EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

NAAA?EI Ethaeieea Aanee?aia

OAeE 17.02

I?iaeaia ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie

a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a

( o eiioaeno? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e)

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.07 – aoeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ia
eaoaae?? aoeee, anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia?? o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?einio?? Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oo?ecio, aeiiii?ee ? i?aaa EAAEOeUeEA
Ieaenaiae?a ?aai?aia;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? o?einio??
?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i. A. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

EssO A?oae?e A?oae?eiae/

— eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?einio??
Ee?anueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

E?ANIIAA Iaey Ieo?ioai?aia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.28 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252001, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oeiea?aiei I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aaei? a?ee ? aaaeeeaith aiioith a
?noi??? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa. Aiie – iaiao?aeia eaiea o
oeueiio ?icaeoeo ? aeeo/eoe ??, ia ii?ooeaoe i?e oeueiio oe?euei?noue oa
?aei?noue onueiai eaioethaa, iaiiaeeeai. Ua aeiiaaeaaia ?nioaaa cian?i
?ioee, oaea canoaeaeaiee oa a?aeeeiooee iaoeith iiaeyae ia
Na?aaeiueia?//y ye ia aiioo iaa?aeanoaa, ?ao?ia?aaenoaa ? i?eai?/oaaiiy
aeoiee. Aeiee, ?icaeioany ? i?aeo?eioaaany a?i oe?eeiaeoi i?e?iaeii,
caaaeyee ??ciei aieeaai: ooo ae?yee ? aiioa aoiai?cio, ? aiioa
?aoi?iaoe?eia, ? aiioa I?ina?oieoeoaa. ? o?eueee cia/ii i?ci?oa
iaoeiaoe? ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui Na?aaei? a?ee — oea iaieio/ee,
iaiao?aeiee ia??iae a ?noi??? ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo, yeee caa??a aeey
ian aioe/io oeea?e?caoe?th ? noai?ea ia iaio aeineiiaeo aeanio. Naia
oiio, ui ?a?iiaenueea Na?aaeiueia?//y noaei aiioith noai?aiiy no/anieo
ia?iaeiinoae oa aea?aeaa, caeeaaeaiiy ii/aoe?a no/anii? iai iiac?? oa
aeeaiieno, a?aeeeooy a iniaeea?, inieneai? e iaeooioai?ai? oi?ie
a?o?oaeoo?e, aeieeiaiiy iiiyoue oa a?aeiioaiue, yeeie ? a yeeo ie
aeeaaii ? oaia?, naia oiio aiii iinoa? aeey no/anieo ethaeae aeecueeith,
oae ae iiaeoe, aiioith, aeeeeea? aei naaa aaeeeee aeine?aeieoeueeee
?ioa?an, coiiaethth/e aeaoaeueia nai? aea/aiiy. O oeueiio nain? ?
aeooaeueieie neiaa a?aeiiiai ?noi?eea E. ?aiea i?i oa, ui ethaee O?O
no., ui caa?ioeeny aei ?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy Na?aaeiueia?//y, a?aee?eee o
iueiio ia iaeei ?c e?aueo ei?ai?a nai?? aeanii? i?e?iaee. “Ie aeeaiei
ia?aeiiai? o oiio, — i?iaeiaaeo? a?i, — ui no/aniee iai na?o ia iiaea
aooe c?icoi?eei aac aeine?aeaeaiiy oeo /an?a”.

Iaeiae, ia aeaeue, oaeey ?ioa?ano aei Na?aaeiueia?//y eeoa e?a?i
ca/aieea aeoaea aaaeeeao ? iaaecae/aeii oe?eaao na?oiaeyaeio i?iaeaio
oeueiai ia??iaeo, a naia: i?iaeaio ii?ae? Na?aaei?o a?e?a, cie?aia
i?iaeaio ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie, ??
iniaeno?niiai naiiaecia/aiiy.

Iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy Na?aaeiueia?//y, iniaeeainoae
na?oini?eeiyooy oa na?oi?icoi?iiy na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie, ??
ii?aeueieo iiooe?a oa aeooiaieo iio?aa, ui aeieeaee ia oii? a?aiae?icieo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e, aeanoue ciiao i?iieeiooe a nooue
aaaaoueio ii?aeuei?nieo i?iaeai no/aniino?, iia’ycaieo ?c neooaoe??th,
eiee a oiiaao nioe?aeueieo eaoaee?ci?a ethaeeia a?ae/oaa? naaa
caaoaeaiith e nai?oiueith, eiee ?aeeiei aeoiaeii aeey ia? iinoa?
a?aeo?ae o eiii ?ae?a??. ?ioeie neiaaie, a?eueo?noue i?iaeai, ui aeieeee
a aiioo Na?aaeiueia?//y, ia oae? aaea e aeaeae? ethaeyi nueiaiaeaiiy.

Oae, o no/anieo oiiaao, eiee iaaaeye c?inei cia/aiiy o?enoeyinueei?
?ae?a??, c’yaeythoueny aeoiee i?i oa, ui, oaeoe/ii, aoaeue-yea ii?aeueia
i?iaeaia no/aniino? aaeeeith i??ith iiaea aooe ae??oaia ca aeiiiiiaith
a??e a Aiaa ye iieeaaeaio cciai? aa?oiaio ?inoaioe?th. Iaeiae, aea/aiiy
ii?ae? Na?aaeiueia?//y ye aiioe, eiee o?enoeyinoai aoei anaeainueeith
?ae?a??th ? /eieei iiaooi?e aieea ia na?aeii?noue ethaeeie, iieaco?
iaaio iaeiia?/i?noue oaeeo aeniiae?a. AEeaa i?aeoeea eoeueoo?e ? cia/ii
aaaaooith a?ae nooi ?ae?a?eii? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? aeeooy ? na?oiaeyaeo
ethaeeie, aea/aiiy ?? aeyaey?, ui oaiiiai ii?ae? acaaae?, ? ii?aeue
Na?aaeiueia?//y cie?aia, ia ae/a?io?oueny eeoa ?aeaieia??th
o?enoeyinoaa, a ? aaaaoiiai?oiei aeooiaiei ? eoeueoo?iei yaeuai, eio?a
aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? ?ae?a?eiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy eaiii?a ? i?eioeei?a
ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee; ?ae?a?y aeyaey?oueny oaeith, ui ui ia ioiieth?
iiai?noth aeooiai? canaaee noni?euenoaa. Nai???aeia oai?aoe/ia
“aenia?oeca” eoeueoo?e, ?ae?a?? ? ii?ae? Na?aaeiueia?//y aeanoue ciiao
aeeaoa c?icoi?oe caeiiii??iino? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy ?ae?a?? ? ii?ae?, a
oaeiae ona?aeiieoe, ui ?ae?a?y ia ? “iaiaoea?th” a?ae ii?aeueieo aaae
no/aniino?.

Iaiaaaiiy anooieoe a ae?aeia c ethaeueie ?ioi? eoeueoo?e, ii??aiyii c
iaoith, ? caeiiii??iith ooieoe??th no/anii? na?aeiiino?, ai aac
caa?oaiiy aei ?aeae oa aeooiaieo iaaeaaiue noa?iaeie — iaia? iinooio
aia?aae. Ciaiiy ae ?? eeoa neoaoaaoeia aeooiaiiio caaaa/aiith
oaia??oi?o ? ianooiieo iieie?iue.

Aea/aiiy ii?ae? Na?aaei?o a?e?a aeicaieeoue ia o?eueee caeaee ?ac
i?aeoaa?aeeoe aeoieo i?i ?o eoeueoo?io oe?ii?noue oa aaee/acia aeooiaia
cia/aiiy, a e noaia aaaiiei aianeii o iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo aoe/ii?,
?ae?a??ciaa/i? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? oai???, ni?eyth/e i?e?inoo iaoeiaiai
ciaiiy.

