Oa?e?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.I.Ea?ac?ia

Iaeneiiaa

Iaoaey Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE 316:377

I?iaeaie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a a oiiaao
oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai ?eieo i?aoe?

(Ia iaoa??aeao nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 22.00.07 — nioe?ieia?y oi?aae?iiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.
A.I.Ea?ac?ia I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Aeoaieiaa Oaoyia Aaiiaae??aia,

Oa?e?anueeee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
?inoeooo

Ia’?aeiaiiy i?ioni?eie Oa?e?anueei?
iaeano?,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa
eo?niai? ?iaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Iaai?iee Ai?en A?eai?iae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
(i. Eoaainuee),

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e nioe?ieia??, aeaeai
oaeoeueoaoo

nioe?ieia?? ? aeo?iae?noeee

eaiaeeaeao nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

E?iianueea Iaoaey Aiaoie??aia,

Aeaaeai?y ieoii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie
(i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),

aeioeaio eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie
?i. ss?ineaaa

Ioae?iai (i.Oa?e?a), eaoaae?a nioe?ieia?? ?
iie?oieia??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.15 Oa?e?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I.Ea?ac?ia ca aae?anith: 310077, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Ie?iiineoeueea, 1, aoae. 2-11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I.Ea?ac?ia
ca aae?anith: 310077, i. Oa?e?a, iaeae. Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oa?aiao ?.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
i?ioan?eiith ina?oith, ? aeooaeueiei c ?yaeo i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, aiie
aieeaathoue ia aeeoo?-caaacia/aiiy an?o noni?euenoa, a yeeo
?ic?iaeythoueny e aenieoaoothoueny aoaeue-ye? neeaaei? oaoiieia??,
ciaeia? nenoaie oiui. Ii-ae?oaa, aiane?aeie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia??iaee/ia iiiiaeaiiy cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa
?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai c iaaiei i?enei?aiiyi, ui iio?a-ao? a?ae iiaeo
iieie?iue iiaioaaiiy aaeeeeo ianya?a ?ioi?iaoe??, oi?iue, ia-ae/ie, ye?
iaaeathoue ciiae oaeaeei aaeaiooaaoeny aei ci?i, a oaeiae i?eeiaoe
o/anoue a ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioeanao. Ii-o?ao?, i?ioan?eia ina?oa aieeaa?
ia ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa, ui, a naith /a?ao,
coiiaeth? iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?iiai oa iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, aeaiia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a. Ii-/aoaa?oa, aiia aieeaa? ia ethaenueeee iioaioe?ae
noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio, ?icaeoie yeiai iino?eii iio?aao? aaeeeeo aeo?ao
?ano?n?a: /ano, eai?oaeo, i?aoe?, ?ioi?iaoe??, iaoa??ae?a. Oaeei /eiii,
i?ioan?eia ina?oa ye iaeei c iaa?ae’?iieo aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie, iaiao?aeii i?eeia? o/anoue a ?? ?a-aoeyoe??, ni?eyth/e
noaa?e?caoe?? /e, iaaiaee, aeanoaa?e?caoe??.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai c?oeioeiny c
?yaeii o?oaeiiu?a aeiiii?/iiai, iie?oe/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aeeaie? ci?ie cae?eniththoueny a i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?ei?e no?oeoo??
ianaeaiiy, a no?oeoo?? iiieoo ia ?iai/o neeo ia ?eieo i?aoe?,
ae?yeuei?noue yeiai aacii-na?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c i?ioan?eiith ina?oith,
a no?oeoo?? oa ?aaoethaaii? naii? nenoaie ina?oe.

E?eca, ui ioiieea oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai oa caaino?eea
noia?a/iino? o an?o eiai noa?ao, ciaeoea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
na?aeiiino? ethaeae. A?aeao-aa?oueny ia?ai???ioaoe?y a i?eaaaeeaino?
i?ioan?e, iioeaaoe?? o?oaeiai? ii-aaae?iee, i?ioan?ei?e ni?yiiaaiino?
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, no?aoaa?yo iiaa-ae?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe?, a yeino?
oa oi?iao i?aai?caoe?? i?ioi?aeaioiaee ? ia?a-i?aeaioiaee, ui coiiaeth?
aeeiai?eo ?iai/i? neee ia ?eieo i?aoe? a oe?eiio oa, cie?aia, ia
i?ioan?eieo ?eieao i?aoe?. Cioe?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy oeeo
ci?i, ia iao iiaeyae, ? aeioe?eueiei oa aaeaeaaoiei, oiio ui aeicaiey?
i?iaanoe ioe?ieo ye i?ioean?a, ui iathoue i?noea a nenoai?
i?ioi?aeaioiaee, oae ? ?? ca’yce?a c ?ioeie nenoaiaie, cie?aia, ?eieii
i?aoe?, c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeyae?a o/aniee?a.

Ia oeueiio oe? iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oa? iieiaeue ye
nioe?aeueii-aeaii-a?ao?/ia a?oia, i?ioan?eia oa na?oiaeyaeia oi?ioaaiiy
yei? a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeaieo oiiaao. Oaeei /eiii, ia no/aniiio aoai?
i?aenoaaith aeey iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie ? iaiao?aei?noue a?aenoaaeaiiy
i?ioeano caeo/aiiy iiaiai iieie?iiy aei i?aoe?, neeaaei?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ye iaeiiai c nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a, ui caaacia/othoue noaa?euei?noue noni?eue-noaa, aaaeeea?noue
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie aeoiaeo iiaiai
iieie?iiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia ?eiie i?aoe?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeyeanue o ca’yceo c aeeiiaieie eaoaae?ith i?eeeaaeii?
ni-oe?ieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I.Ea?ac?ia
aeine?ae-aeaiiyie “Nioe?aeueia iiaaae?iea ethaeae i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae
oioae?oa?iiai aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa (iaoiaeieia?/iee oa
nioe?aeueii-oaoiieia?/iee aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy)” (1996 ?.) oa
“Nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c iino?aaeyinueei? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
?iaeono??aeueiiai iaaaiie?no” (1998 ?.), ui i?iai-aeeeeny a?aeiia?aeii
aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?i-iaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I.Ea?ac?ia. A oiae? oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea
?ic-?iaeaia oa ai?iaiaaia iaoiaeieia?/ia oa iaoiaee/ia /anoeie ?iaioe,
ye? aoee aeei?enoai? a i?eeeaaei?e /anoei? ?iaioe.

A aii??e/io aaco ?iaioe aoee iieeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
“Nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie i?aoe? ? caeiyoino? ae?iie a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?”
(1993-1994 ??.), “Caao?aoi?e aeaiue iieiae?aeiiai ?eieo i?aoe? (i?iaeaie
aeai?o i?ioan?? oa noa?e ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeanieeaie na?aaei?o oe?e
Oa?eiaa e iaeano?)” (1994-1995 ??.), “Iniaeeaino? ?eieo i?aoe? 1994
?ieo: oaiaeaioe??, ia?niaeoeae eiai ci?iaiiy” (1994 ?.), “Oaiaeaioe??
ci?iaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a 1995 ?ioe?” (1994-1995 ??.), “Nioe?aeueiee
iao?iiaae n?euenueei? iieiae?” (1994 ?.), “Ci?ie o?oaeiaeo oa aeeoo?aeo
i???ioaoe?e o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a na?aaei?o oe?e oa ?o i?aeaioiaeaiino?
aei i?aoe?” (1994-1995 ??.), “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c
iioeaaoe?? iacaeiyoino? i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy oa /eiiee?a, ui ??
coiiaeththoue” (1994-1995 ??.), “Nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe aac?ia?ooy”
(1995-1996 ??.), “I?iaeaie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee a
oiiaao ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?ee” (1995-1997 ??.), ui i?iaiaeeeeny
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei oeaio?ii “?ioi?inioe?ieia?y” a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Oi?aae?iiy c i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy Oa?e?anueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??, Oa?e?anueeiai
iaeaniiai oeaio?o caeiyoino? oa Oa?e?anueei? iaeanii? nioe?aeueii?
neoaeae aeey iieiae? a 1993-1997 ??. ca o/anoth aaoi?a.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ice?eooy iniaeeainoae i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a
a Oe?a?i? ia i?e-eeaae? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? o ca’yceo ?c noaiiaeaiiyi
nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?eieo i?aoe?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe
ae??ooaaeeny ianooii? iniiai? caaea/?: aiae?c oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i?aenoaa aea/aiiy i?ioa-n?eii? i?aeaioiaee ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee c iiceoe?e
nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee; ooi/-iaiiy ?nioth/eo aecia/aiue i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee, i?ioan??; aeae?eaiiy ooieoe?e i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa
iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ia?; aiae?c iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo
iiaeaeae ?eieo i?aoe? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia i?aenoaa? ?nioth/i?
oeiieia?caoe?? iiaeae? oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo i?aoe?; aiae?c niaoeeo?ee
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e i?ioi?aeaioiaee a no/anieo oiiaao a Oe?a?i?;
aeyaeaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co nioe?aeueieo ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee in?a, ui caaa?oothoue
i?ioi?aeaioiaeo a iaa-/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??ciiai ??aiy, a oaeiae in?a,
ye? caa?ioeeny aei aea?aeaaieo oeaio??a caeiyoino? c iaoith
ia?ai?aeaioiaee o ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth iiae-eeaino? i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy
ca i?ioan??th.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

— A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae?noaa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aiae?c
niaoeeo?ee i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a Oe?a?i? ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo
a no/anieo oiiaao (ia i?eeeaae? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?).

