Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

O?aaiai

?ai? Naa??iae/

OAeE 528.33

I?iaeaie iiaoaeiae ieaiiaeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae a i?noao

oa iaoiaee ?o ae??oaiiy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.24.01 — aaiaeac?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Iaae?a Iao?i Aaneeueiae/, Oe?a?inueeee Aea?aeaaiee
e?nioaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a oaenaoe?? ? aaiaeac??, i. Euea?a;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noaio?i ?aai ?ai?iae/, Ee?anueeee
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a
?iaeaia?ii? aaiaeac??, i. Ee?a;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?ai?aoe?aiee
I?ieiiia Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/, Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a
ia’?aeiaiiy “Iao?ieia?y”, ia/aeueiee eaai?aoi??? i?iaeai iao?ieia?? ?
oai??? aei???a, i. Oa?e?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a aaiaeac??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Aeiiaoeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 7 o?aaiy i 10 aiae. 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.13 i?e Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith 290646, Euea?a-13, aoe. No.
Aaiaea?e, 12, aoae.518 II iaa/aeueiiai ei?iono

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith:
290646, i. Euea?a, aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Naa/oe N.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue iaoeiai? i?iaeaie

Oaeaeea c?inoaiiy i?no a Oe?a?i? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi ?o
ieiu?, iiyaith iiaeo i?iieneiaeo ia’?eo?a, aenieeo nii?oae, o?ainii?oieo
iaa?no?aeae, neeaaeieo ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae oiui ? aeiaaa? iaae?eii?
aaiaeace/ii? iniiae, iiaoaeiaa yei? iia’ycaia c iaoeiaeie i?iaeaiaie,
iiaea?i?caoe??th ? aaeeeei ianyaii aaiaeace/ieo ?ia?o. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
ia? aaiaeace/ia iniiaa ? aeey aaaeaiiy i?nueeiai eaaeano?o. Ieaiia?
ia?aae? ia?aaaaeii aoaeothoue iaoiaeaie o??aiaoeyoe??, iie?aiiiiao??? ?
o?eeaoa?aoe??. C i?nueeith o??aiaoeyoe??th ? o?eeaoa?aoe??th ii/eia?
eiieo?oaaoe GPS-iaoiae, a i?nueea iie?aiiiiao??y caeeoa?oueny iaea?eueo
ianiaei iaoiaeii iiaoaeiae ieaiiai? iniiae ia caaoaeiaaieo oa?eoi??yo.

Oaoiieia?/i? aeinyaiaiiy aaiaeace/iiai i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy i?eaaee aei
iiyae aaaaoueio iiaeaeae oi/ieo ? aoaeoeaieo aeaeo?iiieo
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a, aeaeo?iiieo oaoaiiao??a, oioaeueieo noaioe?e. O
ca’yceo ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi oi/iino? e?i?eieo aei???a aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q oi/iino?
eooiaeo ? e?i?eieo aei???a o na?oeia?aeaeaeai??i?e iie?aiiiiao???,
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy ie?aieo aeaea?ae iiieeie, ?ic?aooaaiiy
aeiione?a aeey ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a ? o.?.

?acii c oei aeieeea i?iaeaia iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a, yeo aeioe?eueii ?ica’ycaoe iaoiaeii
iiaoaeiae a Oe?a?i? ia?aae? ac??oeaaeo aaiaeace/ieo aacen?a iioeiaeueii?
eiino?oeoe?? ? ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? aoaeiioaaiiy ia ieo
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a.

Ia ye?noue noai?aiiy ia?aae o??aiaoeyoe?? oa iie?aiiiiao??? aieeaathoue
oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? i?no oa ?o ee?iaoe/i? oiiae. Iaae i?noii ? ia
eiai aoeeoeyo ooai?ththoueny no?ee? ? neeaaei? iiey ?ao?aeoe??, ui aaaea
aei iia??oaiiy oiia niinoa?aaeaiue ? i?aeeyaa? aeeaoiio aea/aiith,
eeaneo?eaoe?? ? a?aooaaiith i?e i?iaeooaaii? i?nueeeo ia?aae ?
i?aai?caoe?? niinoa?aaeaiue.

Ioieoe i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae aea?aeii ?icoaoiaoaaoe ia aenieeo
nii?oaeao, aea oea iia’ycaii c aeeiai?eith ioieo?a, yea ?ai?oa ia
a?aoiaoaaeanue, ui oaeiae i?aeeyaa? aeaoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith.
Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?aooaaiiy
ei?ioeiia??iaee/ieo ? aeiaaiia??iaee/ieo ?oo?a iin??a aaiaeace/ieo
ioieo?a aaaeeeaa i?e aecia/aii? eii?aeeiao ioieo?a ??cieie iaoiaeaie, a
oiio /ene? ? GPS-iaoiaeii. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy oea iaaoaa? aeey i?nueeeo
aaiaeeiai?/ieo iie?aii?a.

Ae??oaiiy nueiaiaeaiieo i?iaeai iiaoaeiae i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae
ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo aaiaeace/ii? iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa o?nii iia’ycaia c iaoeiaith oa iaa/aeueiith
?iaioith Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, c ieaiaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaiaeac??, ea?oia?ao?? oa
eaaeano?o i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie oa AOAE i?e ?I N?N?. Cie?aia, o
1979-1990 ?ieao aeey iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo i?eeeaaeii?
aaiaeac?? AOAE N?N? i?iaaaeai? oe?ieiianooaai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ia ye?noue iiaoaeiae i?nueeeo ia?aae
o??aiaoeyoe?? ? iie?aiiiiao??? oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ia no?ee?noue ioieo?a ? oi/i?noue aei???a a iii?ieo
aaiaeace/ieo ia?aaeao i?no. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?nueei? iie?aiiiiao??? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a a?aoiaai? i?e neeaaeaii?
“?ino?oeoe?? c oiiia?ao?/ii? ceiiee o ianooaaao 1:5000, 1:2000, 1:1000,
1:500”, Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy aaiaeac??, ea?oia?ao?? oa eaaeano?o i?e EI
Oe?a?ie, 1998 ?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

Iaoith ?iaioe ?: ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue iniiaieo aeaea?ae iiieeie
no/anii? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao??? iaa?oiooaaoe aeioe?eueia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q aieeao iiieeie eooiaeo ? e?i?eieo aei???a, io?eiaoe
iaiao?aei? oi?ioee ? anoaiiaeoe ?aaeuei? aeiionee aeey aeaea?ae iiieeie;
?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio iioeiaeueiiai aoaeiioaaiiy ia aacen?
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a, ?ic?iaeoe iiao eiino?oeoe?th ac??oeaaiai
aaiaeace/iiai aaceno, iaoiaeeeo eiai iiaoaeiae ? aei??o ?ioa?aae?a (c
aeiiiiiaith GPS), oa neeanoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iao?ieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a a Oe?a?i?; ia i?aenoaa?
eeaneo?eaoe?? i?no ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie ? oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie
? ia’?iieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey a?aooaaiiy
aieeao ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ? aeeiai?ee aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia
aoae?aeyo i?e noai?aii? ia?aae i?nueei? o??aiaoeyoe?? ? iie?aiiiiao??? ?
aeei?enoaii? GPS-iaoiaeo.

O ?iaio? iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?nueei? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???
c a?aooaaiiyi iaa?oioiaaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q ? oi?ie oiae?a,
anoaiiaeaiiy aeiione?a aeey aeaea?ae iiieeie.

?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? oa aoaeoeaiino? i?nueei?
iie?aiiiiao??? ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue ? a?aooaaiiy oaciaino?
na?oeiaiai iioieo, oeeee?/ii? iiieeee ? i?eeaaeii? iii?aaee,
nenoaiaoe/ii? oaiia?aoo?ii? iiieeee i?eeaaeo, oaciaeo cao?eiie,
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? aei??thaaiiy oiui.

?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey iiaoaeiae ac??oeaaeo aacen?a
? iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a.
Aaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?? aaceno ? aacenieo oeaio??a oa iiaoaeiaa
?aa?iiaeueieo ac??oeaaeo aacen?a ?c caaacia/aiiyi ?o noaa?eueiino?;
oi/i?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue aei??thaaiiy aaceno ?c canoinoaaiiyi GPS.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y i?no ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie oa oa?aeoa?ieie
iniaeeainoyie, ui aieeaathoue ia ooai?aiiy iie?a ?ao?aeoe?? iaae
i?noaie, aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? a
o??aiaoeyoe?eieo ia?aaeao i?eaa?aaeieo ? eiioeiaioaeueieo i?no oa o
i?nuee?e iie?aiiiiao??? ia aoeeoeyo c ??ciei i???iooaaiiyi;

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy aeeiai?ee aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia nii?oaeao,
yea aeeeeeaia oaiia?aoo?ieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie oa a?eii aoaeia, naeni?/iith
aeoeai?noth ?aa?iio oiui.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaai? oi?ioee ? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo aeiione?a aeey
aeaea?ae iiieeie no/anii? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao??? ?
a?aie/ii? e?eueeino? noi??i o oiaeao ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaeoe/iiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q aieeao iiieeie eooiaeo oa e?i?eieo aei???a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aaeeeeo Q eaiai? oiaee noathoue cia/ii oi/i?oeie
a?ae aeoyaiooeo aea?aaeaioieo ?i oa iieacaii, ui oi/i?noue aceiooaeueieo
oiae?a na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao??? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o oi?ie
i?e aoaeue-yeeo Q.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaia i?eeaaeia oaiia?aoo?ia iiieeea
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a, aeiaaaeaii ?? nenoaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa? oa iaoiaeeea
a?aooaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeeee?/ia iiieeea oiiia?ao?/ieo
a?aeaeaeai???a aoaa? aeoaea cia/iith (o aeanyoee ii); ?? oi?ia ?
aiie?ooaea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae a?aenoai?, aea ci?ith?oueny c /anii.

Aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeey a?aooaaiiy oaciaeo cao?eiie neaiaeo i?e
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei??ao o iie?aiiiiao??? aeioe?eueii iaaeaaaoe
ia?aaaao i?i?iaeueiei ?acoeueoaoai aei???a.

?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia o i?aeoeeo ?aoe?iiaeueia iaoiaeeea
iao?ieia?/ii? aoanoaoe?? na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a ia ac??oeaaeo aacenao c
aecia/aiiyi iino?eii? i?eeaaeii? iii?aaee, oeeee?/ii? iiieeee,
aeine?aeaeaiiyi ? a?aooaaiiyi oaciaino? oiui.

?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia o i?aeoeeo iioeiaeueia eiino?oeoe?y
aaaaoioeaio?iaiai ac??oeaaiai aaiaeace/iiai aaceno 2-ai ?ic?yaeo c
cae??ieaiiyi oi/ie aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaieie no?eeeie ? c?o/ieie
o?oa/anoeie ciaeaie. ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
iiaoaeiae, aoanoaoe?? ? aeei?enoaiiy ac??oeaaeo aaiaeace/ieo aacen?a a
Oe?a?i?.

Aia?oa iieacaii, ui ?ioa?aaee ac??oeaaiai aaceno ia a?aeiinii a?aee?eo?e
i?noeaaino? iiaeia iia?aoeaii ? oi/ii aei??yoe GPS-iaoiaeii,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeai/anoioi? i?eeia/?.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?no ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie oa
oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie, ui aieeaathoue ia ooai?aiiy iie?a ?ao?aeoe??
iaae i?noaie.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui iaae i?eaa?aaeiei i?noii ooai?th?oueny iiea
?ao?aeoe?? ia?oiai ?iaeo, a ia i?aenoaa? oe?ieiianooaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeyaeai? ni?eyoeea? ia??iaee ? oiiae eooiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue o ia?aaeao
o??aiaoeyoe?? eiioeiaioaeueieo ? i?eaa?aaeieo i?no.

Iieacaii, ye i?i?i?coaaoe aai oieeaoe nooo?aiai aieeao ai?eciioaeueii?
?ao?aeoe?? o i?nuee?e iie?aiiiiao??? a caeaaeiino? a?ae i???iooaaiiy
aoeeoeue, oa?aeoa?o caaoaeiae, aaia?ao?/ii? oe?ioe, iaoiaeo eooiaeo
aei???a.

Aia?oa aeyaeaia ? a?aoiaaia aeeiai?ea ioieo?a, anoaiiaeaieo ia aenieeo
nii?oaeao, a i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aaeao (ui noai?ththoueny
aoaeue-yeeie iaoiaeaie, a oiio /ene? ? GPS).