Nooi?iue iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. ?noi?e/ii neeaeiny oae, ui
ii?aeuei?nia i?iaeaiaoeea Na?aaeiueia?//y aiae?coaaeany eeoa a
caaaeueiiio eiioaeno? aea/aiiy oe??? aiioe. sse ie?aiee “c??c”
na?oiaeyaeo ethaeeie aeaiiai ia??iaeo aiia aeaoaeueii ia ?ic?iaeyeany,
caeeoath/enue iaiiaae “a o?i?”. Neacaia, c?icoi?ei, ia icia/a?, ui
i?iaeaia ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie i?eiee ia
iio?aieyea a iiea ci?o oai?aoee?a. sseui aanoe iiao i?i o? /e ?io?
ie?ai? aniaeoe cacia/aii? i?iaeaie, oi, aacia?a/ii, aiie noaaaee
ia’?eoii aiae?co aeine?aeiee?a, aea i?e oeueiio aea/aeeny
iiina?aaeeiaaii, o eiioaeno? ?ioeo ieoaiue na?aaeiueia?/ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. Oey oaiaeaioe?y aoea iniaeeai oa?aeoa?iith aeey
?in?enueei? iaae??a?noeee e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. O oeae ia??iae
aaaeooueny aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?, ia?aaeon?i, ni?yiiaai? ia ia?aeeaae,
aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy (a ?iiae? e ia?aeac) ??ciiiai?oieo na?aaeiueia?/ieo
o?ii?e, naa, i?naiue, ?ioeo iai’yoie eaoeinueei? e?oa?aoo?e.
A/ai?-iaae??a?noe ?iaeyoue ni?iao aiae?co, ianaiia?aae, iniaeeainoae
na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?ae?a?eiino?. O oeueiio ?one? i?aoeththoue A.
Aeia?ao-?iaeae?noaainueea, E. Ea?naa?i, E. Neai?oeia, I.Nieieia, ?.
O?oaaoeueeie , A. Oei?ianueeee oa ?io?. Eoeueoo?a Na?aaei?o a?e?a noa?
ia’?eoii aiae?co I.A?oeeee?, ?.A?aana, A.Aeeaia, cie?aia,
na?aaeiueia?/iee iiaoo oa iianyeaeaiia aeeooy — I.A?oeeee?,
I.Aoeianueeiai, ?.?o?iiai?, N.?oaanueeiai, A.Oaaeioiaa.

I?ney ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. ? a ia?o? aeanyoee?ooy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee i?i
Na?aaei? a?ee a ?in?? iaeaea iiai?noth caaoee. sseeo-iaaoaeue aaaiieo
aeaeaiue /e ioae?eaoe?e ?c na?aaeiueia?/ii? oaiaoeee oeueiai /ano,
i?aeoe/ii, ia ?nio?, ca aeiyoeii, uii?aaaea, ui??/ii? ca??ee “Na?aaei?
a?ee”, yea ii/aea aeoiaeeoe o na?o c 1942 ?ieo. Aea ia ?? noi??ieao
cacae/ae aeii?io? ae?ae noaiaoe/ia, iaeiiaiea e iiaa?oiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea
Na?aaeiueia?//y ye “oaiii?” aiioe ?ae?a?eiiai ia?iia??noaa oa
caaiaii?a. Oaea iaaaoeaia ni?iuai?noue ioe?iee Na?aaei?o a?e?a, ui
aia?oi eoeueoeaoaaeany o na?aeiiino? ethaeae, i?e?iaeii, ia iiaea
noeioethaaoe iiaeeaeaia, anaa?/ia aea/aiiy oeueiai iaaecae/aeii
oe?eaaiai ?, aiaeii/an, oaeiai iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiiai e noia?a/eeaiai
ia??iaeo a ?noi??? ethaenoaa ?, cie?aia, iniaeeainoae ii?aeuei?niiai
aoooy na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie.

Ia??iae aeaaaiai aea/aiiy Na?aaei?o a?e?a ia o?eueee a iaaeao
a?o/eciyii? aoiai?oa?ii? iaoee, a e ia oa?aiao ca?oa?aeii?, i?eiaaea?
ia 60-70-o? ?iee OO no. Oeae /an, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iiaeia aoei a
iacaaoe “cieioei a?eii” o ?icaeoeo iaae??a?noeee ye iaoee.

O i?aoeyo oeeo ?ie?a A. Aonaeiiaa oa A. ???e?ooea, ?. Naaioeeoeueei?,
N. Oo/aiei, I. Ooa??iai aoee aena?oeai? ieoaiiy niaoeeo?ee i?ciueiai
aee?i?cio oa ca?iaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a??. O?ioe ?ai?oa, o 40-a?
?iee, oe??th i?iaeaiaoeeith caeiaeeny A. Aaeeii oa ?. A?iia?.

I?iaeaie na?aaeiueia?/ii? eoeueoo?e oa na?aeiiino? noathoue i?aaeiaoii
aiae?co N. Aaa??ioeaaa, A. Ao?aae/a, A. Aea?eaae/a, N. Ia??o?ii?,
N. Neace?ia (?in?y), C. Aaoaeuenueei?, E. Aeiaai? (Oe?a?ia), E. Oaec?iae
(Aieeaiae?y).

Oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oa niaoeeo?ea ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e Na?aaeiueia?//y
ciaeoee iniaeeai aaeaea eiioeaiooaeueia ioi?ieaiiy o i?aoeyo ?in?enueeeo
a/aieo I.Aaoo?ia, A. Ao?aae/a oa ca?oa?aeieo — AE. Oonna?a ?
Aeae. Aeaethii (O?aioe?y).

Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee oa aoiia?ao?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co Na?aaeiueia?//y
aoa i?iaeaiiino?iaaiee o i?aoeyo A. ssno?aaeoeueei?.

?noi??th aeieeiaiiy eeoea?noaa ye nioe?aeueiiai oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai
yaeua, a oaeiae eiai oaoi?/i? oa a?enueeia? aniaeoe, iniaeeaino?
eeoea?nueei? naiina?aeiiino? aeine?aeea O. Ea?ae?i? (?oae?y). Aiae?c
oa?aeoa?ieo ?en eeoea?nueeiai aoino noa? ia’?eoii oaaae I. Innianueei?
(Iieueua), yea aeine?aeaeo? eiai o ii??aiyii? c eeoea?nueeei aoinii
aioe/iino?, aa?iainueei? aeiae oa Iiaiai /ano.

Iaai? aniaeoe i?iaeaie iaioaeueiino? na?aaeiueia?/iiai naeyinoaa oa
ath?aa?noaa io?eiaee iiooiao aei ?icaeoeo caaaeyee i?aoeyi
I. Ae?ioeaeueaaoa?a oa I. O??aeiaia (I?ia//eia), Aeae. Ea?oa? (?oae?y),
E. ?aaiiaa (?in?y), I. Aeiea, AE. Aetha?, AE. Ea Aiooa (O?aioe?y).

?icaeyaeii i?iaeaie ??aoe/iiai ?ooo o Na?aaei? a?ee caeiaeeny
A. A?eee?aioia, A. Ei?noinueeee, I. Neaei?iaa (?in?y), A. Aeaiai (NOA),
caaaeoaai? aeua AE. Ea Aioo oa AE. Aetha? (O?aioe?y).

I?iaeaie aecia/aiiy iiiyooy na?aaeiueia?/ii? iniaenoino? oi?eaeeny oae?
a/ai?, ye: A. A?aea?, I. A?oeeee? (?in?y), A. I?o (I?ia//eia) oa ?i.

O?einio?y Na?aaeiueia?//y noa? i?aaeiaoii oaaae A. Iaei?iaa (?in?y), a
yeui aanoe iiao i?i aoe/iee aeeeaae na?aaeiueia?/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, oi ia
iiaeia ia caaaeaoe ?iaia oaeeo a?aeiieo ?in?enueeeo o/aieo, ye
A. ?aaiiaa, A. Oeoa?aiea oa A. Oa?aeaeiaa. Eiaeai ?c ieo c?iaea aaaiiee
aianie o aiae?c na?aaeiueia?/ii? ii?ae?, o iaoeiaa inieneaiiy ?noi?e/ii?
ii?aeuei?nii? aeeiai?ee.

Cae?enieoe aiae?c ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aeiao
?a?iiaenueeiai Na?aaeiueia?//y iaa?yae /e aoei a iiaeeeai aac caa?oaiiy
aei ?ia?o caaaeueiiai iaoiaeieia?/iiai ieaio. Oae, aaoi? nie?aany ia
i?aoe? oaeeo oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo, ye A. Ae/ei, A. Ai?nueeiai,
A. ??iieaiea, I. Eaaeoeueei?, A. Eoanueeiai, A. Iaeaoiaa.

Iniaeea?noth ca?oa?aeii? iaae??a?noeee noa? aea/aiiy ?noi???,
iaioaeueiino? ?noi?e/ii? aiioe /a?ac i?ecio aeine?aeaeaiiy ye iiaaae?iee
ie?aii? ethaeeie, oae ? ea?oeie na?oo, ui aeanoeaa a aeaio aiioo
ethaenuee?e iniaenoino? acaaae?. Iaeyne?aa?oa cacia/aiee i?aeo?ae
aeyaeany a ?iaioao o?aioeocueeeo ?noi?ee?a, ianaiia?aae — i?aaenoaaiee?a
iaeiiai c iai?yi?a, ui neeaany ia iniia? eieeoiuei? oeiee “Aiiae?a”
(iiaa eaea i?i iai?yi, i?aaenoaaeaiee AE. Ea Aiooii). Noiae? iiceoe??
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ? aeayeeo ?noi?ee?a oa eoeueoo?ieia?a ?ioeo e?a?i
Caoiaeo. A Aiae?? — oea a/ai?, ye? a?oiothoueny iaaeiei aeo?iaeo “Past
and Present”, a I?ia//ei? — i?eoeeueieee aea/aiiy “?noi???
iianyeaeaiiino?”, a Aano??? — ?noi?eee iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e ?
iianyeaeaiiiai iiaooo. (Oa/?y, i/iethaaia aano??enueeei oeaio?ii ii
aea/aiith iianyeaeaiii? ?noi??? a E?ain?), a ?oae?? — aeine?aeieee oae
caaii? “i?e?i?noi???”, ye? eiioeaio?othoueny iaaeiei aeo?iaeo “Quoderni
Storici”, oiui. Ia aoaea ia?aa?eueoaiiyi neacaoe, ui oaea ?iaioa
a?aee?eaa? ia?aae iaae??a?noeeith ye iaoeith ia?niaeoeao i?eioeeiiaiai
iiiaeaiiy. Oa ana ae, ii?aeuei?nia i?iaeaiaoeea aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y
i?eiee ia aoea iiaiith i??ith a oeaio?? oaaae caaaeaieo aeua ca?oa?aeieo
o/aieo-iaae??a?no?a.

Iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea i?iaeaie ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo na?aaeiueia?/ii?
ethaeeie iaaiith i??ith aiana na?e aeeaae o iiaeeaeaiiy ?icoi?iiy
aeooiaieo canaae Na?aaei?o a?e?a, aecia/aiiy ?o eoeueoo?iiai
iioaioe?aeo, ni?eyoeia c’ynoaaiith ?ie?, yeo a?ae?a?aa oeae ia??iae
na?oiai? ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e o ?icaeoeo ethaeeie, ?? ii?ae?, a
caaaeueiiio i?ioean? ii?aeueii? aaiethoe??.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?aeuei?nia aoooy na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie,
yea ?icaeyaea?oueny a eiioaeno? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e.

I?aaeiaoii aiae?co aenooia? i?iaeaia ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a
aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio, uia i?inoaaeeoe
i?ioean ii?aeueiiai noaiiaeaiiy ethaeeie aiioe Na?aaei?o a?e?a,
i?iaiae?coaaoe ?? aeeooy a aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiio aei???. A?aeiia?aeii
aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/athoueny oae? aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy:

n inieneeoe oeyoii aiae?co na?oiaeyaeo ethaeeie i?ciuei? aioe/iino?
iiynieoe oa canaaee ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o
a?e?a;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? aieeao na?aaeiueia?/ii? o?enoeyinueei?
ii?ae? ia iniaeno?nia naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie;

n aeine?aeeoe niaoeeo?eo io?oe?eii? o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae? ye iaeiiai c
oaeoi??a aieeao ia ii?aeuei?nia aoooy ethaeeie aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y oa
i?iaiae?coaaoe ii?aeuei? onoaiiaee na?onueeeo i?ioa?e?a
na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa, i??o ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? io?oe?ei?e
oea?eiai?e ?aeaieia??;

n aeaoe o?einionueea inieneaiiy ??aoe/iiio ?ooia? ye oi?i? nioe?aeueiiai
? ii?aeueiiai i?ioanoo i?ioe iai?aii? ?ae?a?eii? ?aeaieia??;

n aeyaeoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean aecia/aiiy iiiyooy iniaenoino? a
aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a, eiai iniaeeaino? oa niaoeeo?eo.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?, ianaiia?aae,
caaaeuei? i?eioeeie iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy – ia’?eoeai?noue oa ?aei?noue
?noi?e/iiai oa eia?/iiai a canoinoaaii? aei aea/aiiy i?ioeano
ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie Na?aaeiueia?//y. C’ynoaaiiy inoaiiueiai
aeyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei eeoa c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeai? iaioaeueiino?
ethaeeie oe??? aiioe, niaoeeo?ee Na?aaei?o a?e?a, ?o iai?inoi?,
noia?a/eeai? ?noi???, neeaaeiiai eoeueoo?iiai i?aea?oioy.

Aaaeeeaei, c oi/ee ci?o aeena?oaioa, i?e aiae?cia? i?iaeaie
ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie aiioe Na?aaei?o a?e?a ? i?eioeei
?icaeoeo. Iiieeeiai aoei a ?icaeyaeaoe aeaio i?iaeaio aac eiai
o?aooaaiiy, aac aiae?co oeo ia?aaeoiia, ia iniia? yeeo ? a?aeaoaaany
i?ioean ona?aeiieaiiy ethaeeiith ye noa’?eoii ii?ae? naii? naaa, nai??
aeooiaii? nooiino?.

I?e iaienaii? oe??? ?iaioe aaoi? aaco?oueny ia i?aeoiae? eiiieaeniiai
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy ii?ae?. Aa?o/e aei oaaae oe?ieee niaeo? ?nioth/eo
aecia/aiue iiiyooy ii?ae?, aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue ia c ?o i?ioenoaaeaiiy,
a iaaiaee, – aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiy; oe?iei aaeeaai? o aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? iiiyooy ii?ae? oa ii?aeueiino? aeena?oaioii
?icaeyaeathoueny ye ?aeaioe/i?, neiii?i?/i? ca ci?noii.

O ?icaeyae? eoeueoo?e Na?aaeiueia?//y aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaeieia?/i?
o?aaeeoe?? oeiee “Aiiae?a”.

Ca oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa ?noi?e/i?, th?eaee/i? oa
e?oa?aoo?i? iai’yoee na?aaeiueia?/ii? aiioe, a oaeiae i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo
oa ca?oa?aeieo aoee?a, o?einio?a, eoeueoo?ieia?a, ye? o??th /e ?ioith
i??ith oi?eaeeny i?iaeaie ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo
Na?aaei?o a?e?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui o i?e aia?oa
i?aeaea?oueny anaa?/iiio aiae?co i?iaeaia ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo
ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a o eiioaeno? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e. ?iaeoueny ni?iaa cae?enieoe nenoaiia aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie, iinoaaeeoe i?ioean ??
ii?aeuei?niiai noaiiaeaiiy, aiae?coth/e ?? aeeooy a aeooiaii-ii?aeueiiio
aei???. Oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee oaiiiaio ii?aeueiiai a aiioo
Na?aaeiueia?//y – ia??iae iiaooiueiai aieeao o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a?? ia
aeeooy, na?oiaeyae ? aeooiai?noue ethaeeie – aeiaiaeeoueny aeoiea i?i
oa, ui ?ieue ?ae?a?? o eiai oi?ioaaii? ia aoea aeii?ioth/ith ?
ae/a?iiith; ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa, ? iniaeeai ia aoai?
nueiaiaeaiiy, ?ae?a?y ia iiaea aenooiaoe ye ?aeeii iiaeeeaee can?a
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e aiioe, niin?a ae??oaiiy ??
ii?aeueieo i?iaeai.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? a?aeaeaa?oueny o iaaieo
iieiaeaiiyo, ui aecia/athoue iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe:

— ?icaeyae nooiino? ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie Na?aaeiueia?//y ia
iiaeia caieeaoe iaaeaie naii?, aeania, aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y. Iniiai?
iai?yie eiai aoee iiai?noth i?aeaioiaeai? a aiioo caiaiaaeo aioe/iino?.
?oeioaaiiy aaciina?aaei?o ca’yce?a ethaeeie ? i?e?iaee, ethaeeie ?
noni?euenoaa, ao?aoa /?oeeo aeeoo?aeo i???ioe??a, iiaeeeaino? aieeaaoe
ia iiae??, ui a?aeaoaaeeny o na?o?, eeaeaee a ia?eie o?enoeyinueeeo
iauei cia/io e?euee?noue ethaeae. Aeey iioyao aei o?enoeyinueei? a??e
aoea oa?aeoa?ia ia aiey aei ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a iaaiaee,
aaaeaiiy cian?i iieeoeoe eiai, aoaeoe a?ae eiai aeiia, no?oe oa
iani?aaaaeeeaino?.

Ioaea, iniiaieie ii?aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ethaeeie, ui noiyea ia
ii?ic? aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y, aoee a?ae/oooy aaciaae?eiino? e ?icia/o,
ciaa??e o ni?aaaaeeea?noue.

— ?nioaaiiy o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae, yea iinooiiai iaaoaaea
aecia/aeueiiai aieeao ia aeooiaia aeeooy na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa,
aenooia? i?ia?aeiei oaeoi?ii o oi?ioaaii? ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy ethaeeie
oeueiai ia??iaeo. I?iiia?ae? naiic?a/aiiy a ?i’y a??e, iiaeaeaeieoeoaa
a ?i’y nian?iiy na?oo, ui iia?oc o ?iciono? — ii?aeueiee ?aeaae, ui
i?iiaaoaaany a /eneaiieo “aeeo?yo nayoeo”, “ii?ae?coth/eo” o?aaieeao,
“i?eeeaaeao”, aeeeaaeaiiyo A?ae??, Inaeoe?yo, noeaiao c ?eiiia?ao??.
Ai?ea ii?aeiaiiy aiaine?a’y ? eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue iiia?aaei?o aiio, ui
ciaeoee ae?ac o na?aaeiueia?/ieo “i?eeeaaeao”, ni?eyee noaiiaeaiith
ii?ae?caoi?noaa e iia/aeueiino? ye oa?aeoa?ieo ?en aeooiaiiai aeeooy
Na?aaeiueia?//y.