— Aia?oa, caniiaoth/enue ia e?eoa??? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiino?
caoe?eaaeaieo noi??i noiniaii i?aeaioiaee ?iai/i? neee ? a?aaoethaaiiy
?eieo i?aoe?, ioa?aeoa?eciaaia iiaeaeue oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo i?aoe?.

— Ae?noaa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?icaeyae ia’?eoeaieo iieaciee?a
aeeiai?ee ?eieo i?aoe? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae nioe?aeueieo oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeioneiee?a i?ioan?eieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??ciiai ??aiy, ?o noaaeaiiy aei i?aoe? a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ?eieo i?aoe? oa i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe, i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oeeo noa’?eoeaieo iieaciee?a.

— Aia?oa ?icaeyioo? nioe?aeuei? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee in?a, ui caa?ioeeny aei aea?aeaaieo oeaio??a caeiyoino? c
iaoith ia?ai?aeaioiaee, aia?oa i?iaaaeaiee ?o ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c c
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeioneiee?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? a
aeena?-oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? oa
?aae?caoe?? ?a-a?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai caeiyoino? Oa?e?anueeiai iaeaniiai
oeaio?o caeiyoino?, aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioi???ioaoe?eii? ?iaioe, yeo
i?iaiaeeoue Oa?e?anueea iaeania nioe?aeueia neoaeaa aeey iieiae?, a
oaeiae aeey i?aeaioiaee eaeoe?e ? i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c oaeeo
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, ye “Nioe?ieia?y i?aoe?”, “I?iaiicoaaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a” oa ?i.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iathoue aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa cia/aiiy aeey
iiaeaeue-oiai aea/aiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, oaiaeaioe?e, ui aeieeathoue
o noa?ao caeiyoino? oa i?ioan?eii? ina?oe nioe?ieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie,
?icaeoeo ni-oe?ieia?? oi?aae?iiy, nioe?ieia?? ina?oe, nioe?ieia??
iieiae?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee
?ic-?iaeai? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a
iaa-/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo ??aiae ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa eiioeiaaioo in?a,
ye? caa?io-eeny aei oeaio??a caeiyoino? c iaoith ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??,
?ic?iaeaiee ?ino?o-iaioa??e, i?iaaaeaiee ca?? ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ??
ia?iaea, a oaeiae cae?en-iaiee aiae?c io?eiaii? ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii?
?ioi?iaoe?? c i?iaeaie. Aaoi? i?eeiya o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe?
?ino?oiaioa??y, cai??, ia?iaoe? ?ioi?ia-oe??, a oaeiae naiino?eii
i?iaiae?coaaa ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?ae-aeaiiy ianaeaiiy,
caeiyoiai ia iaio?oe?eiiio ?eieo i?aoe?. Aaoi?ii iaienai? 3 iaeiiin?ai?
noaoo?, ui aena?oeththoue io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe [1, 2, 4]. A?i oaeiae
i?eeiaa o/anoue o neeaaeaii? ?ino?oiaioa??th aeine?aeaeaiiy, cai??
ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?? ia?iaoe?, cae?eniaii? aiae?co io?eiaii?
ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa iaienaii? noaoo?, i?enay/aii?
aecia/aiith noaio i?eueaiaeo eaoaai??e ia ?eieo i?aoe?, na?aae yeeo
cia/io /anoeo neeaaea? iieiaeue o a?oe? aei 21 ?ieo, ui caaa?oeea
i?ioan?eio i?aeaioiaeo oa ia io?eiaea ia?oiai ?iai/iai i?noey, a
ni?aaaoi?noa? c O.A.Aeoaieiaith [3].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aea-eenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iieiaeue oa
nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie ia no/aniiio aoai? noni?euenoaa” (Caii??aeaey,
1997 ?.), i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “I?aaia? canaaee ae??oaiiy eieaeoeaieo
o?oaeiaeo nii??a (eiio-e?eo?a)” (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.), ia i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Oa?e?anuee? nioe?ieia?/i? /eoaiiy” (Oa?e?a, 1995 ?., 1998
?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 4 iaoeiaeo
noaooyo, iaae?oeiaaieo o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo [1-4], caaaeueiei ianyaii
1,4 ae?. a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a iniiaiiai oaenoo, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a (A, A ? A). Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe neeaaea? 177 noi??iie, a oiio /ene? 8 iaethie?a,
16 oaaeeoeue oa a?ae?ia?ao?y c 174 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?ice?eoa aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iieacaiee ca’ycie ?iaioe c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iienai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??y ?icaeoeo nioe?ieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aea/aiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee” i?iaaaeaiee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c oaie
aeena?oaoe??. A?aecia/aii, ui, oi/a ia aeoieo O.Aeae.Aaoniia,
Ae.Ia?eiae/a oa ?i., ?inoeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe aoea aeeeeeaia
oi?ioaaiiyi oi?aiaeo oa ?ai?nie/eo a?eueae?e, iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei
i?iaeaiaoeee, ii-a’ycaii? c i?ioan?eiei ?iciiae?eii i?aoe?, aeiee o
na?o? eeoa ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, eiee i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y a ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao ii/aea iaaoaa-oe ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai
i?ioeano i?ioan?y, eaae?o?eaoe?y noaee aaaeeeaei neeaaeieeii
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, ui iaaoei aaeeeiai cia-/aiiy aeey noni?eueiiai
aeeooy, a?aoiaoth/e oaoiiaaiiee oa?aeoa? no/anii? oe?a?e?caoe??. Ioaea,
ia?aae a/aieie aeieeea i?iaeaia aei??thaaiiy aoaeoea-iino? i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee oa aea/aiiy oeyo?a ?? iioei?caoe??.

Iieacaii, ui aei ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy canoiniaoaaeenue
??ciiia-i?oi? i?aeoiaee. Ia ii/aoeo aiii ae??ooaaeinue o iaaeao a?eueo
caaaeueii? i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eii? no?oe-oo?e ?ia?oiee?a ?c no?oeoo?ith ?iai/eo
i?noeue. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaa-eenue iaoiaee e?euee?niiai
a?aaoethaaiiy iaaaaeaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy: ?ic-?iaeyeanue oai??y
i?ioan?eiiai a?aeai?o (I.?.Aey/aiei, E.A.Eaiaeeaiae/, ?.A.Ee?iia,
?.I.Iaceiia, A.O.?inooiia oa ?i.); aeine?aeaeoaaeinue ni?aa?aeii-oaiiy
i?ioan?eieo i???ioaoe?e iieiae? oa iio?aae a eaae?ao ??cieo i?ioa-n?e
(A.A.Einothe, Ae.I.Eiinoaioeiianueeee, I.O.Oeoia, I.I.*enoyeia,
A.I.Ooae?i oa ?i.); aea/aeenue e?euee?ni? iieacieee i?ioi?aeaioiaee
(N.A.??oia, E.Eaiooo, A.Ei?ioaoca?, ?.A.Eanoa?, TH.E.Iaeia? oa ?i.).
Iaeiae, canoinoaaiiy oeeo ?ic?iaie oi/a e ni?eyei aaeineiiaeaiith
i?iaeoe-oeaieo nee ? a?aaoethaaiith i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ia
ci?iaei caa-aeaiiy iiai?noth. Ioaea, iaaeae? aeine?aeieee cina?aaeeeeny
ia ye?nieo aniaeoao i?iaeaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai oaiiiaio i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oiee?a a oe?eiio ?iciiae?eeeeny ia aeae?eueea iai?yie?a. ?yae a/aieo
cina?aaeeany ia iioeaaoe?eiiio aniaeo? aeai?o i?ioan?? oa i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? (A.A.Aiaeceinueea, ?.?.Aieiaaoa, A.A.AEo?aaeueiaa,
TH.A.Ca??aoe?n, A.A.Cae?a-aiieneia, A.Ianeio, A.I.Iaoonaae/,
A.I.Eeoieae, A.E.Innianueeee, A.?.Iai?iooi, E.ss.?oa?ia, I.I.?ooeaae/,
A.I.Nieieiaa, ?.?.Noiey?iaa, I.O.Oeoia, O.Oa?oeaa?a, ?.?.*aiae?,
A.O.*a?iiaieaiei, A.I.ssaeia oa ?i.). ?i-o? — ia aaeaioaoe??
?ia?oiee?a, ui caaa?oeee i?ioi?aeaioiaeo, aei ?iai/iai i?noey, oiia
ae?iaieoeoaa (E.N.A?ee?ia, I.A.Einoaiei, A.I.Eaioia, A.N.Iai/aiei,
A.E.Innianueeee, I.?.Naiaiiaa, A.I.Nieieiaa, A.?.Oeia-eiaa, I.I.sseoaa
oa ?i.). O iaaeao o?aoueiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeoaaany aacii-na?aaeiuei
i?ioean i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, o/anieee oeueiai i?ioeano, aioo-??oi?
oa ciai?oi? /eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia eiai aoaeoeai?noue
(N.Ae.A?-eyoeueeee, I.A.Aeaaieaaa, A.I.Eiaaeueiaa, O.A.Eoian,
I.I.Eoeaoaae/, A.N.Ieioee, A.A.?aaea?a, A.O.Nieiaeeia oa ?i.).
I?ea?/ieee ua iaeiiai ia-i?yieo iaiaaaeenue a?aenoaaeeoe nioe?aeueia
caiiaeaiiy ia i?aeaioiaeo oao?a-oe?a a oiiaao e?ece, ui ioiieea
oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai (A.?.Anoaoiaa, A.A.A?ee?i, E.I.Aa?an?ia,
I.O.Ineiiaa, I.I.Iia?aea, A.?.Iiaeoeaaee?ia, A.I.Niaieaa, ?.?.Oeiioaiei,
TH.I.*a?iaoeueeee oa ?i.).

