Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

EA*IA?

Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 947.83(477.83)

I?IAEAIA OE?A?INUeEIAI OI?AA?NEOAOO O EUeAIA? A E?IOe? O?O — IA II*AOEO
OO NO.:

NONI?EUeII — IIE?OE*IEE ANIAEO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

E ue a ? a – 1 9 9 9

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee –

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?eeoi Ieeiea A?eai?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo e?a?i

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe –

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iai/oe Iae ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo

aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ea/a?aaa Noaiai Iao?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI
Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi???, i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 9 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 35.051.12 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290602, i.Euea?a, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290005,
i.Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 8 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Nooee I.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ai?ioueaa oe?a?ioe?a ca ina?oo ??aeiith iiaith
iaeaaeeoue aei iaea?eueo yne?aaeo noi??iie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
Aaee/eie e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. Aaaeeeaei ?? aniaeoii aoee ciaaaiiy
ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia?, ye? ia??aeei ianee ca niaith
neae?/ai? aeie?, a ?ieiee, ye oea aoei o aeiaaeeo o?aa?/ii? caaeaae?
oe?a?inueeiai nooaeaioa Aaeaia Eioeea a 1910 ?., – ethaenuee? aea?oae.
Ia ii/aoeo OO no. ni?aaa canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o
Eueaia?, ii?yae ?c i?iaeaiith naeiiai? aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie, iaeaaeaea aei
aieiaieo iie?oe/ieo iinooeao?a aaeeoeueei? a?iiaaenueeino?. O?eaaeee /an
ieoaiiy i?i oi?aa?neoao a?ae?a?aaaei ?ieue ?ioaa?oth/iai oaeoi?a a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?, iin?aeaei iii?oia i?noea a aaiethoe??
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo oa oe?a?inueei-aano??enueeeo aca?iei. A?aeoae
aea/aiiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae a eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ieo
?aae?e Aaee/eie aea? aaaaoee iaoa??ae aeey inieneaiiy iniaeeainoae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a oa iieye?a i?ae aeaaeith
Aano?i-Oai?ueie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaia ca?aeii c iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith i?ia?aiith oa
oaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo ieai?a eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? ? i?iaeaia canioaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo a Aano??? a e?ioe? O?O – ia
ii/aoeo OO no. ia oe? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Aaee/eie, i?aaeiaoii
– ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa
a?iiaaenueeeo nee Aaee/eie (iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, iaoe?iiaeueieo
ia?eaiaionueeeo oa naeiiaeo i?aaenoaaieoeoa, nooaeaio?a ? aeeeaaea/?a,
ea??aieoeoaa Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, iaoeiaeo onoaiia ?
a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue oa oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy e?ath) uiaei
i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue 1899–1914 ??. Oea aoa
oe?e?niee aoai a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, ci?no yeiai
aecia/aany oi?ioaaiiyi ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ii? no?oeoo?e, aeii?ioaaiiyi a
iueiio aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee, ?o aeoeaiith ai?ioueaith ca ?aae?caoe?th
eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aa oe?a?ioe?a Aano?i-Oai?ueie, cie?aia a aaeoc?
ina?oe. O 1899–1914 ??. oi?aa?neoaonueea ni?aaa ia?aoai?eeanue a iaeio c
aaaeeeaeo a ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?, a aieiaiith
?oo?eiith neeith, ui aenooiaea ca ?? ?ica’ycaiiy, noaee nooaeaioe e
aeeeaaea/? Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? aieeao ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeeo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao a e?ioe? O?O –
ia ii/aoeo OO no. ia oi?ioaaiiy ?aeaieia?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo,
i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo nee, ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei-aano??enueeeo aca?iei. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
cacia/aii? iaoe aeena?oaioia? iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaiae?coaaoe noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie oa aeaea?aeueio aaco
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

c’ynoaaoe i?noea oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio aaeeoeueeiio
?on? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no., i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th oi?aa?neoaonueei?
i?iaeaie a?ae ?? aeieeiaiiy aei ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie;

ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iniiai? aoaie oa iniaeeaino? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeeo
nooaeaio?a oa aeeeaaea/?a Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca iaoe?iiaeueio
aeuo oeieo a 1899–1914 ??.;

aeine?aeeoe ?ieue oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae o i?ia?aiao ? i?aeoe/i?e,
cie?aia ia?eaiaionuee?e, ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee,
noaaeaiiy aei ia? oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiino? e?ath, aioiai?noue
inoaiiuei? i?aeo?eiaoe aeiiaaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

c’ynoaaoe iiceoe?th iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa/?e uiaei iiaeeeaino?
noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?, iieacaoe i?noea
oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy a caaaeuei?e nenoai? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
noia?a/iinoae o Aaee/ei?, a oaeiae c’ynoaaoe eiai ?ieue o i?aeia?o?eieo
eiioe?eoao o iieuenueeiio iie?oe/iiio oaai??;

aecia/eoe aieea ciaaaiue ca oe?a?inueeo aeuo oeieo a Aano?i-Oai?uei? ia
?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?
oa ?noi?ecio. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii iaoiaee aiae?co oa
neioaco, ii??aiyeueiee oa iieniaee iaoiaee i?ciaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei a oe?a?inuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a Aano?i-Oai?nuee?e ?iia???, ?ie? caaaeaii? i?iaeaie o
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aeena?oaoe?y a?aeoai?th?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeo ai?ioueao iaaeiei oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy oa
?? aieea ia aeoea?caoe?th noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee iaio ia?iae?a.
Aia?oa aena?oeaii ni?iae oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai oaai?o neii?aeeioaaoe
a?iiaaenueeee ?oo ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Aaee/ei? c ae?yeuei?noth
oe?a?inueei? ia?eaiaionueei? ?ai?acaioaoe??, ia?aaiai?aie c o?yaeii ?
iieuenueeeie iie?oe/ieie neeaie. Aaoi? oaeiae cai?iiiioaaa aeanio
ia??iaeecaoe?th ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao a e?ioe?
O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui c?a?aiee o i?e
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? c?iaeai? ia eiai iniia? oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?aeaioiaoe? iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue oa
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie e Iieueu?,
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei a Aano?i-Oai?uei?. Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a i?i
ciaaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a ? aeeeaaea/?a Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ca iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo oeieo aeicaieeoue a?aeoai?eoe iaeei c
eeth/iaeo ia??iae?a a ?noi??? oeueiai iaenoa??oiai aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai
caeeaaeo Oe?a?ie, ni?eyoeia aeoiaaiith iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a, ?ioa?ano
aei ieioeiai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a iioae?eiaai?e iiiia?ao?? oa naie noaooyo,
aeiiia?aeyo, aeaieioaieo ia i?aeia?iaeieo ? a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: «Euea?a: ?noi??y, ianaeaiiy, eoeueoo?a» (Euea?a, 1994),
«Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia» (Euea?a, 1994), «V??
I?aeia?iaeiee neaa?noe/iee eieiea?oi» (Euea?a, 1998), «Euea?a:
i?noi–noni?euenoai–eoeueoo?a» (Euea?a, 1998), «Oe?a?inueea o?eieia?y:
oeiee, iinoao?, i?iaeaie» (Euea?a, 1998), «Oe?a?inuee? aeu? oeiee
1919–1926 ?ie?a ? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?» (Euea?a,
1999).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei
i?eioeeiii. A?aeiia?aeii aei i?iaeaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiie?aoieo
caaaeaiue ? eia?ee aeeeaaeo aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. ?? ianya noaiiaeoue 199 noi??iie (c
ieo 176 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo). Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
i?noeoue 499 iiceoe?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee oaie,
aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea” ie?aneaii iniiai? aoaie
aea/aiiy ieoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo a ?noi??ia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeueio aaco i?iaeaie.