I?iaieioaiiy naiaiaee aie?, iniaeno?niiai aeai?o ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe
aeinyaiaiiyi o?enoeyinoaa, ine?eueee aiii, ii noo?, naia caia?a/o? oe?
ii?aeuei? oe?iiino?: “iieoooaaeueia aea?oaa” O?enoa ye c?acie
ii?aeueiiai aeai?o, naiaiaee aeeiiaiiy ii?aeueiiai iaia’yceo
i?aaeth?oueny i?iaieioaiiyi Oea?eaith ethaeeie a?aiith ai?ioueae i?ae
Aiaii oa Aeeyaieii, aiane?aeie /iai ethaeeia ia?anoa? iaeaaeaoe naia
nia?, ao?a/ath/e aeanio naiaiaeo.

— No?ieaoa nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a oa a?aeie?aieai?noue noni?eueieo
eean?a oa i?ioa?e?a o Na?aaei? a?ee coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue o?aeooaaiiy
iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie o??? aiioe c iaaieie canoa?aaeaiiyie oa
aeayeith oiiai?noth. Iaiaeiaeiaa ii?aeuei?nia iaiiaiaiiy iniaenoino? —
i?aaenoaaieea iaaii? nioe?aeueii? a?oie — (eeoea? — /anoue,
ioaei?noue, eo?ooaci?noue; naeyiei — ?iaeea?aeoae?ci, i?aoeaethanoai,
ii?aeueia caeaaei?noue a?ae naiueei??? oa aeooiaainoaa; ai?iaeyiei —
aeooiaia naiaiaea, noeeuei?noue aei ?eceeo, ni?eea?noue, iiaaoi?noai,
oiui) aea? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui ia ?nioaaei ?aeeii? “oi?ioee”
ii?aeuei?niiai aei??o aeey an?o /eai?a na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa
aac aeiyoeo. No?ieao?noue nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e Na?aaeiueia?//y noa?
i?e/eiith no?ieaoino? oa ??ciiieaiiaino? eiai ii?ae?, ui aea? i?aenoaae
aiai?eoe i?i ianeie?aoe/i?noue na?aaeiueia?/ii? ii?ae? ye noni?eueiiai
oaiiiaia.

— ??aoe/iee ?oo, ui, iae/ano?oa, aeoiaeea ca aocuee? iaae? io?oe?eiiai
?ae?a?eiiai na?oini?eeiyooy oa na?oi?icoi?iiy, noaa aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii
aieeao ia i?ioean ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie Na?aaeiueia?//y.
I?aeaeaaoe e?eoeoe? iaea?eueo eiina?aaoeai? canaaee io?oe?eiiai
?ae?a?eiiai a??ia/aiiy, a?aee?eoi aeaeea?oth/e aeaieee?noue Oea?eae, a?i
i?iaeaiiino?oaaa niaoeeo?/io oi?io iniaeno?niiai noaiiaeaiiy ethaeeie.
?aea? ??aoe/iiai ?ooo noaee eaoae?caoi?aie aaaeeeaeo na?oiaeyaeieo oa
ii?aeuei?nieo ci?i, ui a?aeaoaaeeny ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
na?aeiiino?, ni?eyth/e oi?ioaaiith a ethaeei? oaeeo iniaeno?nieo ?en, ui
oa?aeoa?ecoaaee ?? ye, ianaiia?aae, ianoaiaea?oio noni?eueio iaeeieoeth,
ye?e aoee i?eoaiaii? iao?aaeeoe?eiee niin?a ieneaiiy ? niin?a aeeooy.

Aiaeii/an, ia iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ??aoeci ye i?iya ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo
ia?iaeieo ian oa i?ia?aneaieo aa?noa noni?euenoaa (ui aoei oa?aeoa?iei
aeey ?aaeyinueei? iaae??a?noeee), oiio ui ??aoeci ia aenoaaa i?yei?
aeueoa?iaoeae ?nioth/iio noni?eueiiio eaaeia?, ia aoa iin??i iiai?
nioe?aeueii? i?ia?aie.

— Oaiiiai ii?ae? Na?aaeiueia?//y ? aeineoue noia?a/eeaei yaeuai,
?acoeueoaoii neeaaeiiai ? noia?a/eeaiai aieeao ye oea?eiaiiai, oae ?
nioe?aeueiiai.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia caeaoia caeaee
?ac aeiaanoe eoeueoo?io oe?ii?noue Na?aaei?o a?e?a ye iniaeeaiai,
niaoeeo?/iiai ia??iaeo a ?noi??? ethaenoaa ? ia iniia? iaoeiaiai aiae?co
??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae aeiaanoe ?nioaaiiy ii?aeueii? aaiethoe?? a
iniaeno?niiio aooo? na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie.

Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ni?eythoue iiaeeaeaiith inai?iiy oa
aea/aiiy aeooiaiiai caeiaooeo Na?aaeiueia?//y a aoeei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio
aniaeo?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo iiaii oa anaa?/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
oaeo neeaaeio ? aaaeeeao aiioo a ?noi??? ethaenoaa, ye Na?aaei? a?ee.

Aeniiaee oa eeth/ia? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? aoe/ieo i?iaeai Na?aaeiueia?//y; iaoa??ae
aeena?oaoe?? iiaea aooe caeo/aiei aei ?ic?iaee ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a,
niaoeeo?n?a, oaeoeueoaoea?a c i?iaeai aoeee, anoaoeee, eoeueoo?ieia??,
?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? eoeueoo?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aeiiia?aeyo oa
iia?aeiieaiiyo ia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aoeea oa anoaoeea a
no?oeoo?? no/aniiai aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy” (Ee?a, ea?oaiue 1997 ?.);
“Aoiai?ci ye iaeaeuee aeya ethaeyiino?” (Ee?a, 1999 ?.); ui??/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, i?enay/aieo Aeiyi iaoee, ui i?iaiaeeeeny ia
o?einionueeiio oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea (ea?oaiue 1997 ?. oa ea?oaiue 1998 ?.).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao
aeey ani??aio?a o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo, can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aoeee,
anoaoeee ? eoeueoo?ieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeena?oaioii i?e i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo
oa eaeoe?eieo caiyoue c eoeueoo?ieia?? ia i?e?iaeie/eo oa iiaieo
oaeoeueoaoao oeueiai ae oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iecea iieiaeaiue i?iiiiiaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaia o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo noaoae oa aeani?e aaoi?nuee?e a?ioo??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia oa aecia/aia aioo??oiueith eia?eith
?ice?eooy oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?ii i?aaeiaoo, ui aea/a?oueny, a
oaeiae iinoaaeaiith iaoith oa iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aeyaey?oueny nooi?iue ??
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee
aeena?oaoe??, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, c’yniaothoueny ieoaiiy
oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? cia/ouino? ?iaioe, a?aeia?aaea?oueny ai?iaaoe?y
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa o?einionueea inieneaiiy
ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaueiii? ii?ae? aei ii?ae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?” — oeyoii
aiae?co iniaeeainoae na?oini?eeiyooy oa na?oia?ae/oooy aioe/ii? ethaeeie
ia??iaeo aee?i?cio cae?enith?oueny ni?iaa inieneaiiy aeoie?a ii?ae?
Na?aaeiueia?//y.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui i?ciy aioe/i?noue, ye ia??iae ?oeiaoe??
aaciina?aaei?o ca’yce?a ethaeeie ? i?e?iaee, ethaeeie ? nioe?oio, ao?aoe
/?oeeo aeeoo?aeo i???ioe??a ? iiaeeeainoae aieeaaoe ia iiae??
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, aeieeiaiiy ? iioe?aiiy o?enoeyinueeiai a??ia/aiiy,
noaea oei i?aea?oioyi, ia yeiio noi?ioaaeeny canaaee ii?aeuei?niiai
?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a.

?ae?a?y ye iiooe iiaiai, iaoooaoiueiai, e?auiai na?oo, caeiyea oo
aeooiaio ii?iaeia/o, yea aeieeea aeey iaioth/eo (honestiores) o
?acoeueoao? cieeiaiiy ?ioa?ano aei iie?oeee; aeey i?aeei?aieo
(humiliores) — o ?acoeueoao? ona?aeiieaiiy aaciaae?eiino? oiia
iaoa??aeueiiai ? ii?aeueiiai, aeooiaiiai ?nioaaiiy, ui, iaia/a,
ia?ae?coaaei ?o i?aaiaiiy eoe aia?aae, aei anaa?/iiai iie?ioaiiy naiai
aoooy. I?e oeueiio, a i?aaiaii? aei ?ae?a?? i?iyaeyeany ia aiey aei
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeooy, a, iaaiaee, aaaeaiiy cian?i iieeoeoe eiai, aoaeoe
a?ae eiai aeiia, oaeaeeiieeiiino? oa iani?aaaaeeeaino?.