Aia?oa ?icae?eaii ? ioe?iaii aieea ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ?
aeeiai?ee ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo ia ye?noue eooiaeo aei???a a i?nuee?e
o??aiaoeyoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea naeni?/iiai oaeoi?o ia no?ee?noue aaiaeace/ieo
ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo ??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie ? aenioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a iai?aaeai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?,
iia?aoeaiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? iiaoaeiae i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae. A
naia: ia i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a, ia
anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo aeiione?a aeey aeaea?ae iiieeie a i?nuee?e
iie?aiiiiao???, ia aaeineiiaeaiiy ? ciaioaiiy aa?oino? ac??oeaaeo
aaiaeace/ieo aacen?a ? iioei?caoe?th aoaeiioaaiiy a?aeaeaeai??ii?
oaoi?ee, ia a?aooaaiiy aieeao ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ? aeeiai?ee
aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia nii?oaeao i?e iiaoaeia? i?nueeeo ia?aae oiui.
?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaie
ai?iaaaeaeai? a Oe?aai?ioi?i i?e neeaaeaii? “?ino?oeoe?? c
oiiia?ao?/ii? ceiiee o ianooaaao 1:5000, 1:2000, 1:1000, 1:500”, o
Iiainea??nueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? i?eeeaaeii? aaiaeac??
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? “?oeiaiaenoaa ii iino?iaieth naoae naouaiey a ai?iaeao”
? o ?yae? i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie, ?in??, Aaea?on?, Eaoa??,
ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii 10-ia aeoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

E??i oiai, caoaeiaai? o?e ?aa?iiaeuei? ac??oeaa? aaiaeace/i? aacene, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aoaeiioaaiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? oaoi?ee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

An? iia? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe??, io?eiai? aaoi?ii
naiino?eii, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?eueo?noth iaeiiin?aieo ioae?eaoe?e.
O ni?eueieo ioae?eaoe?yo iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
i?ia?ai aeine?aeaeaiue oa oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, o/ano? o
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?iaioao, aiae?c? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioaaii?
aeniiae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe cae?enithaaeanue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e
aaiaeac?? AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ? o aeiiia?aeyo (iiiaae 70)
iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaoe?? ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ananithcieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiia?anao, eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao, ia?aaeao. O oiio /ene? ia
Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ia?aiiu
e noaiu iino?iaiey iii?iuo aaiaeace/aneeo naoae ia oa?eoi?eyo ai?iaeia”
(Iiaineae?ne, 1980), ia Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaiaeacee e ea?oia?aoee” (Iineaa,
1986), ia XVIII General ASSAMBLY IAG (Gamburg, 1983), ia The 2nd baltic
conference geodesy and cartograhy (Riga, 1992), ia XX KONGRESS
Internationale Verainigung der Vermessungen (FIG, Melburn, 1994), ia
“Ananithciii niaauaiee ii ?ao?aeoeee yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei a aoiinoa?a”
(Oiine, 1983), ia IX c’?cae? AAAI (Iiaineae?ne, 1990), ia
“Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo niaauaieyo ii eco/aieth nia?aiaiiuo aeaeaeaiee
caiiie ei?u ia aaiaeeiaie/aneeo iieeaiiao NNN?” (Aeaaiiun, 1987,
Oaoeaio, 1991), ia Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eioa?aioe??
“Iao?ieiaey a aaiaeacee” (Oa?e?a, 1994, 1996), o ?anioae?eainueeiio
nai?ia?? “Aaoiiaoecaoeey eiaeaia?ii-aaiaeace/aneeo ecuneaiee” (Ee?a,
1991), ia IV Medzinarodne Slovensko-Polsko-Ceske Geodeticke Dni (Stara
Lesna, 1998), ia i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio neiiic?oi?
“Aai?ioi?iaoe?eiee iii?oi?eia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua” (Aeoooa, 1998)
oiui.

Ioae?eaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oeaio?aeueieo oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo oa ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue eiia?an?a, eiioa?aioe?e,
neiiic?oi?a, ia?aae, o oiio /ene? ? i?aeia?iaeieo. Ca iaoa??aeaie
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 74 iaoeia? i?aoe?: iaeia iiiia?ao?y; 58
ioae?eaoe?e a ia??iaee/ieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, ca??ieeao ? i?aoeyo
eiia?an?a, eiioa?aioe?e, neiiic?oi?a, ia?aae; iaeia aaoi?nueea
na?aeioeoai ? 14 oac eiioa?aioe?e, neiiic?oi?a ? ia?aae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 250 noi??ieao, neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (177 iaca). ?iaioa
ia? 50 ?enoie?a ? 65 oaaeeoeue. E??i oiai, ? aeiaeaoee ia 24 noi??ieao,
ye? aeeth/athoue aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aena?oeai? ei?ioeee ci?no
?iaioe, aeai? i?i ioae?eaoe??, ai?iaaoe?th ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie ?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?nueei?
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???, yea ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii
noai?aiiy ieaiiai? aaiaeace/ii? iniiae.

O oai??? iie?aiiiiao??? i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe, ui iiieeee eooiaeo oa
e?i?eieo aei???a iaeiaeiai aieeaathoue ia iiieeeo I iieiaeaiiy
e?ioeaai? oi/ee oiaeo. O no/ani?e i?nuee?e iie?aiiiiao??? e?i??
aei??ththoue oi/ieie aeaeo?iiieie na?oeia?aeaeaeai??aie ? oaoaiiao?aie,
aiane?aeie /iai aieea iiieeie e?i?eieo aei???a cia/ii ciaioo?oueny.
sseui aeio?eioaaoenue i?eioeeio ??aieo aieea?a (I?A), oi i?e aenie?e
oi/iino? e?i?eieo ? noaa?euei?e oi/iino? eooiaeo aei???a noai?th?oueny
caeaa a?euei?noue aeiione?a, yea ia aeei?enoiao?oueny. O ?iaio?
cai?iiiiiaaii i?e iiia?aaei?o ?ic?aooieao oi/iino? a?aoiaoaaoe oaeoe/ia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

, (1)

o aei??yiiio eoo?

(2)

, (3)

? a?aeiia?aeii oi?ioee aeey na?aaei?o eaaae?aoe/ieo iiieeie i?e ? =
0.95

, (4)

. (5)

Aeey ?ic?aooie?a noia?iiai aieeao nenoaiaoe/ieo iiieeie ia eiaeiee
ie?aiee eoo io?eiaii oi?ioeo

. (6)

oa?aeoa?o i?iiiio?oueny ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ca oi?ioeaie

(7)

(8)

Aeey ia?aooaaiiy Q ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny oi?ioea

(9)

( na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/i? iiieeee aei??o eooa ? noi?iie.

/a?ac cia/io e?euee?noue iiaeaeae na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a nooo?ai
ci?ith?oueny, aeioe?eueii iaoe oaaeeoe? aaee/ei Q. Aeey ?yaeo i?eeaae?a
?o io?eiaii iaie ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy aaeeeiai ianyao
aei???a ?c na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???.

aoee iaeiaeia? aeey oiae?a on?o oi?i o na???.

? caaaeueia I.

io?eiai? i?e Q=1, oi I?A ia ? iioeiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aeey
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???. I?ci?oa aei oaeiai aeniiaeo
i?eeoia ? O.Iaeaeaiia.

oiae?a ??cii? oi?ie i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeia?.

a eaiaieo oiaeao a 1.5 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae o aeoyaiooiio. Neaao?
aee?aeoe?ei? eooe aecia/athoueny iaiaeiicia/ii. O 50% aeiaaee?a eiee Q=2
? Q=5 aiie ?icoaoiaai? aeeae/a aei e?ioeaaeo ioieo?a oiae?a, a eiee Q=1
iieiythoueny a na?aaeei? aeey an?o oiae?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ? a ?icoi?ii? oi/iino? aecia/aiiy aee?aeoe?eieo eoo?a
noi??i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q=5 oaeiae ? iioeiaeueiei.

Eiee Q aaeeea, oi eaiai? oiaee oi/i?o? a?ae aeoyaiooeo, aea?aaeaioieo
?i, aea i?e o?eniaaiiio ?icoaooaaii? aeo?aeieo ioieo?a aeoyaioo? oiaee
aoaeooue ei?ioo?, oiio a ?iaio? i?iaaaeai? aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oi/iino? aeoyaiooeo oiae?a, ye? cai?iththoue oiaee aeia?eueii? oi?ie.
?ic?aooiee i?iaaaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi oi?ioee aaaiai? ooieoe??.
Aeyaeeinue, ui i?e aaeeeeo Q aeoyaioo? oiaee, oi/ ? cia/ii ei?ioo? a?ae
c?aiooeo, aea iinooiathoueny ?i ca oi/i?noth. Aeiyoeii noaa aeoyaiooee
o?ae, yeee cai?iy? o?ae I-iiae?aii? oi?ie. A?i oi/i?oee, ai eiai
ia?eiao? o o?e ?ace iaioee. I?ioa ia i?aeoeoe?, c iiaeyaeo
?aoe?iiaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy oa?eoi??? iniiaith, oae? cai?ie
iaaeioe?euei?. I?e iaeeo Q aeoyaioo? oiaee oi/i?o?, aea oae? Q ia
aeanoea? aeey na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???.

c a?aooaaiiyi Q

. (10)

A?aie/i? cia/aiiy i?e ?iia??iino? ? = 0.95 ?ic?aoiaothoueny ca oi?ioeaie

.

aceiooaeueieo iie?aiiiiao?e/ieo oiae?a aeia?eueii? oi?ie

. (11)

iaeiaeia? aeey oiae?a aoaeue-yei? oi?ie.

. E??i oiai, ia oi/i?noue aceiooaeueieo oiae?a ia aieeaathoue iiieeee
iii?ieo aee?aeoe?eieo eoo?a. O ??aiinoi?iiiueiio aceiooaeueiiio oiae?
neaaeei i?noeai ? eiai na?aaeeia, a a ia??aiinoi?iiueiio aiii iiaea
nooo?ai a?aeoeeyoenue a?ae na?aaeeie. Oe? iniaeeaino? aceiooaeueieo
oiae?a ni?iuothoue ?o i?iaeooaaiiy. I?ioa nueiaiaei? ua iaia?
aeiiii?/ieo ia?aaaa a??iiie?aiiiiao??? iaae eooii??iith.

O ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aeiione?a aeey iiieeie eooiaeo ? e?i?eieo
aei???a aeey ??cieo Q ? io?eiaii oi?ioeo aeey ?ic?aooieo ie?aieo
aeiione?a c a?aooaaiiyi Q.

Aeiionee, io?eiai? i?e Q=5 aeey aoaeue-yeiai oiaeo, aeyaeeenue a?eueo
no?iaeie aeey e?i?eieo aei???a, iniaeeai a ei?ioeeo oiaeao, a aeiionee
eooiaeo aei???a i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeia? i?e ??cieo Q. Eiee Q=1 (I?A)
aeiionee aeey e?i?eieo aei???a aeyaeeenue caiaaeoi oe?ieeie. ?c
canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo oiiia?ao?/ieo a?aeaeaeai???a o oeueiio iaia?
iio?aae. Aeiionee a i?yiie?i?eieo oiaeao aeyaeeenue iaea?eueo no?iaeie.

?icaeyiooi o?e iiaeeea? i?aeoiaee aei anoaiiaeaiiy aeiione?a aeey
ie?aieo aeaea?ae iiieeie eooiaeo ? e?i?eieo aei???a o iie?aiiiiao???:

1) ?ic?aooiie ia neaaoee aeoyaiooee o?ae aeaiiai eeano (?ic?yaeo);

2) oa naia, aeey ie?aii? ia?aae?;

3) ca oiiae Q=const aeey aoaeue-yeiai oiaeo.

Aeyaeeinue, ui iiia?aaeith ioe?ieo oi/iino? oiae?a aeia?eueii? oi?ie
o?aaa caiaeeoe aei ioe?iee aea?aaeaioiiai aeoyaiooiai oiaeo, ai oi/i?ni?
ii?iaoeae a i?yiie?i?eieo oiaeao iaea?eueo no?ia? iniaeeai i?e aaeeeeo
Q. Anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo aeiione?a aeey aeaea?ae iiieeie eooiaeo ?
e?i?eieo aei???a no/anii? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao??? aeaiiai
eeano (?ic?yaeo) aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe, aeeiioth/e ?ic?aooiie aeey
neaaoiai aeoyaiooiai oiaeo c a?aooaaiiyi Q. Oaeee i?aeo?ae o?aaa
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? ? i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a.

Aia?oa cae?eniaii ?ic?aooiie aeiione?a aeey iiieeie eooiaeo ?
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a c a?aooaaiiyi Q.

, yea a?aeiia?aea? ia?aiiio aeey ?iaioe na?oeia?aeaeaeai??o. Noai?aiee
i?e oeueiio caian oi/iino? a ?ac? iaiao?aeiino? iiaeia ?aae?coaaoe aeey
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? n noi??i oiaeo ( ? aeayeith i??ith ia?eiao?o),
aeei?enoiaoth/e cai?iiiiiaaio a ?iaio? oi?ioeo

. (12)

). Iaaiaee, aeey iie?aiiiiao??? 1 ? 2 ?ic?yae?a ca oi?ioeith (12) aeey
a?aie/ieo ia?eiao??a 5 ei ? 3 ei io?eiaii aaeee? cia/aiiy n.

O ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaio aea??ie iaa’ycie
iie?aiiiiao?e/ieo oiae?a (1:10000), ui i?ieeaaeai? o 56 i?noao Oe?a?ie.
Aei ia?oi? aea??ee aeeth/aii 83 oiaee na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii?
iie?aiiiiao???, a ae?oaa iaea 337 iaa’ycie oiae?a o?aaa?nii?
iie?aiiiiao???. Ca i??ith einino? ? e?ooino? ca e?eoa??yie Eieiiai?iaa ?
I??niia aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?yae iaa’ycie na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii?
iie?aiiiiao??? i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny ii?iaeueiiio ?iciiae?eo. Noaoenoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oai? aea??ee aeaee a?ae’?ii? ?acoeueoaoe, ai a i?e
aaeeeeo ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith iaa’ycie ? iiiaae ii?io, ? ia? i?noea
“c??caiee ?iciiae?e”.