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e c?iaeaiee aeniiaie, ui
aei-ne?aeieoeueeee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? ieoaiiy aeyaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
eiioaenoo, a yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea, a oaeiae aieea
oeueiai eiioaenoo ia ?acoeueoaoe i?ioi?aeaioiaee, i?aaenoaaeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie in?a, ui caaa?oothoue ??, a oaeiae in?a, ye? ciooai?
i?ieoe ia?ai?aeaioiaeo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aea/aiiy i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee” i?iaaaeaia oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie.

A?aecia/aii, ui aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao
eiii-eaeniiai i?aeoiaeo, yeee ii?aeio? aeaiaioe ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii?,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?, nenoaiii?, aen?ieia?/ii? iaoiaeieia?e, ui a
no/ani?e nioe?ieia?/i?e oai??? o?aeoo?oueny ye iaiooieoe?iiae?ci —
Ei?ieueei A., Oai/a? A. Iiaua iiai?iou a nioeeieiae/aneie oai?ee:
iaiooie-oeeiiaeeci, oai?ey eiioeeeoa, iaiia?eneci, iinoiiaea?ieci //
Nioeeieiae/aneay oai?ey naaiaeiy. (Na. noaoae aia?eeaineeo e oe?aeineeo
oai?aoeeia) / Iiae ?aae. A.Oai/a?a. – E., 1994. – N.116-117.. I?e
oeueiio iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ciai?oiuei?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiio
aniaeoo ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee. Oeae i?aeo?ae aeicaiey?
?icaeyaeaoe nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai, ui iaie aea/a?oueny, ye ia iae?i-, oae
? ia i?e?i??ai?, ui ia aeoieo Aeae.Aeaenaiaea?a, Aeae.??ooea?a, ?.Ithioa
oa ?i., ? aeooaeueiei caaaeai-iyi nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e
aeaiue, ni?yiiaaiei ia ?ioaa?o-aaiiy i?e?i- e iae?i??aiae aiae?co.

Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii iaoiaeieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy aea/aiiy i?iaea-ie
? ni?iaa aaoi?a neioacoaaoe ia’?eoeaiee oa noa’?eoeaiee i?aeoiaee, ye?
aca?iiaeiiiaiththoue iaeei iaeiiai. Ia?oee, ye cacia/a? A.Eaaeiueiaa,
nie?a-?oueny ia ?acoeueoaoe iaaeeth/aiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ? aeoeaioo?
oaaao ia ci-ai?oi?o noi?iiao yaeua, i?eioneath/e ?nioaaiiy iaaieo
caeiiii??iinoae, ui ia caeaaeaoue a?ae noa’?eo?a; ae?oaee, iaaiaee,
i?eeia? aei oaaae eiie?aoi? oyaeaiiy o/aniee?a i?ioeano, aeoiaey/e c
oiai, ui ?nio? ?yae aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieo ?c na?aeii?noth
noa’?eo?a-o/aniee?a caeiiii??iinoae.

Nueiaiaei? aiae?c i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee c ia’?eoeaieo iiceoe?e
iaaeoi oneeaaeiaiee, ine?eueee ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue aaeeeeo ianya?a
io?oe?eii? noa-oenoeee, ui ye?nii a?aeaeaaea a oaiaeaioe??, ?nioth/? a
iaaeao aeaiiai ni-oe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, yea ia i?aeoeoe? /anoi
a?aenooiy. Oaeei /eiii, aeioe?eueia aeei?enoaiiy iaio oi/ie ci?o o
eiiieaen?. Oiio io?oe?ei? noaoe-noe/i? iaoa??aee aoee i?iaiae?ciaai?
ii?o/ c io?eiaiith caaaeyee i?iaa-aeaiith nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?ioi?iaoe??th ye?niiai oa?aeoa?o. Ioaea, ia’?eoeai? iieacieee, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa ?? aca?iica’ycie c
?eieii i?aoe?, aoee aeiiiaiai? noa’?eoeaieie ae-neiaeaiiyie e ioe?ieaie
o/aniee?a aeaiiai i?ioeano.

Ia i?aenoaa? icia/aiiai i?aeoiaeo i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iiiyooy
“i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea”. A?aecia/aii, ui o aocueeiio cia/aii?
i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oei, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? a?aenooi?noue “i?ioiaeaeaiiy” ?iaeeaeae?a /a?ac nenoaio
i?ioan?eieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, iaoii?noue caaacia/oth/e i?eaeaaiiy
i?ioan?? aaciina?aaeiuei ia ?iai/iio i?noe?. Iaeiae, cie?aia a aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, a oe?ieiio cia/aii?, aiii aaeeaa?oueny ye
neiii?i iiiyooy “i?ioan?eia ina?oa”. I?ioan?eia ina?oa c iiceoe??
ia?aiiai eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aecia/a?oueny ye i?ioean ? ?acoeueoao
iiaioaaiiy noa’?eoaie iaaii? i?ioan?? /a?ac aeeth/aiiy ?o aei nenoaie,
yea caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th aeaii? ooieoe?? a noni?euenoa? oa oi?io? o
oeeo noa’?eo?a noeoii?noue iaaieo yeinoae: niaoe?aeueieo, iaiao?aeieo
aeey oni?oii? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, e caaaeueieo, ui ni?eythoue
oni?oi?e ae?yeueiino? a iaaeao ?eieo i?aoe?. Ci?no oeeo yeinoae
coiiaeth?oueny ?ice?eooyi noo? iiiyoue i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue oa
o?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue. Nooi?noue ia?oi? eaoaai??? aecia/a?oueny
iiiyooyi i?ioan??, eio?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a aeai?e ?iaio? ye
oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?yeueiino?, ui ia’?eoeaii aeae?ey?oueny ia i?aenoaa?
nioe?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? c iaoith cae?eniaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo
ooieoe?e a noni?euenoa?, nioe?aeueii aeciaia e aeiaai?iaeaeoaaia,
a?aeiinii caieiaia, yea ia? nenoaio ciai?oiueiai oa aioo??oiueiai
?aaoethaaiiy, noa’?eoeaii ni?eia?oueny ye oe?e?nia, aeiaaa? a?ae ??
noa’?eoa iaaiiai ??aiy ciaiue, o?oaeiaeo iaae/ie, oi?iue, caniiaaieo ia
cae?aiinoyo, oa aeeeeea? iaaia aei naaa noaaeaiiy. Ci?no ae?oai?
eaoaai??? aecia/a?oueny iiiyooyi i?aoe? oa noinoi-eaie, ui aeieeathoue
/a?ac ia? i?ae noa’?eoaie ?eieo i?aoe?. Iaaeaia aecia-/aiiy oaiiiaio,
yeee aea/a?oueny, aeicaiey? i?iaanoe aeae? eiai iia?aoe?i-iae?caoe?th.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e aeae?eai? e ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe: ?aca?aoaaiiy
?iai/i? neee, i?aeaeuaiiy ?? eaae?o?eaoe?? e aeeaa?neo?eaoe??,
?aaoethaaiiy iia?eueiino? ?iai/i? neee e iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe?,
caoeno /eai?a i?ioan?eieo a?oi a?ae ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo i?aai?caoe?e,
ia?aoeiaeaeaiiy i?iieeiaiith aei i?ioan?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeiaaeeiaeo
in?a, cae?eniaiiy a aeaye?e i??? aioo-??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? ?aaoeyoe??
ae?yeueiino?.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaai? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia i?ioi?aeaioiaeo ye
nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai. Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a ? oaoiieia?/iee,
ui iaoiiaeth?, ca iiaeyaeaie oaeeo a/aieo, ye Aeae.Aaea?aeo, Ae.Aaee,
C.Aaeaceiuenueeee, E.Aieaeo?ia, ?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Ia?en, A.Oiooea?,
E.Ooi-iaoa?, E.ssnia?n oa ?i., ?icaeoie an??? no/anii? oeea?e?caoe??,
an? nioe?aeuei? nenoaie, a oiio /ene? i?ioan?eio ina?oo. Aiane?aeie eiai
aieeao a ?ic-aeiaieo e?a?iao i??i?eoaoieie noaee ?ioaeaeooaeuei?,
iaoeii?noe? aaeoc?, c aaeeeeie aeo?aoaie aenieieaae?o?eiaaii? i?aoe? oa
eai?oaeo ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee? e ?iaeaia?ii-eiino?oeoi?nuee?
?ic?iaee.

