OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO

O?AAIAOIEIA?? OA I?OIIAAe??

E?NEIA AIEIAeEIE? A?EAI?IAE*

OAeE 616.576-617.8-009.12-084-08

I?IO?EAEOEEA, Ae?AAIINOEEA OA EIEOAAIIss ?OAI?*II?

EIIO?AEOO?E NOIIE

14.01.21.- “O?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y”

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, i. Ee?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:- eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe Aaeiae/
Aieiaeeie?

?aaiiae/, iaeaniee i?oiiaae-o?aaiaoieia, caa?aeoaa/ o a?aeae?eaii?
i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? Oaeai?iaenueei? iaeanii? e?ea?i?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:- aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe E?enue-Ioaa/ Aiaoie?e
Iaaeiae/, Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa
i?oiiaae??, ea??aiee ee?i?ee aeeoy/i? i?oiiaae??.- aeieoi? iaaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Aieioei

, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey,

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee IAeI i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ’30‘ eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 1400 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.606.01 a Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? (252054,
Ee?a, aoe. Ai?ianueeiai, 27).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “26“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe A.A.Oe?uaiei

13

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Eiio?aeoo?a Oieueeiaia ? iaeiei c iaeoyae/eo
oneeaaeiaiue o?aai e?ioe?aie ? iio?aao? aaaaoiaoaiiiai e?eoaaiiy, yea a
?yae? aeiaaee?a aeyaey?oueny iaaoaeoeaiei. ?oai?/i? eiio?aeoo?e eeno? —
caaaeueiia?aeii?, a oie aea /an, eiio?aeoo?a Oieueeiaia ia noii? —
caeeoa?oueny iaeiaea/aiith iaoieia??th. Ia?oith oa ?aeeiith ?iaioith a
e?a?iao eieeoiueiai N?N?, aea iienaia ?oai?/ia eiio?aeoo?a noiie (16
aeiaaee?a) aoea aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa I.ss. O?uaiei, 1968. Ca aeaieie
??cieo aaoi??a ?EN cono??/a?oueny a?ae o 2,6 % aei 10 % oai?eo c
ia?aeiiaie aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee (H. Ellis, 1958; H. Seddon, 1966; R.
Owen, B. Tsimboukis, 1967).

sse i?aaeei, ?oai?/ia eiio?aeoo?a aeieea? ia oii? iai?aaeeueiiai /e
ianai?/aniiai e?eoaaiiy i?noeaaiai a?ia?oaic?eii-?oai?/iiai neiae?iio
(eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio) (F.A. Matsen, 1975; N.N. No?aooi, 1991). IA?N
aii?eee ?icaeaa?oueny o 1 — 10 % oai?eo c ia?aeiiaie aaeeeiaii?eeiai?
e?noee (S. Skjeldal oa ?i., 1995; H. Tscherne, L. Gotzen, 1984). O
oai?eo c aaaeeeie aaaaoioeaieiaeie ia?aeiiaie e?noie aii?eee, ui
ii?aeiothoueny ?c o?aaiith i’yeeo oeaiei oeae a?aenioie nyaa? 27 — 48 %
(A.S. Levy oa ?i., 1994; T.S. Woll, P.J. Duwelius, 1992).

Oe?ieee caaae i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie a iaaeinoaoi?e i???
ciaeiiee c i?io?eaeoeeith, ae?aaiinoeeith oa e?eoaaiiyi eiiia?oiaio
neiae?iio, ui coiiaeth? o cia/ii? e?eueeino? oai?eo ?icaeoie ?oai?/ii?
eiio?aeoo?e noiie. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaee
iioeiaeueieo niinia?a eiina?aaoeaiiai oa o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
oe??th iaoieia??th. A, a?aoiaoth/e cia/i? o?oaeiiu? a e?eoaaii?
noi?iiaaii? ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie, aaeeea cia/aiiy io?eio?
?ic?iaea ieoaiue ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy aieiaiiai iaoiaaiaoe/iiai
iiiaioo, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e — eiiia?oiaio
neiae?iio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iia’ycaia c iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith ?iaioith
ee?i?ee i?e?io??o?a?? oa ?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?a?inueeiai
IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? “?ic?iaeoe, iaa?oiooaaoe oa
cai?iaaaeeoe nenoaio caoiae?a c ae?aaiinoeee, e?eoaaiiy oa ?aaa?e?oaoe??
oai?eo c ?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie”. ? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe??
01960017997. ?iee aeeiiaiiy 1997-1999.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iie?auaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oa nei?i/aiiy oa?i?i?a e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie, oeyoii ?ic?iaee nenoaie caoiae?a
i?io?eaeoeee, ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy oe??? iaoieia??, a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo?
noiie, aaeineiiaeeoe ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee i?io?eaeoeee ae?aaiinoeee oa
e?eoaaiiy eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio aii?eee oa noiie;

— aea/eoe noai ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao ieaeiuei? e?ioe?aee o oai?eo c
?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith noiie ca aeaieie ?aiaacia?ao?? oa oa?iia?ao??;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe a ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo nenoaio ae?aaiinoeee oa
eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae?? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano;

— aea/eoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaoe iiieeee ? oneeaaeiaiiy
i?e e?eoaaii? eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio ieaei?o e?ioe?aie oa ?oai?/ii?
eiio?aeoo?e noiie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

?iaioa ? ia?oith a e?a?iao eieeoiueiai N?N? aea ia cia/iiio iaoa??ae?
?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? noiie,
a naia: aeyaeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ?oai?/ieo
eiio?aeoo? noiie, aaeineiiaeai? ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee i?io?eaeoeee,
ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio iiieeee oa noiie;
aea/aii ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao ieaeiuei?
e?ioe?aee o oai?eo c ?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith noiie ca aeaieie
?aiaacia?ao?? oa oa?iia?ao?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae??
?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie; cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th IAIN aii?eee
oa noiie, a oaeiae eeaneo?eaoe?th ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? noiie; ?ic?iaeaii
oa iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio ae?aaiinoeee oa eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae??
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui aeeth/a? no/ani? iaoiaee o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaeineiiaeai? ?nioth/?
iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee, ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio
aii?eee oa noiie. ?ic?iaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio ae?aaiinoeee oa
eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae?? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui
aeeth/a? no/ani? iaoiaee o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy (i?e?io??o?a?/ia
o?ainieaioaoe?y eiiieaen?a oeaiei).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ao?eaii a i?aeoeeo ee?i?ee i?e?io??o?a?? oa
?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa
i?oiiaae??, ee?i?ee i?e?inoaeeiii? oa ieanoe/ii? o??o?a?? ?inoeoooo
ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?eaiiy
o?aaiaoieia?? Oeaio?aeueiiai aini?oaeth II Oe?a?ie, oa a?aeae?eaiiy
o?aaiaoieia?? Oeaio?aeueiiai aini?oaeth i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Aaoi?ii aeyaeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ?oai?/ieo
eiio?aeoo? noiie, aaeineiiaeai? ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee i?io?eaeoeee,
ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio aii?eee oa noiie.
I?iaiae?ciaaii ?aiaacia?ao?/i? oa oa?iia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaei?o
e?ioe?aie o oai?eo ia ??cieo noaae?yo ia?aa?ao ?EN. Cai?iiiiiaaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th IAIN aii?eee ? noiie oa ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? noiie.
?ic?iaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio ae?aaiinoeee oa eiiieaeniiai
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaaeeino? oa noaae?? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui aeeth/a? no/ani? iaoiaee
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy (i?e?io??o?a?/ia o?ainieaioaoe?y eiiieaen?a
oeaiei).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe

Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia Ee?anueeee i?nuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a (Ee?a, 1992);
Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a
(AEeoiie?, 1996); II c’?cae? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a,
1996); can?aeaiiyo oiaa?enoaa i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a i. Ee?aa i
Ee?anueei? iaeano?, (Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 4-o noaooyo a iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao (iaeia aac ni?aaaoi??a) oa o 8 iaoa??aeao ? oacao c’?cae?a oa
eiioa?aioe?e, aeaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa ca?a?no?iaaia iaeia
?aoei?iiiceoe?y.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 4 noaooyo, iaea?aeaii iaeei
iaoaio.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 180 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ?
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, i?aenoieo, aeniiae?a oa nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e, yeee i?noeoue 203 aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, cie?aia 30
a?o/eciyieo ? 173 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a. Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 55
?enoieaie oa aeeth/a? 17 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy
142 oai?eo, na?aae yeeo 49 — c eiiia?oiaio neiae?iiii aii?eee ? noiie,
oa 93 iaoe??io?a c ?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith noiie, ui ca ia??iae c 1982
aei 1997 ?ieo ciaoiaeeeenue ia e?eoaaii? o a?aeae?eaii? i?e?io??o?a?? oa
?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?IAeIOI oa o o?aaiaoieia?/iiio
a?aeae?eaii? Oeaio?aeueiiai a?enueeiaiai aini?oaeth II Oe?a?ie.