Oaaeeoey 1

A?aie/ia e?euee?noue n noi??i o oiae? caeaaeii a?ae ia?eiao?o [S]

M, i [S], ei n Q M, i [S], ei n Q M, i [S], ei n Q

0.16 8 17 5.4 0.25 5 42 6.5 0.30 3 42 7.8

0.20 10 17 6.6 0.25 10 10 9.8 0.30 6 9 13.4

0.24 12 17 8.0 0.25 12 5 7.8 0.30 8 4 11.4

0.30 15 18 8.8 0.25 15 3 5.8 0.30 10 2 7.8

0.30 20 9 8.5

. E??i oiai, a?aoiaoth/e iiaeeeaino? ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? noi??i o
oiaeao, aeioe?eueii caeeoeoe aeey ia?aae caouaiiy aeaa, a ia o?e nooiai?
iie?aiiiiao???.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aii oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? oa aoaeoeaiino? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii?
iie?aiiiiao???. Aeine?aeaeaii aeae ooieoe?? iiieeee
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaiaoe/iiai
ii?aoethaaiiy (c aeei?enoaiiyi iie?iii?a I.E. *aaeoaaa) ae?iaie/eo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a io?eiaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo
a?aeaeaeai???a ia o?ueio eiioeiaioao. Iieacaii, ui ooieoe?th iiieeee
aeinoaoiuei i?aaenoaaeyoe i?yiie?i?eiith caeaaei?noth, aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaiith A.A. Aaee/eii.

I?e i?ieeaaeaii? iie?aiiiiao??? e?i?? a?coaaiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??a ?
oaiaeie?oa, ye i?aaeei, ia noi?uaii?. Oiio ?icaeyiooi iiaeeeaino? ?
oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ca oaeeo ianoaaei ai?eciioaeueieo i?iaeoe?e S
noi??i iie?aiiiiao??? ca aei??yiith iioeeith a?aenoaiith D, eooii iaoeeo
( /e cai?oiith a?aenoaiith Z ? io?eiaii oi?ioee

, (13)

, (14)

, (15)

(16)

— aenioe oaiaeie?oa, a?ce?ii? oe?e?, a?aeaeaa/a ? a?aeaeaeai??a.

.

Iiaeoeueiaaia aei?ii?ithaaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo na?oeiae?iae?a
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oaciaith iaiaeii??aei?noth a
iiia?a/iiio ia?aoei? io/ea, yea aeyaey?oueny i?ae /an aei??thaaiiy
a?aenoai?. Iineaaeaiiyi aieeao oaciaino? caeiaeenue Iiiia ?.A.,
Aiaeaieeia TH.I., Ei?o?a I.A., Oaoaayi ?.A., Iee E.?., A?eueaea?a?aio E.
oa ?io? a/ai?, aea oacia?noue ia? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? iio?aao?
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oa a?aooaaiiy.

, ii/eiath/e c oi/ee, yea a?aeiia?aea? iaeneioio a?aeaeoiai neaiaeo.
Aeyaeeinue, ui i?e aei??thaaii? a?aenoai? ??cieie /anoeiaie na?oeiaiai
io/ea io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue ?ic??ciyoenue ia aeanyoee ii (i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? AIO 2000 iaa?oue aei 100 ii) ? aoaeooue iiieeeiaeie, yeui
ia aeio?eioaaoenue no?iai? iaeiicia/iino? iaaaaeaiiy i?eeiiiia?aaeaaa/a
ia a?aeaeaa/ ca iaeneioiii a?aeaeoiai neaiaeo. Oaeee nooo?aee aieea
oaciaino? aei 100 ii aeyaeaii aia?oa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?yaeo iiaeaeae
oiiia?ao?/ieo i?eeaae?a na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui oacia?noue aeanoeaa an?i
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ai.

?en. 1. Ci?ia iino?eii? i?eeaaeii? iii?aaee na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a NO 5

c a?aenoaiith i?ae aieeaii oaciaino?

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeine?aeaeoaaoe oacia?noue a?aeaeaeai??a ?acii c
aecia/aiiyi eiai iino?eii? i?eeaaeii? iii?aaee ia ac??oeaaiio aacen?
oeyoii aei??thaaiiy aaaaoueio ?ioa?aae?a aaceno. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oaeeo
aei???a aoaeothoueny a?ao?ee (?en.1), ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie o aei??yi? a?aenoai?. Iao aeina?ae iieacaa, ui ao?aoe
/ano ia io?eiaiiy a?ao?ea iii?aaie ca oacia?noue ianooo?a?. sse
aeyaeeinue, aieea oaciaino? i?iyaey?oueny ia a?aenoai? aei 1000 i.

O ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ie, noaa?eueiino? e iniaeeainoae
aecia/aiiy oa a?aooaaiiy oeeee?/ii? iiieeee aeanyoe?a oiiia?ao?/ieo
a?aeaeaeai???a o iieueiaeo oiiaao ia ac??oeaaiio aacen?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
oeeee?/ia iiieeea oiiia?ao?/ieo a?aeaeaeai???a iiaea aooe cia/iith,
aeinyaath/e aeanyoe?a ii. Oi?ia ? aiie?ooaea ?? e?eai? ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae a?aenoai?, aea ci?ith?oueny a /an?. A?ao?e oeeee?/ii? e?eai?
aeioe?eueii aoaeoaaoe ca aei??aie ia aacen? ? i?aaenoaaeyoe
ai?ieneioth/ith e?eaith (e?aua c aeiiiiiaith iie?iii?a I.E.*aaeoaaa).
I?e oeueiio oi/i?noue a?aooaaiiy oeeee?/ii? iiieeee aoaea 1-2 ii.

An? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??e iathoue iino?eio i?eeaaeio iii?aaeo, yea c
/anii i?iy?oueny ? ?? ne?ae ia??iaee/ii eiio?iethaaoe e ooi/ithaaoe.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui iino?eia i?eeaaeia iii?aaea ia? ?ici??i?noue iaeeieoe?
aeiaaeeie ? ? iaeiei c ia?aiao??a iao?ieia?/ii? aoanoaoe??, a ?iaio?
iieacaii, ui iaea?eueo no?iai ? iaae?eii ?? iiaeia aecia/eoe ia
aaaaoioeaio?iaiio ac??oeaaiio aacen?.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aoaeiioaaiiy oiiia?ao?/ieo na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a
ca?aeii yei? aeey iioeiaeueiiai aecia/aiiy ?o iino?eii? iii?aaee
aeioe?eueii:

aoaeiioaaiiy cae?enithaaoe ia 4-6 ? a?eueoa ?ioa?aaeao ac??oeaaiai
aaceno 2-ai ?ic?yaeo, e?aoieo (/2 c aecia/aiiyi oaeoe/ii? na?aaeiuei?
eaaae?aoe/ii? iiieeee a?aenoai?, oaciaino? ? oeeee?/ii? iiieeee
oaciiao?a (ia iaeiiio ?ioa?aae?). I?e oeueiio caa?oaoe iniaeeao oaaao ia
oi/ia iaaaaeaiiy ia a?aeaeaa/. O ?iaio? ia aacen? ? a ia?aae?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaeei a?aeaeaa/ ? caa??aaoe iaeei ??aaiue neaiaeo;

aoaeoaaoe ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?ao?ee ci?ie iino?eii? iii?aaee c
a?aenoaiith (oacia?noue) ? oaciaei eooii ;

aoaeiioaaiiy i?eeaae?a ia aacen? cae?enithaaoe i?e iiaiaeieo oiiaao ?
oaiia?aoo?ao, aeecueeeo aei ?iai/eo;

aecia/aoe iino?eio iii?aaeo o?e ?ace ca iieueiaee nacii, iaeneiaeueii
iaaeeaeoth/enue aei aei???a o iie?aiiiiao?e/i?e ia?aae?.

Ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aoaeiioaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaii, a ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith oi/iino? e?i?eieo aei???a o
i?nuee?e na?oeia?aeaeaeai??i?e iie?aiiiiao??? o 1.5-2 ?ace.

O ?iaio? aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii oaiia?aoo?io iiieeeo
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a o iieueiaeo oiiaao ? a ee?iaoe/i?e eaia??
o?oio?iia, anoaiiaeaii ?? nenoaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa? ? ?ic?iaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey iineaaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy. O aeaio aaeeeeo i?noao
aoei i?iaaaeaii aaaaoiaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeuei? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??i?
aei??e e?i?e iie?aiiiiao??? c aei??aie iaoaiia?aiao??a. Ca e?eoa??yie
O?oa?a ? Ei/?aia oa ei?aeyoe?eiei aiae?cii iieacaii, ui oi/i?noue
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a iiaea nooo?ai cieaeoaaoenue /a?ac
iaa?aooaaiiy oaieiaeo aieea?a ia i?eeaae, iniaeeai i?e aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao iia?o?y. Aeey aea/aiiy oeueiai aoaeoo aoea aeei?enoaia
ee?iaoe/ia eaia?a Votsch (O?I), i?ecia/aia aeey iiaeaethaaiiy ??cieo
iaoaioiia. Oiiia?ao?/i? a?aeaeaeai??e anoaiiaethaaee a eaia?? ? aaee
e?i?ei? aei??e na??yie a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? -50(+500N c e?ieii 50 ?
ina?oeaii? 0, 30000, 70000 ee. Noaa?euei?noue iniiaii? ianooaaii?
/anoioe eiio?iethaaeanue aeenoaioe?eii aeaeo?iiiei /anoioii??ii. Aeey
eiaeiiai a?aeaeaeai??a io?eiaii a?ao?e ci?ie a?aenoai? (aei 12 ii)
aeecueeee aei i?yii?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?iaeiaaeai? ia ac??oeaaiio
aacen? aaniith i?e 00N ? e?oii a aea?eo iiaiaeo. ?nioaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii?
caeaaeiino? i?aeoaa?aeeeenue.

I?ci?oa A.E. *anoe?i, aeeiioth/e i?ioyaii ?ieo aoaeiioaaiiy aeanyoe?a
oiiia?ao?/ieo na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a ia ac??oeaaiio aacen? 2-ai ?ic?yaeo a
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? +210N((230N, oaeiae aeyaea, ui iino?eia
a?aeaeaeai???a ooieoe?iiaeueii caeaaeeoue a?ae aieeao oaiia?aoo?e
iia?o?y ia i?eeaae. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo o ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiue
?aeiiaiaeiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe aeyaeaio nenoaiaoe/io iiieeeo ca a?ao?eii.
Aeey iineaaeaiiy ?? aieeao aoaeiioaaiiy i?eeaae?a ia aacen? aeioe?eueii
aeeiioaaoe eiee oaiia?aoo?e aeecuee? aei ?iai/eo. A ynio aea?eo iiaiaeo
i?eeaae o?aaa caoeuaoe a?ae i?yii? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??. Aeioe?eueii o
ianii?o? i?eeaaeo iaoe a?ao?e nenoaiaoe/ii? oaiia?aoo?ii? iiieeee.

Oo?aoeaioia aoiinoa?a aieeaa? ia i?ioean aei??thaaiiy e?i?e oaciaeie
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??aie ? iathoue i?noea oacia? cao?eiee neaiaeo.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui iaea?eueo aeinoia??ieie ? aeecueeeie aei
?noeiieo cia/aiue noi??i aoaeooue i?i?iaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ?o aei???a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii i?iaeaio iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a ? iiaoaeiae ac??oeaaeo aaiaeace/ieo
aacen?a a Oe?a?i?. Iaiao?aei?noue ia??iaee/iiai aoaeiioaaiiy
oiiia?ao?/ieo a?aeaeaeai???a ? aeaeo?iiieo oaoaiiao??a, ye? ? iaea?eueo
?iciianthaeaeaiei caniaii e?i?eieo aei???a, iia’ycaia c io?eiaiiyi
ooi/iaii? aaee/eie i?eeaaeii? iii?aaee, yea a?aoiao? ci?ie iniiaii?
ianooaaii? /anoioe, ianoaa?euei?noue iino?eii? iii?aaee a /an?, aieea
oaciaino? aei?ii?ithaa/a, ianoaa?euei?noue oeeee?/ii? iiieeee, oaieia?
aieeae ia a?aeaeaeai??, ??aaiue neaiaeo oiui. Oiaoi aeey ia?aaea/?
iaeeieoe? aeiaaeeie a?ae aoaeiio a?aeaeaeai??ai ? aeey caaacia/aiiy
?aeiino? e?i?eieo aei???a, aeioe?eueii noai?eoe nai???aeiee
iao?ieia?/iee iii?oi?eia. A aeey oeueiai iio??aia ?icaeiaia ia?aaea
?aa?iiaeueieo ac??oeaaeo aaiaeace/ieo aacen?a 2-ai ?ic?yaeo (aei
iaeiiai- aeaio ia iaeanoue). Aaaeeeai oaeiae noai?eoe ? iaoe?iiaeueiee
aacen 0-ai ?ic?yaeo.

