a?oueny
ia?aaaaeii o?ceei-o?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie cii/oaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio ye
eai?ey?ii-ii?enoiai o?ea ? iaeiie/aiiyi a?a?ineii?/ieo nieae o
aa?oiueiio oa?? caieyiiai iieioia c ianooiiei i?aeaeuaiiyi aieiaino?
a?oioo, cieaeaiiyi eiai no?eeino? oa caaaeueii? i?oeiino? aei?iaeiuei?
eiino?oeoe?? .

3.Oai?aoe/ieie oa aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?aeoaa?ae-aeaii
?nioaaiiy e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu
i?ioeiaea-eaaeieo iaoa??ae?a: aeey oei?eaeo iao??y aiia neeaaea? 5
ian.%; aeey oei?eaeo eaeueoe?y — 3 ian.%. Aeyaeaii, ui i?e
i’yoea?aenioeia?e eiioeaio?aoe?? NaCl e?aeiaee eoo cii/oaaiiy ia a?ai?o?
ciaioo?oueny ia 21 %, ia a?ooi? — ia 6 %, ia eaa?oeiaiio nee? — ia 27
%. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aaee/eie iane/aiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio ?ic/eiii NaCl
oa iaa?yeaiiy a?eueo?, i?ae o aiae?, a?aeiia?aeii ia 31 % oa 58 %. I?ae
aieeaii aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?eae?a no?ee?noue anoaeueiaaoiio aei
noeneo cieaeo?oueny ia 26% , ia ?icoya i?e caei? ia 14 %. Aecia/aii, ui
aeey e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?eae?a ciin
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a ia 32% a?eueo?e, i?ae o aiae?. No?ee?noue
anoaeueoiaaoiio aei ae?? oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ciaioo?oueny o 6
?ac?a.

4. Iane/aiiy aa?oiueiai oa?o a?oioo caieyiiai iieioia ?ic/eiaie
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy iiaeoey
i?oaeiino? a?oioiai? iniiae ia 50% aeey noaeeieo ? 37% aeey noi?n?. Aeey
??cieo eiino?oeoe?e aei?iaei?o iaeya?a oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
caaaeueiiai iiaeoey i?oaeiino? ia 12-15% ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiinii? ieiu? aeai?i ia aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?yo ia 2-3,5%.

5.Iaa?oioiaaii niin?a i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao ?aaoethaaiiyi
aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua aeiaeaaaiiyi aei i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a
?ia?a?oi??a ?oeioaaiiy — nieae oinoi?ii? eeneioe a e?eueeino? 1-3 %
a?ae iane oei?eae?a. Nie? oinoi?ii? eeneioe noai?ththoue ia iiaa?oi?
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a ? no?ieao eai?ey??a iaei?ic/eii? niieoee,
ye? i?aeaeuothoue e?aeiaee eoo cii/oaaiiy ?o aiaeieie ?ic/eiaie oa
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue i?iieeiaiith oei?eae?a o iie?eooy oa a?oio caieyiiai
iieioia. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaee, ui aeiaeaaaiiy oeeo
?a/iaei cieaeo? iane/aiiy anoaeueoiaaoiio ?ic/eiaie ia 50-56%, ca?eueoo?
ia 26% ciinino?ee?noue iie?eooy, oa eiai no?ee?noue aei ae?? oeeee?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o na?aaeiueiio ia 50-60 %.

6 Aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea i?aeoaa?aeeea ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia’?ie ?oeioaaiue ia aeine?aeieo
ae?eyieao, aea aeey ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth aeaa naciie
canoiniaoaaeeny ?ia?a?oi?e ?oeioaaiiy, aoee cia/ii iaioeie, o ii??aiyii?
c eiio?ieueieie ae?eyieaie, ia yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeanue noaiaea?oia
oaoiieia?y ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth. Aeiaeaaaiiy aei neeaaeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ?ia?a?oi?o ?oeioaaiiy o e?eueeino? 1% a?ae
iane nie? aeicaieeei ciaioeoe ieiuo eouaiiy iie?eoo?a ia 25-50%, ieiuo
aee?eooaaiiy ia 21%, yieia?noue — ia 13%.