Ia?oeie aeine?aeieeaie ni?aae oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoee o/anieee
ciaaaiue ca iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo oeieo a i?aeai?ii?e Iieueu? – aeeeaaea/?
e nooaeaioe Oe?a?inueeiai oa?iiiai (a?eueiiai) oi?aa?neoaoo. Aenooiath/e
i?iaeiaaeoaa/aie o?aaeeoe?e ai?oe?a ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao, aiie
iieacaee, ui ?noi??y oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae cana?ae/o?
aeene?ei?iaoe?eio iie?oeeo iieye?a uiaei oe?a?ioe?a. Ia caaaeueiiio oe?
iioae?eiaaieo o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae ?ia?o ae??ciythoueny i?aoe? Aaneey
Ioae?iai, a yeeo ?oo ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia? aia?oa
a?aeoai?aii ye oe?e?nia ?noi?e/ia yaeua.

A oe?a?inuee?e ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oi?aa?neoaonueea ni?aaa ia
iiaea noaoe ia’?eoii aeaoaeueiiai iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy, ia?aaeon?i /a?ac
?? yne?aaa iaoe?iiaeueia caaa?aeaiiy. O ?iaioao c ?noi??? ina?oe o
Aaee/ei?, ?noi??? i?noa Eueaiaa oa aeia?aeeiaeo aeaeaiiyo ?aaeyinueeiai
ia??iaeo oey i?iaeaia aena?oeaia eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii, a iaoe?iiaeuei?
iioeae ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a ooo/ii cai?iai? eeaniaeie.
Iieaciaei o oeueiio ieai? ? ia?en Eineia Oeueioa «Iiaeaea Aaeaia
Eioeea». O iueiio iacaaae iiceoeaii o?aeoothoueny ae?? oe?a?inueeeo
nooaeaio?a, aea aiaeii/an ??cei canoaeaeothoueny oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i?
neee ca ia/aaoi c?aaeieoeueeo uiaei ciaaaiue inoaii?o iiceoe?th. Noaiai
Iaea?/oe, oi?eioaoenue i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? ina?oe a Aaee/ei? a
ie?aiiio ?icae?e? nai?? iiiia?ao??, eiinoaooaaa, ui aaciina?aaei?i
i?eaiaeii aei caaino?aiiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae aoea aeene?ei?iaoe?y
oe?a?inueei? iiae c aieo iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?iaeaia oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? noaea i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiue caei?aeiiieo oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a. ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae oa nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo o Eueaia?
?icaeyaeaee Aaneeue A?aeiia, Ieoaeei Ai?en, Aieiaeeie? ssi?a, Ia?oa
Aiaa/aanueea-Oii’ye, Iaaei Naieoey, Ie?ineaa Nai/eoei, Aiaaeai
No?oi?inueeee, Aiaoieue O??ieue, Ieoaeei ss?aiei. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
Oaiaei?a-Aiaaeaia Oethoeth?e a?aeoai?ththoue ?noi??th
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae a naei? oa ia?eaiaio?, yea
aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaaea ia noai oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae. A ?noi?e/ieo
ana ?aaia Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai iieacaii i?noea oi?aa?neoaonueei?
i?iaeaie a oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoieao.

Ia’?eoeaiee iaoeiaee aiae?c ciaaaiue ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao noaa
iiaeeeaei i?ney caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
no/anieo ?noi?ee?a nooo?ai ?icoe?eee ea?oeio ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue i?i
ai?ioueao oe?a?ioe?a ca ??aiii?aai?noue o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?.
Oae, Ieeiea E?eeoi aena?oeea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa,
i?eae?eeaoe iniaeeao oaaao oe?a?inuee?e «Aeaaeai?/i?e a?iiaae?» oa
iieuenuee?e «Aeaaeai?/i?e /eoaeuei?». Iaoe?iiaeueia cia/aiiy ai?ioueae
oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? oa nooaeaionueei? a?iiaaenueeino? ca oi?aa?neoao o
Eueaia? iieacaa Eaii?ae Caoe?eueiye. Ieeiea Eoaooye cacia/ea, ui
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. ?icii/aany i?eioeeiiai iiaee aoai ?ooo ca
iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo oeieo, iia’ycaiee ?c caaa?oaiiyi ia?o?eii-iie?oe/iiai
iiae?eo oe?a?inoaa o Aaee/ei?.

Ie?aieo aniaeo?a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? oi?eaeenue
ss?ineaa Aeaoeaae/, Einoyioei Eiiae?aothe oa ?ai? Ae?e/.
Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia oei ciaaaiue aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a ca
iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao a?aeoai?aii a ?iaioao ss?ineaaa A?eoeaea,
Noaiaia Iaea?/oea, Ieaen?y Nooiai, Ieoaeea Oaaaoeyea.

Oi?aa?neoaonueea ieoaiiy ye neeaaeiao /anoeio oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
aca?iei o Aaee/ei? iia?aeii aena?oethaaee e iieuenuee? ?noi?eee, i?ioa
ye ie?aia iaoeiaa i?iaeaia oi?aa?neoaonueea ni?aaa iio?aieea a eiei ?o
caoe?eaaeaiue iauiaeaaii. Oeth i?iaeaio ?icaeyaea? e?ae?anueea
aeine?aeieoey Eoeooioa I?oaeaanueea, ye?e, iaeiae, ia aaeaeiny
aano?aaoaaoenue a?ae ioe?iie iieuenueei? ioae?oeenoeee ceaio O?O–OO no.
I?noea ai?ioueae aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiineiao 1888–1908 ??. ?icaeyioa *aneaa
Ia?oa/. Iacaaae, o?aeooth/e ieoaiiy i?i canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ia’?eoeai?oa, i?ae E.I?oaeaanueea, a?i oaae ia oieeioa
niieone aena?oeeoe eiai ye can?a caeiaoooy oe?a?inueeeie iaoe?iiaeueieie
aeaiie?aoaie iie?oe/ieo aeea?aeaiae?a o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?.

Aeaea?aea aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. sse?ni? c?ooaiiy o aea/aii? ni?aae
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo
OO no. ? iiaeeeaeie eeoa ca oiiae aaaaeaiiy o iaoeiaee ia?a oe?ieiai
ianeao aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? caeaa?eueoiai caa??aathoueny o
euea?anueeeo a?o?ainoiaeuao. Uii?aaaea, i?e ?o aiae?c? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe
oa, ui ?yae aeieoiaio?a, cie?aia, i?ioieiee can?aeaiue ? iinoaiiae
iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ia caaaeaee
aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaeathoue iiae??, iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth
oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a oa aeeeaaea/?a.