Aoaeoeai?noue ? ye?noue aoaeiioaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae noaa?eueiino?
?ioa?aae?a aaceno, eiai eiino?oeoe??, oeio oeaio??a, aeiaaeeie ? i?noey
?icoaooaaiiy oa ?ioeo i?e/ei. Aaaeeeai, uia oeaio?e aoee c?o/ieie a
aenieoaoaoe?? ? i?enei?thaaee i?ioean aoaeiioaaiiy i?e iaaenie?e
aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy ? caeeaaeee. Aeooaeueiei ? ? ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiiai
caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? oi/iino? aei??o ?ioa?aae?a aaceno ?
iioeiaeueii? ia??iaee/iino? iiaoi?ieo aei???a.

O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii aoaeoaaoe aacen aaaaoioeaio?iaei c ?ioa?aaeaie,
e?aoieie i?aoaee? iiaeoeueiaaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue (i?e aoaeiioaaii? na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a) aanoe ?o aei??e ia
iaeiiio oaciaiio eoo? ? i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue aoaeiioaaiiy. O ia?oiio
?ioa?aae? ?icoaoiaothoueny oi/ee (/a?ac 1 i) “oaciai? ae?eueieoe?” aeey
ni?eueiiai aecia/aiiy oeeee?/ii? iiieeee ? iino?eii? i?eeaaeii?
iii?aaee. O ?ac? iio?aae aeaoaeuei?oiai aea/aiiy oeeee?/ii? iiieeee
/a?ac 180 /e iaa?oue 90 aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe cai?iiiiiaaio
aeena?oaioii niaoe?aeueio aacenio e?i?eeo. Aeey oiiia?ao?/ieo
a?aeaeaeai???a aeioe?eueii iaoe aacen aeiaaeeiith 1 ei (iaeneiaeueii
1.5 ei), ine?eueee anoaiiaeaii (?icae?e 2), ui oacia?noue ia?aaaaeii
aieeaa? ia oi/i?noue ei?ioeeo a?aeaeaeae.

Aeey cae??ieaiiy oi/ie aaceno aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii i?ino?, aeaoaa?,
no?ee? ? c?o/i? a aenieoaoaoe?? iaeeia?i? ? iiaea?ei? iaoaeaa? o?oa/ano?
ciaee c ieiuaaeeith aeey oaeaeeiai ? oi/iiai (aei 0.3 ii) anoaiiaeaiiy
i?eeaae?a. Ieaeiy /anoeia ciaea aaoiio?oueny aei iaae? i?iia?caiiy
a?oioo. Iaeeia?ieie ciaeaie aeioe?eueii cae??ieyoe oi/ee “oaciai?
ae?eueieoe?” ac??oeaaeo aacen?a, a iniiai? ioieoe — iiaea?eieie ciaeaie.
Ciai?oiy o?oaa caoeua? iniiaio o?oao a?ae iioeiaeaeaiue ? oaiia?aoo?ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy no?eeino? o?oa/anoeo ciae?a
i?iaiaeeeenue ui??/i? aenieioi/i? aei??e iao?iaeo ?ioa?aae?a “oaciaeo
ae?eueieoeue” ac??oeaaeo aacen?a. Iaeneiaeueia ci?ia ca 10 ?ie?a
aeinyaea 1.9 ii, a na?aaeiy — 1 ii, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ac??oeaaeo
aacen?a 2-ai ?ic?yaeo, ? c a?aooaaiiyi /anoioe iao?ieia?/iiai eiio?ieth
aacen?a na?ae/eoue i?i aeinoaoith no?ee?noue o?oa/aoeo ciae?a.
Aeine?aeaeaii aieea i?yii? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? ia oei/aniaee e?ai
o?oa/aoeo ciae?a ? anoaiiaeaii, ui a?i aoaa? eeoa a iaeeia?ieo ciae?a
(iaeneiaeueii aei 1 ii).

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ia??iaee/i?noue iiaoi?ieo eiio?ieueieo aei???a
ac??oeaaeo aacen?a. Nie?ath/enue ia iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa ?ioa?aaee aaceno o?aaa iiaoi?ii aei??thaaoe 1-2 ?ace a
ia?o? o?e ?iee i?ney caeeaaeee. I?e noaa?eueiiio iieiaeaii? oeaio??a
aaceno /an i?ae ianooiieie eiio?ieueieie aei??aie ca?eueoo?oueny aei 5
?ie?a.

Aeey noa?eo aacen?a, cae??ieaieo oeaio?aie ia ??ai? caie?, oeaio?oaaiiy
i?eeaae?a aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiai i?eno?ith aeey
oeaio?oaaiiy aaiaeace/ieo i?eeaae?a. Oeae i?eno??e caaacia/o? oaeaeea ?
oi/ia oeaio?oaaiiy ? iaeii/anii neoaeeoue ooaoeaii.

”Oaciao ae?eueieoeth” ac??oeaaiai aaceno i?iiiio?oueny oi/ii ? iaae?eii
aei??yoe 2-ia ? a?eueoa ?iaa?ieie no??/eaie ? eiio?ieueiith e?i?eeith
aea?/? a i?yiiio ? cai?ioiiio iai?yieao. I?e oeueiio caaacia/o?oueny
oi/i?noue aei??o iao?iaeo ?ioa?aae?a ( 0.1 ii.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? e?i?? aacen?a aei??ththoue ?iaa?ieie ae?ioaie
(oi/i?noue 1(10-6D), ?ioa?oa?iiao?ii Ayenyey (oi/i?noue 0.1(10-6D),
aenieioi/ieie a?aeaeaeai??aie IA 3000, AeE 001, GR 204, i?aoeec?eiei
eaca?iei i?eeaaeii IEAe-1I (Oa?e?a, AeIAI “Iao?ieia?y”) oa ?ioeie
(oi/i?noue 1(0.1(10-6D). O ?iaio? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaiiy
GPS-iaoiaeo aeey aei??thaaiiy ? eiio?ieth e?i?e ac??oeaaeo aacen?a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia aeaio aacenao 2-ai ?ic?yaeo a ??ci? ii?e
?ieo ? a ??cieo oiiaao i?ioiaeaeaiiy neaiae?a noiooiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeai/anoioieo i?eeia/?a o??ie Trimble, noaoe/ii? oa oaeaeei? noaoe/ii?
iaoiaeee. Iaeei aacen aoa ?icoaoiaaiee ia a?aee?eo?e i?noeaaino?, a
ae?oaee aoa cae?eoee ?ineeii?noth ? i?ioiaeea ocaeiaae iaeiiiiaa?oiaeo
neeaaenueeeo i?ei?uaiue, ui iaiaaeoaaei iiea ci?o aioai i?eeia/?a ?
iia??ooaaei oiiae i?ioiaeaeaiiy neaiae?a.

Ia a?aee?eoiio aacen? i?iaaaeaii o?e na??? iacaeaaeieo niinoa?aaeaiue (a
??ci? i?nyoe?). Iaea?eueoa aei???a i?eiaaea? ia o?aoth nan?th.
A?aeoeeaiiy aei??yieo e?i?e a?ae aoaeiio i?e noaoe/i?e iaoiaeeoe? ia
ia?aaeuoaaee 4 ii, a na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/i? iiieeee, io?eiai? ca
?noeiieie iiieeeaie, noaiiaeyoue m1=2 ii (o?aoy nan?y) ? m2=1.8 ii (c
o?ueio nan?e). Cae/aeii, a m1 ? m2 ? iiieeee aeo?aeieo aeaieo, ai e?i??
aaceno aoee aei??yi? 9 ?ie?a oiio. Ca aioo??oiueith ca?aei?noth iiieeea
aoea 1.4 ii. I?e aeei?enoaii? oaeaeei? noaoenoe/ii? iaoiaeeee oi/i?noue
ieae/a — m1=3.1 ii, m2=3.3 ii.

Ia aacen? c ia?aoeiaeaie aenia?eiaioaeuei? aei??e a?aeaoeeny ?aiiuei?
aanie, eiee aea?aaa aoee aac eenoy ? neaiaee noiooiee?a i?ioiaeeee
o?eueee e?iie aea?aa, ? ae?oeo. I?e aeei?enoaii? noaoe/ii? iaoiaeeee
io?eiaii oi/i?noue m1=2.8 ii oa m2=6.4 ii.

Oaeei /eiii, iieacaii, ui ia ?aa?iiaeueieo aaaaoioeaio?iaeo ac??oeaaeo
aaiaeace/ieo aacenao 2-ai ?ic?yaeo, ?icoaoiaaieo ia aeinoaoiuei
a?aee?eo?e i?noeaaino? iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe aeai/anoioi? i?eeia/? GPS
aeey aei??thaaiiy ?o ?ioa?aae?a noaoe/iith iaoiaeeeith 2-3-ia
iacaeaaeieie nan?yie. Aei??e aaaeooueny oaeaeei ? aoaeoeaii ?c
caaacia/aiiyi iaiao?aeii? oi/iino? (1.5(10-6D), yeo ?aaeaiaioo?
Aea?aeaaia ia?aa??i/ia noaia aeey cania?a aei??thaaiiy aeiaaeei 24-75000
i. Ia oi/i?noue GPS-niinoa?aaeaiue aieeaa? ?icoaooaaiiy ? e?euee?noue
aeei?enoaieo noiooiee?a.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? ia?oee oeeee aei??thaaiiy ac??oeaaeo aacen?a, ye
i?aaeei, aaaeooue aeaiia iaoiaeaie. Oiio i?iiiio?oueny ia?aeaeueii c GPS
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?aoeec?eiee a?aeaeaeai??, iai?eeeaae IEAe-1I. Ianooii?
eiio?ieuei? aei??e ac??oeaaiai aaceno ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe c aeiiiiiaith
GPS-iaoiaeo 1-2 ?ace a ia?o? 3 ?iee ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a i?e noaa?eueiino?
oeaio??a aaceno /an aei ianooiiiai eiio?ieueiiai aei??o ca?eueooaaoe aei
5 ?ie?a.

Noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae eiie?aoieo ? ia(?oioiaaieo i?eioeeiiaeo
oaoiieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey iiaoaeiae oa aei??thaaiiy ac??oeaaeo
aacen?a ? iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a, ye?
ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ? oi/iino? ?ia?o, io?eiaee
noaaeueio ioe?ieo oao?aoe?a ? iiaeooue aeiiiaieoe ?nioth/? ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ? a?aooaaiith
ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? a i?nuee?e o??aiaoeyoe?? oa iie?aiiiiao???. A
i?nuee?e o??aiaoeyoe?? ?? aeine?aeaeoaaee I.A. sseiaeaa, A.E.
Ino?ianueeee, E.N. Oeaeae, ?.I. Oa?oa/einueeee, a a i?nuee?e
iie?aiiiiao??? A.N. Cthc?i, A.E. Ino?ianueeee, E.O. Ia?oeiaiei, A.N.
THiioaa, Ae.O. I?oeeaa, A.A. Oea/aiei, ?. ssiaaa, I.Aaeaeia, A.A?enue oa
?io? a/ai?, aea a?aooaaiiy ?ao?aeoe?? caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith
i?iaeaiith.

?ao?aeoe?ei? iiey i?no nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny, aea i?iaiaeeoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey eiaeiiai i?noa ie?aii iaia? iiaeeeaino?. Oiio a
?iaio? aia?oa cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th i?no (oaae.2) ca ee?iaoe/ieie
oiiaaie oa oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie, ui aieeaathoue ia ooai?aiiy iie?a
?ao?aeoe?? iaae i?noaie.

Oaaeeoey 2

A?oie ? ia?aiao?e eeaneo?eaoe?? i?no ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie oa
oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie

? Oaeoi?e eeane- A?oie ? ia?aiao?e eeaneo?eaoe??

o?eaoe?? i?no I II III

1 Na?aaeiueii?ny/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y +250N ? a?eueoa +100N(250N iaioa
+100N

2 Aaee/eia i?noa iiiaae 1 iei. 0.5(1 iei. iaioa 0.5 iei.

3 “?aeue?o” i?noa aei 50 i 50(100 i a?eueoa 100 i

4 Oa?eoi??aeueia ?icoaooaaiiy eiioeiaioaeuei? i?noa i?eaa?aaei? i?noa (

C a?aooaaiiyi anoaiiaeaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? cae?eniaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aaiaeace/i? oa iaoai?ieia?/i? aei??e a i?noao, oeiiaeo aeey ie?aieo a?oi
? ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey a?aooaaiiy ?ao?aeoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? iaae i?eaa?aaeiei i?noii
(Iaeana ca eeaneo?eaoe??th iaeaaeeoue aei a?oi 1,II; 2,I; 3,I; 4,II)
i?iaaaeai? oia?oa. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aaea (noi?iie 2-8 ei) aeeth/aea
7 ioieo?a o??aiaoeyoe??, ia aaaaoiiiaa?oiaeo aoaeeieao (iaeei ia caie?
ca i?noii) ? 15 iaoaiiino?a ?icoaoiaaieo ia aenioao a?ce?ieo i?iiai?a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee a eeii?-na?ii? ia?aaaaeii a ynio ? aea?eo
iiaiaeo (aei +350N) i?e iaea?eueoeo ??cieoeyo oaiia?aoo? (O
“oeaio?-ieieeoey”, ui ia?aaaaeii aieeaa? ia ooai?aiiy ?ao?aeoe?eieo
iie?a. Eooia? ? iaoai?ieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy cae?enithaaee
oe?eiaeiaiai, neio?iiii na??yie ii 2-3 aeiae (anueiai 10 ae?a) ca
?ic?iaeaieie i?ia?aiaie c iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaith oi/i?noth. Eooe
aei??thaaee oaiaeie?oii O 05. Ia iaoaiiinoao aei??thaaee oaiia?aoo?o ?
aieia?noue iia?o?y ineo?iiao?aie ia aenioao 2 ? 6 i, aecia/aee
oaeaee?noue ? iai?yie a?o?o, oene iia?o?y.