An? oai?? c eiiia?oiaio neiae?iiii a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaith aaaeeino?
aoee iiae?eai? ia 3 ee?i?/i? a?oie, ca eeaneo?eaoe??th No?aooia N.N.,
(1991). Ia?oo ee?i?/io a?oio neeaee 4 oai?eo c eaaeei nooiaiai. A ae?oao
ee?i?/io a?oio aa?eoee 25 iaoe??io?a c na?aaei?i nooiaiai aaaeeino?
IA?N. O?aoth ee?i?/io a?oio noi?ioaaee 20 oai?eo c aaaeeei nooiaiai
eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio. A?e iaoe??io?a neeaaeaa a?ae 4 aei 72 ?ie?a
(na?aaei?e a?e — 26 ?ie?a), /ieia?e?a aoei 47 (95,9 %), ae?iie — 2 (4,1
%). Ia?aaaaeio e?euee?noue oai?eo neeaaeaee iaoe??ioe o a?oe? a?ae 15
aei 25 ?ie?a.

E?aa ieaeiy e?ioe?aea aoea o?aaeaia a 28 aeiaaeeao, i?aaa — a 21. IA?N
aii?eee a?aei?/aee o 37 oai?eo, IA?N noiie — o 11 iaoe??io?a (c ieo o 4
oai?eo IA?N aeyaeee ye ia aii?eoe?, oae ? ia noii?), IA?N n?aeie/ii?
iaeano? — o 1 oai?iai.

I?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae i?e/ei ?icaeoeo IA?N iin?aeaea aaoiaei?iaeiy
o?aaia — 38,8 % Ia ae?oaiio oa o?aoueiio i?noe? aoee neiae?ii o?eaaeiai
caeaaeaiiy oa ai?eii-caiaeuei? i?ioeane a iaeano? aii?eee oa noiie.
Ai?eii-caiaeuei? i?ioeane oa noaeeiia iaoieia?y noaiiaeee eeoa 12,3 %
aeiaaee?a. O 87,7 % iaoe??io?a iaea i?noea aino?a o?aaia ieaeiuei?
e?ioe?aee.

Iniiaiith o?aaiith ia oii?, yei? ?icaeaaany IA?N aoee ia?aeiie e?noie
aii?eee oa noiie. Ia?aeiie aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee, aai iaio e?noie
aii?eee iaee i?noea o 26 oai?eo (53,1 %), ia?aeiie e?noie noiie o 8
iaoe??io?a, c ieo o?i? oai?eo iaee ia?aeiie e?noie ye aii?eee oae ?
noiie. O aeaio oai?eo iaee i?noea ia?aeiie e?noie iaio aii?eie, o
iaeiiai oai?iai ia?aeiie e?noie aii?eee niieo/aeenue c ia?aeiiii
na?aaeiuei? o?aoeie ae?ao?co noaaiiai? e?noee. O aeaio iaoe??io?a aoea
iie?o?aaia, a naia: ia?aeiie e?noie aii?eee, ia?aeiie ?aaa?,
/a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia.

Na?aae ia?aeii?a aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue neeaee
ia?aeiie na?aaeiuei? oa aa?oiuei? o?aoeie ae?ao?co (73,1 %). A?aee?eo?
ia?aeiie iaee i?noea o 14 oai?eo cae?eo? — o 12. Aeey ioe?iee aaaeeino?
ia?aeiio oa o?aaie i’yeeo oeaiei ie aeei?enoiaoaaee eeaneo?eaoe?th
cai?iiiiiaaio Muller M.E., (1987). A ae?oa?e ee?i?/i?e a?oi? a?eueo?noue
noaiiaeee ia?aeiie aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee oeio A (c iayai?noth
eeeiiaeaeiiai oeaieo). A o?ao?e ee?i?/i?e a?oi? ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue
neeaee neeaaei? aaaaoioeaieia? ia?aeiie (oei N), ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aaaee?noue naii? o?aaie.

Ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo aeeth/aei caaaeueiii?eeiyo? ee?i?/i?, eaai?aoi?i?, a
i?e iaiao?aeiino? ?aioaaiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? caeaaeaee a?ae
oa?aeoa?o naii? o?aaie. E??i oiai, aecia/aee oa?aeoa? iaa?ieia?/ieo
?iceaae?a a iaeano? aii?eee oa noiie, iayai?noue oa oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaa?yeo, noai iaa?no?aeueiiai e?iaiia?ao ieaeiuei? e?ioe?aee. Aea
iniiaiei e?eoa???i ia iniia? yeiai anoaiiaethaaee ae?aaiic IA?N aoei
i?aeaeuaiiy i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo. Aei??thaaiiy i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai
oeneo i?iaiaeeee ?i’?eoe?eiei iaoiaeii [198], a iao?e iiaeeo?eaoe??
(?aoei?iiiceoe?y 408 CAA ? 1386).

A ia?o?e ee?i?/i?e a?oi? iaeaeu? iieacieee i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo aoee
io?eiai? a ia?aaeiueiio eiiia?oiaio? 31,3 ± 5,13 ii ?o. no. A ae?oa?e ?
o?ao?e ee?i?/ieo a?oiao iaea?eueo? iieacieee i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo
aoee a?aei?/ai? o caaeiueiio aeeaieiio oooey?? a?aeiia?aeii 43,7 ± 15,73
ii ?o. no. oa 81,4 ± 24,41 ii ?o. no. Ae?oao iiceoe?th ca nai?i ??aiai a
on?o ee?i?/ieo a?oiao iin?ee iieacieee i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo a
caaeiueiio iiaa?oiaaiio oooey?? 30,5 ± 2,12 ii ?o. no. a ia?o?e, 41,7 ±
23,17 ii ?o. no — a ae?oa?e ? 75,6 ± 26,63 ii ?o. no. — o?ao?e ee?i?/i?e
a?oi?. Iaeaeuee ??aaiue i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo 128 ii ?o. no. aeyaeaii
a caaeiueiio aeeaieiio oooey?? o oai?iai c oeaaiiiith aii?eee.

An?i oai?ei ia?oi? ee?i?/ii? a?oie i?iaiaeeee eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy.
Eiiieaen e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a aeeth/aa ca?eueiaiiy e?ioe?aee a?ae
aoaeue-yeeo caeaaethth/eo iia’ycie oa ?? a?iioa?i?th. E?ioe?aeo
?icoaoiaoaaee o aeaui i?aeaeuaiiio iieiaeaii? (ia ??ai? na?oey). Na?aae
iaaeeeaiaioicieo cania?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iai?oie oa i?aia?aoe, ui
iie?auothoue ?aieia?th e?ia?, a naia ?aiiie?aethe?i 200,0, eo?aioee aai
o?aioae (aioo??oiueiaaiii e?aiaeueii, a caaaeueiioa?aiaaoe/ieo aeicao).
I?ecia/aee ani??ei ii 250 ia aeaa ?ace ia aeaiue, oa ciaaiethth/?
iaia?eioe/i? i?aia?aoe. I?ney i?iaaaeaiiy iaeiiai eo?no eiina?aaoeaii?
oa?ai?? (/a?ac 3-4 aiaeeie i?ney anoaiiaeaiiy ae?aaiico (IA?N) o oai?eo
ia?oi? ee?i?/ii? a?oie iiaoi?ii ioe?ithaaee eieaeueiee noaoon. A on?o
aeiaaeeao a?aei?/aee iie?auaiiy i?noeaaiai noaio: ciaioeany a?eue oa
aieth/?noue i?e ianeaieo ?ooao iaeueoeyie, ui aoei iieacaiiyi aei
i?iaeiaaeaiiy eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai??.