Oaeei /eiii, iniiaieie ii?aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ethaeeie, ui noiyea
ia ii?ic? Na?aaeiueia?//y, aoee a?ae/oooy aaciaae?eiino?, ?icia/o oa
ciaa??e o ni?aaaaeeea?noue. Ci?ieoe oaea nai? na?oia?ae/oooy, oi/a a
/anoeiai, ?ethci?ii, ethaeeia caeaoia aoea caaaeyee i?eeiyooth
o?enoeyinoaa, aeeooth a o?enoeyinueeeo iaueiao.

sseui ?ai?oa ?eieyiei aaa/aa nain naiai aeeooy o aeeiiaii?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai iaia’yceo, oi oaia? oaeee iiaeyae ia?anoaa eiai
caaeiaieueiyoe. Ethaeeia ia/aaoi “io?eio?”, a?aoo?-?aoo, naio naaa, ana
/ano?oa caienethth/enue iaae aeaniith aeieath oa ?? i?ecia/aiiyi.
“Ca?aeee y i?eeoia, aeey /iai y aeeao, eoaee eaeo, ui /aea? ia iaia
i?ney nia?o??” — inue ieoaiiy, ye? ii?iaeaeoaaee na?oia?ae/oooy
?iaeea?aea, ui noiya ia ii?ic? Na?aaeiueia?//y. A?aeoaia? eiai
na?oiaeyae ia?aaoaaa i?ae aieeaii o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a??, ?? ii?aeueii?
aeieo?eie, ui, i?e?iaeii, ia iiaei ia a?aeia?aceoeny ia eiai
iniaeno?ni?e ii?ae?.

Iniaeeaee aeine?aeieoeueeee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? ieoaiiy i?i oa?aeoa?
ii/aoeiaiai o?enoeyinoaa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c oeueiai ieoaiiy iieacothoue
aaci?aenoaai?noue eoeueoeaoaaiiy a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?enenonueeiai
ni?yioaaiiy cia?aaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa ye “?ae?a?? ?aa?a” (O. Aiaaeuen).
Oey a?iioaca ia ia? i?yeiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i? a iaoeiaeo, i? a
?ae?a?eieo aeaea?aeao, aaeaea ineoieia?y ?aa?a aoea iano?eueee
niioai?aia ?o i?eieceeaei noaiiaeuai oa iino?eiith ia?oaith, ui ?iaeea
?o iaei ni?iiiaeieie aei aeooiaii? oai?/ino?, i?aaethth/e iniaeno?nia
ia/aei (i?ioi???ae I. Iaiue).

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – “Iniaeeaino? aieeao na?aaeiueia?/ii? o?enoeyinueei?
ii?ae? ia iniaeno?nia naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie” — i?enay/aiee aiae?co
i?ioeano ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a /a?ac
i?ecio aieeao ia iueiai io?oe?eii? o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo – “Niaoeeo?ea io?oe?eii?
o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?” — ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? ii?aeueii?
aeieo?eie o?enoeyinueeiai a??ia/aiiy ye iaeiiai c /eiiee?a
ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy ethaeeie aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y.

sseui aioe/ia aoeea, ui iaea oa?aeoa? ?icoiiaee ? iaoo?ae?noe/iee,
a?oiooaaeany ia ni?iuaiiio ?icoi?ii? ethaeeie (o aeineiiae?e ethaeei?
???aoe?iiaeueia /anoeia iiaeiia ia?aaoaaoe, cie?aia, ca A??noioaeai,
i?ae iiaiei eiio?ieai ?aoe?iiaeueii?, ui caaacia/eoue ?e, ye “?icoii?e
?noio?”, “i??o uanoy”), oi ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ui ie?aia, aeeaa,
?aaeueia, “oe?e?nia” ethaeeia ? ia o?eueee — neea, naiaiaea, ?icoi, a e
aiaeii/an, — ? neaae?noue, caeaaei?noue, iino?eia ai??iiy i?ae aeia?ii
? ceii — ona?aeiieaiiy anueiai oeueiai i?eoiaeeoue a aioe/iee na?o ?acii
?c o?enoeyinoaii. Ao?eath/e a?ae i?eieaeaiiy ? ciaaaae, ia?ac ?
aenieoaoaoe??, ethaeeie ciaoiaeeoue ii?yooiie ? aeooiaiee i?eoenoie o
o?enoeyinueeeo iaueiao. Aea iaoii?noue a?ae ia? aeiaaathoueny iiei?a,
nie?aii?noue, no?aaeaeaiiy oa ieeina?aey, ui, ii noo?, noiyei ia
ia?aoeiae? ?? aeaniiai ii?aeuei?niiai naiiaecia/aiiy.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui oaea iaiaeiicia/i?noue ii?aeueii? neooaoe??, ui aoea
oa?aeoa?iith aeey aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y, ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy
o o?enoeyinueeiio a/aii? i?i naiaiaeo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae yce/ieoeueeeo
aia?a, i?aeaeaaeieo iaieio/?e aeie?, Aia o?enoeyi — iaiaiaaeaii
naiaiaeiee. Oaeiio Aiaia? a?aeiia?aea? ethaeeia, yea aieiae??
aea?iaaiith ?e Oai?oeai naiaiaeith aie?. Aiia ? a?eueiith o aeai??
nooiaoe ?e ia oeyo aeia?a /e c?eoe c iueiai ia oeyo cea oa a??oa.
Naiaiaea — aiaeanoaaiia i?a?iaaoeaa — noa? /aniioith ethaeeie.

Aea aiaeii/an naiaiaea ii?aeueiiai aeai?o i?aaeth?oueny i?iaieioaiiyi
Oea?eaith ethaeeie a?aiith ai?ioueae i?ae Aiaii oa Aeeyaieii, aiane?aeie
/iai ethaeeia ia?anoa? iaeaaeaoe naia nia?, ao?a/ath/e aeanio naiaiaeo.

Iieaciaeie a oeueiio nain? ? i?iiia?ae? o?aioeeneainueeiai oea?eiaieea
na?aaeeie oa o?aouei? /aa?o? O??? no. Aa?oieueaea ?aaainao?anueeiai, o
yeeo ethaeeia c? nai?ie /aniioaie oa aaaeaie iinoa? a?aiith iino?eii?
noia?a/ee oa noia?ieoeoaa, ai?ioueae i?ae Aiaii oa Aeeyaieii, neeaie
aeia?a ? cea.

A?aia ai?ioueae i?ae Aiaii oa Aeeyaieii ia caie? — ethaeeia — iaa?oue
i?ney nai?? nia?o? noa? noaaeith a ?o inoaii?e ae??oaeuei?e noia?a/oe?
ia iaa?. Oae, na?aaeiueia?/ia ienoaoeoai iaaecae/aeii aaaaoa
cia?aaeaiiyie o?iaeueii? noeaie caiiiai ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie, eiee aeooa
iiia?eiai — ua ia?aae oei, ye ia?aiiaeaoeue a?aeaaaea ?? o ?ae /e iaeei
— noa? i?aaeiaoii noia?a/ee i?ae Naoaiith oa a?oaiaaeii Ieoa?eii. Oey
noeaia, ianaiia?aae, i?aee?aneth? ianeai?noue ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie, oa, ui
aiia ia?anoa? iaeaaeaoe naia nia?.

O eiioaeno? aiae?co io?oe?eii? o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae? aeena?oaioii
aeine?aeaeo?oueny oaea iniaeea?noue aeooiaiiai aeeooy aiioe
Na?aaeiueia?//y, ye iia/aeuei?noue oa ii?ae?caoi?noai. I?iiia?ae?
naiic?a/aiiy a ?i’y a??e, iiaeaeaeieoeoaa a ?i’y nian?iiy na?oo, ui
iia?oc o ?iciono?, — ii?aeueiee ?aeaae, ui i?iiaaoaaany a /eneaiieo
“aeeo?yo” nayoeo, aeeeaaeaiiyo A?ae??, inaeoe?yo, “ii?ae?coth/eo”
o?aaieeao, “i?eeeaaeao”, noeaiao c ?eiiia?ao??.

Nie?ath/enue ia caeiaooee no/anii? iaae??a?noeee, aeoiaey/e c aiae?co
“ia?iaeii?” eoeueoo?e Na?aaeiueia?//y, ?aaeueii? ea?oeie aieeao
o?enoeyinueeiai a??ia/aiiy ia noaiiaeaiiy ii?aeueiino? na?aaeiueia?/ii?
ethaeeie, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui aieea o?enoeyinoaa ia
ii?aeuei?nia aeeooy ethaeeie ia??iaeo aenieiai ? i?ciueiai
Na?aaeiueia?//y iani?aaae? aoa ia oaeei oaea e cia/iei. Ethaeeia
ia?iaeaeoaaeany ? aeeea a aoiinoa?? o?enoeyinoaa aacaeueoa?iaoeaii. Oea,
a naith /a?ao, ii?iaeaeoaaei aaoiiaoeci ? iiaa?oia?noue ?? ?ae?a?eii?
iiaaae?iee. Iinooiiai oi?ioaaany noai “iiaea?eiino?” aeeooy
na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie: c iaeiiai aieo, aiia a?aea o/anoue o
?ae?a?eieo ?eooaeao; c ae?oaiai aieo, ?aaeuei? nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie,
ui ? cae?enithaaee ae??oaeueiee aieea ia ii?aeuei?noue ethaeeie,
aeaiiino?oaaee iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ae?e Oea?eae aei i?iaieioaieo iath
ii?i oa i?eioeei?a ethaenueeiai ni?aaeeooy.