?ic?iaeai? oa oaaaeai? aei ae?? ei?ii?aoe??th “Oe?aaoiaei?”
“?aeiiaaeaoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith ?iaioicaeaoiino? aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a”. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ia?a?oi??a
?oeioaaiiy neeaaea? o oe?iao 1998 ?ieo 1,3 oen. a?i . ia 1 ei. aei?iae
II eaoaai???.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao:

1 I?onaiei A.Ae., Naaeia A.A. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue aei?iaeiuo
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia e iooe aa iiauoaiey // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. -1997. — ? 4 .
N.40-41.

2 I?onaiei A.Ae., Naaeia A.A. Caeiiiia?iinoe ?ac?ooaiey aei?iaeiuo
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia// I?iaeaiu yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia. Na. iao/.
o?oaeia OAAAeOO . — Oa?ueeia: “Ciaiea”, 1998. N. 72-77.

3 Naaeia A.A. Aeeyiea naienoa aa?anneaiuo n?aae i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia ia i?ioeannu ?ac?ooaiee aei?iaeiuo anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee
// Aaoiaei?iaei?e eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao: i?iaeaie oa oeyoe
?icaeoeo. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue OOO. — Eeaa: OOO, 1998. N. 250-252.

4 N?aeia A.A. ?oeioaaiiy aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a?ae
aaaaoi?aciaeo o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a // Aaoi-oeyoiaee
Oe?a?ie. — 1998. -? 4. N. 39-40.

5 I?onaiei A.Ae., Naaeia A.A. Caeiiiia?iinoe ?ac?ooaiey
anoaeueoi-aaoiiiuo iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia e iooe iiauoaiey eo ?aaioiniiniaiinoe// Na. o?oaeia ii
oaoie/aneie oeiee. — Eeaa, 1997. — /.2. N.368 -371.

6 I?onaiei A.Ae., Naaeia A.A. I?ioeeaeoeea iia?aaeaeaiee aei?iaeiuo
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee i?e ai?ueaa n ceiiae neieueceinoueth//
Iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoe?iaaiey, no?ieoaeuenoaa e yenieoaoaoeee
aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia a Ainoi/ii- Neae?neii ?aaeiia. Na. iao/. o?oaeia.-
E?eoone. 1998. N. 135-137.

7 I?onaiei A.Ae., Naaeia A.A. Iiauoaiea eciininoieeinoe
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia // Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o?ainii?oii-yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ea/anoa
aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia. Na. aeieeaaeia IIOE. — Ieine, 1996. — /.1.

N. 112-115.

8 I?onaiei A.Ae., Naaeia A.A. Iiauoaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe aei?iaeiuo
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia // I?iaeaiu no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey e iiaua
oaoiieiaee. Na. aeieeaaeia IIOE. — Aaeai?iae: Aae. AOANI, E?anoueyineia
aeaei, 1997. — /.5. N. 286-290.

9 Naaeia A.A. Aeeyiea oeie/aneeo i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia ia
anoaeueoiaaoiiiua iie?uoey e iooe iiauoaiey eo ?aaioiniiniaiinoe //
I?iaeaiu o?ainii?oiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e o?ainii?oa. Na. aeieeaaeia
IIOE. — Na?aoia: NAOO, 1997. N. 26-27.

10 ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith ?iaioicaeaoiino? aei?iaei?o
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a / I?onaiei ?. Ae., Ieoiae/ N.A., N?aeia A.A., Oeoa? A.N. —
Oe?aaoiaei?. — Ee?a, 1996. — 19 n.

O ni?eueieo ioae?eaoe?yo iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeeiiaii: oai?aoe/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?oeioaaiiy aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a a?ae eiiieaeniiai aieeao o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue,
i?e?iaei?o oaeoi??a ? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a [2]; aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aieeao oei?eae?a ia i?ioeane i?iieeiaiiy ?ic/ei?a a anoaeueoiaaoiiia
iie?eooy [5,8], ia ciin iie?eoo?a [1,8]; iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea
oaoiieia?? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth, ui i?aeaeuo?
?iaioicaeaoi?noue anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/i? ia?aa??ee
niiniao i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue [1,6,10].