Na?aae 25 oai?eo, ui noi?ioaaee ae?oao ee?i?/io a?oio IA?N aii?eee
a?aei?/aee o 19 iaoe??io?a, a eiiia?oiaio neiae?ii noiie a 6 aeiaaeeao.
O an?o iaoe??io?a aeaii? ee?i?/ii? a?oie e?eoaaiiy ii/eiaee c
eiina?aaoeaieo caoiae?a. Aei eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, c iaoith
i?io?eaeoeee ai?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, aeiaeaaaee aioea?ioeeioa?ai?th. I?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy iaeiiai eo?no eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai?? ia i?ioyc? 3 — 4
aiaeei, o oai?eo iiaoi?ii ioe?ithaaee eieaeueiee noaoon. A ?ac?
iie?auaiiy i?noeaaiai noaio, ui ia’?eoeaii i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeinue i?e
iiaoi?iiio aei??thaaii? i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo, eiina?aaoeaia
e?eoaaiiy i?iaeiaaeoaaee (5 oai?eo — 20 %). A ?ioeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ie
ia a?aei?/aee iie?auaiiy eieaeueiiai noaoono, eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy
cae?i/oaaee oa aeeiioaaee oanoe?ioii?th.

E??i oiai, o 8 oai?eo, aea aoea iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy oa?i?iiaeo
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, oanoe?oioii?y aeeiioaaeanue ye aoai iia?aoe??
ia?aeiii? o??o?a?/ii? ia?iaee ?ai oa inoaineioaco, iacaeaaeii a?ae
?acoeueoao?a eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Iaoiaeeeo oanoe?ioii??, aeae?aee caeaaeii a?ae oiai, a yeiio oooey?? aai
oooey?ao ieaioaaee aeeiioaaoe aeaeiii?an?th. E??i oiai ia aea?? aieeaaa
oie oaeo i?iaiaeeeanue oanoe?ioii?y ye ie?aia iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy, aai
ye aoai iia?aoe??. O oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee oai?ei aeeiioaaee ia?aeiio
o??o?a?/io ia?iaeo ?ai, aai inoaineioac, oanoe?ioii?th aeeiioaaee ia ?c
“eeane/ieo”, aeinooi?a, a, ii iiaeeeaino?, ?c iia?aoe?eii? ?aie.

Ie aaaaea?ii, ui i?e aeeiiaii? e?eoaaeueieo oanoe?ioii?e eieae?caoe?y,
?ici??e oa eiio?ao?aoe?y oe??ieo ?ic??c?a iathoue caeaaeaoe a?ae
iayaiino? oa i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy ciie ooeiaeaeaiiy i’yeeo oeaiei. I?e
iaaiae? ?ic??ce o?aaa i?iaiaeeoe /a?ac oe? ciie, ine?eueee c’yaey?oueny
iiaeeea?noue aeaeaeeoe iaaeeoo?caeaoi? ae?eueieoe? oeaiei, ae?aioaaoe
aaiaoiie. E??i oiai, aeiaeaoeia? ?ic??ce /a?ac iaiioeiaeaeai?
ae?eueieoe? iiaeooue eeoa iia??oeoe e?iaiia?a a o?aaiiaai?e cii?, aea
a?i ? aac oiai neiii?iiaoiaaiee.

?aie i?ney oanoe?ioii?e ie, ye i?aaeei, ia caoeaaee, a iaeeaaeaee
aoi?eii? oae i?ney niaaeaiiy iaa?yeo oa i/euaiiy ?aie. Ia?aeii? oae oa
aaeooi ae?aioaaiiy ?aie canoinoaaee eeoa a 4 aeiaaeeao i?e aeeiiaii?
i?io?eaeoe/ieo oanoe?ioii?e.

Aaaeeee nooi?iue eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio iaee 20 iaoe??io?a, na?aae yeeo
IA?N aii?eee niinoa??aaee a 17 aeiaaeeao, a IA?N noiie o 3 oai?eo. O 9
oai?eo (45 %), ui iaee aaaeeee nooi?iue eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio ae?aaiic
IA?N aoei anoaiiaeaii a i?ci? oa?i?ie, oiaoi ia noaae?? iacai?ioieo ci?i
o i’ycao. Oea noaei iieacaiiyi aeey aeeiiaiiy aiiooaoe?e aii?eee aai
noiie o 7 iaoe??io?a. Oeyoii ei?ioeiai eo?no eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy,
ui i?iaiaeeany o 12 oai?eo aaeaeiny aeinyaoe iie?auaiiy eieaeueiiai
noaoono a 2 aeiaaeeao (ia?aaanoe aaaeeee nooi?iue IA?N a na?aaei?e). O
13 oai?eo i?iaiaeeee oanoe?ioii?? ca eeane/ieie iaoiaeeeaie, aeeiiaiiy
yeeo a?ae??ciyeinue oei, ui oanoe?ioii?? ii?aeioaaeenue c ?aaeeeaeueiith
?acaeoe??th an?o oeaiei, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue yeeo aeceaaea noii?ae ia /an
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy.

I?ae iaoei iaaeyaeii ciaoiaeeeinue 93 iaoe??ioe c ?oai?/iith
eiio?aeoo?ith noiie. A ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae?
(eeaneo?eaoe?y No?aooia N.N. (1991) a iao?e iiaeeo?eaoe??) ie
niinoa??aaee 40 iaoe??io?a. Oeeo iaoe??io?a ie a?aeianee aei /aoaa?oi?
ee?i?/ii? a?oie. ?io? 53 oai?eo, ui oa?eoee aei i’yoi? ee?i?/ii? a?oie,
ciaoiaeeeenue ia e?eoaaii? o a?aeae?eaii? i?e?io??o?a?? oa
?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?IAeIOI a ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae?.

A?e iaoe??io?a aoa a?ae 8 aei 67 ?ie?a (na?aaei?e a?e — 28 ?ie?a),
/ieia?e?a aoei 74 (79,6 %), ae?iie — 19 (20,4 %). Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue
oai?eo neeaaeaee iaoe??ioe o a?oe? a?ae 15 aei 35 ?ie?a. sse ? o oai?eo
c IA?N, iae/ano?oa i?e/eiith ?icaeoeo ?oai?/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oeaiei
aii?eee oa noiie aoea aaoiaei?iaeiy o?aaia

Oanoe?ioii?y aoea aeeiiaia eeoa o 4 iaoe??io?a (4,3 %). I?e/iio a aeaio
aeiaaeeao oanoe?ioii?th aoei aeeiiaii ia 4-5 aeiao (i?ciy oanoe?ioii?y).
A aeaio ?ioeo aeiaaeeao oanoe?ioii?th aoei aeeiiaii a ia?o? 3-4 aiaeeie
i?ney o?aaie, aea ?EN ana iaeii ?icaeioeanue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iaaeinoaoith ye?noue aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe??.

O 51 oai?iai ?oai?/io eiio?aeoo?o a?aei?/aee ia e?a?e noii?, o 42 — ia
i?aa?e. Iae/ano?oa aoee iioeiaeaeai? no?oeoo?e caaeiueiai aeeaieiai
eiiia?oiaioo, ie?aii (5,37 %), aai iaeii/anii c ?ioeie oanoe?aeueieie
oooey?aie (69,8 %). Iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao iaee ooeiaeaeaiiy caaeiueiai
aeeaieiai oa iiaa?oiaaiai oooey??a (20,5 %). Caaei?e aeeaieee oa
ia?aaei?e eiiia?oiaioe aoee ooeiaeaeai? a 13,97 % aeiaaee?a.
Eaoa?aeueiee oanoe?aeueiee oooey? iae/ano?oa ooeiaeaeoaaany a eiiieaen?
c ia?aaei?i (9,8 % ). ?oai?/ia ooeiaeaeaiiy i’yc?a noiie aeyaeee o 8
oai?eo (8,6 %), ua o 5 (5,37 %) oai?eo iaei i?noea o?aaeaiiy an?o i’yc?a
aii?eee oa noiie.