Ea?oeio ai?ioueae a no?iao Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeiiiiaaathoue
a?aeoai?eoe aeieoiaioe Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Euea?anueei? iaeano?,
ianaiia?aae oiiaeo «Oi?aa?neoao ?i. ssia Eaceie?a o Eueaia?», a yeiio
i?noyoueny aeiiia?aei? caienee ?aeoi??a aei aano??enueeiai o?yaeo,
i?ioieiee can?aeaiue aeaaeai?/iiai naiaoo oa oaeoeueoaonueeeo ?aae,
iaii?aiaeoie nooaeaio?a oa aeeeaaea/?a aei o?yaeo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo
ia?eaiaionueeeo i?aaenoaaieoeoa, i?iaeoe canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, iaoa??aee i?i ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa,
iniaia? e aeenoeeie?ia?i? ni?aae. Oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo i?noyoue ne?ae/?
ni?aae Euea?anueei? i?ieo?aoo?e uiaei aenooi?a iieiae? o Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? (oiiae «Aee?aeoe?y iie?oe?? o Eueaia?»). Aeieoiaioe i?i
ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa caa??aathoueny o
oiiae? «Oiaa?enoai «Aeaaeai?/ia a?aonoai» o Eueaia?».

C a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao
Oe?a?ie o Eueaia? aaaeeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue aeieoiaioai i?aceae??
Aaeeoeueeiai iai?nieoeoaa. Oea, cie?aia, aeiianaiiy iia?oiaeo noa?inoa
i?i aa?oaoe?ei? aeoe?? ca a?aee?eooy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, eii??
eenooaaiiy i?aceae?? iai?nieoeoaa c aano??enueeei o?yaeii a
oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ni?aa?. Aaaeeeaeie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniaeno?
oiiaee aaeaieao?a, ui caoeuaee nooaeaio?a ia «i?ioean? 101-ai» 1911 ?.,
– Aieiaeeie?a Noa?inieuenueeiai, Aieiaeeie?a Io?eiiae/a oa ss?ineaaa
Aanaeianueeiai. C iniaenoeo oiiae?a THe?aia ?iiai/oea, Noaiaia
Oiiao?anueeiai, THe?aia Aa/einueeiai, Ieoaeea Iaaeeea, Ee?eea
Nooaeeinueeiai, Aiaoa Oioeaae/a aeei?enoaii eenooaaiiy o ni?aa?
oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae aeieoiaioe, ui cana?ae/othoue
ni?iae iie?oe/ii neii?aeeioaaoe ?oo ca oi?aa?neoao. C aeieoiaio?a
Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?iai? O.Oaa/aiea o Eueaia? aeei?enoai? i?iaeoe
canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, iaii?aiaeoie aei o?yaeo, ca?oe
i?e ii?caeee aeaeaaaoe?e oiaa?enoaa aei A?aeiy oiui.

Ii?yae c a?o?aieie aeieoiaioaie aaaeeeaith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ?
iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee, ye? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia oae? a?oie: ca?oe
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee (ui??/i? noaiia?aie can?aeaiue Aaeeoeueeiai
naeio oa Aea?aeaaii? ?aaee), oiai/ani? ?noi?eei-aeia?aeeia? oa
noaoenoe/i? aeaeaiiy, aeieoiaioe o/aniee?a ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeee
oi?aa?neoao, niiaaaee i/aaeaeoe?a, i?ia?aie iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
ioae?oeenoeea, oe?a?inueea oa iieuenueea i?ana.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iniiai? aoaie ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao
o Eueaia?» i?inoaaeo?oueny ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae i?ioyaii O?O no., oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? neee, aecia/athoueny ia?aaeoiiae oa i?e/eie
ia?aoiaeo aei ye?nii iiaiai aoaio ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao
o Eueaia?, aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? a?oe oi?aa?neoaonueeeo ciaaaiue
oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a ? aeeeaaea/?a o 1899–1914 ??.

Ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O – ii/aoie OO no. noaee a ?noi??? ia?iae?a
Aaanao?cueei? iiia?o?? ia??iaeii ae?aciiai iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai,
eoeueoo?iiai iinooio. Oe? i?ioeane ca/aieee ? Aaee/eio, aea neooaoe?y
aiaeii/an oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany caaino?aiiyi oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
noinoie?a. *e ia iaea?eueoa oe?a?inueei-iieuenueea noia?ieoeoai
?icai?ioeinue o noa?? ina?oe. Aaaaeaee, ui iaea?aeaiiy ciaiue ??aeiith
iiaith ? iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaoe??.

«Aania ia?iae?a» a Aano??? noaea iiaooi?i iiooiaoii aei ai?ioueae
oe?a?ioe?a ca nai? i?aaa o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, noai?eea oiiae
aeey aeoea?caoe?? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy No?aeii? Aaee/eie.
Oe?a?inueea aeaeaaaoe?y ia Neia’yinueeiio eiia?an? a I?ac? 1848 ?.
caia?a/oaaea aeiiaaaiiy iieuenueeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a noiniaii
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iieuenueei? iiae o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?
noaa?aeaeoaaea, ui inoaii?e ioneoue noaoe oe?a?inueeei. Aaaeeeai
a?aei?oeoe, ui ni?aaaaeeea?noue oe?a?inueeeo aeiiaaaiue aeciaaaa
oiae?oi?e aano??enueeee o?yae.

Ieoaiiy i?i iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo iinoaei c
iiaith neeith a ia??iae eiinoeoooe?eieo ?aoi?i a Aano??enuee?e iiia?o??
a 60-o? ?iee O?O no. Ooeath/e i?ioeaaao iieuenueeei aaoiiii?nonueeei
aeiiaaaiiyi, A?aeaiue iio?aaoaaa nithco c oe?a?ioeyie ? iaaeaicia/ii
aeaaaa c?icoi?oe inoaii?i naith aioiai?noue oe?a?i?coaaoe Euea?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao. Iai?eeeaae, o a?aeiia?aeue ia ooaaeo Aaeeoeueeiai naeio
1869 ?. i?i iieii?caoe?th oi?aa?neoaoo aano??enueea i?i?noa?noai
a??iniia?aeaiue oa ina?oe cayaeei, ui oo?eiaiiy aeaio iieuenueeeo
oi?aa?neoao?a o Aaee/ei? ia iaeaaeeoue aei iaia’yce?a aea?aeaae ?
e?eaaeeoeia ae?oao iaoe?iiaeuei?noue e?ath.

I?ioa o?yae a oiiaao ciai?oiuei? oa aioo??oiuei? ianoaa?eueiino? o
aea?aeaa? 60-o–70-o ??. O?O no. ia aoa iine?aeiaiei o nai?io noaaeaii?
aei aeiia iieuenueei? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe Aaee/eie. Iieyee iinooiiai
ia?aae?aee o nai? ?oee ea??ai? eaiee aaeeoeueei? aaoiiii??. Eia?/iei
iane?aeeii oeueiai noaea oaeiae ? iiaoaiia iieii?caoe?y Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, ye?e o?yae /ei?ac oi iaioa iie?aany. Uii?aaaea,
?iia?aoi?nueea iinoaiiaa a?ae 4 eeiiy 1871 ?. ai?iaaaeaeoaaea
oo?aea?noe/iee (aeaiiiaiee – iieuenueeee ? oe?a?inueeee) i?eioeei
aeeeaaeaiiy a oeueiio iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?, ? oi?iaeueii o?yae caaaeaee
aeciaaaa oo?aea?ci Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aea a 70-o ?ieao,
aiane?aeie neaaeiai ?icaeoeo aa?noae iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe??,
i?ca?ieo aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae oe?a?ioe? ia ciiaee ?acoeueoaoeaii
caoenoeoe nai? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane a no?iao oi?aa?neoaoo. Iieyee
caoiieee o nai? ?oee ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue eaoaae?. O 1900 ?. ia o?ueio
oaeoeueoaoao Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo oe?a?ioe? ia?eiaee eeoa 6
i?ioani?nueeeo eaoaae? ? iaeio aeioeaioo?o. Aeeni?iii?oe?y i?ae
?aaeueiei noaiii oe?a?inueeeo aeeeaae?a o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? oa
ina?oi?ie iio?aaaie oe?a?ioe?a aoea ua a?eueo iii?oiith ia i?eeeaae?
noaoenoeee nooaeaio?a. Ca io?oe?eieie a?aeiiinoyie, c 1819 nooaeaio?a,
ui iaa/aeeny ia /ioe?ueio oaeoeueoaoao Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo 1899
i. ?., nooaeaio?a-iieye?a (eaoieee?a) aoei 895 in?a, oe?a?ioe?a
(a?aei-eaoieee?a) – 545.