AIIOAOe?ss

N?aeia A.A. I?io?eaeoeea ?oeioaaiue aei?iaei?o anoaeueoiaaoiiieo
iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a: — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.11- “Aaoiiia?euei? oeyoe oa aa?iae?iie” —
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo cai?iiiiiaaii aeine?aeaeoaaoe ?oei?aiee
aieea aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia
anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy c o?aooaaiiyi iai?oaeiuei-aeaoi?iiaaiiiai
noaio aei?iaeiuei? eiino?oeoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeee, ui oei?eaee ni?eythoue i?iieeiaiith aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeu a anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy, oa?e iniiae oa caieyia iieioii.
Aecia/ai? e?eoe/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a, i?e yeeo iaeneiaeueii i?enei?ththoueny
??ci? aeaee ?oeioaaiue iie?eoo?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue
caeiiii??iinoae ?oeioaaiue iie?eoo?a a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao oei?enoeo
i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a iaa?oioiaaii niin?a i?io?eaeoeee ?oeioaaiue
?aaoethaaiiyi o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeu i?ioeiaeaeaaeieo
iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean? ai?ioueae ?c ceiiaith neecuee?noth.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaoiiia?eueia aei?iaa, anoaeueoiaaoiiia iie?eooy,
oei?eno? i?ioeiaeaeaaei? iaoa??aee, aa?aneaia na?aaeiaeua, i?io?eaeoeea
?oeioaaiue.

SUMMARY

Sedov A.V. Preventive maintenance of destructions of road asphalt
pavement in aggressive environments of chloristil anti-ice materials.-
Manuscript.

Thesis for scientific degree of the candidate of technical sciences on
a speciality 05.22.11 — “Highways and air stations”. -Kharkov State
Automobile and Highway Technical University, Kharkov , 1999.

On the basis of the system approach to investigate a destroying
influence of aggressive environments chloristil anti-ice materials on
asphalt pavement with the account of stressedly-deformed condition of a
road design is offered. Results of experimental researches have
revealed, that chlorides layers of the basis and earth linen promote
penetration of aggressive environments in asphalt pavement . Critical
concentration of addressive environments of chloristil anti-ice
materials, at which different kinds of pavement destructions are
maximally accelerated are determined. By researches results of laws of
asphalt pavement destructions in aggressive environments of chloristil
anti-ice materials a way of preventive maintenance of destructions by
regulation of anti-ice materials phisical and chemical properties
during struggle with winter sliding is justified.

Key words: a highway, asphalt pavement, chloristil anti-ice materials,
aggressive environment, preventive maintenance of destructions.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naaeia A.A. I?ioeeaeoeea ?ac?ooaiee aei?iaeiuo anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo
iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao oei?enouo i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.11 — “Aaoiiiaeeueiua aei?iae e ay?iae?iiu”. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Ia iniiaa nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea i?aaeeiaeaii enneaaeiaaoue ?ac?ooathuaa
aeeyiea aa?anneaiuo n?aae oei?enouo i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia ia
anoaeueoiaaoiiiua iie?uoey n o/aoii iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai
ninoiyiey aei?iaeiie eiino?oeoeee.

A nenoaia oaeoi?ia ii?aaeaeaiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iiaenenoaiu, a eioi?uo
aeaenoaea aa?anneaiuo n?aae i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia ia i?ioeannu
?ac?ooaiey iie?uoee i?iyaeyaony a iaeaieueoae noaiaie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeaenoaea aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia oei?eaeia ii?aaeaeyaony, a
iniiaiii, oeceei-oeie/aneeie i?ioeannaie nia/eaaiey anoaeueoiaaoiia eae
eaieeey?ii-ii?enoiai oaea e iaeiieaieai aea?ineiie/aneeo nieae a aa?oiai
neia caieyiiai iieioia n iineaaeothuei iiauoaieai niaea?aeaiey aeaae a
a?oioa, nieaeaieai aai onoie/eainoe e i?i/iinoe aei?iaeiie
eiino?oeoeee.

Aiaeec caeiiiia?iinoae eciaiaiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa aiaeiuo
?anoai?ia oei?eaeia iicaieee iainiiaaoue aeiioaco i nouanoaiaaiee eo
e?eoe/aneie eiioeaio?aoeee, i?e eioi?ie ?ac?ooaiea iie?uoee aoaeao
iaeneiaeueiui.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeeee yoo aeiioaco. Onoaiiaeaiu
e?eoe/aneea eiioeaio?aoeee aa?anneaiuo n?aae i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia: aeey oei?eaea iao?ey — 5 ian.%, aeey oei?eaea eaeueoeey — 3
ian.%. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iieacuaatho, /oi i?e 5% eiioeaio?aoeee
NaCl e?aaaie oaie nia/eaaiey ia a?aieoa oiaiueoaaony ia 21%, ia aeooia —
ia 6%, ia noaeea — ia 27%. Aneaaenoaea yoiai ianuuaiea anoaeueoiaaoiia
?anoai?ii NaCl e iaaooaiea a iai aieueoa, /ai a aiaea, niioaaonoaaiii ia
31% e 58%. Iiae aeeyieai aa?anneaiuo n?aae oei?eaeia i?i/iinoue
anoaeueoiaaoiia i?e naeaoee oiaiueoaaony ia 26%, i?e ?anoyaeaiee ia
ecaea ia 14%. Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi aeey e?eoe/aneie eiioeaio?aoeee ?anoai?a
eciin anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee ia 32% aieueoa, /ai a aiaea.
Onoie/eainoue anoaeueoiaaoiia e aeaenoaeth oeeeee/aneeo iaa?oaeaiee
oiaiueoaaony a 6 ?ac.