O 34 (85 %) oai?eo c ?EN a ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae?
a?aei?/aee iayai?noue noiooiuei? iaoieia?? ??cieo no?oeoo? aii?eee oa
noiie. Na?aae 53 iaoe??io?a c ?EN a ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? 39 (73,58
%), oaeiae iaee noiooith iaoieia?th. O oai?eo c ?EN a
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao iaee
canoa??e? iioeiaeaeaiiy aaeeeiaii?eeiaiai ia?aa (27,5 %). Aeaui iaioee
a?aenioie canoa??eeo iioeiaeaeaiue aaeeeiaii?eeiaiai ia?aa a?aei?/aee o
iaoe??io?a a ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? (26,4 %). Canoa??e? iioeiaeaeaiiy
iaeiaii?eeiaiai ia?aa aeyaeee o 12,5 % oa 15,1 % oai?eo a?aeiia?aeieo
ee?i?/ieo a?oi.

A i`yo?e ee?i?/i?e a?oi? iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao iaee aeaoaeoe, aai
?oaoeaaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei (32 %). Oeth iaoieia?th
ie a?aoiaoaaee, o?eueee a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aeaoaeo iio?aaoaaa
o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe??, ye ie?aia iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy, aai aoai
iia?aoe??. O oai?eo c ?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith a
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? aeaoaeoe oe??e a?aei?/aee o 22,5
%. O 7,5 % iaoe??io?a ia?oi? ee?i?/ii? a?oie oa o 15,1 % oai?eo ae?oai?
ee?i?/ii? a?oie ?EN ?icaeioeanue ia oii? inoaii??e?oo e?noie aii?eee.

I?e iinooieaii? o ee?i?eo oai?? c ?EN iaee o aiaiiac? aei 6 iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue. A ee?i?oe? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? ?EN oa noiooiuei?
iaoieia?? oai?ei, ye i?aaeei, i?iaiaeeee iia?aoeaia e?eoaaiiy a
aeae?eueea aoai?a, (iae/ano?oa a 2, 3 aoaie). A oie aea /an, i?e
iayaiino? aaaeeiai nooiaith ?EN e?euee?noue iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue aoea
a?eueoith. Oae aeaii oai?ei a ee?i?oe? aoei aeeiiaii 8 iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue, a iaeiiio — 9, ui na?ae/eoue i?i neeaaei?noue aeaii?
iaoieia??.

Ia iniia? iaoi? eeaneo?eaoe?? an? oai?? c ?EN a
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? aoee iiae?eai? ia o?e nooiaiy
aaaeeino?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o oa eieae?caoe?? o?aaeaiiy i’yc?a
oa ?ioeo aiaoii?/ieo no?oeoo? naaiaioo, iayaiino? iae?io?io?/ieo ci?i,
aeaoi?iaoe?? noiie oa caeaaeii a?ae iii?icaeaoiino? e?ioe?aee

*ioe?ueii oai?ei c eaaeei nooiaiai aaaeeino? ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e ie
i?iaiaeeee eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy. Eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy a
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? aoei ni?yiiaaia ia iie?auaiiy
i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? oa o?io?ee oeaiei ? aeeth/aei: aeacaa?aaaioe (ani??ei,
o?aioae oa eo?aio?e), aioeieneaeaioe (aaa?o), i?aia?aoe, ui
ii?iae?cothoue ieneaaiaoe?th oeaiei (nieeina?ee ? aeoiaaa?i),
a?oai?iioa?ai?th (a?oai?ie a?oie A), ?ioiioa?ai?th oa aeaaeeno?io?/io
oa?ai?th. Ii?yae c iaaeeeaiaioiciith oa?ai??th aeei?enoiaoaaee eiiieaen
caoiae?a, iai?aaeaieo ia ciaioaiiy nooiaith ?oaoeaaiai i?ioeano o
oeaieiao noiie oa aii?eee, ui aeeth/aa 2 — 3 eo?ne aeaeo?ioi?aco
e?aeace, oiiioi?ac a?ae?iei?oeciio, ia?ao?iia? aie?eaoe??, ianaae oa
a?iiaoai?/io noeioeyoe?th c /anoioith 20-30 Aoe. Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaee
caoiaee ni?yiiaai? ia i?io?eaeoeeo eiio?aeoo? (ei?aaoth/? a?inia? oeie),
caa?aaeaiiy ianeaieo ?oo?a o noaeiaao oa ca?eueoaiiy neee
iaiioeiaeaeaieo i’yc?a (EOE), i?aea?? i?oiiaaee/iiai acoooy.

Iaoe??ioe, ui iaee na?aaei?e oa aaaeeee nooi?iue eiio?aeoo?e Oieueeiaia
(36 oai?eo), io?eioaaee eiiieaenia eiina?aaoeaia oa iia?aoeaia
e?eoaaiiy. Iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe??
?oai?/ii /e o?aaiaoe/ii ooeiaeaeaieo ia?a?a, aeaeaeaiiy iae?ioeciaaieo
oeaiei oa ?acaeoe?th iani?aaaei?o noaeia?a, cai?uaiiy aeaoaeo?a e?noie,
oa ?o inoaineioac, a, oaeiae, ieanoeeo aeaoaeo?a oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei
c iaoith noai?aiiy oiia aeey ianooiieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e. Ine?eueee i?e
iioeiaeaeaii? ia?a?a oaeoi? /ano a?a? ae??oaeueio ?ieue, iniiaiei
iia?aoeaiei ao?o/aiiyi o oai?eo c ?EN na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy aaaeeino?
aoee iia?aoe?? ia ia?aao aii?eee oa noiie.

A oiiaao ?oai?/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oeaiei aii?eee ia? i?noea niia?eueiaia
eiinie?aeaoe?y ia?aeii?a oa /anoa aeieeiaiiy iani?aaaei?o noaeia?a
e?noie. O /ioe?ueio iaoe??io?a aeeiiaee cai?uaiiy cia/ieo aeaoaeo?a
aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee aaneoey?eciaaiei o?ainieaioaoii iaeiaii?eeiai?
e?noee ia noaeeii?e i?aeoe?. A on?o aeiaaeeao iieacaiiyi aei
i?e?io??o?a?/ii? ieanoeee aoee aeaoaeoe aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee iiiaae
15 ni.

O o?ueio oai?eo ?oai?/ia iioeiaeaeaiiy i’yc?a niieo/aeinue ?c cia/iith
?oaoeaaith o?ainoi?iaoe??th oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei, aai ae?aceith a
iaeano? aii?eee. A?aenooi?noue ii?iaeueieo iie?eaieo oeaiei ?iaeee
iaiiaeeeaeie aeeiiaiiy ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ia no?oeoo?ao
naaiaioo, oiio ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oeeo
oai?eo aoei cai?uaiiy aeaoaeoo iiaiioe?iieie oeaieiaie. O?aaeeoe?ei?
iaoiaeeee oe??ii? ieanoeee ia aeicaieythoue aeinyaoe cai?uaiiy oaeeo
aeaoaeo?a. Iaoiaeii aeai?o i?e e?eoaaii? oe??? iaoieia?? ?, ia iaoo
aeoieo, i?e?io??o?a?/ia o?ainieaioaoe?y neeaaeieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei ?
naia eeaioy iaeoe?oiai i’yco nieie.

O?noiaaeoeyoue oai?eo c ?EN a ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae?
iaee aaaeeee nooi?iue ooeiaeaeaiiy. E?eoaaiiy oai?eo oe??? a?oie yaey?
niaith aeoaea neeaaeio i?iaeaio. Aaciaei ieoaiiyi ? ioe?iea ia?niaeoea
iia?aoeaieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e. Caaaeii 16 iaoe??ioai aoei aeeiiaii 58
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue aai ?o aoai?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea o 4 oai?eo ia
aoei iaea?aeaii iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? a ianooiiiio aoei aeeiiaii
aiiooaoe?? ia ??ai? aa?oiuei? o?aoeie aii?eee. Ua o aeaio oai?eo
aiiooaoe?? aoei aeeiiaii ia ??cieo ??aiyo noiie.