Ie??i caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eiiai ciai?oiueiai /eiieea ia ?icaeoie
i?i-oan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo aieeaathoue
iaoe?iiaeuei? /ei-ieee, cie?aia caaaeueiee noai aeiiii?ee (ianyae oa
aeaea?aea aeo?ao ia i?i-oan?eio ina?oo, noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue,
eai?oaeiaeeaaeiaiiy a ?i-iiaaoe?? oiui), aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy,
ianya?a i?ioan?eii? i?aeai-oiaee, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nee ?eieo i?aoe?,
eii’thieoo?a, ui ia iueiio neea-eany, a oaeiae aioo??oi? /eiieee:
eaae?iaa caaacia/ai?noue nenoaie a e?eue-e?niiio oa ye?niiio ieai?,
iayai?noue eiieo?aioe?? a nenoai?.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aeaio i?eioeeiiai ??cieo aeae?a
i?ioi?aeaioiaee a/a-ieie ?ic?iaeythoueny aea? ?aea? i?aai?caoe??
caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy. Iaeia ii-aeaeue – a?aee?eoee ?eiie (ciai?oi?e),
aea niaoe?ae?noe iaaoaathoue aocueeo eaa-e?o?eaoe?th, ui iina?ae/o?oueny
aeeieiiii aai na?oeo?eaoii caaaeueiii?eeiy-oiai c?aceo, iaiaaeaio
aei?noeith eeaneo?eaoe??th i?ioan?e, a iaeiaiiy cae?e-nith?oueny a
oiiaao a?eueieo i?aeo??iiaeo ia?ai?uaiue ?iai/i? neee. ?iaioi-aeaaoe? a
oiiaao oe??? iiaeae? ?eieo i?aoe? ia i?aaiooue aeeaaeaoe ?iaanoeoe?? a
iaa/aiiy eaae??a, caiaeyoue oe? aeo?aoe aei i?i?ioio oa aa?aio?e
caeiyoino? ia iaaeathoue. Ae?oaa iiaeaeue — cae?eoee ?eiie (a iaaeao
o??ie), yeiio i?eoaiai-ia ia?aaaaeii oe?iea e aiaeii/an aeniea
eaae?o?eaoe?y ?ia?oiee?a. Aioo??oi?e ?eiie i?aoe? a?ae??ciy? nenoaia
aacia?a?aii? ina?oe. Aeeaaeath/e cia/i? eiooe a iaa/aiiy eaae??a,
i?aei?e?inoaa iaaeathoue ?i aa?aio?? caeiyoino?, a oie aea /an ?nioth/a
nenoaia noinoie?a ia?aoeiaeaeo? ia?aoiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a ia ?io?
i?aei?e?inoaa: caioi/o?oueny o?eaae?noue noaaeo ?iaioe, yeee aieeaa? ia
i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiee ??aaiue ? iieaoo i?aoe?.

??ciiiai?oi? eiia?iaoe?? aioo??oiueiai oa ciai?oiueiai ?eie?a
i?aoe? iienai? A.A.I?e?oi?iaith, yea i?iiiio? o?e iniiai? iiaeae?:
oaaaenueeo (neaiaeeiaanueeo), yiiinueeo oa iiaeaeue ?eieo i?aoe? NOA, —
a oaeiae E.Ae.Eioey?iaei, yeee aeiiiaith? oeth eeaneo?eaoe?th
o?aioeocueeith oa iieue-nueeith iiaeaeyie. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co
cacia/aieo iiaeaeae aoei aeyaeaii, ui aiie noai?ai? ia i?aenoaa?
e?eoa??y ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ae o/an-ieeaie i?ioeano
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo ?iai/i? neee.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea ? aeaeii noni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino?, yeith ioiieaia, ye i?aaeei, iieiaeue, ?icaeyioo? ??
nioe?aeuei? e nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeniiceoe?eii? oai??? A.I.ssaeiaa ?icaeyioo?
oe?iiini? i???ioaoe?? ye eiiiiiaioe na?aeiiino?, ui aieeaathoue ia
iiaaae?ieo ethaeeie. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia ?aaoethaaiiy iiaaae?iee
noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo i?aoe? caaacia/o?oueny /a?ac oi?ioaaiiy o ieo a
i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aei i?aoe?, a oiio /ene?, a noa?? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe, oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e. Inoaii? ae-cia/athoue aea?? ieie
no?aoaa?? iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe?, ui iienai? A.I.Nieieiaith oa
ss.A.Eaaa?ianueeith: i?aaiaoe/ii?, i?ioan?eii? aai eiioi?i?nonueei?
(aaeaeoaei?). I?aenoaaith aeey oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? no?a-oaa??
iiaaae?iee noa’?eoa ia ?eieo i?aoe? ? i?ioan?eia i?eoeeuei?noue,
caeiaooa a i?ioean? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy. ?icaeyioo? iniiai? oai???
iioeaaoe?? o?o-aeiai? iiaaae?iee.

Iienai? iaoiaee e iaoiaeeee cai?o ?ioi?iaoe??, ianya, no?oeoo?a
aea??eiai? noeoiiino?.

Aeoiaey/e c ?icaeyiooeo aca?iica’yce?a, aoee aenoioo? ianooii?
a?-iioace, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1) ia no/aniiio
aoai? noa-iiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai i?ioan?eiiai ?eieo i?aoe? ia?aaaaa
iaaea?oueny ?aae?-caoe?? oaeeo ooieoe?e i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, ye
?aca?aoaaiiy ?iai/i? neee oa no?eioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iia?eueiino?.
Aca?iiae?y nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoo-o?a i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oa ?eieo i?aoe?,
oaeei /eiii, ia aeaiee iiiaio ? ia-aoaeoeaiith, ine?eueee aoaeoeaia
aca?iiae?y oeeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ii-aeiia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny
ca?eueoaiiyi iioaioe?eii? iia?eueiino? ?iaeeaeae?a ia ?eieo i?aoe? i?ney
i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?ioi?aeaioiaee; 2) i?ioan?eia i?aeai-oiaea no/anieo
aeioneiee?a aoc?a ??ciiai ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa IOO a noa’?eoeaiiio
ieai? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei ??aiai nioe?aeueii? aoaeoea-iino?.
Noa’?eoeaieie iieacieeaie nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? i?ioi?aeaioia-ee ?
i?eoeeuei?noue aei i?ioan??, yea ia? aeii?ioth/ee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi
?iciia-nthaeaeaia na?aae 50-75% aeioneiee?a; 3) ia in?a, ui i?ioiaeyoue
i?ioi?aeai-oiaeo, cia/ii aieeaathoue ?o oyaeaiiy i?i ia?niaeoeae ia
?eieo i?aoe?, ye? iia’ycai? c eii’thieoo?ith oa iiaeaeeth ?eieo i?aoe?
Oe?a?ie. A caeaaeiino? a?ae oeeo oyaeaiue, oe?iiini? i???ioaoe??
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeiooue ??ci? no?aoaa?? ?o o?oaeiai? iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo
i?aoe?.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee a Oe?a?i?” i?iaiae?ciaai? aii??e/i? iaoa??aee, ye?
oa?aeoa-?ecothoue i?ioean ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa
ia?ai?aeaioiaee, a oa-eiae noai ?eieo i?aoe? a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?.

Cacia/aii, ui iineoae i?ioia?ai?aeaioiaee iaaeathoueny aea?aeaaieie
oeaio?aie caeiyoino? a ianyaao, ui ia a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aaeuei?e
iio?aa?. E?euee?noue iacaeiyoeo a?iiaaeyi, ye? i?ioiaeeee
ia?ai?aeaioiaeo a 1995, 1996, 1997 ??., ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie
I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?-oeee Oe?a?ie, neeaaeaea ii
Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? a?aeiinii aei caaaeueii? e?eue-eino? io?oe?eii
ca?a?no?iaaieo iacaeiyoeo 10,9%, 7,6% ? 2,9% a?aeiia?aeii. I?ae oei,
a?aeiiei oaeoii ? oa, ui ?nio? aaeeea e?euee?noue io?oe?eii
iaca-?a?no?iaaieo iacaeiyoeo: ianooaa i?eoiaaiiai aac?ia?ooy a Oe?a?i?
neea-aea? a?ey 40-45% i?aoethth/eo, aai 30% a?ae caaaeueii? /enaeueiino?
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a — ?eiie i?aoe? Oe?a?ie a 1997 ?ioe?.
Aiae?oe/ii-noaoenoe/iee ca??iee. Aea?aeaaiee oeaio? caeiyoino?
I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie. – E., 1998. – N.
7; A?eiaeioeueeee I. No/aniee noai ?eieo i?aoe? oa ia?niaeoeae eiai
?icaeoeo // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea
caeiyoino? a Oe?a?i?. Oi?aae?iiy ?eieii i?aoe?”. – Ee?a, 23-24 n?/iy
1997 ?ieo. – N. 13.. Iieaciee i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy in?a, ui i?ieoee
ia?ai?aeaioiaeo, ? iecueeei – iaa?oue c o?aooaaiiyi in?a, ye?
i?aoeaaeaoooaaeeny naiino?eii, a 1995 a. ii Oe?a?i? a?i ia nyaaa 60%.
Cieaeaia aoaeoeai?noue, ia aeoieo aaaaoueio a/aieo oa iie?oee?a,
iaoiiaeaia o aaeee?e i??? a?aenooi?noth ?ic?iaeaii? o?yaeii i?ia?aie,
yea aecia/a? i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo a no?oeoo?? ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, a oaeiae oeyoe eiai ?aae?caoe??. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
oiai, ui ia oe? ??ceiai nei?i/aiiy /enea aaeain?e ia aea?aeaaieo ?
eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoaao ? i?aeoe/ii? ?o a?aenooiino? ia
i?aei?e?inoaao i?eaaoii? oa ci?oaii? oi?i aeaniino?, ?iaanoeoe?? o
noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue iaeaea ia a?aeaoaathoueny. Oae,
iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ?iai/eo i?noeue, ca aeaieie I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe?
oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, ca ia??iae c 1992 ?. ii 1997 ?. aoea
noai?aia a 1994 oa 1995 ??. – 900 ? 1529 a?aeiia?aeii. A 1996 ?.
iii?oeany ??ceee niaae – 208, a a 1997 ?. ciiao noai?aieo ?iai/eo
i?noeue a iaeano? aoei eeoa 45. Aiaeii/an ia i?aei?e?inoaao
nei?i/oaaeany e?euee?noue ?nioth/eo aaeaioieo i?noeue. Oaeei /eiii,
iiaeia cacia/eoe, ui ?aca?aoaaiiy ?iai/i? neee, e??i iaio?oe?eiiai ?eieo
i?aoe?, cie?aia, iieiae?, cae?enith?oueny nenoaiith i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.
A oie aea /an iia?euei?noue ?iai/i? neee ? ?iaa?n?eiith, ca aeaieie
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue A.I.Nieieiai? oa ss.A.Eaaa?ianueei?,
aac?ia?oi?, ye? ooeathoue ?iaioo o?eueee ca io?eiaiith i?ioan??th,
iathoue ia?niaeoeae i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy, ye i?aaeei, ieae/?, i?ae ?io?
eaoaai???, a no?iee — aeiao?.