I?ia?aei? oe?a?inuee? neee ona?aeiieee aaaeeea?noue ai?ioueae ia eeoa ca
ieae/a ? na?aaei? oe?eueieoeoai, aea e ca iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo oeieo
iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. A?aeoiae? ieoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo iino?eii i?aei?iaeinue ia noi??ieao oe?a?inueei? ia?o?eii?
i?ane ? o?aaeeoe?eii ?icaeyaeaeinue e??cue i?ecio
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei-aano??enueeeo aca?iei. Iaeaaaeeea?oith
ia?aaeoiiaith aeey caeiaoooy aeanii? aeui? oeiee a Aaee/ei? aoei iii?oia
i?aeianaiiy ia ceai? noie?oue iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a.
Oi?aa?neoao noaaaa iaaaeueiith iio?aaith iiaeaeueoiai eoeueoo?iiai ?
iie?oe/iiai i?ia?ano.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoaoia? aeiaaeiny noaoe a?aiith
caiaeei? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueei? iieiae? «ca i?aai oe?a?inueei?
aeeeaaeiai? oa o?yaeiai? iiae». Oey ai?ioueaa iaaeaea ?ooia? aaeeoeueeeo
oe?a?ioe?a ca iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo oeieo ye?nii iiaiai ci?noo oa oi?i. C
aeooae?caoe??th a nooaeaionueeiio ?on? oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy, ui ia
aeoiaeeei aein? ca ?aiee aeeneon?e o ii??aiyii aocueeeo eieao
?ioae?aaioe?? oa iaoeoe?e aei o?yaeo, aiii iaa?aei
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aciiaino. Ca aiaeia??th c ??aaeaioeciii ?ioeo
ia?iae?a Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia??? (/ao?a, ?oae?eoe?a, neiaaioe?a),
i?aai?ciaaiee nooaeaionueeee ?oo iaaeaa iiaooiueiai iiooiaoo ?icaeoeia?
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy.

Iii?e oa, ui ai?ioueaa oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a o Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?icaeaaeany i?ae aaneii oo?aea?caoe?? oeueiai iaa/aeueiiai
caeeaaeo, c o?aooaaiiyi ia?niaeoeae aiia oaeoe/ii ni?yiiaoaaeanue ia
canioaaiiy ie?aiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?. No?aoaa?th ciaaaiue ca oaeee
oi?aa?neoao oeyoii caoenoo i?aa oe?a?ioe?a a ?nioth/iio Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? iae?aneea ua 1897 ?. I.A?ooaanueeee. Ii/aoie i?aai?ciaaii?
ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai nooaeainoaa Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo ina?oo aoa iaeo?ni?oei /eiii iia’ycaiee c? noai?aiiyi
1896 ?. nooaeaionueeiai oiaa?enoaa «Aeaaeai?/ia a?iiaaea», yea 1900 ?.
ia’?aeiaei o nai?o eaaao 66 % nooaeaio?a-oe?a?ioe?a na?onueeeo
oaeoeueoao?a Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aeiiae ie?aiiai oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? aoee aenoioo? ia ?
? ?? a?/ao nooaeaio?a-oe?a?ioe?a Aano?i-Oai?ueie 1899 ? 1900 ??.
I?iaieaoe?eia iiaaae?iea iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? oi?aa?neoaoo, yea
i?iaeiaaeoaaea ?aii?oaaoe i?aaa oe?a?inueei? iiae, i?aeooiaooaaea
oe?a?inueea nooaeaionoai aei ??oo/?oeo ae?e. Iecea eiioe?eo?a o
1900–1901 ??. i?ecaaea aei aeeeth/aiiy c oi?aa?neoaoo 5 oe?a?inueeeo
nooaeaio?a. Ia ciae i?ioanoo i?ioe oeueiai aeene?ei?iaoe?eiiai ??oaiiy
?aooa nooaeaio?a-oe?a?ioe?a aeaiiino?aoeaii aeienaeeny c oi?aa?neoaoo. O
a?oaei? 1901 ?. Euea?anueeee oi?aa?neoao iieeioei 583
nooaeaioe-oe?a?ioe?, ye? i?aaioee oeei e?ieii i?eaa?iooe noni?eueio
aeoieo Aano?i-Oai?ueie aei ni?aae canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Uii?aaaea, ae?oeo 1902 ?. a?eueo?noue naoean?iia??a iiaa?ioeeny aei
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, caaeia?eueieaoenue iacia/ieie iinooieaie
oi?aa?neoaonueeeo aeanoae.

C i?eieiaiiyi naoean?? caaa?oeany ia?oee aoai oe?a?inueeiai
nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?. I?ioyaii 1902–1903
??. oe?a?inueea iieiaeue oo?eioaaeanue a?ae aeoeaieo aeoe?e. Neeueiei
iiooiaoii aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?ioueae noaee ?aaiethoe?ei? iiae??
1905–1906 ??. o Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?. Iaeiei ?c aieiaieo iinooeao?a
oe?a?inueeiai nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo noa? a oeae ia??iae iaaeaiiy
oe?a?inuee?e iia? ??aiii?aaiiai c iieuenueeith noaoono i?e i?iaaaeaii?
?iiao?eeoeyoe?? (aeoo o?i/enoiai ca?aooaaiiy nooaeaio?a ?-ai eo?no).
Eiioe?eo iaaeiei oeueiai ieoaiiy i?eca?a o 1906–1907 ??. aei e?eueeio
aa?eeaaeieo ai?a i?ae iieuenueeeie oa oe?a?inueeeie nooaeaioaie o
Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?. 4 ea?oiy 1907 ?. oe?a?inuee? aeeeaaea/?
oeueiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeneaee aei A?aeiy aeaiooaoe?th, yeo ni?eueii c
oe?a?inueeeie ia?eaiaionueeeie iineaie i?eeiyee i?ai’??-i?i?no? ?
i?i?no? a??iniia?aeaiue oa ina?oe. Aano??enuee? o?yaeiaoe? aeciaee, ui
iinooiiaa ca?eueoaiiy /enea oe?a?inueeeo eaoaae? o Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? c ia?niaeoeaith ?o aeae?eaiiy a ie?aiee oi?aa?neoao ?
?aeeiei oeyoii iiaeieaiiy eiioe?eoo, iaeiae aeiiaaaeenue aae oe?a?inuee?
nooaeaioe iaaaeii i?eieieee iaeaaaeueio ai?ioueao. Ia ii/aoeo 1908 ?.
i?i?no? a??iniia?aeaiue oa ina?oe ciaia’ycaa aeano? Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo neanoaaoe aeo ?iiao?eeoeyoe??, uia caiia?aoe iiaeaeueoei
nooe/eai.