O ia?aaaaeath/i? a?eueoino? oai?eo, c oeo ui ii/aee e?eoaaiiy a
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? nooi?iue iaoieia?/ieo ci?i a
?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? ia iio?aaoaaa ianooiii? o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe??.
Oeei iaoe??ioai aeaaaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? o i?aeai?? i?oiiaaee/iiai acoooy,
i?ecia/aee eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy iai?aaeaia ia ciaioaiiy
aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo yaeu o noaeiaao noiie, oiui.

A ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? ii/aee e?eoaaiiy a ee?i?oe? i?e?io??o?a?? oa
?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?IAeIOI 53 iaoe??ioe c eiio?aeoo?ith
Oieueeiaia ia noii?. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoi? eeaneo?eaoe??, an? oai?? c
?EN a ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? aoee iiae?eai? ia o?e nooiaiy aaaeeino?.

?aceaeoaeueiee ia??iae ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
noaa?e?caoe??th i?ioeano. Ia oeae /an ianoa? no?eea aeaoi?iaoe?y
e?ioe?aee, oa?aeoa? yei? caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith o?a?icoaaiiy o??? /e
?ioi? a?oie i’yc?a. Iacai?ioi?e oa?aeoa? ci?i o i’ycao iaoiiaeth?
o?eniaai?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e oa ?o ?acenoaioi?noue aei eiina?aaoeaieo
caoiae?a. Oa?aeoa? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? ia?
nai? iniaeeaino?. Iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao iaee iia?aoe?? iai?aaeai? ia
o??o?a?/io ei?aeoe?th aeania ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie. Oea ie
iiynith?ii oei, ui ia oeae /an iaoe??ioe ciaoiaeeeenue ia e?eoaaii?
uiiaeiaioa iaeei ??e, ia?aianee a?ae aeaio aei i’yoe iia?aoe?e, ?
aeinyaee iaaiiai ee?i?/iiai ?acoeueoaoo (a?aeiiaeaii oe?e?ni?noue oe??e,
e?noie, e?ea?aeiaai? caiaeuei? yaeua).

O /ioe?ueio iaoe??io?a c eaaeei nooiaiai ?EN i?iaiaeeee iia?aoe?? ia
i’yeeo oeaieiao e?ioe?aee.

?c 21 oai?iai, ui iaee na?aaei?e nooi?iue aaaeeino? o 10 aea?ion
ei?aaoaaee iia?aoeaieie ao?o/aiiyie ia i’yeeo oeaieiao. ?aoaeuei?
ee?i?/i? oa ?aioaaiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aae iia?aoe??th aeicaieyee
anoaiiaeoe ye? naia eiiiiiaioe oi?iothoue aea?ion oa iio?aaothoue
ei?aeoe??. O oanoe oai?eo aoei aeyaeaii “/enoee” aea?ion
aii?eeiainoiiiiai noaeiaa ? iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy aeeth/aei iiaeiaaeaiiy
ao?eiaiai nooiaeeeey oa caaeith eainoeioii?th aii?eeiai-noiiiiai
noaeiaa. O /ioe?ueio iaoe??io?a aea?ion oa?aiii? e?noee aeiiiaithaaany
iiouaiiyi ia?aaeiueiai a?aeae?eo noiie. O oeeo oai?eo iia?aoe?th
iiaeiaaeaiiy ao?eiaiai nooiaeeeey oa caaeith eainoeioii?th
aii?eeiai-noiiiiai noaeiaa aeiiiaithaaee i?aeioiaiith aiiiaa?ioii??th,
oa oaiioii??th nooiaeeeue aeiaaeo caeia/?a iaeueoe?a oa caaeiueiai
aaeeeiaii?eeiaiai i’yco (3 aeiaaeee). I?aeioiaia aiiiaa?ioii?y ?
iaia’yceiaei eiiiiiaioii iia?aoe?? o oe??? a?oie oai?eo, c ia? aeania ?
ii/eiaee onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ae /an iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. O
/ioe?ueio oai?eo c oe??? a?oie, ui iaee eiia?iiaaia ?oai?/ia o?aaeaiiy
i’yc?a ia?aaeiueiai oa caaeiueiai aeeaieiai aai iiaa?oiaaiai
eiiia?oiaio?a onoiaiiy aea?ionii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeiiiaithaaee iia?aoe?yie
ii noaa?e?caoe?? noiie o iieiaeaii? ei?aeoe??. O aeaio iaoe??io?a aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoaee o?ainiiceoe?th nooiaeeeey caaeiueiai
aaeeeiaii?eeiaiai i’yco ia oee noiie. O aeaio ?ioeo oai?eo aeei?enoaoe
aeey o?ainiiceoe?? aeuacaaaeaiee i’yc aoei iaiiaeeeaei aiane?aeie eiai
?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy. O iaeiiai c oeeo iaoe??io?a ie aeeiiaee
o?ainiiceoe?th nooiaeeeey ei?ioeiai iaeiaii?eeiaiai i’yco ia oee noiie,
a ?ioiio aeiaaeeo iaie aoei aeeiiaii oaiiaeac noiie nooiaeeeeyi
?icaeia/a ia?oiai iaeueoey noiie.

O oai?eo c aeiaai ?nioth/eie ? o?eniaaieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie noiie,
onoiaiiy yeeo ca ?aooiie iia?aoe?e ia i’yeeo oeaiei aoei iaiiaeeeaei
aeeiioaaee iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia e?noeao: o?ueionoaeiaiaee a?o?iaeac
(1), i?aeoa?aiiee oa oa?aiii-/iaiiiiae?aiee a?o?iaeac (1), a?o?iaeac
aii?eeiai-noiiiiai noaeiao (1), a oaeiae eeeiiaeaeio ?acaeoe?th
na?aaeiueiai a?aeae?eo noiie (1). Aea, o oai?eo c ?EN na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy aaaeeino? ieoiia aaaa oeeo iia?aoe?e, ii??aiyii c iia?aoe?yie ia
i’yeeo oeaieiao — iacia/ia.

N?iiaaeoeyoue oai?eo c ?EN a ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? iaee aaaeeee
nooi?iue ooeiaeaeaiiy. Oa?aeoa? e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a o oeeo oai?eo ia
a?ae??ciyany cia/iith i??ith a?ae canoiniaaieo i?e ?EN na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy. Iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia ei?aeoe?th aeania
eiio?aeoo?e. Aea ieoiia aaaa iia?aoe?e ia i’yeeo oeaieiao aoea cia/ii
iaioa. Aaaee?noue iaoieia??, ? ye iane?aeie o?eniaai?noue aeaoi?iaoe??,
coiiaeei oa ui iniiaiei iaoiaeii ei?aeoe?? aoee iia?aoe?? ia e?noeao. O
7 oai?eo c aeaoi?iaoe??th ii oeio ii?iaeienoi? noiie aeeiiaee iia?aoe?th
eeeiiaeaeii? ?acaeoe?? na?aaeiueiai a?aeae?eo noiie ca iiaeeo?eiaaiith
iaoiaeeeith Cole. Iaoa iiaeeo?eaoe?y iaoiaeeee iieyaaea o oiio ui i?e
oi?ioaaii? eeeia aeey ?acaeoe?? a?aoiaoaaee oaeiae ? iaiao?aei?noue
ei?aeoe?? i?eaaaeaiiy ia?aaeiueiai a?aeae?eo noiie.