Onueiai aeeiiaii iiiaae 680 i?eeii?a eooiaeo aei???a, neeaaeaii iaeaea
300 ea?o ?cioa?i oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey i?noa, iiaoaeiaaii a?ao?ee
aeiaiaiai oiaeo ai?eciioaeueieo eoo?a (o?aaiaioe ia ?en. 2, 3) ?
i?iaaaeaii ?o aeaoaeueiee aiae?c.

Oia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui iaae i?eii?nueeei i?noii ooai?th?oueny no?eea
iiea ?ao?aeoe??, yea i?eioeeiiai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iiey iaae
eiioeiaioaeueiei i?noii ?

?en.2. Ea?oe ?cioa?i oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey iaae i?noii Iaeana i?e yni?e
iiaiae?. ?cioa?ie i?iaaaeai? /a?ac 0.20N

?en. 3. A?ao?ee aeiaiaiai oiaeo ai?eciioaeueieo eoo?a ia ioieo? I a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? i?noa Iaeana e?oii a ynio iiaiaeo

ca eeaneo?eaoe??th A.E. Ino?ianueeiai a?aeiineoueny aei iie?a ?ao?aeoe??
ia?oiai ?iaeo. Aeyaeaii, ui ?cioa?ie oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey iaae i?noii, ye
i?aaeei, aeio?eiothoueny aa?aaiai? e?i?? ii?y.

C a?aooaaiiyi ea?o ?cioa?i, yeino? aeaeeiinoae, a?ao?e?a aeiaiaiai oiaeo
eoo?a, noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee (ca e?eoa??yie O?oa?a, I??niia, Aaaa) ?
oi/iino? eooiaeo aei???a, iaa’ycie iie?aii?a ? iii?aaie ca
ai?eciioaeueio ?ao?aeoe?th anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?eyoeeaeie ia??iaeaie
eooiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue a o??aiaoeyoe?ei?e ia?aae? i?eii?nueeiai i?noa ?
i?/, ?aieiaa ? aa/??iy aeaeeiino?.

Aeey a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy ? a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae
?ao?aeoe?eieo iie?a a eiioeiaioaeueieo i?noao aoee i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a I?inueeo (ca eeaneo?eaoe??th iaeaaeeoue aei a?oi 1.II;
2.I; 3.I; 4.I) ? Eeoeiaa? (iaeaaeeoue aei a?oi 1.II; 2.II; 3.III; 4.I)
a eeii?-na?ii?. Aenia?eiaioaeueia o??aiaoeyoe?eia ia?aaea a I?inueeo
iaea 11 ioieo?a, a o Eeoeiaa? neeaaeaeanue ?c 6 ioieo?a i?nueeiai
aaiaeeiai?/iiai iie?aiio. Ioieoe anoaiiaeai? ia eai?oaeueieo aoaeeieao
5-16 iiaa?o?a. Ii aeaa ioieoe ciaoiaeeeenue ca i?noii. Aeiaaeeie noi??i
ia?aae 1.6(5.4 ei. Iaoaiiinoe (anueiai 21) ?icoaoiaai? ia aenioao
a?ce?ieo i?iiai?a.

Aei??e aaee ca i?ia?aiaie ? i?eeaaeaie, canoiniaaieie o i?eii?nueeiio
i?no?. I?iaaaeaii 5 o?eaeiaiaeo neio?iiieo na??e niinoa?aaeaiue.
Caaaeueia e?euee?noue i?eeii?a eooiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue 936. Iiaoaeiaaii
482 ea?oe ?cioa?i ? a?ao?ee aeiaiaiai oiaeo eoo?a. Iieacaii, ui iaae
eiioeiaioaeueieie i?noaie ooai?ththoueny no?ee? iiey ?ao?aeoe?? ae?oaiai
?iaeo, a ?cioa?ie oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey caieeathoueny.

aoee ??aee?noth.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey ??aieiieo eiioeiaioaeueieo i?no iaioee aieea
ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ia ?acoeueoaoe eooiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue a
o??aiaoeyoe?? ia? i?noea a?ae 17 aei 22 aiaeeie ? /anoeiai aii/?. Aeey
i?no c ia?aiaaeii aenio iiiaae 100 i ni?eyoeeaei ? /an a?ae 23 aei 7
aiaeeie. Aaaeaii i?aei?iaoe a?ce?i? i?iiai? aeua iaae i?noii ? oieeaoe
iai?yie?a ocaeiaae iaae i?noa.

A?aooaaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? a i?nuee?e o??aiaoeyoe??
aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe /a?ac iioeiaeueia i?iaeooaaiiy ia?aae?, ia
i?aenoaa? ciaiiy ee?iaoe/ieo ? oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae i?no ? /?oeo
i?aai?caoe?th aei???a.

A?ey no?i aoaeeie?a ? i?iieneiaeo ia’?eo?a ooai?ththoueny eieaeuei?
?ao?aeoe?ei? iiey, ye? iiaeooue aooe ia 2-3 ii?yaeee iiooaei?oeie, i?ae
iaae i?noii. Oiio aeey a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy aieeao ??cieo
oaeoi??a ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?a ?ao?aeoe?? ? iiooeo iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a ??
a?aooaaiiy a ?iaio? i?iaaaeai? aaaaoiaeaii? ia’?ii? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
aeeth/aee neio?iii? eooia? ? iaoai?ieia?/i? aei??e ia 10 aoeeoeyo
(Iaeane ? I?inueea) c ??ciei i???iooaaiiyi, oa?aeoa?ii caaoaeiae,
aonoioith ianaaeaeaiue, ?aeue?oii ? oe?eiith i?ae /an ??cii? iiaiaee,
?ioaineaiino? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??, a?aeaeaeaiino? a?ce?ieo i?iiai?a a?ae
no?i aoae?aaeue oiui.

A?ce?i? i?iiai? i?ioiaeeee aeiaaeeiith 100(320 i ia a?aenoai? 0.5(2 i
a?ae no?i. Ai?eciioaeuei? eooe aei??thaaee aenieioi/ieie ? oi/ieie
oaiaeie?oaie. Anueiai aeeiiaii iiiaae 2000 e?oaiaeo i?eeii?a.

I?ia?aia iaoai?ieia?/ieo aei???a neeaaeaeanue ?c uiaiaeeiieo neio?iiieo
aecia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ia aenio? a?ce?ieo i?iiai?a a oi/eao
iaoaiiiia?a/iee?a ? a iaei?e oi/oe? aieiaino? iia?o?y, oaeaeeino? a?o?o,
oeneo, ia?aiao??a niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??. Ia noi?iio eooa i?eiaaeaei 2-4
iiia?a/ieee c oi/eaie ia a?aeaeae? 0.3 i; 0.8 i; 1.3 i; 2 i … a?ae no?i.

?en. 4. A?ao?ee aeaiiiai oiaeo ai?eciioaeueiiai eooa a ynio
aaca?o?yio iiaiaeo 24.08.1981 ?., a I?inueeo

ca ?acoeueoaoaie niinoa?aaeaiue

i?ney aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ca ?ao?aeoe?th

Iiaoaeiaaii iiiaae 100 iiaiaeeiieo ea?o ?cioa?i oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a,
oaiia?aoo?i? iiia?a/i? i?io?e? aoeeoeue, iiiaae 100 a?ao?e?a aeaiiiai
oiaeo ai?eciioaeueieo eoo?a (i?eeeaae ia ?en.4). ?cioa?ie aoee, ye
i?aaeei, ia?aeaeueieie aei e?i?? caaoaeiae ? aeinyaaee iaeneiaeueii?
aonoioe a?ey no?i.

Ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe oaiia?aoo? aeinyaaee 0.5-0.60N ia iao?, a
?iiae? 10N ia iao? ? a?eueoa, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ?acoeueoaoaie,
io?eiaieie A.N.Cthc?iei ? A.E.Ino?ianueeei, ? aoee iaeneiaeuei?, eiee
aceioo Niioey ca?aaany c aceiooii ii?iae? aei no?ie. O iioio?o iiaiaeo ?
ia o?iueiaiio aioe? aoeeoe? a?aae??io noaaaa iacia/iei, aea iai?yieo ia
i?iya. Oiaoi ia aoeeoeyo i?no ooai?ththoueny iiooaei? iaeiia?/ii ae?th/?
iiey ?ao?aeoe?? ae?oaiai ?iaeo.

i?e a?aae??io? oaiia?aoo?e 10N ia i.

. A?eueoiai aieeao ?ao?aeoe?? ne?ae /aeaoe a ynio iiaiaeo aaniith ?
ainaie. Iii?aaee ca ?ao?aeoe?th cia/ii ciaioothoue aeaiiee o?ae
ai?eciioaeueieo eoo?a (?en.4).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ?ao?aeoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny ia 11
aiaeei? a?ey no?aeieo, i 13 aiaeei? a?ey i?aaeaiieo ? i 17 aiaeei? a?ey
cao?aeieo no?i aoaeeie?a. Iaeneiaeueiiai niioai?aiiy eoo?a ne?ae /aeaoe
a?ey iaa?iaieo aei i?aaeiy no?i. Iieacaii, ui iiooaei?noue
?ao?aeoe?eiiai iiey aoeeoe? i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aaia?ao?/ii?
oe?ioe i?noa. Aeey iineaaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe??
oiaee i?nueei? iie?aiiiiao??? aeioe?eueii i?ieeaaeaoe ii noi?iiao
aoeeoeue iaa?iaieo aei i?aii/?, i?ai?/iiai noiaeo ? i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo,
?icoaoiaoth/e ?o e?i?? ia aeeae/a i?ae 2 i a?ae aoaeeie?a ia niiy/i?e
noi?ii? ? 1 i ( ia o?iueia?e. O?aaa oieeaoe i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?ce?ieo
i?iiai?a iiaeeco no?i aeiaaeo ? aenieeo aoaeeie?a. Aei??e eoo?a e?aua
aanoe a iioio?o ? a?o?yio iiaiaeo, a a ynio iiaiaeo aeioe?eueii i??yoe
aei 9-11 aiaeei ? i?ney 16-19 aiaeei caeaaeii a?ae i???iooaaiiy
aoeeoeue. A??ineii?/ia i???iooaaiiy noi??i oiaeo iineaaeth? aieea
ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe??.

O ?iaio? neeaaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii a aaiaeace/io i?aeoeeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei a?aooaaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ia noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy
ia?aae i?nueei? o??aiaoeyoe?? oa iie?aiiiiao??? ? aeeiiaiiy eooiaeo
aei???a.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ? a?aooaaiith aeeiai?ee
ioieo?a i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae, anoaiiaeaieo ia aenieeo aoae?aeyo.

Ioieoe i?nueeeo ia?aae aea?aeii anoaiiaethaaoe ia aenieeo nii?oaeao, aea
aei aeei?enoaiiy ?o iin?yie aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a o?aaa i?aeoiaeeoe c
iniaeeaith oaaaith, ai aiie iiaeooue aooe iano?eeeie /a?ac
ei?ioeiia??iaee/i? oaiia?aoo?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? aoae?aaeue i?ae aieeaii
niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? ? a?o?o; i?aeaeuaio naeni?/i?noue i?noeaaino?; e?aie
? inaaeee aoaeeie?a ? nii?oae a ii/aoeiaee ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? oiui ?
iiaeooue aieeaaoe ia eii?aeeiaoe aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo.
Aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie aeooaeueia aeey aoaeue-yeiai iaoiaeo noai?aiiy
ieaiiaeo i?nueeeo ia?aae, a oiio /ene? ? c aeei?enoaiiyi GPS-iaoiaeo.

), iia’ycaiee c oaiia?aoo?ieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie aoaeeie?a, ia yeeo
anoaiiaeai? ioieoe. Aeey ia?aa??ee oe??? a?iioace a ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii
ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c ? anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae aeaiieie eieeaaiiyie 26
eoo?a ? na?aaei?ie aenioaie ?o a?ce?ieo i?iiai?a (a?ae 21 aei 39 i).