Ie??i oiai, aeaiaioe o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a?? nie?oaeeny e neioacoaaeeny o
na?aeiiino? ia?an?/ii? na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie c iiaooi?i ieanoii
i?oieia?/ieo a??oaaiue oa oyaeaiue i?i na?o, ye? aaaaoi a /iio ?
aecia/aee ?? ii?aeuei?nio iiaaae?ieo.

Ioaea, na?aaeiueia?/ia ethaeeia o nai?io ii?aeuei?niiio noaiiaeaii?
ia?aaoaaea i?ae aieeaii ? o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae, ? caeeoe?a noa?i?
yce/ieoeueei? ?ae?a??, ui coiiaethaaei niaoeeo?/i?noue ?icaeoeo ??
ii?aeueii? naiina?aeiiino?. Na?aaeiueia?/iee Cao?ae aeyaeany ?iceieaiei
o nai?o ?ae?a?eieo oiiaeiaaiiyo. Oaeee noai ?a/ae c ieeiii /ano ia?anoaa
aeaooiaoaaoe oea?eiaio ae?oo, ? caiaeii ianooiea ia??iae
ianeeueieoeueeiai iaa’ycoaaiiy o?enoeyinoaa oe?ieiio caaaeo, ui
aeeeeeaei c aieo inoaiiueiai oe?eeii i?e?iaeio iaaaoeaio ?aaeoe?th —
iani?eeiyooy eiai aeieo?eie, aaaeaiiy ooeeeoeny a?ae aeiiaaaiue
oea?eiaiee?a. Oaea neeaaeia ii?aeueia neooaoe?y aoea oa?aeoa?iith ia
o?eueee aeey n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?a?iie, o
na?aaeiaeu? yeiai aoee iniaeeai aeeao/eie caeeoee noa?i? yce/ieoeueei?
?ae?a??. Aiia aoea oa?aeoa?iith ? aeey ?ioeo noni?eueieo aa?noa, noaaoe
iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeee iai?aoethaaiiy iniaeeaiai eiiieaeno
ii?aeueieo onoaiiaie na?onueeeo i?ioa?e?a na?aaeiueia?/iiai
noni?euenoaa.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo – “Ii?aeuei? onoaiiaee na?onueeeo
i?ioa?e?a na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa” — ia iniia? aiae?co
na?oiaeyaeo na?aaeiueia?/iiai oaiaeaea, naeyieia oa ai?iaeyieia
cae?enith?oueny ni?iaa aeie?aieaiiy eiai ii?aeueiiai aniaeoo. O
aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui aeeeaae oa aiae?c ii?aeueieo iiaeyae?a
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo eean?a na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa
aeicaieeoue ?ice?eoe ?o niaoeeo?eo, i??o a?aeiia?aeiino? io?oe?ei?e
?aeaieia??, ui ni?eyoeia, a?aoo?-?aoo, ona?aeiieaiith iniaeeainoae
ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie aiioe Na?aaei?o a?e?a.

C oe??th iaoith aeena?oaioii aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ianaiia?aae, ii?aeueiee
?aeaae, noai?aiee na?aaeiueia?/iei eeoea?noaii, o yeiio ciaeoee na?e
ae?ac ii?aeuei? onoaiiaee iai?aiiai eeano oaiaeae?a. A ioe?ioe?
ii?aeueiiai aniaeoo na?oiaeyaeo na?aaeiueia?/iiai eeoea?noaa aeena?oaio
aeoiaeeoue ?c ?icoi?iiy eiai ye iniaeeaiai nioe?aeueiiai oa ii?aeueiiai
yaeua, ye iaaii? iaiiaoi?ii? eoeueoo?ii? ?aaeueiino?, oeio
na?oini?eeiyooy oa na?oia?ae/oooy. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
?icaeyaeo eoeueoo eo?ooaciiai eioaiiy, yeee ? oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
eeoea?nueei? ii?ae?. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeyae?a AE. Ea Aiooa —
a?aeiiiai ciaaoey na?aaeiueia?/ii? eoeueoo?e oa iaioaeueiino? — ia
oaiiiai eeoea?noaa oa eo?ooaciiai eioaiiy, aeena?oaio aeoeaioo? oaaao
ia a?eueo oe?ieiio ci?noia? iiiyooy eo?ooac??: na?onueeee, ie?nueeee
eiaeaen eo?ooac?? aoa iaei??th c /anoei iiai? nenoaie oe?iiinoae, ui
nie?aeany ia caii? iniiae, ? aoea noai?aia ethaeueie O??-O??? no.; oeae
eiaeaen aoa iieeeeaiee noi?ioaaoe oeea?e?ciaaiiai ai?ia ? aienaoe eiai a
iaae? aa?iii?eiiai oe?eiai, ui aaco?oueny ia aeaio aieiaieo
a?aeiioaiiyo: eoeueoo?a — i?e?iaea oa /ieia?e — ae?iea.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui eo?ooac?y ye niin?a aeeooy oa iiaaae?iee aoea e?ieii
oia?aae o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo ii?aeueii? naiina?aeiiino? eeoea?y, aaeaea a
iae?o?o eiai ii/ooo?a aeeth/aeiny ii/oooy eioaiiy, ui aioo??oiuei
caaaa/oaaei eiai, i?eioooaaei caaeeaethaaoeny o aeaniee aioo??oi?e na?o.
I?aeoeea eo?ooaciiai eioaiiy, oaeei /eiii, ia?aaeaa/aea iaaio
ia?aioe?ieo ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae ye naiiai eeoea?y, oae ? “aeaie
na?oey”, ia yeo aoee ni?yiiaai? eiai i?aeianai? ii/oooy.

C?iaeaoe a?eueo oeyoaoiith a?enueeiao ni?aao, eeoea?noai c?iaeei a?eueo
aeoii/aieie oa oeyoaoieie ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie. Ii?aeiaaoe oea?eiaio
? na?onueeo ?aeaieia??, eeoea?noai noai?eei na?e aeaniee ?aeaae, yeee
noaa neioacii ie?nueeeo ? ?ae?a?eieo oe?iiinoae, aneaoecio oa
/ooo?aino?, i?noeee ? ?aae?cio, ?aeaae, ui ?nioaaa ia iaae? ?aaeueiiai
oa ?aeaaeueiiai. Neeaaeath/e iaio?noue, eeoea?noai a?ae?a?aei aeiyoeiao
?ieue o nenoai? aeaaee oa iie?oeee, a nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio ieai?, aaeaea
eiai ii?aeuei? oa caaaeueiieoeueoo?i? ?aeaaee iaaiei /eiii
a?aeia?aaeaeeny ia ni?eeiyoo? oa iiaaae?ioe? an?o ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo
aa?noa. Aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui eeoea?nuee? ?inoeoooe oa
eoeueoo?a a?ae?a?aee ?ieue iaeiiai c iaeiiaooi?oeo ?oo??a i?ioeano
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa ?icaeoeo naiina?aeiiino? cao?aeiiai ethaenoaa.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae eeoea?nueei? ii?ae?, ii?aeue na?aaeiueia?/iiai
naeyinoaa aoea a?eueo iaiaaeaiith o iiaeeeainoyo naiai ?icaeoeo. Oeueiio
ni?eyee eiina?aaoeci oa iaeiiiai?oi?noue aeeooy naeyieia, ceeooy eiai c
i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai, iaeiiaa, o?ce/ia i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
oaiaeaeueiiio aeanieeo, aeooiaia caeaaei?noue a?ae oea?eae oa
o?aaeeoe?eieo ii?i aeeooy ia nae?, ui caeeoaeeny iaci?iieie i?ioyaii
aeiaaiai /ano, ia?aoiaey/e c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy. Aenieoaoaoe?y oa
aaccaeiiiy, ?ethci?ia i?aeo?eiea naeyieia aeooiaainoaii, ooiaoaee eiai
aei iiooeo ii?aeueii? a?ae?aaee a ia?yaeao noa?i? yce/ieoeueei?
?ae?a??, caeeoee yei? o naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu? aoee ua aeineoue
iioe?aieie. Iaeeaaeaiiy o na?aeiiino? naeyieia aiaineianueeeo
i?iiia?aeae ia iiaooi?e ieano yce/ieoeueeeo a??oaaiue coiiaethaaei
noai?aiiy neeaaeiiai eiiaeiia?aoo iiaeyae?a oa oyaeaiue
na?aaeiueia?/iiai “i?inoaea” i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o, i?i aeania i?noea ?
i?ecia/aiiy o iueiio.