I?e e?eoaaiiy 11 oai?eo, ui iaee /aoaa?oee nooi?iue aaaeeino? ?EN ia
ia?oee ieai ciiao aeoiaeeei ieoaiiy ia?niaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaieo
?aeiino?oeoe?e. Oa, ui o oeeo iaoe??io?a, ye? e?eoaaeenue uiiaeiaioa ??e
i?aoi?e, ia aoee e?ea?aeiaai? inoaii??e?o, ai?eii-o?io?/i? aeaoaeoe
i’yeeo oeaiei na?ae/eoue i?i aaaee?noue ?oai?/iiai ooeiaeaeaiiy oeaiei
aii?eee. Oai?? oe??? i?aea?oie iinooiaee a ee?i?eo iath/e a aiaiiac? ii
3-8 iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iao? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui aacoaaeenue ia ?aoaeueiiio
ee?i?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?, aeaieo oa?iia?ao?? oa ?aiaacia?ao??, oai?? a
a?eueoino? a?aeiiaeyeenue a?ae aiiooaoe?? e?ioe?aee. O?eueee o iaeiiai
oai?iai aoei aeeiiaii aiiooaoe?th ia ??ai? aa?oiuei? o?aoeie aii?eee
i?ae /an ia?oiai iinooieaiiy a Oe?IAeIOI. A o?ueio ?ioeo aeiaaeeao
aiiooaoe?th aoei aeeiiaii uiiaeiaioa i?ney aeaio aoai?a iia?aoeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy a oiiaao iaoi? ee?i?ee. Oa?aeoa? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue o
oai?eo c ?EN /aoaa?oiai nooiaiy aaaeeino? i?eioeeiiai a?ae??ciyeinue
a?ae iienaiiai aeua. Iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao iaee iia?aoe?? ni?yiiaai? ia
e?eoaaiiy inoaii??e?oo ai?eii-o?io?/ieo aeaoaeo?a a iaeano? aii?eee. O 6
iaoe??io?a aeeiioaaee o?nooenaeaano?iae?aeoii?th, c ianooiiei
iicaaiaieuaaei inoaineioacii aia?aoii ?e?ca?iaa. O iaeiiai c ieo
o?nooenaeaano?iae?aeoii?th aeeiioaaee aea?/?. Aeaoaeoe oe??e oa i’yeeo
oeaiei cae?eaaee ca aeiiiiiaith i?e?io??o?a?/ii? ia?anaaeee eeaioy
iaeoe?oiai i’yco nieie (5 iaoe??io?a).

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c IA?N aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? a
oa?i?ie a?ae 4 i?nyoe?a aei 3 ?ie?a, a na?aaeiueiio 7,2 i?nyoe?. I?e
eiio?ieueiiio iaeyae? ie ioe?ithaaee oae? iieacieee, ye a?aeiiaeaiiy
iii?icaeaoiino? e?ioe?aee, iayai?noue iciae ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie,
oa ??aaiue /ooeeaino? ia noii?. I?e ioe?ioe? /ooeeaino? ie a?aoiaoaaee
an? aeaee ?? ii?ooaiiy, oi/a i?eioeeiiaei ? a?aeiiaeaiiy /ooeeaino? ia
iii?i?e (i?aeioiai?e) iiaa?oi? noiie, ine?eueee a?ia?anoac?y a oe?e cii?
i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiiaeeeaino? ia?anoaaoenue, a i?e aianoac?? ?nio?
aenieee ?ecee aeieeiaiiy o?io?/ieo ae?acie ia i?aeioa?.

O iaoe??io?a ia?oi? ee?i?/ii? a?oie ooieoe?th e?ioe?aee oa /ooeea?noue
ia noii? aoei a?aeiiaeaii a iiaiiio ianyc?. Na?aae oai?eo ae?oai?
ee?i?/ii? a?oie aaeaeiny a?aeiiaeoe iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee o 84 %
iaoe??io?a. O aeaio oai?eo aoei aeeiiaii aiiooaoe?? ia ??ai? aii?eee. O
iaeiiai oai?iai, c inoaii??e?oii aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee ia iiiaio
eiio?ieueiiai iaeyaeo iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee ia aoea a?aeiiaeaia.
Ii?ooaiue /ooeeaino? ia a?aei?/aee 65,2 % iaoe??io?a aeaii? a?oie. A oie
aea /an a aeiaeiiai c ianoaaeaieo oai?eo ia aoei aeyaeaii aianoac?? aai
a?ia?anoac?? i?aeioiaii? iiaa?oi? nooii?. I?iyae ?EN o aeaeyae? iii??ieo
caeiaeueieo eiio?aeoo? noiie oa iaeueoe?a, ui ia iio?aaoaaee o??o?a?/ii?
ei?aeoe??, a?aei?/aee 8 iaoe??io?a oe??? ee?i?/ii? a?oie. A ?ioeo 73,9 %
aeiaaee?a iciae ?oai?/iiai ooeiaeaeaiiy i’yc?a aii?eee oa noiie ia
aoei. A o?ao?e ee?i?/i?e a?oi? iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee aoei
a?aeiiaeaii a 60 % aeiaaee?a. O naie oai?eo aea ae?aaiic IA?N aoei
anoaiiaeaii i?cii aoee aeeiiai? aiiooaoe??. O iaeiiai oai?iai, aea
?icaeioany inoaii??e?o aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee, aiiooaoe?th ia ??ai?
aa?oiuei? o?aoeie aii?eee aoei aeeiiaii ia aoaiao e?eoaaiiy. Na?aae
?ioeo 12 iaoe??io?a ia iiiaio ianoaaeaiiy ii?ooaiue /ooeeaino? ia
a?aei?/aee a 53,8 % aeiaaee?a. Iciaee ?EN aoee aeyaeai? o 30,8 % oai?eo
aeaii? ee?i?/ii? a?oie.

Caaaeii, iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee aoea a?aeiiaeaia o 77,6 % oai?eo c
IA?N an?o ee?i?/ieo a?oi. I?e eiio?ieueiiio iaeyae? ia a?aei?/aee
ii?ooaiue /ooeeaino? a iaeano? aii?eee oa noiie o 67,5 iaoe??io?a, a a
77,5 % aeiaaee?a aoee a?aenooi? ? ?io? i?iyae ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e
noiie.

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ?EN aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? a
oa?i?ie a?ae 4 i?nyoe?a aei 5 ?ie?a, a na?aaeiueiio 11,3 i?nyoe?. I?e
ioe?ioe? ?acoeueoao?a ie a?aoiaoaaee a?aeiiaeaiiy iii?icaeaoiino?
e?ioe?aee (oiaoi iiaeeea?noue ia?anoaaoenue aac aeiiiiiae ieeeoeue, a
oaeiae a?aenooi?noue aea?iono noiie), a?aeiiaeaiiy caoenii? /ooeeaino?
ia iii?i?e iiaa?oi? nooii?, iayai?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e iaeueoe?a noiie, ui
caaaaeathoue iineoe acoooy oa iayai?noue ai?eii-o?io?/ieo aeaoaeo?a
oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei.

O 95 % oai?eo c na?aaei?i nooiaiai ?EN, ye? ii/aee e?eoaaiiy a
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? aaeaeiny a?aeiiaeoe
iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee. O an?o iaoe??io?a oe??? a?oie aoei
a?aeiiaeaii caoenio /ooeea?noue ia iii?i?e iiaa?oi? noiie, a oaeiae
e?ea?aeiaai? ai?eii-o?io?/i? aeaoaeoe oe??e oe i’yeeo oeaiei ? onoiai?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaeueoe?a.

Na?aae iaoe??io?a c na?aaei?i nooiaiai ?EN, ye? ii/aee e?eoaaiiy a
?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee aoei a?aeiiaeaii a
90,5 % aeiaaee?a. Caoenio /ooeea?noue oaeiae ia aaeaeiny a?aeiiaeoe o
aeaio oai?eo. O iaeiiai c ieo iaea i?noea ae?acea ia iii?i?e iiaa?oi?
nooii?. Aeaoi?iaoe?? iaeueoe?a aoee a?aenooi? o 85,7 % iaoe??io?a.

?c 16 oai?eo c ?EN aaaeeiai nooiaiy, ui ?icii/aee e?eoaaiiy o
?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee aoei
a?aeiiaeaii o 10 (62,5 %). *ioe?ueii iaoe??ioai aoei aeeiiaii
aiiooaoe??. A iaeiiio aeiaaeeo ia iiiaio eiio?ieueiiai iaeyaeo caeeoaany
inoaii??e?o oa aeaoaeo e?noie aii?eee. O oeueiai ae iaoe??ioa aoea
aianoac?y i?aeioiaii? iiaa?oi? nooii?, oa iaee i?noea aeaoi?iaoe??
iaeueoe?a. Ua o iaeiiai oai?iai, aea ia aaeaeiny a?aeiiaeoe caoenio
/ooeea?noue ia noii? a iaeano? i’yoe aeieeea o?io?/ia ae?acea.