Ianuuaiea aa?oiaai neiy a?oioa caieyiiai iieioia i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth
iiaeoey oi?oainoe a?oioiaiai iniiaaiey ia 50% aeey noaeeiea e 37% aeey
noiane. Aeey ?acee/iuo eiino?oeoeee aei?iaeiie iaeaaeaeu yoi i?eaiaeeo e
oiaiueoaieth iiaeoey oi?oainoe ia 12-15% e, niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeii
i?iaiice?iaaoue oaaee/aiea ioiineoaeueiie ieiuaaee ?ac?ooaiee aei?iaeiuo
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee ia 2-3,5%.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee caeiiiia?iinoae ?ac?ooaiee iie?uoee a
aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao oei?enouo i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia iainiiaai
niinia i?ioeeaeoeee ?ac?ooaiee ?aaoee?iaaieai oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa
n?aae i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia a i?ioeanna ai?ueau n ceiiae
neieueceinoueth aeiaaaeaie — eiaeaeoi?aie ?ac?ooaiee.

A ea/anoaa oaeeo aeiaaaie i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaoue niee oinoi?iie
eeneiou. Aaaaeaiea yoeo aeiaaaie iicaieeei nieceoue ianuuaiea
anoaeueoiaaoiia ia 50%, oaaee/eoue eciininoieeinoue ia 26%,
onoie/eainoue e aicaeaenoaeth oeeeee/aneeo iaa?ocie ia 50-60%.

Iiuoii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?iaa?ea iiaeoaa?aeeea ?acoeueoaou
oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Iauai ?ac?ooaiee ia
iiuoiuo o/anoeao, aaea aeey ai?ueau n ceiiae neieueceinoueth a oa/aiea
aeaoo naciiia i?eiaiyeenue eiaeaeoi?u ?ac?ooaiey, ieacaeny cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoei, ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieueiuie o/anoeaie, ia eioi?uo
eniieueciaaeanue noaiaea?oiay oaoiieiaey ai?ueau n ceiiae
neieueceinoueth. Aeiaaaeaiea e ninoaao i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia
eiaeaeoi?ia ?ac?ooaiey a eiee/anoaa 1% io iannu niee iicaieeei
oiaiueoeoue ieiuaaeue oaeooaiey ia 25-50%, ieiuaaeue aue?aoeaaiey ia
21%, yii/iinoue — ia 13%.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu e aaaaeaiu ei?ii?aoeeae
“Oe?aaoiaei?” “?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iiauoaieth ?aaioiniiniaiinoe aei?iaeiuo
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuo iie?uoee a aa?anneaiuo n?aaeao oei?enouo
i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia”(1996). I?aaeeiaeaiu eiyooeoeeaiou
iaae?aiiioiuo n?ieia neoaeau aei?iaeiuo iaeaaeae e iie?uoee iiae
aeaenoaeai aa?anneaiuo n?aae i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia. Ii?aaeaeaiu
ii?iu ?anoiaea i?ioeaiaieieaaeiuo iaoa?eaeia, niaea?aeaueo eiaeaeoi?u
?ac?ooaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io i?eiaiaiey eiaeaeoi?ia ?ac?ooaiey ninoaaeyao a
oeaiao 1998 aiaea 1321 a?i. ia 1 ei. aei?iae II eaoaai?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaoiiiaeeueiay aei?iaa, anoaeueoiaaoiiiia iie?uoea,
oei?enoua i?ioeaiaieieaaeiua iaoa?eaeu, aa?anneaiay n?aaea, i?ioeeaeoeea
?ac?ooaiee.

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