Iaeaaieea?noue, ?ici??ai?noue n?euenueeiai aeeooy, noeeuei?noue aei
o?aaeeoe?e, ui ciaoiaeeea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a onoaiiaoe? ia noa?iaeio ?
iaaeia??? aei aoaeue-yeiai iiaiaaaaeaiiy, eiina?aaoeci niinia?a
iiaaae?iee, iaioaaiiy noa?aioei?a na?aeiiino?, ?ioaeaeooaeueia
ia?icaeiai?noue, — oe? oa aeeeaaeai? aeua /eiieee, cacia/a?oueny a
aeena?oaoe??, coiiaethaaee oi?ioaaiiy ae?ae nai???aeiiai ii?aeueiiai
“iaee//y” na?aaeiueia?/iiai naeyieia.

I?iaeiaaeoth/e aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?aeueieo iiaeyae?a i?aaenoaaiee?a
na?onueeeo aa?noa na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa, aeena?oaiao
cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia aiae?cia? ii?ae? ai?iaeyieia. Cacia/a?oueny, ui
i?nueea ianaeaiiy oi?io? niaoeeo?/iee oei ii?aeueiino?. Oa?aeoa?iee
i?eeeaae ?? — ii?aeue na?aaeiueia?/iiai eoioey, ia??aeiei eaiaiai yei?
noathoue iia?, “caii?” oe?iiino?, a naia: aaaaonoai, i?aoey, /an,
i?eaooie oa ?i.

Aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui, ia?aaeeaath/e o O?-O??? no. aeaiia?ao?/ia,
aeiiii?/ia, nioe?aeueia oa ?ioaeaeooaeueia i?aeianaiiy, na?aaeiueia?/ia
i?noi oi?io? iiao nenoaio oe?iiinoae, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iao?aaeeoe?eia
noaaeaiiy aei i?aoe?, ??aiino?, nioe?aeueii? ???a?o??. Ethaeeia,
ia/aaoi, i?aeiineoueny, caeia? a?eueo a?aeia i?noea a ???a?o??
oe?iiinoae, aeaoaeoaai?e oea?eaith, aiia aeaui aea?eueith?oueny c ioo
oea?eiaieo aeiaiao?a, ye? no?eioaaee ?oo ?? aeoiee, ii/eia? ?icoi?oe ?
oe?ioaaoe i?eiaaee ethaenueeiai aeeooy, ia caaoaath/e i?e oeueiio
oai?eoe i?aaaaei? ae?yiiy caaeey nian?iiy aeoo?; ethaeeia ii/eia?
ona?aeiiethaaoe aieiaia — aeanio naiioe?ii?noue.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ii?aeuei?noue na?aaeiueia?/iiai
ai?iaeyieia ii nai?e noo? a?ae??ciy?oueny ? a?ae ii?ae? naeyinoaa, ?
a?ae ii?ae? eeoea?nueeiai noaio, ? a?ae oea?eiaiiai aneaoecio.

Aiae?coth/e ii?aeueiee a?e aeeooy na?onueeeo i?ioa?e?a na?aaeiueia?/iiai
noni?euenoaa, aeena?oaio aeoeaioo? oaaao ia oiio, ui a oe?eiio ethaeeia
Na?aaeiueia?//y iaio ca ana ieneeea naaa ?iaeea?aeii o oiio nain?, ui
aoa oa?aeoa?iei aeey Iiaiai /ano. A?ae/oaath/e aeeoo?ao iaiao?aei?noue o
iaeaaeiino? aei eieaeoeao (a?i caaacia/oaaa ethaeei? caoeno, iaai?
nioe?aeuei? i?aaa, iiaeeea?noue ca?iaeyoe ia aeeooy), aiia aeeth/aeany o
noni?euenoai /a?ac oea?eiaio iaueio, ?ai?nie/ee oeao, /a?ia/ee i?aeai,
eoiaoeueeo a?eueae?th, aeooiaio oa eeoea?nueeo ???a?o?th. An? oe?
?inoeoooe, ye? iaee ia iao? i?aeo?eiaiiy nioe?aeueii? nie?aea?iino?
oeyoii cao?ooaaiiy nai?o /eai?a i?ioe ciai?oiueiai, aaaaoi a /iio
ai?iaeiai na?oo, aoee, aiaeii/an, ? oeieith aeoiaaiiy a ethaeei? ii/oooy
aeanii? a?aeiino?, ? aaeueiii ia oeyoo i?ioeano ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? ??
iniaenoino?.

Ocaaaeueithth/e, aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui ii?aeue Na?aaeiueia?//y — oea
ia neie?aoe/ia yaeua, a neeaaeiee noni?eueiee oaiiiai, ui a?oiooaaany ia
aca?iica’yceo ??cieo eean?a oa nioe?aeueieo a?oi, eiaeia c yeeo c?iaeea
iaaiee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy ii?ae? aiioe acaaae?. Oey ianoaaeia
coiiaethaaea, a?aoo?-?aoo, aaniethoio iaiiaoi?i?noue ii?ae? ethaeeie
Na?aaei?o a?e?a, aeiyoeiao neeaaei?noue ni?iae ?? inieneaiiy.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – “??aoe/iee ?oo ye niaoeeo?/ia oi?ia nioe?aeueiiai ?
ii?aeueiiai i?ioanoo i?ioe io?oe?eii? ?ae?a?eii? ?aeaieia??” —
i?enay/aiee aea/aiith ??aoecio, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny aeena?oaioii ye iaeei
?c aieiaieo /eiiee?a i?ioeano ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie
Na?aaeiueia?//y.

Aea/ath/e caaeey oi?ioaaiiy iiaii? ea?oeie aa/aiiy ??aoe/iiai ?ooo a
Na?aaei? a?ee eiai ia?oii?e/eie, aeena?oaio, nie?ath/enue ia
iai?aoeueiaaia c oeueiai ieoaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e
iaae??a?noeoe?, cacia/a?, ui ieie aoee ia?aae on?i, oaeoi?e ?icaeoeo
naii? oea?eae — i?aaiaiiy aei ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy, iiiaeaiiy, aei
aiinoieuenueeiai aeeooy, a oaeiae aeieeiaiiy i?no oa iioe?aiiy
ienaiiino? na?aae ethaeae.

Oeyoii aiae?co ye “?ao?iiaaii?”, a/aii?, ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueei? aeoiee
Na?aaeiueia?//y, oae ? ii?aeueieo iiaeyae?a oa onoaiiaie i?aaenoaaiee?a
??cieo ??aoe/ieo ?oo?a, a oaeiae i?nueeiai a?eueiiaeoinoaa, aeena?oaio
aeiaiaeeoue, ui ??aoeci aenooiaa cia/iith aeaoa?i?iaioith ii?aeueii?
iiaaae?iee na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie, aaaiiei /eiieeii i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy ?? ii?aeueiino?.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui ??aoe/iee ?oo cae?eniea ae??oaeueiee aieea ia
aeooiaia aeeooy aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y, ui a?aeia?aceeiny ia c?ooaii?
iaea?eueo eiina?aaoeaieo canaae o?enoeyinueeiai a??ia/aiiy. Oae,
noi?ioaaeany oe?ea ieayaea ieneeoae?a (A??oaaia, Ainaeuei
Eaioa?aa??enueeee, I.Aaaey?, Aeaioa Ae?a????), ye? iaiaaaeeny a?aeiaeoe
?aoe?iiaeuei? iniiae a??e; cia/i? ii?aeuei? iiooee aaeeny ? ia ??ai?
ieaaaenueeeo ??anae, o/anieeaie yeeo aoee aeo?aeoe? c i?no ? n?e
(aaeueaeaine, eaoa?e, aeuea?aieoe? oa ?i.), ui caeeaaeaee i?aeaaeeie
aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oea?eae, iiaa?iaiiy aei ii/aoeiaiai
o?enoeyinoaa, aa?iii?eiiai ii?aeiaiiy iniaeno?nii? iiaaae?iee c
?ae?a?eieie ?aeaaeaie.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui cia/iee aieea ia ?icaeoie na?aaeiueia?/iiai
??aoecio aeoiie ni?aaeea i?noeea, yea i?iiaaoaaea ?aeath e?ea?aeaoe??
oea?eae ye iina?aaeieea i?ae Aiaii ? ethaeeiith, a?aeaiaey/e aaeeeo
?ieue o io?eiaii? ethaeeiith nian?iiy ?? “aeia?ei ni?aaai”, a???
(a/aiiy Aiaeue?eea Aainueeiai, Iaenoa?a Aeoa?oa oa ?i.)