Oi?iaeiaae 1908–1909 ??. oe?a?inueea iieiaeue ia aaeaaaeanue aei
iaeaaaeueii? ai?ioueae, niiae?aath/enue ia ia?eaiaionueea iieaaiaeaeaiiy
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae. I?ioa iieuenueea a?eueo?noue a aeaaeai?/iiio
naiao? oi?aa?neoaoo noaea ia oeyo i?iaieaoe?e, ooaaeeaoe ia ii/aoeo 1910
?. ??oaiiy caa?iooenue aei aano??enueeiai o?yaeo c i?ioaiiyi
caeiiiaeaa/iai cae??ieaiiy iieuenueeiai oa?aeoa?o oi?aa?neoaoo. Oeae
e?ie iinoaaea i?ae caa?ico caeiaooee oe?a?ioe?a o Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao?. A oiiaao /a?aiaiai caaino?aiiy a?aeiiaeeenue nooe/ee i?ae
iieuenueeeie oa oe?a?inueeeie nooaeaioaie. Iaaaea/? oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oee?a ia oeyoo ia?eaiaionueeiai ae??oaiiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae
ooiaoioee oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a aei a?eueo ??oo/eo oi?i ai?ioueae. 1
eeiiy 1910 ?. i?ae /an iaeaaaeueiiai a?/a a oi?aa?neoao? niaeaoioea
nooe/ea, i?ae /an yei? aoa nia?oaeueii ii?aiaiee oe?a?inueeee nooaeaio
Aaeai Eioeei. Oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a aoei caeioaa/aii o i?iaieoaaii?
ianiaeo aacii?yaee?a, 49 c ieo a?ae?aoiaaii c oi?aa?neoaoo.

O 1911–1914 ??. oe?a?inueea nooaeaionueea iieiaeue iaaeae? aeoeaii
aeiiaaaeany canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?. Iniaeeaa
iacaaeiaieaiiy o nooaeaionueeeo eieao aeeeeeaa c?ea
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo ia?aaiai??a a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ni?aa? ia
ii/aoeo 1913 ?. Nooaeaionuee? aeoea?noe caeeeeaee iiaa?iooenue aei
iaeaaaeueieo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae. Iiaeaeueoiio ?icai?oaiith
nooaeaionueeeo aeoe?e ia?aoeiaeea ii/aoie Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a» i?iaiae?ciaaii
noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee aei i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, ?oi? ni?iae aeiiiaoeny ?? ae??oaiiy o A?aeainueeiio
ia?eaiaio? oa a aano??enueeeo o?yaeiaeo eieao.

Eiee nooaeaioe-oe?a?ioe? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Aano?i-Oai?ueie
cayaeee i?i naith ??oo/?noue ai?ioeny ca noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?, oea aeiiaaaiiy no??iei oa?eoei a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeeooy aaeeoeueeiai e?ath. Nooaeaionuee? aeoe??
noaee ae?oaeie ca cia/aiiyi iiae?yie i?ney aeai?/eo eaiiai?e, caeaoieie
aeoea?coaaoe noni?eueia aeeooy. Iii?e oea, noinoiee i?ae oe?a?inueeeie
iie?oe/ieie neeaie oa nooaeaionueeeie aeoea?noaie neeaaeaeeny nii/aoeo
iaeaaei – aeiaeia c oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e ia aoea aioiaith i?aeo?eiaoe
nooaeaionuee? aeiiae eiie?aoieie iie?oe/ieie e?ieaie. Ea??aieoeoai oeeo
ia?o?e i???iooaaeiny ia caeiii? caniae ai?ioueae e oiio iaioi/a
ni?eeiaei caeeeee iieiae? aei i?aai?caoe?? ianiaeo iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e a
oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ni?aa?.

Iaaaeae? aeey oe?a?ioe?a iane?aeee ia?eaiaionueeeo 1900 ?. ? naeiiaeo
1901 ?. aeai??a ni?eyee ooaa?aeaeaiith na?aae ea??aieoeoaa Oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? (OIAeI) i?aaiaiiy neii?aeeioaaoe
oe?a?inueeo ia?eaiaionueeo ae?yeuei?noue oa nooaeaionueeee ?oo. O 1901
?. neio?iiii ?c nooaeaionueeeie aenooiaie oe?a?inuee? iinee ii?ooeee
oi?aa?neoaonueeo ni?aao a ia?eaiaio? oeyoii ?ioa?iaeyoe?e (caieo?a) aei
o?yaeo.

Naoean?y oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a 1901 ?. neieeoioea oe?a?inueeo
a?iiaaenuee?noue Aaee/eie, aeoai?eea iaaa/aia aein? ii/oooy
nie?aea?iino?. Iaeiae oe?a?inueea ia?eaiaionueea ?ai?acaioaoe?y ia
nei?enoaeany oeei iiiaioii, a oe?eeii ?icae?eyea iiceoe?th
aano??enueeiai o?yaeo. ?ic?aoiaoth/e ia iinooiee inoaiiueiai o
iaeaooiueiio, aiia a?aeeeaea iaaiai?aiiy oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy. Oea
nooo?ai i?eiaioeei aoaeo a?ae naiiai oaeoo naoean?? oa ni?e/eieeinue aei
iia??oaiiy aca?iei i?ae nooaeaionueeei ?ooii oa oe?a?inueeei iie?oe/iei
ea??aieoeoaii.

I?ioyaii e?eueeio ianooiieo ?ie?a oe?a?inuee? iinee aeaaeae? iaioa
oe?eaaeeeny nooaeaionueeith ai?ioueaith ? iaa?oue canoaeaeoaaee iniaeeai
?aaeeeaeuei? aenooie iieiae?. Ona?aeiiethth/e ia?aaeuei?noue aeinyaiaiiy
ia oeueiio aoai? cia/iiai i?ia?ano a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ni?aa?,
oe?a?inuee? ia?o?ei? e?aea?e aaaaeaee aaca?aeiia?aeaeueiei i?iaieoaaoe
iieiaeue ia aioecaeiii? aenooie oa iaiaaeoaaeenue i?i?iaeueieie aeiiaaie
aei o?yaeo, ye? eeoa ie?anethaaee oeyo aei iaoe?iiaeueii? aeui? oeiee.
Iiioey?iith oiae? aoea ?aeay canioaaiiy i?eaaoiiai oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ia iaoeia?e aac? IOO, iaeiae ?? ia aaeaeiny ?aae?coaaoe
/a?ac a?ae eioo?a. Aeaye? /eaie OIAeI ? ?onueei-oe?a?inueei?
?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o?? canoaeaeoaaee ia??oo/o iiceoe?th iie?oe/ieo
i?iaiae?a oa i?aeo?eioaaee nooaeaionuee? i?ioanoaoe?ei? aeoe??.