?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a c aaaeeei nooiaiai ?EN a
?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? aoee iacia/iith i??ith iaioa ?acoeueoao?a
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c na?aaei?i nooiaiai aaaeeino?. Iii?icaeaoi?noue aoei
a?aeiiaeaii o 82,4 % aeiaaee?a, caoenio /ooeea?noue ia noii? — a 88,2 %.
Ia iaee ai?eii-o?io?/ieo aeaoaeo?a oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei, a oaeiae
aeaoi?iaoe?e iaeueoe?a 94,2 % iaoe??io?a.

Iaea??o? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aoee o iaoe??io?a, ui iaee aaaeeee
oneeaaeiaiee nooi?iue ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie. Iii?icaeaoi?noue aoei
a?aeiiaeaii eeoa o 45, 5 % oai?eo. *ioe?ueii ?c 11 oai?eo oe??? a?oie
aoee aeeiiai? aiiooaoe?? aii?eee. Caoenia /ooeea?noue aoea a?aeiiaeaia o
71,4 % iaoe??io?a. O o?ueio oai?eo iaee i?noea ai?eii-o?io?/i? aeaoaeoe
oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei.

Caaaeii, iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee aoea a?aeiiaeaia o 82,5 % oai?eo c
?EN, ui ii/aee e?eoaaiiy o ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae?. Ua o
i’yoe oai?eo (12,5 %) aoee aeeiiai? aiiooaoe?? aii?eee oa noiie, ?
iii?icaeaoi?noue a?aeiiaeaia ca ?aooiie i?ioacoaaiiy. Caoenio
/ooeea?noue ia iii?i?e iiaa?oi? nooii? aaeaeiny a?aeiiaeoe o 95 %
oai?eo. Eeoa o 5 % oai?eo a?aei?/aee aeaoi?iaoe?? iaeueoe?a noiie, ui
caaaaeaee iineoe acoooy. O?io?/ia ae?acea ia i’yo? aeieeea o iaeiiai
iaoe??ioa, c aianoac??th a iaeano? i?aeioiaii? iiaa?oi? nooii?.

Ii??aiyii a??o? aoee ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ?EN, ui ii/aee
e?eoaaiiy o ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae?. Iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee aoei
a?aeiiaeaii a 79,3 % aeiaaee?a. Ua o 4 oai?eo (7,5 %) aoee aeeiiai?
aiiooaoe?? aii?eee aai noiie oa ianooiia i?ioacoaaiiy. E?ea?aeoaaoe
ai?eii-o?io?/i? aeaoaeoe oe??e oa i’yeeo oeaiei, a oaeiae a?aeiiaeoe
caoenio /ooeea?noue ia noii? aaeaeiny o 85,7 % oai?eo, a onoiooe
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaeueoe?a noiie a 93,9 % aeiaaee?a.

A E N I I A E E

1. Ia?aeiie e?noie aii?eee oa noiie noaiiaeyoue iniiaio iano aeiaaee?a
aino?iai eiiia?oiaio-neiae?iio ieaeiuei? e?ioe?aee, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ia
oii? o?aaie. I?io?eaeoeea, a/ania ae?aaiinoeea oa aaeaeaaoia e?eoaaiiy
IA?N aea? iiaeeea?noue oieeiooe ?oai?/iiai ooeiaeaeaiiy i’yc?a oa
oi?ioaaiiy a ianooiiiio ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie.

2. I?e aeyaeaii? u?eueiiai iai?oaeaiiai iaa?yeo e?ioe?aee, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/ieie aieyie oa iaa?ieia?/ieie ?iceaaeaie,
aei??thaaiiy i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo aeioe?eueia iaa?oue i?e
?cieueiaai?e o?aai? i’yeeo oeaiei ieaeiuei? e?ioe?aee.

3. Nai?/anii ?icii/aoa eiina?aaoeaia oa?ai?y aeicaiey? oni?oii e?eoaaoe
an? aeiaaeee i?e eaaeiio nooiai? IA?N, 20% i?e na?aaeiueiio oa o 16,7%
aeiaaee?a ia?aaanoe aaaeeee nooi?iue o na?aaei?e.

4. Na?aaei?e oa aaaeeee nooi?iue IA?N o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
iio?aaothoue aeeiiaiiy oanoe?ioii?e (?cieueiaaieo, /e aeeiioaaieo ye
aoai iniiaiiai ao?o/aiiy c i?eaiaeo o?aaie) aeey ii?iae?caoe??
i?aeoanoe?aeueiiai oeneo. I?e aeeiiaii? oanoe?ioii?? ia aii?eoe?
aeioe?eueii ?aaeeeaeueii aeaeaeyoe oeaieie aeeoo?caeaoi?noue yeeo
noii?aia.

5. ?aiaacia?ao?y oa oa?iia?ao?y ia’?eoeaii a?aeia?aaeathoue nooi?iue
ii?ooaiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? i?e ?EN oa aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe ye?noue
i?io?eaiiy ? oaeaee?noue a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a. Oa?iia?ao?y a?eueo
?ioi?iaoeaia ia ??ai? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ii? eaiee, a ?aiaacia?ao?y aea?
e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo noaeeiieo ii?ooaiue.

6. ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiee ia??iae o iaoe??io?a c ?oai?/iei
iioeiaeaeaiiyi i’yc?a aii?eee oa noiie i?io?ea? aeiaoa, i?ae i?e
eiio?aeoo?? Oieueeiaia ia eeno? ? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aei 1,5 ?ieo i?ney
o?aaie.

7. O ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio ia??iae? ne?ae ae?iaeoe ieai
e?eoaaiiy c iaa?oioiaaiei ae??oaiiyi ieoaiiy i?i nai?/anio aiiooaoe?th
o?aaeaii? e?ioe?aee, eiee a?aeiiaeaiiy iii?icaeaoiino? e?ioe?aee
iaiiaeeeaa. Ia oeueiio aoai? ne?ae aeeiiaoe ieanoeeo aeaoaeo?a oe??e oa
i’yeeo oeaiei c iaoith noai?aiiy oiia aeey ianooiieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e,
cai?noeoe aeaoaeoe e?noie oa e?ea?aeoaaoe iani?aaaei? noaeiae,
e?ea?aeoaaoe ai?eii-caiaeuei? i?ioeane. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue
iia?aoe?? ia ia?aao, ye? no?aaeaeathoue c-ca ?oai?? oa caeaaeaiiy
?oaoethth/eieny i’ycaie.

8. O ?aceaeoaeueiiio ia??iae? iniiaia iaoa e?eoaaiiy ‘ ei?aeoe?y
noi?iiaaieo eiio?aeoo?, i?e na?aaeiueiio nooiai? aaaeeino? — a iniiaiiio
ao?o/aiiyie ia i’yeeo oeaieiao, i?e oyaeeeo nooiaiyo — ia?aaaaeii ia
e?noeao nooii?.

9. Aeei?enoaiiy o oai?eo c ?EN ?ic?iaeaii? iaie nenoaie ae?aaiinoeee oa
eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy aeicaiey? a?aeiiaeoe iii?icaeaoi?noue e?ioe?aee o
82,5% iaoe??io?a, ui ii/aee e?eoaaiiy o ?aaeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio
ia??iae?, oa o 79,3% o ?aceaeoaeueiiio

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eyaao A.I., No?aooi N.N., E?neia A.A. Ae?aaiinoeea ?oai?/ieo
eiio?aeoo? noiie // I?oiiaae?y, o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?ioacoaaiiy. — 1999.-
?. 2- N. 45 -48 .

2. E?neia A.A. Ae?aaiinoeea oa e?eoaaiiy eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio noiie //
Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y. — 1999. — ? 5. — N. 35-37.

3. No?aooi N.N., Aaeiae/ A.?., Eo??iiee I.I, Eyaao A.I., Ae?the I.I.,
E?neia A.A. Aeei?enoaiiy i’yciaeo oa oe??ii-i’yciaeo o?ainieaioao?a i?e
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith noiie // Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y.
— 1999. — ? 6. — N. 6-7.