Ioaea, ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e aeaiue i?aei?e?ioe? ia caoe?eaaeai? a
?iaanooaaii? o i?aeaioiaeo oao?aoe?a oa o i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy
ia?niiaeo nai?o o??i, ine?eueee a oiiaao nei?i/aiiy iiieoo ia ?iai/o
neeo aea?eueiy?oueny aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue eaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a,
a oaeiae /a?ac oa, ui iie?-oe/ia oa aeiiii?/ia iaaecia/ai?noue aieeaa?
ia neeaaei?noue ?ic?iaee aeia-aino?ieiaeo ieai?a ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa,
aai iaa?oue ?? iaiiaeeea?noue. A oie aea /an, a?aeoiaey/e a?ae aeoeaieo
caoiae?a o noa?? caeiyoino?, iieeaaeath-/enue a oeueiio ia i?eaaoio
?i?oe?aoeao, aea?aeaaa i?iaeiaaeo? oo?eioaaoe ii-iiiie?th ia
?aaoethaaiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, aea aieea ?eieiaeo aaaea-e?a
caeeoa?oueny neaaeei, a ?ieue i?ioan?eieo anioe?aoe?e iaeiiii?oiith.
Oa-eei /eiii, aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e caoenoo /eai?a i?ioan?eieo a?oi,
ia?aoeiaeaeaiiy i?iieeiaiith aei i?ioan?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeiaaeeiaeo
in?a, cae?eniaiiy a aeaye?e i??? aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? ?aaoeyoe??
ae?yeueii-no? oaeiae ?aae?co?oueny a neaae?e i???. Oea neeaaea? iniiai?
?ene oe?a?inueei? iiaeae? ?eieo i?aoe?. Ioaea, ia?oa a?iioaca
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aca?iiae?th i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oa ?eieo
i?aoe? ia aeaiee iiiaio ye iaaoaeoeaio, a oe?eiio i?aeoaa?aeeeany.

Iaaaaeaia ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaeyae?a ia i?ioan?eio
i?aeai-oiaeo oa iiaeaeueoa i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy aeioneiee?a i?ioan?eieo
iaa/aeue-ieo caeeaae?a ??cieo ??aiae. A?aecia/aii, ui iaea?eueo aeniei
ioe?iththoue aeani? ia?niaeoeae o/i? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu: a?eueo
iieiaeie c ieo aiaaiai?, ui ciiaeooue i?aoeaaeaoooaaoeny ca oaoii. A
oe?eiio ?o noa’?eoeai? ioe?iee a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?eniino?, oiio ui
iniiaiee ianea aa-eaioieo ?iai/eo i?noeue, ca?aeii aeaiei aea?aeaaieo
neoaea caeiyoino?, o ii-ia?aaei? ?iee neeaaeaee i?noey aeey ?ia?oiee?a
??cii? eaae?o?eaoe?? oa niaoe?-aeueiinoae. I?eaeecii oae naii
?iciiae?eeeeny ioe?iee aeioneiee?a aoc?a 3-4 nooiaiae ae?aaeeoaoe??,
oi/a na?aae ieo iaaiaaiaieo a nai?io iaeaooiueiio aeyaeeinue aeaui
a?eueoa. Uiaei aeioneiee?a oaoi?eoi?a (eieaaeae?a), oi na-?aae ieo aeiey
aiaaiaieo o i?aoeaaeaoooaaii? ca niaoe?aeuei?noth neeaaea? ee-oa 30% ? a
oe?eiio na?aaei? cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea iaeaea a 6 ?ac?a ieae-/a,
i?ae o aeioneiee?a aoc?a oa IOO. ?acii c oei, ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe
iieooaaiiy, o?eueee 32% aeioneiee?a oi?aa?neoao?a, 29% — oaoi?eoi?a ?
16% aeioneiee?a IOO ?ic?aoiaothoue ia iai?aaeaiiy ia ?iaioo, a oie /an
ye 23% aeioneiee?a oi?aa?neoao?a, 51% — eieaaeae?a e 52% — IOO
a?aeiia?ee, ui ?i aoaeooue iaaeai? a?euei? aeeieiie.

Uiaei oi?i aeaniino?, aiae?coth/e aeoiee aeioneiee?a, ie
a?aecia/eee o?e iniiai? oaiaeaioe??: oyae?iiy aei aea?aeaaii? oi?ie
aeaniino?, oyae?iiy aei i?eaaoii? oi?ie oa aaeaeoaea noaaeaiiy aei
oeueiai ieoaiiy. Iaea?eueoith ca ?ici??aie na?aae aeioneiee?a aeyaeeany
a?oia i?eoeeueiee?a i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, ae?oaith aoea a?oia
“aaeaeoaeeo”. “Aea?aeaaieee” iieieeeny ia o?aoueiio i?noe?, i?e oeueiio
69% oe??? a?oie neeaee aeioneieee aoc?a 3-4 nooiaiy ae?aaeeoaoe??.

A iniiaiiio i?aeoaa?aeeeany ae?oaa a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca?aeii
c yeith i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea no/anieo aeioneiee?a aoc?a ??ciiai ??aiy
ae?a-aeeoaoe?? oa IOO a noa’?eoeaiiio ieai? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei
??aiai nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino?. Aeiyoie neeaee aeioneieee
oi?aa?neoao?a, na?aae yeeo i?eoeeueiee?a nai?? i?ioan?? aeyaeeiny a?eueo
60%, ui a 1,5-2 ?ace ia?aaeuo? cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea aeey
?aniiiaeaio?a c oaoi?eoi?a oa IOO. Noiniaii aeioneiee?a oi?aa?neoao?a
oeae iieaciee ? aeae?eueea aeuei a?ae io?eiaiiai A.I.Niaieaaei oa
TH.I.*a?iaoeueeei, yeee, ca?aeii ?o aeaieo, neeaa 56%, iaeiae ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui ieie aoee ianoaaeai? o?eueee ae-ioneieee
?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo aoc?a, oiae? ye iaoei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenooiaee i?aaenoaaieee ia o?eueee oaoi?/ieo, aea e aoiai?oa?ieo oa
i?e?iaeiueiiaoeiaeo i?ioan?e. Ia?niaeoeaa iaa/aoeny ?io?e i?ioan??
i?eaaaethaaea, ca?aeii ?acoeueoaoai iieooaaiue, eiaeiiai oinoiai c
ae-ioneiee?a oaoieeoi?a ? eeoa eiaeiiai aeanyoiai c aeioneiee?a IOO, ui
coiiaeth?oueny aiaaiai?noth inoaii?o o i?aoeaaeaoooaaii? ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae aoea aeyaeaia ?noioia ??cieoey
a ioe?ieao yeino? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe aeioneieeaie iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
??ciiai ??aiy. Oae, 28% ?aniiiaeaio?a-o/i?a IOO aaaaeathoue, ui
io?eiaii? ieie ina?oe aeinoaoiuei, uia aeeiioaaoe i?ioan?ei? iaia’ycee.
Na?aae aeioneiee?a aoc?a 3-4 nooiaiy ae?aaeeoaoe?? oaeeo aeyaeeiny eeoa
11%. Nooaeaioe oaoi?eoi?a caeiyee na?aaeith iiceoe?th: n?aaee ieo oeo,
ooi aaaaea? io?eiaio ina?oo aei-noaoiueith, aeyaeeiny 15%. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a an?o eaoaai-??e, a?eueo 50%, aaaaeathoue, ui
ieie aoa iaea?aeaiee caaaeueiee aacen, iaeiae aaaaoi /iio ua
aeiaaaeaoueny iaa/eoeny. Na?aae oeo, ooi a?aecia/ea, ui i?io-i?aeaioiaea
ia a?aeiia?aea? ?o iaeaooi?i i?ioan?eiei iaia’yceai, aeione-iee?a
aoc?a 3-4, 1-2 ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa IOO aeyaeeinue 4%, 3% ? 2%
a?aeii-a?aeii. Aeioneieee IOO aeneiaeee iaea?eueoo caaeiaieai?noue
ae?iaie/ith i?aeoeeith, ? a oe?eiio oeae iieaciee o ieo iaaaaaoi aeua,
i?ae o i?aaenoaa-iee?a ?ioeo eaoaai??e. Aeioneieee oaoi?eoi?a ioe?ieee
i?aeoe/io i?aeai-oiaeo a oe?eiio iaaaoeaii. Ioe?iea ae?iaie/i? i?aeoeee
aeyaeeanue o ieo ieae/ith, i?ae o nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a oa o/i?a IOO.
Nooaeaioe aoc?a ??c-iiai ??aiy a?aeaeaee ia?aaaao yeino? oai?aoe/ii?
i?aeaioiaee. Oaeei /eiii, ooieoe?y i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iai/i?
neee ?aae?co?oueny nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii i?ioi?aeaioiaee a neaae?e
i???.