Iiaee aoai i?ioenoiyiiy iieuenueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a o
Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, ui i?eiaa ia 1906–1907 ??., caoe?eaaea
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a. Niiae?aaiiy ia iieaaiaeaeaiiy oi?aa?neoaonueeiai
ieoaiiy iia’ycoaaeinue ?c iane?aeeaie i?iaaaeaieo ca iiaei aeai?/ei
caeiiii ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a 1907 ?., ye? nooo?ai ca?eueoeee
oe?a?inueea ia?eaiaionueea i?aaenoaaieoeoai. Aia?oa iineaie Aea?aeaaii?
?aaee a?ae OIAeI aoei ia?aii i?ioani??a Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo –
Noai?neaaa Aei?no?yinueeiai oa Ieaenaiae?a Eieanno, ui ?noioii
aeoea?coaaei ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e
ni?aa?. Aeiiao canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? ye
no?aoaa?/ia caaaeaiiy aoei aeeth/aii o i?ia?aio ?onueeiai eeoao a
ia?eaiaio?. Oe?a?inuee? iinee ?icai?ioee ooo aeoeaio ?iaioo, ni?yiiaaio
ia ae??oaiiy oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy. Aiie ?i?oe?thaaee ia?aaiai?e c
o?yaeii, ooeaee nithciee?a na?aae ia?eaiaionueeeo i?aaenoaaieoeoa ?ioeo
ia?iae?a, aaeaaaeeny aei ia?eaiaionueei? iano?oeoe??, caa?oaeeny a
Aea?aeaai?e ?aae? c caieoaie aei o?yaeo. Iaeiae ia oeueiio aoai? o?yae
iaiaaaany oieeaoe iaeiicia/ieo ioe?iie oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ieoaiiy, eiai
iiceoe?y caeeoaeanue noia?a/eeaith ? iaiine?aeiaiith, ui ia’?eoeaii
?iciaethaaei oe?a?inueei-iieuenueea i?ioenoiyiiy.

Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? neee ona?aeiiethaaee, ui aeinyaiooe oni?oo o
ni?aa? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeuiai oe?eueieoeoaa aaeanoueny eeoa ca oiiae
i?aeo?eiee ae?e ?onueeiai eeoao yeiaeoe?oeie aa?noaaie oe?a?inueei?
a?iiaaenueeino?. C oe??th iaoith iaaani? 1910 ?. oe?a?inuee? ia?o??
?icii/aee oe?ieiianooaaio aa?oaoe?eio aeoe?th. Aiia aeeeeeaea iineeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai a?/aaiai ?ooo. Caa?ica iiaeo nooaeaionueeeo caai?ooaiue
niiioeaea o?yae noaoe iina?aaeieeii o oeueiio ieoaii? i?ae oe?a?ioeyie ?
iieyeaie. Iaeiae oeae ii/ei iaaaeiac? aoa ia?a?aaiee e?eaaaeie iiae?yie
o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? 1 eeiiy 1910 ?., ye? nooo?ai caaino?eee
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? aca?ieie. Eeoa iano?oeoe?y oe?a?inueeeo iine?a o
ia?eaiaio? a aa?aci? 1912 ?. cioneea o?yae ? Iieuenueea eiei
iiaa?iooenue aei oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae oa ?icii/aoe nenoaiaoe/i?
ia?aaiai?e.

Aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao, 29
o?aaiy 1912 ?. o Eueaia? aoei i?iaaaeaii anaia?iaei? cai?e, a yeeo acyee
o/anoue oe?a?inuee? ia?eaiaionuee? iinee, ia?o?ei? i?iaiaee,
i?aaenoaaieee a?ae iia?o?a, nooaeaionueei? iieiae? oa i?ioani?e
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Cai?e iaeiinoaeii i?aeo?eiaee ae??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa oa noai?eee
niaoe?aeueiee i?aeia?o?eiee eii?oao, yeee iaa ae i?aai?ciaoaaoe ianiaee
?oo o e?a? ia i?aeo?eieo oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?.

Caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?inueeiai ia?eaiaionueeiai nithco ni?aaa
oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaaoea /?oe?oeo oi?i. Iai?ee?ioe? 1912 ?.
o?yae cai?iiiioaaa i?iaeo ?iia?aoi?nueeiai eenoa, yeei ia?aaeaa/aeiny
canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo a Aaee/ei? ia i?ci?oa 1916 ?.
Iaeiae ii?? iieuenueeeo nee, ye? noiyee ia iiceoe?yo iieii?caoe??
?nioth/iai Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? ia iiaiaeaeoaaeenue aeciaoe
Euea?a i?noeai canioaaiiy ni?e/eiea i?eieiaiiy ia?aaiai??a o n?/i? 1913
?.

Iioeiaeueiei oeyoii aeey aeinyaiaiiy i?ia?ano a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ni?aa?
ia oeueiio aoai? aoei ii?icoi?iiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee c iieyeaie
a ieoaii? naeiiai? aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie. I?ioyaii 1913 – ii/aoeo 1914 ?.
i?iaeaia aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie oei/aniai onoioea oi?aa?neoaonueeo ni?aao ia
ae?oaee ieai. Naeiiaa oaiaea 1914 ?. ci?oeithaaea oe?a?inuee? iiceoe?? a
Aaee/ei?, noai?thaaea oe?ieo iie?oe/io ieiueio aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?aea?
canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?. I?ioa cae?eniaiith
oeueiai ieaio ia?aoeiaeeea Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee
aei ?aea? noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo» aecia/aii i?noea
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae a nenoai? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
noia?a/iinoae, iiceoe?th ??cieo iieuenueeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee
uiaei ieoaiiy a?aee?eooy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeine?aeaeaii
ia?aa?a oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo ia?aaiai??a o 1908–1914 ??.

Iai?ioeaaao oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?ooia? ii/aoeo OO no.
iieuenuee? iie?oe/i? neee iaiaaaeenue on?ia caniaaie ci?oeithaaoe
iieuenueeee «noai iin?aeaiiy» a Aaee/ei?, i?ioenoiyoe oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaaieoeuee?e ?aea? aaoiiii?? No?aeii? Aaee/eie, a?aeeeaeaee
aoaeue-ye? iaiaaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a, ui iiaee a iaaeeceoe ?o aei cae?eniaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aeaaeo.

?aeaieia?/i? aaaeae? o oi?ioaaii? iieuenueei? noni?eueii? aeoiee uiaei
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy o Aaee/ei? aecia/aei ooai?aia o 1900 ?.
No?iii?oeoai aeaiie?aoe/ii-ia?iaeiaa. Iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia oe??? ia?o??
i?iaieiooaaea i?aai iieuenueeiai ia?iaeo ia aea?aeaaio ?aei?noue ?
iacaeaaei?noue ? caeeeeaea caoeuaoe aeeeth/ii iieuenuee? ?ioa?ane.
Aiaeaee ai?ieenue i?ioe oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aiie aoee
i?ioeaieeaie aoaeue-yeiai ii?icoi?iiy. Ai?ioueao oe?a?ioe?a ca aeanio
aeuo oeieo aiaeaee o?aeooaaee ye caiao ia iieuenueeee oa?aeoa?
aaeeoeueei? aaoiiii??.