C ii?aoethaaiiy ae?iaie/eo iaoa??ae?a c aecia/aiiy eii?aeeiao ioieo?a ia
aenieeo (ia?aaaaeii 16 iia.) aoaeeieao i?yieie eooiaeie can?/eaie a
??cieo iaoaioiiaao e?oii (25 ioieo?a, ynii, oaiia?aoo?e +230(+280N) ?
ceiith (29 ioieo?a, iioio?i, oaiia?aoo?e -5(+70N), oaeiae aeyaeaia
aeeiai?ea aa?oiuei? /anoeie aoaeeie?a. Oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy eii?aeeiao o
oieiaeio iioio?o iiaiaeo c?inea iaeaea oaea?/?.

A?eueoa /anoeia aei???a a i?nueeeo ia?aaeao i?eiaaea? ia oaieo, niiy/io
iiaiaeo, oiio cia/io caoe?eaaeai?noue noaiiaeoue aeyaeaiiy aeeeeeaieo
aieeaii niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??? ei?ioeiia??iaee/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aenieeo
aoaeeie?a — iin??a aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a. O ?iaio? i?iaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeeth/athoue eooia? niinoa?aaeaiiy
c caie? ca ioieoaie ia 31 aoaeeieo (9-24 iiaa?oe) a Eeoeiaa? (27
aoaeeie?a) oa Eueaia? ? iaoai?ieia?/i? aei??e. Eooe aei??yee
oaiaeie?oaie Theo 010A uiaiaeeie c ?ic?aooieii, uia oi/i?noue
aecia/aiiy eii?aeeiao ia aoae?ae? aoea 2-3 ii. Aei??yee oaeiae
oaiia?aoo?o ? oene iia?o?y, oaeaee?noue a?o?o, i?yio ? noia?io niiy/io
?aae?aoe?th aeoeiiiao?ii oa i??aiiiao?ii, ??cieoe? (t0C oaiia?aoo?
ina?oeaieo niioeai ? o?iueiaeo no?i aoaeeie?a eiioaeoiei aeaeo?e/iei
oa?iiiao?ii c oi/i?noth 0.50N. O aei? niinoa?aaeaiue noiyea ia?aaaaeii
ynia ? aea?ea (aei +320N) iiaiaea. Iaeneiaeuei? aaee/eie i?yii?
?aae?aoe?? aeinyaee 0.7 eAeae/i2nae (1 eae/ni2oa), a (t aei 130N.

Iaea?eueo? ci?uaiiy oi/ie ia aoaeeieao ca aeaiue aeinyaee (=22.3 ii ?
(=29.8 ii a?aeiia?aeii ia 20- ? 22-iiaa?oiaeo aoaeeieao. Iieacaii, ui
iaia? i?aenoaa /aeaoe cia/ieo ci?i aieeao niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? ia
no?ee?noue ioieo?a i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae ia ??cieo oe?ioao. ?c
aiae?co aaaaoi??/ieo aeaieo ??/iiai oiaeo i?yii? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??
anoaiiaeaii, ui ?? iaeneioi i?eoiaeeoueny ia ea?oaiue-o?aaaiue-/a?aaiue,
a i?i?ioi ( ia a?oaeaiue oa n?/aiue.

, a ni?eueia ci?uaiiy aeinyaei l=19.7 ii, (?en.5). Oeueiai aeiy i?yia
niiy/ia ?aae?aoe?y aoea iaeneiaeueiith ? a?ae 12 aei 15 aiaeeie aoea
(0.7 eAeae/i2nae (1 eae/ni2oa).

?en.5. Ci?ie eii?aeeiao ioieoo “A???oe” aaiaeeiai?/iiai iie?aiio 5
na?iiy o ??ci? aiaeeie aeiy

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ia eii?aeeiao ia aoaeeieo ei?aeth? c aeaiiei oiaeii
oaiia?aoo?e ? ?aae?aoe??th.

Oaeei /eiii, i?yia niiy/ia ?aae?aoe?y ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii
ei?ioeiia??iaee/ii? aeeiai?ee aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia aenieeo nii?oaeao
i?ioyaii aeiy. I?e aenio? aoae?ae? ( 50 i iiaeia /aeaoe ci?i eii?aeeiao
ioieo?a i?nueeeo ia?aae a 20 ii ? a?eueoa caeaaeii a?ae ?inieyoe?? no?i
aoae?ae?, ?? oi?ie oiui i?aeoe/ii iacaeaaeii a?ae oe?ioe i?noey ? aenioe
iaae ??aiai ii?y. Aeey iineaaeaiiy ? aeeeth/aiiy ?oo?a ioieo?a (iniaeeai
i?nueeiai aaiaeeiai?/iiai iie?aiio) aeioe?eueii eooia?, e?i?ei? ? GPS
aei??e aanoe aii/?, c?aieo /e a iioio?o iiaiaeo. Aaiaeace/i? ioieoe
o?aaa anoaiiaethaaoe ia eai?oaeueieo nii?oaeao, iacaaaioaaeaieo
i?aoethth/ei i?iieneiaei onoaoeoaaiiyi, e?aua, uia oi?ia aoae?ae?
a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae aaooiai?.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea naeni?/iiai oaeoi?a ia no?ee?noue
aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo ia iniia? caieao?ono 31.08.1986 ?. a
Eeoeiaa? neeith 7 aae?a ca oeaeith ??ooa?a. Aoei aecia/aii e?ai 25
aoaeeie?a aei ? i?ney caieao?ono. Ia /anoei? aoaeeie?a aoee ?icoaoiaai?
ioieoe i?nueeiai aaiaeeiai?/iiai iie?aiio, oiio aecia/aiiy ?o no?eeino?
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa. On? aeine?aeaeoaai? aoaeeiee, e??i iaeiiai,
iiaoaeiaai? ia a?aeiinii ??ai?e i?noeaaino?. Aiie iaee a?ae 5 aei 20
iiaa?o?a, i?yiieooio aai aaooiao oi?io (iaeei aoaeeiie aoa
aeoaiiiae?aiee), caoaeiaai? ia?aaaaeii a n?iaeanyo? ?iee c iiiie?oiiai
cae?ciaaoiio aai c iaiaeae. On? aoaeeiee a oeieieuei?e /anoei? iaee
aonoo ia?aaeo c aeanyoe?a eiio?ieueieo ?aia??a, ca yeeie aei ? i?ney
caieao?ono aoei i?iaaaeaia aaiiao?e/ia i?aaethaaiiy II eeano i?aae??ii
I05.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui in?aeaiiy ? caeeoeiaeo e?ai?a iaea?eueoa caciathoue
aenie? iaiaeuei? aoaeeiee cia/ii? aeiaaeeie. Iaea?eueoee e?ai a 124.4 ii
(ca ?aooiie naeni?/iiai oaeoi?o) io?eiaa /a?ac i?ea?iaeueio
aeoaiiiae?aio oi?io iiiie?oiee aoaeeiie (16 iia.), ia yeiio anoaiiaeaiee
ioieo aaiaeeiai?/iiai iie?aiio “Iia? Aatheaie”. A?aeiinii no?eeeie
(e?aie 5.3-18.1 ii) aeyaeeenue iaeeii/i? iiiie?oi? aoaeeiee (20 iia.)
aaooiaiai oeio. Aeey ieo aceioo e?aio ni?aiaa c aceiooii iioe?aiiy
naeni?/ieo oaeeue.

Oaeei /eiii, a i?noeyo c i?aeaeuaiith naeni?/iith aeoeai?noth iin?yie
ioieo?a i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe noaa?e?ciaai?
a /an? eai?oaeuei? aoae?ae? aaooiaiai oeio iiaoaeiaai? ia ??aieii?e
i?noeaaino? c iiiie?oiiai cae?ciaaoiio. I?ney caieao?ono iaiao?aeii
ia?aa??yoe no?ee?noue aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea a?eo aoae?aaeue ia no?ee?noue anoaiiaeaieo ia ieo
aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia iniia? ii?aoethaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo oeeee?a
niinoa?aaeaiue ca in?aeaiiyie 21 aoaeeieo ? niinoa?aaeaiue ca ieaiiaeie
ci?uaiiyie ioieo?a ia 2-o aoaeeieao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui an? aoaeeiee iaee
??aiii??i? /e ia??aiii??i? in?aeaiiy i?ney caaa?oaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa. *an
noaa?e?caoe?? in?aeaiiy ? e?ai?a aei 5 ?ie?a aeyaeaii o 6 aoaeeie?a, a
aeey ?ioeo ( aei 2-o ?ie?a (c oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e a?aeiii 1.5-2 ?iee).
I?e oeueiio an? nii?oaee iaee ni?eyoeea? ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i? oiiae.
I?iiiio?oueny ioieoe i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae anoaiiaethaaoe ia
eai?oaeueieo nii?oaeao, iiaoaeiaaieo 5 ? a?eueoa ?ie?a oiio, aai
i?iaiaeeoe e?eueea oeeee?a niinoa?aaeaiue aeey aeyaeaiiy ?o
noaa?eueiino?.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii iia? a?eueo aoaeoeai?
iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai noai?aiiy ieaiiaeo i?nueeeo aaiaeace/ieo
ia?aae, ui aaaeeeai aeey i?nueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa i?noiaoae?aiiai
eaaeano?o. ?ic?iaeai? iia? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy; iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo
oi/iino? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???, iaoiaee i?i?i?caoe?? ?
a?aooaaiiy iiieeie na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a, iioeiaeueia
eiino?oeoe?y ac??oeaaiai aaiaeace/iiai aaceno c aei??ii e?i?e
GPS-iaoiaeii, aoaeoeaia oa iioeiaeueia iaoiaeeea aoaeiioaaiiy
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a; oeyoe a?aooaaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? a
i?nueeeo ia?aaeao; ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?i?i?caoe?? ? a?aooaaiiy aeeiai?ee
aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia aenieeo aoae?aeyo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai:

Cai?iiiiiaai? oi?ioee ? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo aeiione?a aeey aeaea?ae
iiieeie na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao??? ? a?aie/ii? e?eueeino?
noi??i o oiaeao ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaeoe/iiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q aieeao
iiieeie eooiaeo oa e?i?eieo aei???a ? oi?ie oiae?a. Iieacaii, ui i?e
aeei?enoaii? no/anieo na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a aaee/eie Q aeinyaathoue 5-10
iaeeieoeue ? eaiai? oiaee noathoue cia/ii oi/i?oeie i?ae aea?aaeaioi? ?i
aeoyaioo?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi/i?noue aceiooaeueieo oiae?a
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao??? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o oi?ie i?e
aoaeue-yeeo cia/aiiyo Q, a iiieeea a iaeneaaoiio i?noe? oiaeo caaaeaee a
aeaa ?ace iaioa na?aaeiuei? eaaae?aoe/ii? iiieeee a e?ioe? oiaeo.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaia i?eeaaeia oaiia?aoo?ia iiieeea
na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a, anoaiiaeaii ?? nenoaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa? oa
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea a?aooaaiiy. Aeyaeaii nooo?aee (aei 20 ii) aieea
? cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea a?aooaaiiy oaciaino? na?oeiaiai iioieo.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeeee?/ia iiieeea o oiiia?ao?/ieo a?aeaeaeai???a iiaea
aooe aeoaea cia/iith (aeanyoee ii); ?? oi?ia ? aiie?ooaea ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae a?aenoai?, aea ci?ith?oueny c /anii. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeey
a?aooaaiiy oaciaeo cao?eiie neaiaeo i?e na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei??ao o
iie?aiiiiao??? aeioe?eueii iaaeaaaoe ia?aaaao i?i?iaeueiei ?acoeueoaoai
aei???a.

Cai?iiiiiaaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia iioeiaeueia ? aoaeoeaia iaoiaeeea
aoaeiioaaiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a ia 4-6 e?i?yo aaceno, e?aoieo 0.5(, c
aecia/aiiyi iino?eii? i?eeaaeii? iii?aaee, aeine?aeaeaiiyi oaciaino? ?
oeeee?/ii? iiieeee. Ei?aeoe?y aei??yieo e?i?e iie?aiiiiao???
cae?enith?oueny ca a?ao?eaie ci?ie iino?eii? iii?aaee c a?aenoaiith ?
oaciaei eooii.

?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia a i?aeoeeo eiino?oeoe?y aaaaoioeaio?iaeo
ac??oeaaeo aacen?a 2-ai ?ic?yaeo aeiaaeeiith aei 1.5 ei c “oaciaith
ae?eueieoeath” ia ii/aoeo aaceno, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia c?o/ia ? ye?nia
aoaeiioaaiiy oiiia?ao?/ieo a?aeaeaeai???a ? aeaeo?iiieo oaoaiiao??a.
Oi/ee aaceno cae??ieythoueny aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaieie no?eeeie iaeeia?ieie
(oaciaa ae?eueieoey) ? iiaea?eieie iaoaeaaeie o?oa/anoeie ciaeaie,
ia?aaaaa yeeo o iae?e aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy oa caeeaaeee. Aia?oa
iieacaii, ui e?i?? ac??oeaaiai aaceno 2-ai ?ic?yaeo ia a?aeiinii
a?aee?eo?e i?noeaaino? iiaeia iia?aoeaii ? oi/ii aei??yoe aeai/anoioieie
i?eeia/aie GPS. ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iiaoaeiae,
aoanoaoe?? oa aeei?enoaiiy ac??oeaaeo aaiaeace/ieo aacen?a a Oe?a?i?.
Aiie io?eiaee noaaeueio ioe?ieo oao?aoe?a, aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/?
ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe, ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ? yeino?
iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a o i?nuee?e
iie?aiiiiao??? ? cia/iiio (a 1.5-2 ?ace) i?aeaeuaiith ?o oi/iino?.