Ca?aeii oai??? oi?ioaaiiy ianoaiiae, aaaeeeaith eiai oiiaith, a
oiio /ene?, ca eiioeaioe??th ?a?a?o?? aeeniiceoe?e A.I.ssaeiaa, aeui?
oi?ie ia-noaiiae – oe?iiinii? i???ioaoe??, (a iaoiio aeiaaeeo –
i?ioan?eii? i?eoeeue-iino?) ? oi?ioaaiiy eiai?oeaiiai ??aiy na?aeiiino?.
Iaea?eueoo ?ioi?iiaa-i?noue uiaei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? aeyaeee
aeioneieee aoc?a 3-4 ??aiy ae-?aaeeoaoe??, iaeiaioo – aeioneieee IOO. A
oe?eiio, ca aeanieie ioe?ieaie, iaea?eueo ?i a?aeii? oaoi?/i? caniae e
oaoiieia??, a oaeiae aeiiae, ui noaa-eyoueny aei niaoe?ae?no?a. Iaeaeuee
??aaiue a?aenooiino? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?aniiiaeai-oe a?aecia/eee c ieoaiue
iieaoe i?aoe? e iiaeeeainoae i?ioan?eiiai c?inoai-iy ia oe?
iani?eyoeeaeo ia’?eoeaieo aeaieo a oeeo aniaeoao aeey aaaaoueio i?ioan?e
a no/anieo oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?eoeeuei?noue aei io?eiaii? i?ioan?? aoea ?icaeyiooa oaeiae /a?ac
oa, iane?eueee aaeaeei aaaaeathoue aeioneieee c?iaeaiee ieie aea??
i?ioan?e. Iaeaea 2/3 aeioneiee?a aoc?a 3-4 ?iaiy ae?aaeeoaoe?? iiaoi?eee
a aea??. Na-?aae aeioneiee?a IOO oaeeo aeyaeeinue iaioa iieiaeie. Na?aae
ae-ioneiee?a oaoieeoi?a iiaoi?eee a aea?? eeoa 34%. Oe? cia/aiiy
aeecuee? aei aeyaeaieo ??aiae i?aaiaiiy ?aniiiaeaio?a i?aoethaaoe ca
oaoii. Ioaea, aeey a?eueoino? aeioneiee?a i?ioan?y, iaea?aeaia a
?acoeueoao? iaa/aiiy, ? iaaiith oe?ii?noth, a iaea?eueo?e i??? aeey
eiioeiaaioo aoc?a 3-4 ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??. A oie aea /an aiae?c
noa’?eoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea iaae?eoea a?ae ?aniiiaeaio?a, iieacaa, ui
?o i???ioaoe?? cia/iith i??ith coiiaeththoueny eii’thieoo?ith, ui
neeaaea?oueny ia ?eieo i?aoe? oa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei iiieoii ia
eaae?o?eiaaio ?iai/o neeo, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi nee ia iueiio.

Oae, iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy aeey aeioneiee?a i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaieo
iaa-/aeueieo caeeaae?a iathoue oae? oe?iiino? ye ca?ia?oia ieaoa,
aacia/i? oiiae i?aoe? oa ?? ci?no. Aea o a?aeiia?aeyo ?aniiiaeaio?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo ??aiae niinoa??aaeenue aeaye? a?aei?iiino?.
Aeioneieee aoc?a ie?aneeee ae-iiae aei ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iaea?eueo iiaii
oa aaeaeaaoii, ? iiaeia neacaoe, ui aiie aoee eeoa o?ioe caaeuaieie.
Aeiiae aeioneiee?a IOO, iaaiaee, oa-?aeoa?ecoaaeenue yaiith
caaeuai?noth, aai ia aoee noi?ioeueiaai? acaaae?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
aeioneiee?a oi?aa?neoao?a, aeioneieee oaoi?eoi?a oa IOO aaaaeathoue
aacia/i? oiiae i?aoe? aaaeeea?oeie ca ci?no i?aoe?, ui acaaae? ?
caeiiii??iei, aaeaea o ?ia?oiee?a ieae/i? eaae?o?eaoe??, ye i?aaeei,
oiiae i?aoe? aaaee?o? oa oe?aeeea?o?. Aeey aeioneiee?a IOO oe?ii?noue
ci?noo i?aoe? ye oaea, ui a?aeiia?aea? caaeiaieaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
iio?aa, iaea ieae/o iiceoe?th a caaaeueiiio oe?iiiniiio eiioeiooi?,
iinooiath/enue iio?aa? naii-?aae?caoe??. Iaeiaioa cia/aiiy aeey an?o
eaoaai??e ?aniiiaeaio?a iaee caea-a?eueoiai iicao?oaeia? oe?iiino?.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e oa i/?eoaaiue ?o ?aae?caoe??
iiea-co?, ui aeioneieee i?eioneathoue a o?oaeia?e ae?yeueiino?
?aae?caoe?th, ia?o ca ana, ?ino?oiaioaeueieo oe?iiinoae (ca
eeaneo?eaoe??th I.?ie?/a). Iaea?eueo aeinooiieie aeioneieee an?o ??aiae
aaaaeathoue aeey naaa iiaaao ioi/aiiy, ni?eeoaaiiy e noni?eueio
ei?eni?noue nai?? i?aoe?. Iaio ca ana aiie ?ic?a-oiaothoue ia iayai?noue
a?eueiiai /ano, iiaeeea?noue oai?/ino? a i?ioean? ?iaioe e aeinyaiaiiy
aenieiai noni?eueiiai noaoono. A ?o i/?eoaaiiyo oaeiae
niinoa-??aathoueny aeaye? a?aei?ie. Oae, ?iaeaene, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
??ai? aeniaeoaoe?e oa oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e aeioneiee?a IOO, iathoue
ia?noioi? ?ica?aeiino?, oiaoi a ?o na?aeiiino? iiea i?iaeai o noa??
i?aoe? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. Aen-iaeoaoe?? aeioneiee?a eieaaeae?a, ia
a?aei?io a?ae ieo, iathoue ieae/? cia/aiiy. Iaea?eueo? ?ica?aeiino? i?ae
oe?iiinieie i???ioaoe?yie e i/?eoaaiiyie i?e-nooi? o ieo uiaei
iiaeeeaino? aeia?a ca?iaeyoe, iaoe ?ioa?anio ?iaioo, i?a-oethaaoe a
ii?iaeueieo, iaoe?aeeeaeo oiiaao e aeinyaoe aenieiai noni?eueiiai
noaoono. Oaeei /eiii, o iie? i?iaeai aeioneiee?a eieaaeae?a
cina?aaeaeai? ye ?ino?oiaioaeuei?, oae ? oa?i?iaeuei? o?oaeia?
oe?iiinoe. I/?eoaaiiy aeione-iee?a oi?aa?neoao?a iiae?ai?, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi oiai, ui a ?o i?iaeaiiiio iie? oaea oe?ii?noue, ye
aeinyaiaiiy aenieiai noni?eueiiai noaoono, a?aenooiy.

I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eiioeiaaioo in?a, ui caa?ioeeny aei aea?aeaaieo neoaea
caeiyoino? c iaoith ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??, iaa ianooii? ?acoeueoaoe.
Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue c ieo neeaaeathoue ae?iee, ca a?eii – iniae a?ae
18 aei 40 ?ie?a. Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ??aiy ina?oe ?aniiiaeaio?a iieacaa,
ui a oe?eiio iaeneioi e?eai? ?iciiae?eo i?eeoiany ia a?oio, yea ia?
caaaeueio na?aaeith ina?oo (37% ?aniiiaeaio?a). Aea? o?aoeie oe??? a?oie
neeaea iieiaeue. Ae?oaith ca ?ici??aie aeyaeeany a?oia c na?aaeiueith
niaoe?aeueiith ina?oith (22% ?aniiiaeaio?a), na?aae yeeo iieiae? aoei
40%, ? iaeaea oaeith ae aoea a?oia ?aniiiaeaio?a c aeuith ina?oith
(21%), aea a oe?e a?oi? iieiae? aoei eeoa 16%. Iaeiaioo e?euee?noue iaea
a?oia ?aniiiaeaio?a c i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith ina?oith — 11%, aeaa’yii-noi
a?aenioe?a yei? neeaea iieiaeue. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a c
iaiia-iith aeuith ina?oith neeaea 8%, iaeaea iieiaeia eio?eo iieiaeoiai
a?eo, a c iaiiaiith na?aaeiueith — 2%, yeo iiai?noth neeaee iniae aei 25
?ie?a.