Ni?eueii c? nai?ie iaeaeeae/eie nithcieeaie – no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeie
eiina?aaoi?aie (iiaeieyeaie) aiaeaee ?icii/aee oe?ieiianooaaio
?aeaieia?/io eaiiai?th, ni?yiiaaio ia eeoa i?ioe aeiiae oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, aea e i?ioe caeiaooe?a oe?a?ioe?a o Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao?. Aiie aeiiaaaeeny oe?eeiaeoi? iieii?caoe?? oeueiai caeeaaeo
aac aeiaeieo eiiiainaoe?e aeey oe?a?ioe?a. ?o ieaooi?io iiae?eyea cia/ia
/anoeia aeaaeai?/iiai naiaoo Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, iieuenuee?
nooaeaionuee? i?aai?caoe??. Aei e?aea??a aiaeae?a o Aaee/ei? iaeaaeaee
i?ioani?e Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo Noai?neaa (eiia?inueeee oa
Noai?neaa (?aanueeee. Ae?yeuei?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a oe??? ia?o?? iino?eii
iia??ooaaea iaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee i?ae iieuenueeeie ? oe?a?inueeeie
nooaeaioaie o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aieiaieie ?aaeueieie iiiiaioaie aiaeae?a o iieuenueeiio iie?oe/iiio
oaai?? aoee cao?aeiiaaeeoeuee? eiina?aaoi?e (noaiue/eee),
?aeaeii-iie?oe/i? canaaee yeeo caeeoaee i?noea aeey
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai ii?icoi?iiy. Noaiue/eee oaae aenooiaee i?ioe
iaaaeiiai canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aaaaeath/e, ui
«oeea?e?caoe?eii iieiae?» oe?a?ioe? ua ia aioia? aei canioaaiiy aeanii?
aeui? oeiee. Iaeiae aiie ia aeeeth/aee iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?aiiy i?aa
oe?a?ioe?a a ?nioth/iio Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, ia?aaeon?i oeyoii
ca?eueoaiiy /enea oe?a?inueeeo eaoaae?.

Oaei? ae aeoiee aeio?eioaaeenue e?aa?ae-aeaiie?aoe, ye? ia iaee cia/iiai
aieeao a iieuenueeiio noni?euenoa?. Aeaui iii??eiaai?oei aei
oi?aa?neoaonueeeo aeiia oe?a?ioe?a aoei noaaeaiiy ethaeiaoe?a, ye?
iacaaae i?aeo?eioaaee ?aeath ooai?aiiy ie?aiiai oe?a?inueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, iaeiae i?ioanooaaee i?ioe oo?aea?caoe?? ?nioth/iai,
aaaaeath/e, ui inoaiiy cieceoue eiai ??aaiue ?c caaaeueiiiieuenueeiai
aei no?aeiiaaeeoeueeiai.

?aeeiei iai?yiii o iieuenueeiio iie?oe/iiio ?on?, yeee i?aeo?eioaaa
oe?a?inuee? i?aaiaiiy a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ni?aa?, aoa
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iee, iaeiae eiai aieea ia aaeeoeueeo iie?oeeo
caeeoaany iacia/iei.

O i?ioenoiyii? e?ae?anueeeo eiina?aaoi??a c aiaeaeaie oa
no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeie eiina?aaoi?aie oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a Aaee/ei? ?,
cie?aia, oi?aa?neoaonueea ni?aaa, iaaoei iniaeeai? aaae a ia?aaeai?ii?
?iee. Ia oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo ia?aaiai?ao 1910–1913 ??. oe?a?ioe?
iiaiaeaeoaaeenue aeciaoe iieuenueeee noaoon Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
acai?i ia iaeii/ania canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?.
Iaoii?noue iieyee aeiaaaee iaaaeiiai aeciaiiy iieuenueeiai oa?aeoa?o
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca ia?oeyieo canioaaoe oe?a?inueeee
oi?aa?neoao caiaeii ?, i/aaeaeii, iica Eueaiaii.

Coneeey aiaeae?a ia oeueiio aoai? ni?yiiaoaaeenue ia i?eieiaiiy
ia?aaiai??a, aeaoooaaiiy ianiaeo aeoe?e i?ioanoo o e?a?. Naia oea noaei
aieiaiith i?e/eiith oiai, ui ni?aaa oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? ia aoea caaa?oaia.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii iniiai?
eiai iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Cacia/aii, ui ai?ioueaa ca canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o
Eueaia? ?icii/aeany ia ?oaaae? O?O–OO no. ? noaea aaaiiei oaeoi?ii
c?inoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei?. Aiaeii/an
ciaaaiiy ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia? cana?ae/eee ??no
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? na?aae oe?ieeo noni?eueieo aa?noa
oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa, noaee iaiao?aeiith eaieith iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e, onueiai
oe?a?inueeiai caaaeo. Ai?ioueaa ca oe?a?inueeo aeuo oeieo a
Aano?i-Oai?uei? aoea iaei??th c oi?i ciaaaiue ca oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaai?noue.

A oi?aa?neoaonueeiio ieoaii? oe?a?inueeee ?oo i?ieoia aaiethoe?th a?ae
ni?ia ci?oeieoe iiceoe?? oe?a?ioe?a a ?nioth/iio Euea?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? aei i?aaiaiiy yeiaeoaeaeoiai canioaaiiy ie?aiiai
oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?.

O e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. oi?aa?neoaonueea ieoaiiy iaaoaa? iiaeo
oi?i ? ianooaa?a. Oea aoei aeeeeeaii anooiii o ai?ioueao ca
iaoe?iiaeueio aeuo oeieo oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a ? aeeeaaea/?a
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, oi?ioaaiiyi ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
oe?a?inueeeo nee o Aaee/ei?, eii?aeeiaoe??th ae?e oe?a?inueeiai
nooaeaionoaa oa iieiae? c aieo iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oee?a.

Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ui aeio?eioaaeenue i?eioeei?a eaaaeueii?
ai?ioueae, nia?oo aeyaeeenue iaaioiaeie ??oo/a i?aeo?eiaoe iiiceoe?ei?
aenooie nooaeaio?a. Iaeiae i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy aeai?/i? ?aoi?ie 1907 ?.
aei aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo aiie i/ieeee ?oo ca iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia?. Aeiiaa canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o
Eueaia? noaea i?ia?aiiei iinooeaoii aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa.

I?iaeaia canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? iiaeeaeea
i?ioenoiyiiy o iieuenueeiio noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?on? ?, iniaeeai,
i?ae noaiue/eeaie oa aiaeaeaie, iiceoe?y yeeo ia aeicaieyea i?aeiyoe
ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue caaaeueiiai iie?oe/iiai ii?icoi?iiy i?ae
aeaiia ia?iaeaie.

Ciaaaiiy ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia? a?ae?a?aaaee ?ieue
?ioaa?oth/iai oaeoi?a a oe?a?inueeiio ?on?, aeoea?coaaee a?iiaaenueeo
aeoieo ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy, noaee aeey aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a
aeia?ith oeieith iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo :

Ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia?. ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii? aeui? oeiee
o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a (e?iaoeue O?O –
ii/aoie OO no.).– Euea?a, 1999.– 118 n.

Ieoaiiy i?i noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? a
Aano??enueeiio ia?eaiaio? ia ii/aoeo OO no. // Euea?a: i?noi –
noni?euenoai – eoeueoo?a / Niaoe?aeueiee aeione A?nieea Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea. Na??y ?noi?e/ia.– Euea?a, 1999.– O.3.–
N.421–430.

Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia a?aeeoiiy naoean?? oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaio?a c
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o a?oaei? 1901 ?ieo // A?niee Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y ?noi?e/ia.– Euea?a, 1999.– Aei.34.– N.289–300.

Aeaye? oo?eoe ai?ioueae iaaeaei?i?yioe?a-nooaeaio?a Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ca eiai oe?a?inueeee oa?aeoa? ia ii/aoeo OO no. // Iaoeia?
cioeoe ?no. o-oo EAeO ?i.?aaia O?aiea / Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.– Euea?a,
1999.– Aei.2.– N.114–116.