Iiaoaeiao ia?aae i?nueei? o??aiaoeyoe?? o?aaa ?icii/eiaoe c aecia/aiiy
iaeaaeiino? i?noa aei iaaii? a?oie ca?aeii aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii?
eeaneo?eaoe?? i?no ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie oa oa?aeoa?ieie
iniaeeainoyie, ui aieeaathoue ia ooai?aiiy iie?a ?ao?aeoe?? iaae
i?noaie. Oea ni?eyoeia a?aooaaiith ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ia
noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy ia?aae ? i?aai?caoe?? eooiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue,
aeeeth/ath/e o?oaeii?noea aecia/aiiy ? aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie.

aieea ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe??. Ciaioaiith aieeao ai?eciioaeueii?
?ao?aeoe?? ni?ey? oieeiaiiy iai?yie?a ocaeiaae iaae? i?noa. Oea iiaeia
a?aooaaoe o i?iaeo? ia?aae?.

Aeyaeaii, ui aieea ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? a i?nuee?e iie?aiiiiao???
a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao iiaea aeinyaaoe e?eueeio aeanyoe?a naeoiae o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ioaineaiino? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??, i???iooaaiiy
aoeeoeue, oa?aeoa?o caaoaeiae oiui ? i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaia?ao?/ii? oe?ioe i?noa. Aaeee? ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe oaiia?aoo?e
? iaea?eueo? niioai?aiiy eoo?a ?ao?aeoe??th niinoa??aathoueny i?e
ni?aiaaeaii? aceioo?a Niioey ? ii?iae? aei e?i?? caaoaeiae (i 10 aiaeei?
— a?ey no?aeieo, i 13 aiaeei? — a?ey i?aaeaiieo ? i 17 aiaeei? — a?ey
cao?aeieo no?i aoaeeie?a). Iaeneiaeueiiai niioai?aiiy ne?ae /aeaoe a?ey
i?aaeaiieo no?i aeiaaeo ? aenieeo aoae?aaeue oa ia aoeeoeyo c
nooe?eueiith caaoaeiaith o ynio niiy/io iiaiaeo aaniith, e?oii, ainaie.
E?oii iiooaei? iiey ?ao?aeoe?? iiaeooue ooai?thaaoenue ia aoeeoeyo 10-15
aei?a ia i?nyoeue. I?iiiio?oueny oiaee i?nueei? iie?aiiiiao???
i?ieeaaeaoe ii noi?iiao aoeeoeue iaa?iaieo aei i?aii/?, i?ai?/iiai
noiaeo, i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo. Noi?iie iie?aiiiiao??? o?aaa a?aeaeaeyoe
a?ae no?i aoae?aaeue ia 2 i ia niiy/i?e ? ia 1 i ia o?iueia?e noi?iiao
aoeeoeue. Aeey aei??thaaiiy eoo?a a ynio iiaiaeo e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe
/an c 9 aei 11 ? i?ney 16-19 aiaeei a caeaaeiino? a?ae i???iooaaiiy
aoeeoeue. A??ineii?/ia i???iooaaiiy noi??i iie?aiiiiao??? i?i?i?co?
aieea ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe??.

Aia?oa aeyaeaia ? ioe?iaia aeeiai?ea aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a anoaiiaeaieo
ia aoae?aeyo, yea ? iane?aeeii ei?ioeiia??iaee/ieo oa?i?/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e aoae?aaeue /a?ac iaeiinoi?iii? iaa??aaiiy ?o no?i i?yiith
niiy/iith ?aae?aoe??th. Ci?ia eii?aeeiao ioieo?a i?ioyaii aeiy iiaea
aeinyaaoe aeanyoe?a ii o caeaaeiino? a?ae aenioe, oi?ie ? iaoa??aeo
aoae?ae? oa ?ioaineaiino? ?inieyoe?? ?? no?i ? i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae aaia?ao?/ii? oe?ioe. Aeey aeeeth/aiiy ae?? oeueiai oaeoi?o
aeioe?eueii eooia? ? e?i?ei? aei??e oa aei??e GPS c ioieo?a i?nueeeo
ia?aae ia aenieeo nii?oaeao aeeiioaaoe aii/?, a?aioe? /e o iioio?o
iiaiaeo. Iniaeeai oea aaaeeeai aeey i?nueeeo aaiaeeiai?/ieo iie?aii?a.
Aia?oa ?icae?eaii ? ioe?iaii aieea ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? ?
aeeiai?ee ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo ia ye?noue eooiaeo aei???a a i?nuee?e
o??aiaoeyoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea naeni?/iiai oaeoi?o ia no?ee?noue aaiaeace/ieo
ioieo?a ia aoae?aeyo. I?ney 7-aaeueiiai caieao?ono aeyaeaia ci?ia ?o
eii?aeeiao ia 5.5(124.5 ii. Aeyaeaii, ui iaea?eueo naeniino?eeeie
iin?yie aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ? aoaeeiee aaooiai? oi?ie caoaeiaai? c
iiiie?oiiai cae?ciaaoiio. Iin?yie aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a aeioe?eueii
aeae?aoe eai?oaeuei? aoae?ae? “a?eii” i’youe ?ie?a ? a?eueoa oa aeeiiaoe
e?eueea oeeee?a niinoa?aaeaiue aeey eiio?ieth ?o noaa?eueiino?.
Iaiaeuei? aoaeeiee ia aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iin?yie aaiaeace/ieo
ioieo?a.

?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie
ai?iaaaeaeai? a aaiaeace/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao ? i?aai?caoe?yo Oe?a?ie,
?in??, Aaea?on?, Eaoa?? oa ?aae?ciaai? i?e neeaaeaii? ea??aieo
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a a OE?AAI?IOI?I ? IAe?IA, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
10-ia aeoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

IA?AE?E INIIAIEO I?AOeUe CA ?ACOEUeOAOAIE AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Iiiia?ao?y

1. O?aaiai E.N., Oaa/oe I.I. Ai?iaeneay iieeaiiiiao?ey. — I. Iaae?a,
1986. — 200 n.

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

2. O?aaiai E.N. Enoi/ieee ioeaie e oi/iinoue naaoiaeaeueiiia?iuo
ecia?aiee noi?ii ai?iaeneie iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey e
ea?oia?aoey.-1984.-?6.n.23-28.

3. O?aaiai E.N. Enneaaeiaaiey ai?eciioaeueiie ?ao?aeoeee a ai?iaeneie
iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey.-1984.-?1.-n.20-25.

4. O?aaiai E.N. Ia yoaeiie?iaaiee oiiia?aoe/aneeo
naaoiaeaeueiiia?ia//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey. -1987.-?1.n.20-25.

5. O?aaiai E.N. Enneaaeiaaiea e o/ao oaciainoe naaoiaiai iioiea//
Aaiaeacey, ea?oia?aoey e ay?ioioinuaiea.-Eueaia.-1989.-50.- n.106-110.

6. O?aaiai E.N. Aeeyiea aiaoiae n?aaeu ia onoie/eainoue ioieoia
ai?iaeneie aaiaeace/aneie naoe//Aaiaeacey e
ea?oia?aoey.-1990.-?5.n.22-26.

7. O?aaiai ?.N. Ac??oeaa? aacene aeey aoaeiioaaiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a
//A?niee aaiaeac?? oa ea?oia?ao??.-1995.-?1.n.39-45.

8. O?aaiai E.N. I iino?iaiee ia?acoeiauo aacenia e yoaeiie?iaaiee
naaoiaeaeueiiia?ia a?oiiu «O» //Aaiaeacey, ea?oia?aoey e ay?ioioinuaiea.
— Eueaia.-1990.-52.n.75-79.

9. O?aaiai E.N., Aa?anei/oe I.O., Iiainaae A.I. Ai?eciioaeueiay
?ao?aeoeey e aeeiaieea ioieoia a ai?iaeneie o?eaiaoeyoeee// Aaiaeacey,
ea?oia?aoey e ay?ioioinuaiea. — Eueaia.-1992.-53.n.57-67.

10. O?aaiai E.N. E ?an/aoo aeiioneia a naaoiaeaeueiiia?iie
iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey. -1992.-?7.n.18-21.

11. O?aaiai E.N. Iaaethaeaiey ca aeaoi?iaoeeyie caieyiuo ieioei aieueoie
i?ioyaeiinoe//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey.-1987.-?7. n.20-24.

12. O?aaiai E.N. Iooe iiauoaiey oi/iinoe naaoiaeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee
noi?ii ai?iaeneie iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey —
1977.-?6.-n.22-28.

13. O?aaiai E.N. Ia onoaiiaeaiee iioeiaeueiuo aeiioneia a
naaoiaeaeueiiia?iie iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey.
-1977.-?4.n.26-31.

14. O?aaiai E.N. I niioiioaiee oi/iinoe oaeiauo e eeiaeiuo ecia?aiee a
naaoiaeaeueiiia?iie iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey, ea?oia?aoey e
ay?ioioinuaiea. — Eueaia.-1977.-26.n.90-97.

15. O?aaiai E.N. I iiauoaiee oi/iinoe ecia?aiey aeaoi?iaoeee
oiiia?aoe/aneeie naaoiaeaeueiiia?aie//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey.
-1978.-?7.n.36-41.

16. O?aaiai E.N. Enneaaeiaaiea naaoiaeaeueiiia?ia a eeeiaoe/aneie
eaia?a oeoio?iia//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey -1979.-?9.n.21-23.

17. O?aaiai E.N. E aii?ino i iia?aoiinoyo enoiaeiuo aeaiuo a ai?iaeneeo
iieeaiiiiao?e/aneeo naoyo//Aaiaeacey, ea?oia?aoey e ay?ioioinuaiea. —
Eueaia.-1980.-15.-31.n.99-104.

18. O?aaiai E.N., Oaa/oe I.I., Iooa A.E. Oi/iinoue iieeaiiiiao?ee,
i?ieiaeaiiie n i?eiaiaieai ae?ioaiaeieeoia//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey.
-1980.-?3.n.25-28.

19. O?aaiai E.N., Naeiiaoei A.A. I caaeneiinoe iinoiyiiie iii?aaee
naaoiaeaeueiiia?a io oaciaiai oaea//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey
-1983.-?8.n.22-23.

20. O?aaiai E.N. I oi/iinoe i?eaaaeaiey e ai?eciioo ecia?aiiuo noi?ii
ai?iaeneie naaoiaeaeueiiia?iie iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey.
-1985.-?8.n.37-39.

21. O?aaiai E.N., Eiaaeue I.E. Eniuoaiey oaoaiiao?a Oa5 e iaoiaeeea
?aaiou n iei//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey. -1984.-?11. n.19-23.

22. O?aaiai E.N., Oeonoye A.O. Aeeyiea naenie/aneiai oaeoi?a ia
onoie/eainoue ioieoia ai?iaeneeo aaiaeace/aneeo naoae//Aaiaeacey e
ea?oia?aoey. — 1988.-?9.n.8-10.

23. O?aaiai E.N. I auaiaeiaeoae oi?ia oiaeia naaoiaeaeueiiia?iie
iieeaiiiiao?ee//Aaiaeacey, ea?oia?aoey e ay?ioioinuaiea. —
Eueaia.-1989.-49.n.128-133.

24. O?aaiai E.N. I iao?ieiae/aneii iaania/aiee aaiaeace/aneeo
ecia?aiee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey. -1989.-?8.n.18-19.

25. O?aaiai E.N., Oaa/oe I.I. Naaoiaeaeueiiia? NO 5 e ?acoeueoaou aai
yenieoaoaoeee//Aaiaeacey e ea?oia?aoey. -1990.-?1.n.14-17.

26. O?aaiai ?.N., Einoaoeueea ss.I. I?iaeaie iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
a?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a a Oe?a?i?//A?niee aaiaeac?? oa ea?oia?ao??.-
1997.-?1. n. 61-66.

27. Ino?ianeee A.E., O?aaiai E.N. Enneaaeiaaiey ai?eciioaeueiie
?ao?aeoeee a o?eaiaoeyoeeiiiie naoe i?eii?neiai ai?iaea// Aaiaeacey e
ea?oia?aoey.-1983.-?11.n.19-25.

28. O?aaiai E.N. Enneaaeiaaiea e o/ao aeeiaieee ioieoia ai?iaeneeo
aaiaeace/aneeo naoae ia caeaieyo e nii?oaeaieyo//Ninoiyiea e
ia?niaeoeau eiaeaia?ii-aaiaeace/aneeo e oioia?aiiao?e/aneeo ?aaio. I.-
1990. n.20-25.

I?aoe? a ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae eiia?an?a ? eiioa?aioe?e

29. Trevogo I.S. Investigation of Horizontal Refraction in Triangulation
Network ofa Seaside City//XVIII General ASSAMBLY IAG. — Gamburg.-1983.
S.125-128.