A oe?eiio o?e /aa?o? ?aniiiaeaio?a iaee o?oaeiaee aeina?ae.
Iaeaae?-o?eiaai? oa iaeieaae?o?eiaai? ?ia?oieee c ieo neeaee 17%,
eaae?o?eiaai? oa aenieieaae?o?eiaai? – 31%, ?ia?oieee
?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ii? i?aoe? – 2%, oaoi?ee – 20%, niaoe?ae?noe – 24%,
eieeoi? ea??aieee – 6%. I?aeoe/ii an? iieoai? iniae, ui cae?i/eee aoce
??ciiai ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??, iaee ?iaeaia?i? niaoe?aeueiino?. A?ey
o?aoeie ?aniiiaeaio?a i?e oeueiio aieiae?ee noi?aeieie
niaoe?aeueiinoyie. 30% ?aniiiaeaio?a, ye? iaa/aeenue ia i?aei?e?inoaao a
nenoai? o/i?anoaa, a iniiaiiio iaaoee ?ia?oie/? niaoe?aeueiinoe,
iia’ycai? c ?aiiioii oa aenieoaoaoe??th iaeaaeiaiiy.

C on?o iieoaieo i?eoeeuei?noue aei i?ioan?? i?iyaeee eeoa 12%
?aniii-aeaio?a, o?aoeia in?a oio?ea a i?eaeaaoe ?ioo i?ioan?th, eio?a ia
aoea a neeaaei?oith ca iiia?aaeith, a ua o?aoeia oio?ea a inai?oe iiao,
a?eueo neeaaeio i?ioan?th. I?e oeueiio caaeiaieai?noue iiaith i?ioan??th
aeneiaeee 78% iieoaieo.

C oi/ee ci?o i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy iaea?eueoo ia?aaaao aeey
?aniiiaeaio?a na?aae oi?i aeaniino? caeiaoea i?eaaoia (21%), aea?aeaaia
(20%) oa aeoe?i-ia?ia (13%), aea a oe?eiio aeey a?eueoino? iieoaieo oeae
aniaeo ia aoa aaae-eeaei. Noiniaii ca?ia?oii? ieaoi? ?aniiiaeaioaie aoee
aeneiaeai? aeineoue iii??eiaai? aeiiae, ui a oe?eiio a?aeiia?aeathoue
na?aaeiueiio ??aith ca?ieao.

Uiaei oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e ?aniiiaeaio?a iieiaeiai a?eo a noa??
i?aoe? e iiaeeeaino? ?o ?aae?caoe??, oi ia?oa i?noea, ye ? o aeioneiee?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo ??aiae, iin?ea iieaoa i?aoe?. Ia ae?oaiio
i?noe? – iiae-eea?noue naii?icaeoeo. Ia o?aoueiio i?noe? iieieeany
?ioa?ania ?iaioa, ci?no i?aoe?. *aoaa?oeie aoee aeae?eai? iaoe?aeeea?
aeey caei?ia’y oiiae i?aoe?. Oe?iiini? i???ioaoe?? ?aniiiaeaio?a noa?oeo
a?eiaeo a?oi iathoue aeae?eueea ?ioee ?iciiae?e. Oae, ia?oa i?noea
na?aae ieo caeiyea ei?eni?noue ?iaioe, ae?oaa – oaeiae iiaeeea?noue
naii?icaeiaiiy, ia o?aoueiio – iiaeeea?noue i?i-yaeyoe iaenoa?i?noue.
Oaeei /eiii, o?oaeiaa iioeaaoe?y in?a, ui caa?ioeeny aei oeaio??a
caeiyoino? c iaoith ia?ai?aeaioiaee, i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
iioeaaoe?? aeioneiee?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii. O
in?a, ui caa?ioeeny aei oeaio??a caeiyoino? c iaoith ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??,
ye ? o ae-ioneiee?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiith
? i?aaiaoe/ia no?aoaa?y iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe?. Ioaea, c o?aooaaiiyi
iiia?aaei?o ae-niiae?a, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui o?aoy a?iioaca, aenoiooa
iaie, a oe?eiio oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeeeany.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiai? oa nenoaiaoeciaai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

AENIIAEE

Ia no/aniiio aoai? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai i?ioan?eiiai ?eieo
i?a-oe? ?aae?cothoueny oae? ooieoe?? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, ye
?aca?aoaaiiy ?iai-/i? neee. Aca?iiae?y nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oa ?eieo i?aoe? a oe?eiio ? iaaoaeoeaiith, ine?eueee
aoaeoeaia aca?iiae?y oeeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ia? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny
ca?eueoaiiyi iioaioe?eii? iia?eueiino? ?iaeeaeae?a ia ?eieo i?aoe? i?ney
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ieie i?ioi?aeaioiaee, a oie /an ye ia aeaiee iiiaio
niinoa??aa?oueny cai?ioiy oaiaeaioe?y.

I?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea no/anieo aeioneiee?a aoc?a 1-2 ??aiy
ae?aaeeoa-oe?? oa IOO a noa’?eoeaiiio ieai? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei
??aiai nioe?-aeueii? aoaeoeaiino?: i?eoeeuei?noue aei i?ioan?? o ieo ia
ia? aeii?ioth/iai oa?aeoa?o ? ? i?eoaiaiith 40% oa 48% aeioneiee?a
a?aeiia?aeii. I?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea aeioneiee?a aoc?a 3-4 ??aiy
ae?aaeeoaoe?? a noa’?eoeaiiio ieai? ? aoaeoeaiith: i?eoeeuei? aei nai??
i?ioan?? 69% aeioneiee?a.

Ia in?a, ui i?ioiaeyoue i?ioi?aeaioiaeo, cia/ii aieeaathoue ?o
oyaeaiiy i?i ia?niaeoeaiee noai ia ?eieo i?aoe?, iia’ycai? c
eii’thieoo?ith oa iiaeaeeth ?eieo i?aoe? Oe?a?ie. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
oeeo oyaeaiue, oe?iiini? i???ioaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??ci? no?aoaa?? ?o
o?oaeiai? iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe?. O aeioneiee?a iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, ye ? a in?a, ui caa?ioeeny aei oeaio??a caeiyoino? c iaoith
ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??, iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiith ? i?aaiaoe/ia no?aoaa?y
iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe?.

Aeyaeaiee noai aca?iiae?? ?eieo i?aoe? oa i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ?
iaia?niaeoeaiei aeey noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea ia?
a?aoiaoaaoe i??i?eoaoe ia eeoa oaia??oiueiai, a e iaeaooiueiai ?eieo
i?a-oe?. Ioaea, i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeai, iia’caieo c io?eiaiiyi oa
aeei?en-oaiiyi i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, ?aaoethaaiiyi oa noeioethaaiiyi
aca?iiae?? oeeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a, aeioe?eueiei aoei a a?aoiaoaaoe
aeina?ae ?ioeo e?a?i, cie?aia No?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai ?aa?iio.
Canoinoaaiiy oeueiai aeina?aeo ni?eyei a iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eiith i?aeaioiaeith. Nooo?aiai cia/aiiy, ca?aeii c oe??th
i?aeoeeith, iaaoaa? ae?yeuei?noue i?ioan?eieo anioe?aoe?e, aeoea-i?noue
i?aei?e?ioe?a oa caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ye iaoai?ci
naiia?aao-ethaaiiy aca?iiae?? ?eieo i?aoe? oa i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, ui
aeiiiaith? ?o aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy. O naith /a?ao, aeiiiaiaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoi-ae?a oi?aae?iiy ?eieiaeie aaco?oueny ia
aeine?aeaeaii? eii’thieoo?e oa noaio ?eieo i?aoe?, noai?aii?
eiieo?aioieo i?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioeaaeo? ?ici?uaiiy aea?aecaiiaeaiue ia
niaoe?ae?no?a o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao oa ?o o?iainoaaiiy, ia i?iaaaeaii?
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe ?aeoeia
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ?o eiioeiaaio, aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino?, ia
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?e ?ic?iaoe? oe?eueiaeo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iaeneiiaa I.E. I?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea eae ?aaoeyoi? ?uiea
o?oaea // Na. iao/. o?oaeia Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa
“Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey – 1998”. – Oa?ueeia: OeYII
“?aaea?”, 1998. – N. 180-184.

2. Iaeneiiaa I.E. Aei aea/aiiy oaiiiaio i?ioan?eii? eoeueoo?e // A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.N.Neiai?i-aee. Na??y “Nioe?ieia?y”. Aei. 1. – Oa?e?a: Aeae-ai
OAeAAeOO, 1998. — ? 4. – N. 11-15.

3. Aeoaieiaa O.A., Iaeneiiaa I.E. E oa?aeoa?enoeea eueaioiiai
eiioei-aaioa ia ?uiea o?oaea: nioeeieiae/aneee aniaeo // Na. iao/.
o?oaeia Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa “Oa?ueeianeea
nioeei-eiae/aneea /oaiey – 1998”. – Oa?ueeia: OeYII “?aaea?”, 1998. – N.
207-213.