I?iaeaia oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? a ?aeaieia?? aaeeoeueeeo
iineaio?e?a ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // Iaoeia? caienee Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa.–Euea?a, 1999.– Aei.1.– N.171–175.

Euea?anueeee ( oa?iiee ) oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao // Aeia?aeiee c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie / Ca ?aae. ?. I?aeeiae oa ?. Oonoa.– Ee?a: Aaiaca,
1995.– O.2.– N.184–185.

Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? ciaaaiiy ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia? //
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Oe?a?inueea oe?eueieoeoai o Eueaia? a 1919–1939 ??. // Oace aeiiia?aeae
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AIIOAOe?ss

Ea/ia? A.I. I?iaeaia oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia? a e?ioe? O?O
– ia ii/aoeo OO no.: noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee aniaeo.– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.– Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.– Euea?a, 1999.

O eiioaeno? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Aaee/eie aiae?cothoueny
ia?aaeoiiae, i?e/eie oa ia?aa?a ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo,
a?iiaaenueeeo oa iaoeiaeo nee ca iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia?
iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. Aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? aoaie
nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo, iiceoe?th iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ia?eaiaionueeeo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa, i?noea oi?aa?neoaonueei? ni?aae a iiaea?i?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oa nenoai? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei-aano??enueeeo
aca?iei.

Ieoaiiy i?i canioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo o Eueaia?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeia c aieiaieo i?iaeai oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
a?aeiinei o Aaee/ei?. I?aee?aneaii, ui caeiaoooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo aaaaeaeiny iaei??th c iaiao?aeieo ia?aaeoiia aeey iiae?eo
Aaee/eie ca aoi?/iei i?eioeeiii ia No?aeio (oe?a?inueeo) oa Cao?aeio
(iieuenueeo).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aaee/eia, oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? aca?ieie, oe?a?inueeee
oi?aa?neoao, aeua ina?oa, nooaeaionueeee ?oo.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ea/ia? A.I. I?iaeaia oe?aeineiai oieaa?neoaoa ai Eueaiaa a eiioea O?O –
a ia/aea OO aa.: iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneee aniaeo.– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu.– Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei.– Eueaia, 1999.

A eiioaenoa iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie Aaeeoeee aiaeece?othony
i?aaeiinueee, i?e/eiu e oiae ai?ueau oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo,
iauanoaaiiuo e iao/iuo nee ca iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao ai Eueaiaa a
eiioea OIO- ia/aea OO a. Enneaaeiaaiu aeaaiua yoaiu nooaeai/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey, iiceoeey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e ia?eaiaioneeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa, ianoi oieaa?neoaoneiai aii?ina a iiaea?iecaoeee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey e a nenoaia oe?aeinei-iieuenei-aano?eeneeo
acaeiiioiioaiee.

Aii?in ia ioe?uoee oe?aeineiai oieaa?neoaoa ai Eueaiaa ?anniao?eaaaony
eae iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai oe?aeinei-iieueneeo ioiioaiee a Aaeeoeee.
Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi ioe?uoea iaoeeiiaeueiiai oieaa?neoaoa n/eoaeinue
iaeiie ec iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aaeiinueie aeey ?acaeaeaiey Aaeeoeee ii
yoie/aneiio i?eioeeio ia Ainoi/ioth ( oe?aeineoth ) e Caiaaeioth (
iieueneoth ).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aaeeoeey, oe?aeinei-iieueneea acaeiiioiioaiey,
oe?aeineee oieaa?neoao, aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, nooaeai/aneia aeaeaeaiea.

A n n o t a t i o n

Kachmar V. M. The Problem of Ukra?nian University in L’viv in the Late
XIX — Early XX cc.: Socio-Political Aspect. — Manuscript

A thesis for Candidate of History scholarly degree, speciality 07.00.01.
— History of Ukraine. —Ivan Franko State University in L’viv, Ukraine —
L’viv, 1999.

The research focuses on the penetrating analysis of the history of the
struggle led by Ukrainian political, social and scholarly forces for a
Ukrainian University in L’viv at the end of the 19th — the beginning of
the 20th cc. The creation of a Ukrainian University in L’viv, alongside
with Sejm electoral reform, was one of the key political aspirations of
the Ukrainian community in Halychyna, it played an integrating role in
the national movement and produced a great impact on the evolution of
Ukrainian-Polish and Ukrainian-Austrian relationships. The University
issue has been researched in the wide context of Halychyna’s
socio-political reality, thus providing exhaustive materials for the
analysis of peculiarities of the Ukrainians’ and the Poles’ national
movement under the Austro-Hungarian rule.

The major directions of historiography of the issue and the source
basis of the research have been pointed out. Certain aspects of the
Ukrainian community struggle for a Ukrainian University in L’viv were
researched in the interwar period by Ukrainian historians in emigration
and modern Ukrainian and Polish researchers. However, the dissertation
in question is the first Ukranian historiography’s complex research of
the Ukrainian University in Austro-Hungarian Empire problem and its role
in the development of Ukrainian national movement. The research has been
done on an extensive source basis, primarily — upon the documents of
L’viv archives, particularly the protocols of University’s Polish
administration sessions, Rectors’ reports, students’ and teachers’
memorandums, investigation cases on youth’s uprisings, documents on
student organizations’ activity, letters, etc.

In the research, the historical development of the Ukrainian University
issue during the 19th century has been traced, the basic reasons of the
transfer to an essentially new stage of struggle for the Ukrainian
University in L’viv have been determined and the major periods of
contest, led by Ukrainian students and tutors in 1899-1914 for the
establishment of the University, covered.

The creation of the Ukrainian University in L’viv was topical in the
national and political thought during the second half of the 19th
century. Unfortunately, the Poles seized Halychyna’s autonomy and it was
impossible to gain the national University for the Ukrainians. In the
late 1890’s the University issue entered a new stage of the organised
struggle, becoming the problem for Ukrainian parties. Students and
lecturers were the main driving power of the University issue, in
particular the Ukrainian students’ society “Akademichna Hromada”,
established in 1896. The students organized a range of massive actions,
the most essential ones being the 1901 secession, the fight for
immatriculation language in 1906-1908 and after all the tragic events of
1910, during which the Ukrainian student Adam Kotsko was killed. These
actions instigated the social thought, invigorated the feeling of
solidarity.

The attitude of the Ukrainian political forces towards the problem of
national University and their attempts at promoting its solution in the
Vienna Parliament alongside with negotiations with the Austrian
government have been sufficiently analyzed. At first the Ukrainian
political parties, which proclaimed the principles of legal struggle,
turned out to be unprepared to give resolute support to the students’
oppositions. All the burden of struggle for the national University
after the electoral system reform of 1907 had to be carried out by
politicians. The coordination of the students’ and political movement
compelled the Austrian government to act as a mediator on the university
issue in the Polish-Ukrainian negotiations and therefore promise that
the Ukrainian University would be established.

The research has estimated the role of the University issue in the
system of the Polish-Ukrainian controversies and the position of various
Polish social and political forces have been estimated, as well as the
progress of the Polish-Ukrainian negotiations in 1909-1914.

The problem of the Ukrainian University in L’viv’s establishment
intensified the collapse in the Polish social and political movement.

Key words: Halychyna, Ukrainian-Polish relations, Ukrainian University,
higher education, the students’ movement.

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