30. I.Trevogo. Dynamik der geodatischen Punkte an den Hochgebauden //XX
KONGRESS Internationale Verainigung der Vermessungen. —
Melburn.-1994.-s.623/1-623/10.

31. O?aaiai E.N. Iiauoaiea oi/iinoe naaoiaeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee a
ai?iaeneeo oneiaeyo//Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ia?aiiu e noaiu iino?iaiey
aaiaeace/aneeo naoae ai?iaeia. — Iiaineae?ne.-1980.-n.114-119.

32. O?aaiai E.N. Ai?eciioaeueiay ?ao?aeoeey a ai?iaeao n ?acee/iuie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie//Niaa?oainoaiaaiea aiia?aoo?iuo
n?aaenoa e oaaeeoe aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?ao?aeoeee yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei a
caiiie aoiinoa?a. — E?eoone.-1984.n.94-96.

33. O?aaiai E.N. Ai?eciioaeueiay ?ao?aeoeey a ai?iaeneeo aaiaeace/aneeo
naoyo//Cinoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaiaeacee e ea?oia?aoee. —
I.-1986. n.152-155.

34. O?aaiai E.N. O/ao ai?eciioaeueiie ?ao?aeoeee e aeeiaieea ioieoia a
o?eaiaoeyoeeiiiie naoe ai?iaeneiai aaiaeeiaie/aneiai iieeaiia//Aeieeaaeu
XIII Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiiai niaauaiey ii eco/aieth NAeCE ia
aaiaeeiaie/aneeo iieeaiiao.- Oaoeaio.-1991.n.132-133.

35. O?aaiai ?.N. Eiio?ieue ?ioa?aae?a ac??oeaaeo aacen?a i?aoe?c?eieie
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??aie oa GPS-iaoiaeii//No/ani? aeinyaiaiiy aaiaeace/ii?
iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. — Euea?a.-1996. n.71-72.

36. O?aaiai ?.N. I?i ca?eueoaiiy /enea noi??i ? ia?eiao?a oiae?a
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii? iie?aiiiiao???//No/ani? aeinyaiaiiy aaiaeace/ii?
iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.-Euea?a.-1997.n.23-28.

37. O?aaiai ?.N. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy oaciaeo cao?eiie i?e ?iaio?
c aeaeo?iiieie oaciaeie na?oeia?aeaeaeai??aie //Aaiaeace/iee iii?oi?eia,
aaiaeeiai?ea ? ?ao?aeoiiao??y ia iaae? XXI noie?ooy.-
Euea?a.-1998.n.68-71.

Aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa

38. Eeoeineee A.I., O?aaiai E.N., Oeonoye A.O. Ono?ienoai aeey
oeaio?e?iaaiey aaiaeace/aneeo i?eai?ia//A.N.?853391. — A.e. ?29.-1981-3
n.

Aiioaoe?y

O?aaiai ?.N. I?iaeaie iiaoaeiae ieaiiaeo aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae a i?noao oa
iaoiaee ?o ae??oaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.24.01 — aaiaeac?y. Aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, i. Euea?a, 1999 ?.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iia? oeyoe ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iiaoaeiae ieaiiaeo i?nueeeo
aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae. Aiie a?oioothoueny ia ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiiyo, iaoiaeeoe? ?ic?aooieo oi/iino? na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ii?
iie?aiiiiao???, iaoiaeao i?i?i?caoe?? ? a?aooaaiiy iiieeie
na?oeia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a, iioeiaeuei?e eiino?oeoe?? ac??oeaaiai
aaiaeace/iiai aaceno c aei??ii eiai e?i?e GPS-iaoiaeii oa aoaeoeai?e ?
iioeiaeuei?e iaoiaeeoe? aoaeiioaaiiy na?oeia?aeaeaeai???a, iaoiaeeoe?
a?aooaaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ?ao?aeoe?? a i?nueeeo ia?aaeao; iaoiaeeoe?
a?aooaaiiy aeeiai?ee aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a ia aenieeo nii?oaeao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?nuee? ia?aae?, na?oeia?aeaeaeai??i? aei??e, ac??oeaa?
aaiaeace/i? aacene, ai?eciioaeueia ?ao?aeoe?y, aeeiai?ea aaiaeace/ieo
ioieo?a

Aiiioaoeey

O?aaiai E.N. (I?iaeaiu iino?iaiey ieaiiauo aaiaeace/aneeo naoae
a ai?iaeao e iaoiaeu eo ?aoaiey(.

Aeenna?oaoeeae anoue ?oeiienue ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.24.01 — aaiaeacey.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao (Eueaianeay iieeoaoieea(, a.Eueaia, 1999a.

Ai aaaaeaiee iainiiaaia aeooaeueiinoue oaiu, noi?ioee?iaaia oeaeue
e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee, iao/iay iiaecia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea
iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. I?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua i ioaeeeaoeeyo, ai?iaaoeee e
aiaae?aiee.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea i?eaaaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
ai?iaeneie iieeaiiiiao?ee. Iieacaii, /oi aeey nia?aiaiiie
naaoiaeaeueiiia?iie iieeaiiiiao?ee niioiioaiea ( oi/iinoe oaeiauo e
eeiaeiuo ecia?aiee aeinoeaaao 5 e aieaa aaeeieoe. N o/aoii (
i?aaeeiaeaiu oi?ioeu aeey ?an/aoa aeiioneia ia ioeaee oaeiauo e eeiaeiuo
ecia?aiee, aeey ?an/aoa aeiionoeiie eciaiooinoe oiaea e /enea noi?ii.
Iieacaii, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee ( eiiaiua oiaeu noatho oi/iaa auoyioouo.
Enneaaeiaaia oi/iinoue e onoaiiaeaiu i?aeiouanoaa aceiooaeueiuo
iieeaiiiiao?e/aneeo oiaeia.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea ?aoaaony i?iaeaia iiauoaiey oi/iinoe e
yooaeoeaiinoe naaoiaeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea
oaciainoe ia oi/iinoue naaoiaeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee iaoiaeii
neaie?iaaiey ii io?aaeaoaeth e ii ecia?aieyi ia ia?acoeiaii aacena.
Enneaaeiaaia oeeeee/aneay ioeaea aiaeiaiauo e aeene?aoiuo oaciiao?ia
iiiaeo oiiia?aoe/aneeo aeaeueiiia?ia ia ia?acoeiauo aacenao e
onoaiiaeaia aa cia/eoaeueiay aaee/eia, eiaeeaeaaeoaeueiinoue,
iacaaeneiinoue io ?annoiyiey, ianoaaeeueiinoue ai a?aiaie. I?aaeeiaeaia
e aiaae?aia ?aoeeiiaeueiay iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey i?eai?iie iii?aaee
naaoiaeaeueiiia?a ia 4-6 e aieaa eioa?aaeao ia?acoeiaiai aacena e iaeiii
oaciaii oaea. Aia?aua auyaeaia, enneaaeiaaia e o/oaia oaiia?aoo?iay
nenoaiaoe/aneay ioeaea naaoiaeaeueiiia?a.

O?aoee ?acaeae iinayuai ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu iino?iaiey ia?acoeiauo
aacenia e yoaeiie?iaaieth ia ieo naaoiaeaeueiiia?ia. ?ac?aaioaia
eiino?oeoeey e iino?iaiu iiiaioeaio?aiiua ia?acoeiaua aaiaeace/aneea
aacenu n iaoaeee/aneeie o?oa/aouie ciaeaie e oaciaui o/anoeii. Aeeeia
aacena aei 1,5ei, a aai eioa?aaeu e?aoiu 0,5 (. Aia?aua aeey ecia?aiey
eeiee ia?acoeiauo aacenia 2-ai ?ac?yaea oniaoii i?eiaiai (((-iaoiae.
?ac?aaioaiu e aiaae?aiu a i?aeoeeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iino?iaieth e
eiio?ieth ia?acoeiauo aaiaeace/aneeo aacenia e iao?ieiae/aneiai
iaania/aiey naaoiaeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee.

*aoaa?oue ?acaeae iinayuai enneaaeiaaieth e o/aoo ai?eciioaeueiie
?ao?aeoeee a ai?iaeneie o?eaiaoeyoeee e iieeaiiiiao?ee. Aia?aua aaaaeaia
eeanneoeeaoeey ai?iaeia ii eeeiaoe/aneei oneiaeyi e oa?aeoa?iui
iniaaiiinoyi, aeeythuei ia ia?aciaaiea iieae ?ao?aeoeee iaae ai?iaeaie.N
aa o/aoii auiieiaiu iiiainooi/iua yenia?eiaioaeueiua aaiaeace/aneea e
iaoai?ieiae/aneea ecia?aiey a ai?iaeao Iaeanna, Ieine, Eeoeiaa —
oeie/iuo aeey ioaeaeueiuo a?oii. Auiieiaii 1616 i?eaiia aunieioi/iuo
oaeiauo ecia?aiee e iino?iaii 782 ea?ou ecioa?i oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaee/eiu ?ao?aeoeee ninoaaeyee 0,1((0,4(, ?aaea
0,6((0.8(. Aia?aua onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaae i?ea?aaeiui ai?iaeii ia?acoaony
iiea ?ao?aeoeee ia?aiai ?iaea. Enneaaeiaaia ai?eciioaeueiay ?ao?aeoeey
ia 10 oeeoeao Iaeannu e Ieinea n ?aciie i?eaioe?iaeie, i?e ?aciie
iiaiaea e eioaineaiinoe nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee, oaeaeaiiinoe aece?iuo
eo/ae io noai no?iaiee e o.i. I?iaaaeaiu iiiaiaeiaaiua oaeiaua e
iaoai?ieiae/aneea ecia?aiey. Auiieiaii aieaa 2000 i?eaiia oaeiauo
ecia?aiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaee/eiu ?ao?aeoeee iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 30(.
Iaeaieaa eneaaeathony iai?aaeaiey, i?ioiaeyuea aaeece aeeeiiuo e aunieeo
caeaiee. Eaoii 10-15 aeiae a ianyoe ia oeeoeao ai?iaeia iiaeii
iaeeaeaoue neeueiuo iieae ?ao?aeoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu ia?eiaeu e oneiaey,
aeaaii?eyoiua aeey oaeiauo ecia?aiee a o?eaiaoeyoeee e iieeaiiiiao?ee e
ninoaaeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii o/aoo ai?eciioaeueiie ?ao?aeoeee.

Iyoee ?acaeae iinayuai i?iaeaia eco/aiey e o/aoa aeeiaieee ioieoia
ai?iaeneeo aaiaeace/aneeo naoae, onoaiiaeaiuo ia aunieeo no?iaieyo.
Aia?aua ?acaeaeaii e ioeaiaii aeeyiea ai?eciioaeueiie ?ao?aeoeee e
aeeiaieee ioieoia ia oi/iinoue oaeiauo ecia?aiee iaae ai?iaeii.
Iieacaii, /oi ec-ca aeeiaieee no?iaiee — iineoaeae aaiaeace/aneeo
ioieoia iiae aeeyieai i?yiie nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee eciaiaiey eii?aeeiao
ioieoia a oa/aiee aeiy iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 20 ii e aieaa. Iie ei??aee?oao
n aeiaaiui oiaeii oaiia?aoo?u e ?aaeeaoeee.

Aia?aua eco/aii aeeyiea naenie/aneiai oaeoi?a ia onoie/eainoue
aaiaeace/aneeo ioieoia ia no?iaieyo e onoaiiaeaiu eciaiaiey eo
eii?aeeiao a Eeoeiaaa ia 5,3(124,4 ii. Iieacaii, /oi iaeaieaa
onoie/eauie auee caeaiey aaoaiiie oi?iu ec iiiieeoiiai aeaeaciaaoiia,
/oi noaaeeecaoeey inaaeaiey e e?aiia iiauo caeaiee iiaeao aeeeoueny 5 e
aieaa eao, iiyoiio iineoaeyie aaiaeace/aneeo ioieoia neaaeoao
auae?aoue eaieoaeueiua caeaiey aic?anoii aieaa

5 eao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ai?iaeneea naoe, naaoiaeaeueiiia?iua ecia?aiey,
ia?acoeiaua aaiaeace/aneea aacenu, ai?eciioaeueiay ?ao?aeoeey, aeeiaieea
aaiaeace/aneeo ioieoia.

Annotation

I.S. Trevogo. The problems of geodetic network construction in a city
and methods to solve them.

Dissertation is a research-work to get a scientific degree- a Doctor of
Geodetic Sciences. The specialty registration number is 05.24.01. State
University ”Lviv Polytechnic”. City of Lviv, 1999.

The ways of solving problems in city’s geodetic network construction are
considered. They are based on new theoretical principles; methodology of
estimating the exactness of long-distance light polygonometry; methods
of minimization and working with mistakes in long-distance light
measurements; optimal construction of the model geodetic baseline (it’s
lines are measured with GPS-method) and effective method of
light-rangings standardization; methodology of working with horizontal
refraction in city’s networks and methodology of estimating dynamic of
geodetic points on high buildings.

Keywords: city’s networks, long-distance light measurements, model
geodetic baselines, horizontal refraction, and dynamic of geodetic
points.

PAGE

PAGE 2

PAGE

Похожие записи