4. E?neia A.A., Naei? E.I., Eyaao A.I. Aeeiai?ea oa?iia?ao?/ieo ci?i o
oai?eo c ?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith noiie // Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y. — 1999. —
? 7. — N. 26-28.

5. Aaeiae/ A.?., No?aooi N.N., E?neia A.A. Eo??iiee I.I I?io?eaeoeea
?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? eeno? oa noiie // Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, Ee?a,
1992. – 14 n.

6. Aaeue A.ss., *aao?aoei A.N., Oeioiia A.I. No?aooi N.N., E?neia A.A.
Aeeaaiinoeea ianoiiai aeia?oaiceiiiiai eoaie/aneiai neiae?iia //
Aeooaeueiua aii?inu oe?o?aee eenoe: Oac. aeiee. eiio. – Eeaa, 1991. – N.
3 — 4.

7. No?aooi N.N., E?neia A.A. Ea/aiea aieueiuo n ianoiui
aeia?oaiceiiii-eoaie/aneei neiae?iiii // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu oe?o?aee
eenoe: Oac. aeiee. eiio. – Eeaa, 1991. – N.45-45.

8. E?neia A.A., Aaeiae/ A.?., No?aooi N.N. Ai?eii-iae?ioe/i?
oneeaaeiaiiy i?e i?noeaaiio a?ia?oaic?eii-?oai?/iiio neiae?ii? ieaei?o
e?ioe?aie // Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe e?noeiai-ai?eii? ?ioaeoe??:
Oac. aeii. eiio. – Ee?a, 1992. – N. 27 – 29.

9. E?neia A.A. Ae?aaiinoeea i?noeaaiai a?ia?oaic?eiiai-?oai?/iiai
neiae?iio aii?eee oa noiie // V eiia?an na?oiai? oaaea?aoe??
oe?a?inueeeo e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa: Iaoa??aee eiia?ano. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1994. – N. 91 – 92.

10. Aaeiae/ A.?., No?aooi N.N., E?neia A.A. Ai?eii-iae?ioe/i?
oneeaaeiaiiy i?neyo?aaiaoe/ieo ?oai?/ieo i?ioean?a ia ieaei?e e?ioe?aoe?
// ?ieue oeaio??a e?noeiai-ai?eii? o??o?a?? a ae?aaiinoeoe?,
i?io?eaeoeoe? oa e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia inoaii??e?o a Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. i?enay/aii? 20 — ??//th ooai?aiiy oeaio?a
e?noeiai-ai?eii? ?ioaeoe?? o aei?ineeo oai?eo ? ae?oae. – Ee?a –
AEeoiie?, 1996. — N. 31-32.

11. Aaeiae/ A.?., E?neia A.A., O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo?
noiie // 12 c’?cae o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a Oe?a?ie: Iaoa??aee c’?caeo.
— Ee?a, 1996. — N. 276-277.

12. Ae?the I.I., E?neia A.A., Eyaao A.I. I?e?io??o?a?/ia o?ainieaioaoe?y
neeaaeieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei i?e e?eoaaii? ?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie //
Iaoa??aee ieaioio i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a-Iaeana, 1998.
— N. 253-256.

13. E?neia A.A., Ae?the I.I., Eyaao A.I. Ai?eii-naioe/i? oneeaaeiaiiy
i?e i?noeaaiio a?ia?oaic?eii-?oai?/iiio neiae?ii? ieaei?o e?ioe?aie //
Iaoa??aee ieaioio i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a-Iaeana, 1998.
— N. 303-305.

14. Eyaao A.I, No?aooi N.N., E?neia A.A. ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c iiieeie
o ae?aaiinoeoe? ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? noiie // Iaoa??aee ieaioio
i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a-Iaeana, 1998. — N. 322-324.

Aiioaoe??

E?neia A.A. I?io?eaeoeea, ae?aaiinoeea oa e?eoaaiiy ?oai?/ii?
eiio?aeoo?e noiie. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.21 —
o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y. — Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, Ee?a, 1999.

?iaioa ? ia?oith a e?a?iao eieeoiueiai N?N? aea ia cia/iiio iaoa??ae?
?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? noiie,
a naia: aeyaeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ?oai?/ieo
eiio?aeoo? noiie, aaeineiiaeai? ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee i?io?eaeoeee,
ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy eiiia?oiaio neiae?iio aii?eee oa noiie;
aea/aii ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao ieaeiuei?
e?ioe?aee o oai?eo c ?oai?/iith eiio?aeoo?ith noiie ca aeaieie
?aiaacia?ao?? oa oa?iia?ao?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae??
?oai?/ii? eiio?aeoo?e noiie; cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th IAIN aii?eee
oa noiie, a oaeiae eeaneo?eaoe?th ?oai?/ieo eiio?aeoo? noiie; ?ic?iaeaii
oa iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio ae?aaiinoeee oa eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
?oai?/ieie eiio?aeoo?aie noiie a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? oa noaae??
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui aeeth/a? no/ani? iaoiaee o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noiia, aii?eea, eiiia?oiaio neiae?ii, ?oai?/ia
eiio?aeoo?a.

Eaneia A.A. I?ioeeaeoeea, aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiea eoaie/aneie eiio?aeoo?u
noiiu. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.21 —
o?aaiaoieiaey e i?oiiaaeey. — Oe?aeineee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee
einoeooo o?aaiaoieiaee e i?oiiaaeee, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeaiiay ?aaioa yaeyaony ia?aie a no?aiao auaoaai NNN?, aaea ia
cia/eoaeueiii iaoa?eaea ?anniio?aiu aii?inu i?ioeeaeoeee e ea/aiey
eoaie/aneeo eiio?aeoo? noiiu, a eiaiii: auyaeaiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu
i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey eoaie/aneeo eiio?aeoo? noiiu, oniaa?oainoaiaaiiu
nouanoaothuea iaoiaeeee i?ioeeaeoeee, aeeaaiinoeee e ea/aiey eiiia?oiaio
neiae?iia aieaie e noiiu; eco/aii ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea
ia?eoa?e/aneiai e?iaiia?auaiey ieaeiae eiia/iinoe o aieueiuo n
eoaie/aneie eiio?aeoo?ie noiiu ii aeaiiui ?aiaacia?aoee e oa?iia?aoee a
caaeneiinoe io oyaeanoe e noaaeee eoaie/aneie eiio?aeoo?u noiiu;
i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey eiiia?oiaio neiae?iia aieaie e noiiu, a
oaeaea eeanneoeeaoeey eoaie/aneeo eiio?aeoo? noiiu; ?ac?aaioaia e
iainiiaaia nenoaia aeeaaiinoeee e eiiieaeniiai ea/aiey aieueiuo n
eoaie/aneeie eiio?aeoo?aie noiiu a caaeneiinoe io oyaeanoe e noaaeee
iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, /oi aeeth/aao nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu
oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noiia, aieaiue, eiiia?oiaio neiae?ii, eoaie/aneay
eiio?aeoo?a.

Leskov V.G. Preventive maintenance, diagnostics and treatment of the
ischemic contracture of the foot. — Manuscript. Thesis for candidate’s
of medical sciences degree by speciality 14.01.21 — traumatology and
orthopaedics. — The Ukrainian Research Institute for Traumatology and
Orthopaedics, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation — is the first in countries of former USSR, where on a
significant material the problems of preventive maintenance and
treatment of ischemic contracture of the foot are considered. The
reasons of ischemic contracture of the foot origin have been revealed
and analysed. The present methods of preventive maintenance, diagnostics
and treatment of compartment syndrome of the leg and the foot have been
analysed. The functional condition of peripheral blood circulation of
the lower extemity in the patients with ischemic contracture of the foot
depending on severity and stage of ischemic contracture have been
investigated using rheovasography and thermography data. The
classification of compartment syndrome of the leg and the foot, and also
classification of ischemic contracture of the foot have been offered and
the system of diagnostics and complex treatment of the patients with
ischemic contracture of the foot depending on severity and stage of
pathological process, that includes modern methods of surgical treatment
have been developed

Key word: foot, leg, compartment syndrome, ischemic contracture.

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