4. Iaeneiiaa I.E. Iaoi?iaeueiue naeoi? yeiiiieee: oo?eoe e
nioeeaeue-iiio ii?o?aoo iaeeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey // Na. iao/. o?oaeia
Oa?ueeia-neiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa “Oa?ueeianeea
nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey – 1995”. – Oa?ueeia: III “EeIe-I?eio”, 1995. –
N. 76-79.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaeneiiaa I.E. I?iaeaie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee
a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai ?eieo i?aoe? (ia iaoa??aeao nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.07. – nioe?ieia?y
oi?aae?iiy. – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith iniaeeainoae i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a a Oe?a?i?. A ?aieao eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo
?icaeyiooi niaoeeo?eo i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ye nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo a no/anieo oiiaao o ca’yceo ?c noaiiaeaiiyi ?eieo i?aoe?.
I?iaiae?ciaaii oeiieia?th iaea?eueo a?aeiieo iiaeaeae ?eieo i?aoe? e
aia?oa ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iiaeaeue oe?a?inue-eiai ?eieo i?aoe?,
caniiaoth/enue ia ni?aa?aeiioaii? aeoeaiino? caoe?eaaeaieo noi??i uiaei
i?aeaioiaee ?iai/i? neee oa a?aaoethaaiiy aeeiai?ee ?eieo i?aoe?.
Ae?noaa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?icaeyae nioe?aeueieo oa
nioe?aeueii-ine-oieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeioneiee?a o/aiaeo caeeaae?a
??ciiai ??aiy ? i?iaaaeaiee ?o ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c. Aia?oa ?icaeyiooi
nioe?aeuei? oa nioe?-aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee in?a, ye?
caa?ioeeny aei aea?aeaaieo oeaio??a caeiyoino? c iaoith ia?ai?aeaioiaee,
i?iaaaeaii ?o ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeioneiee?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea; ?eiie i?aoe?;
i?eoeeuei?noue aei i?ioan??; o?oaeiaa iioeaaoe?y.

SUMMARY

Maksimova N.L. The Problems of Professional Training and Retraining
under the Conditions of Modern Labor Market Formation (Based on
Materials of Sociological Studies of Kharkiv Region). – Manuscript.

Thesis for the scientific degree of candidate of sociological
sciences by the speciality 22.00.07. — sociology of management. –
Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv, 1999.

Thesis addresses the distinctive features of the professional
training of young people in the Ukraine. In the framework of the complex
approach the study continues to address the specifics of the
professional training as a social institute in the modern conditions of
the labor market formation. The typology of the most well-known labor
market models has been analyzed and firstly the model of Ukrainian labor
market has been characterized on the basis of the activity balance of
the interested parties, relatively to the labor force training and
regulation of the labor market. Social and social-psychological
characteristics of the different-level professional education
institutions graduates were continued to be studied and analyzed
comparatively. The social and social-psychological characteristics of
the persons, who applied for the job exchange for professional
retraining, have been studied firstly. Comparative analysis of the
mantioned characteristics was performed together with the
characteristics of the graduates.

Key words: professional training, labor market, profession intent, labor
motivation.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaeneiiaa I.E. I?iaeaiu i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e
ia?aiiaeaioiaee a oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiiai ?uiea o?oaea (ia
iaoa?eaeao nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
nioeeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.07. – nioeeieiaey
oi?aaeaiey. – Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia a Oe?aeia a nayce ni noaiiaeaieai nioeeaeueiiai
einoe-oooa ?uiea o?oaea. Enneaaeiaaoaeueneee eioa?an aucuaaao
nioeeaeueiue eii-oaeno, a eioi?ii inouanoaeyaony i?ioanneiiaeueiay
iiaeaioiaea, a oaeaea aeeyiea yoiai eiioaenoa ia ?acoeueoaou
i?ioiiaeaioiaee, i?aaenoaaeaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eeoe, eioi?ua
caaa?oatho aa, a oaeaea eeoe, auioaeaeaiiuo i?ieoe ia?aiiaeaioiaeo.
Iniiaaieai aeey ?ac?aaioee oaiu n iiceoeee nioee-ieiaee oi?aaeaiey
yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioneaaeeaaiey i?ioeanna i?eia-uaiey iiaiai
iieieaiey e o?oaeo, neiaeiinoue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey eae iaeiiai ec nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia,
eioi?ua iaania/eaatho noaaeeueiinoue iauanoaa, aaaeiinoue
oniaa?oainoai-aaiey oi?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeannaie, ioaaouaathueie
iieiaeia ii-eieaiea ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu. A ?aieao yoiai ?anniio?aiu
oai?aoeei-iaoi-aeieiae/aneea iniiau eco/aiey i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee e ia?aiiae-aioiaee, ooi/iaiu nouanoaothuea ii?aaeaeaieey
iiiyoey i?ioanneiiaeue-iie iiaeaioiaee, auaeaeaiu ooieoeee
i?ioiiaeaioiaee e iniiaiua oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia iaa.

Aeena?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa auiieiaia a ?aieao eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea,
ei-oi?ue iauaaeeiyao yeaiaiou einoeoooeeiiaeueiie,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeei-iaeueiie, nenoaiiie, aeneieiae/aneie iaoiaeieiaee. A
?aieao aeaiiiai iiae-oiaea a ?aaioa i?iaeieaeaii ?anniio?aiea niaoeeoeee
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee eae nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo a Oe?aeia. I?iaiaeece?iaaia oeiieiaey iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo
iiaeaeae ?uiea o?oaea e aia?aua ioa?aeoa?eciaaia iiaeaeue oe?aeineiai
?uiea o?oaea, iniiaaiiay ia e?eoa?ee niioiioaiey aeoeaiinoe
caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii a ioiioaiee iiaeaioiaee ?aai/ae neeu e
o?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea. Iieo/eei aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?anniio?aiea
nioeeaeueiuo e nioeeaeueii-ineoiei-ae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee auioneieeia
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaea-iee ?acee/iiai o?iaiy e i?iaaaeai eo
n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec. Iienaiu iauea e niaoeeoe/aneea iiceoeee ioiioaiey
e o?oaeo, i?enouea auione-ieeai i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee
?acee/iuo o?iaiae. Aia?aua ?anniio?aiu nioeeaeueiua e
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee eeoe, ia?aoeaoeony a
ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaio?u caiyoinoe n oeaeueth ia?a-iiaeaioiaee,
i?iaaaeai eo n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec n oa?aeoa?enoeeaie au-ioneieeia
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca yiie?e/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, iieo/aiiuo i?e
i?iaaaea-iee nioeeieiae/aneeo ii?inia a Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe eco/aaiuo
eaoaai-?ee eeoe, a oaeaea aiaeeca aeieoiaioia, naeaeaiu auaiaeu, eioi?ua
oa?aeoa-?ecotho i?ioeann ?acaeoey i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e
ia?aiiaeaioiaee, a oaeaea ninoiyiea ?uiea o?oaea.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia noaiiaeaiey oe?aeineiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
?uiea o?oaea i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony ?aaeecaoeee oaeeo ooieoeee
i?ioanne-iiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee eae ?aca?ae?iaaiey ?aai/ae neeu e
naea?aeeaaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iiaeeueiinoe. Acaeiiaeaenoaea
nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey e ?uiea o?oaea,
oaeei ia?acii, ia aeaiiue iiiaio yaeyaony iayooaeoeaiui, iineieueeo
yooaeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea yoeo nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia aeieaeii
oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny oaaee/aieai ii-oaioeeaeueiie iiaeeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeia
ia ?uiea o?oaea iiney iiauoaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy, a oi a?aiy
eae ia aeaiiue iiiaio iaaethaeaaony ia?aoiay oaiaeaioeey.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea nia?aiaiiuo auioneieeia aocia 1-2
o?iaiy aee?aaeeoaoeee e IOO a noauaeoeaiii ieaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony ieceie
noaiaiueth nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe. Noauaeoeaiui iieacaoaeai
nioee-aeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioiiaeaioiaee yaeyaony aeiieie?othuay
i?eaa?-aeaiiinoue e i?ioannee, oi anoue ?ani?ino?aiaiiay n?aaee 50-75%
auioneie-eia. I?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea auioneieeia aocia 3-4 o?iaiy
aee?a-aeeoaoeee a noauaeoeaiii ieaia yaeyaony yooaeoeaiie. N?aaee ieo
i?eaa?-aeaioeaa naiae i?ioannee ieacuaaaony ii/oe 70%, /oi a 1,5-1,75
?aca i?a-auoaao cia/aiea yoiai iieacaoaey aeey ?aniiiaeaioia ec
oaoieeoiia e i?i-oanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneeo o/eeeu.

Ia eeoe, eioi?ua i?ioiaeyo i?ioiiaeaioiaeo, cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea
iea-cuaatho eo i?aaenoaaeaiey i ia?niaeoeaiii iieiaeaiee ia ?uiea
o?oaea, iaoneiaeaiiua eiiuthieoo?ie e iiaeaeueth ?uiea o?oaea Oe?aeiu. A
caae-neiinoe io yoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee, oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee
oa?aeoa?ecotho ?aciua no?aoaaee o?oaeiaiai iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea. A
oeaeii o?oaeiaay iioeaaoeey eeoe, ia?aoeaoeony a oeaio?u caiyoinoe n
oeaeueth ia?aiiaeaioia-ee, i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o
io iioeaaoeee auione-ieeia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.
I?aiaeaaeathuae no?aoaaeae iiaaaeaiey iaaeo n?aaieaaaiuo a
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa eaoaai?ee yaey-aony i?aaiaoe/aneay no?aoaaey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea; ?uiie o?oaea;
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue i?ioannee; o?oaeiaay iioeaaoeey.

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