Ioaea, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?iyae ?ae?a?eii? iiiceoe?? a aiioo
Na?aaeiueia?//y a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? aoee aeineoue ??cii??aeieie ? ca
ci?noii, ? ca oi?iith (aenooie oaieia?/ieo aaoi?eoao?a ? ae?? ia?iaeieo
i?iiia?aeiee?a), i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii ae?yeuei?noue ? oeo, ? ?ioeo
aoea ni?yiiaaia ia i?aaethaaiiy ?ie? io?oe?eii? oea?eae, oea?eiaii?
???a?o?? oa onoaiiaeaiiai iath eoeueoo a ?ae?a?eiiio aeeoo?. Oea
iaieio/a a?aeia?aaeaeiny ia ii?aeuei?niiio noai? oiai/aniiai
noni?euenoaa. Ine?eueee ??an? aoee aeineoue iioe?aiei yaeuai o Na?aaei?
a?ee, oi ia aoaea iiieeeith aaaaeaoe, ui ?oi? ii?aeuei?ni? ?aea?
iaieio/a aieeaaee ia ii?aeueio na?aeii?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy. ?o caeeeee aei ii?aeuei?nii? /enoioe ye nayuaiieea, oae ?
i?inoi? ethaeeie, ?ice?eooy eeoeai??noaa iai?aii? oea?eae, i?aaiaiiy
i?ioenoaaeoe aeanio nenoaio iiaeyae?a io?oe?eii onoaeai?e, — ona oea,
aacoiiaii, ni?aaeyei iaaaeyeee iiceoeaiee aieea ia ii?aeuei?nia
naiiaecia/aiiy na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie, ?ice?eooy ?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
iaoee?a, nee oa cae?aiinoae. Oiio ??aoe/iee ?oo, cacia/a?oueny a
aeena?oaoe??, iiaeia c iaai?noth aaaaeaoe iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a
i?ioeano ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a, o
iaaeao yeiai aee?enoae?ciaoaaeiny iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy aei ethaeeie,
aeoiaoaaeiny ii/oooy i?ioanoo oa iacaeaaeiino?.

Aiae?coth/e niaoeeo?eo ??aoe/iiai ?ooo a Na?aaei? a?ee, aeena?oaio
iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui ??aoeci, iii?e ana, ia iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye
i?iya ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo ia?iaeieo ian oa i?ia?aneaieo aa?noa
noni?euenoaa (ui aoei oa?aeoa?iei aeey ?aaeyinueei? iaae??a?noeee),
ine?eueee a?i ia aenoaaa i?yei? aeueoa?iaoeae ?nioth/iio noni?eueiiio
eaaeia?, ia aoa iin??i iiai? noni?eueii? i?ia?aie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “I?noea ? ?ieue na?aaeiueia?/ii? ii?ae? a
aeooiai?e aaiethoe?? noni?euenoaa” — cacia/a?oueny, ui a eiioaeno?
na?aaeiueia?/ii? ii?ae? aeineoue /?oei, aea, aiaeii/an, aeineoue
noia?a/eeai i?iyaeeany i?iaeaia iniaenoino?. C iaeiiai aieo, eoee
iiooee ?icoi?iiy ?? nooiino? ia ??ai? oai??? a oai?ao a?aeiieo
aiaineia?a (Aiaoe?e, I’?? Aaaey?, Oiia Aea?inueeee, Aa?oieueae
?aaainao?anueeee); c ?ioiai, aeania, nai? oiiae aeeooy ethaeeie
Na?aaeiueia?//y cae?enieee ??cii??aiaaee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueii?
iniaenoino?. ?nioaaea iaaia ?ica?aei?noue oa iiaeeea?noue
naiia?aenoi?iiaiino? a?ae nioe?aeueieo oiia aeeooy, yea aeicaieyea
?iaeea?aeo oe??? aiioe naiiaeaoa?i?ioaaoe naith aeieth, naith
na?aeii?noue, oiaoi aeeoe a ai?eciio? iniaenoino? (A?aea? A.N.). ?acii c
oei, ei?ii?aoeai? a?aeiineie — iai?ai? a oo ?noi?e/io aiioo —
iaiaaeoaaee aeoeai?noue oa iiaaoi?nueeo iiaaae?ieo ethaeeie, ui
iaaaoeaii aieeaaei ia i?ioean iniaeno?niiai naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie.

Caoaaaeo?oueny, ui o?enoeyinoai noai?th? noia?a/eeao neooaoe?th
?nioaaiiy iniaenoino?. C iaeiiai aieo, o?enoeyinueea ?ae?a?y i?iaieioo?
ethaeeio caeaoiith ?iaeoe aeaniee ii?aeueiee aea?? o aeeoo? — iae?aoe
oeyo aeia?a, nayoino? /e cea, a??oiaiino?, aaeaea ethaeeia aieiae??
aaeeeei aiaeanoaaiiei aea?ii — aeaniith naiaiaeith aie?. C ae?oaiai,
neoae?iiy Aiaia? aeiaaa? iiei?e, i?eaeooaiiy iniaeno?nieo iaoee?a, ye? a
noia?a/eee ?eai?enoe/iei ?aeaaeai o?enoeyinoaa. Naiaiaea aeai?o,
i?iaieioaia o?enoeyinoaii, oaeei /eiii, ia?ae?aneth?oueny, i?aaeth?oueny
caiia?aeaeth oieeaoe anueiai, ui o??th /e ?ioith i??ith iiaea
ia?aoeiaeaeaoe nian?iith aeoo?.

Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui Oea?eaa a?ae?a?aea iaaaoeaio ?ieue o
oi?ioaaii? na?aaeiueia?/ii? iniaenoino? ye oaei?, ine?eueee a /eneaiieo
?ae?a?eieo ia?yaeao oa iaiaaeaiiyo i?aaethaaea ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue
ethaeeie: aaoi?e ii?aaeiee?a aeey niia?ae? o?aeoothoue ethaeeio ye
uinue aano?aeoia ? caaaeueia, caeaaeii a?ae ?? noni?eueiiai noaio
(eeoea? acaaae?, eoiaoeue acaaae?, oiui). Anooiath/e aei ni?eueiioe
o?enoeyi ? io?eioth/e iaae?th ia nian?iiy, ethaeeia ciooaia aoea
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae aeanii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?: iaeaaea/e aei oe?eiai ?
ia ona?aeiiethth/e naaa ie?aiith ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noth, aiia iiaeiia
aoea aeeiioaaoe a eiai iaaeao a?aeaaaeaio ?e ?ieue, i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoeny
aeaiiio ?e caeiiia?.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui aiae?c th?eaee/ieo, ?ae?a?eieo oa
e?oa?aoo?ieo iai’yoie Na?aaeiueia?//y, niaoeeo?ee o?enoeyinueeiai
“ia?niiae?cio”, iniaeeainoae na?aaeiueia?/ii? anoaoieia??, ienoaoeoaa,
?eiiia?ao?? oa iaoee aeiaiaeeoue, ui a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a inoaoi/ii
neeaaea?oueny iiiyooy iniaenoino?. I?e oeueiio aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui
ii/aoee ii?aeueii? iniaenoino?, aeoiee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino?
ne?ae aaa/aoe aeayeith i??ith o o?enoeyinoa? (Ao?aae/ A.ss.) ?,
aiaeii/an, aaaaeaoe neeaaeaiiy na?aaeiueia?/ii? iniaenoino?
eoeuei?iaoe??th oeo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo, iaioaeuei?nieo
ci?i o noni?euenoa?, ui noaeeny a ia??iae c na?aaeeie O??-aei na?aaeeie
O??? no., a naia: aeiiii?/ia, iie?oe/ia i?aeianaiiy na?aaeiueia?/ii?
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, ?icaeoie iaoee, eoeueoo?e, ienoaoeoaa, aeoeaiooaaiiy
oaaae ethaeeie ia caiieo oe?iiinoyo, ca?eueiaiiy a?ae ioo oea?eiaieo
aeiaiao?a ? o.ae. ( AE. Ea Aioo).

O AENIIAEAO aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?aenoiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aena?oeththoue i?iaeaiaoeeo oa caaaeueio no?oeoo?o
?iaioe.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe iniiaiee aeniiaie: ? an?
i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a, yea ua aeiiaaeaaia
aaaaeaeany aiioith ?ao?ia?aaenoaa oa iaa?aeanoaa, a?aeaoaaany i?ioean
ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie, ui caeaee ?ac aeiaiaeeoue aeoieo i?i
aaeeeo eoeueoo?io oe?ii?noue oeueiai ia??iaeo a ?noi??? ethaenoaa.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui canaaee ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo
Na?aaeiueia?//y aoee noi?iiaai? caaeiaai aei o?iiieia?/iiai ii/aoeo
oeueiai ia??iaeo, a naia a aiioo i?ciuei? aioe/iino?, eiee ethaeeia,
o?aa?/ii ia?aaeeaath/e a?ae/oooy ao?aoe i?aai?/ii? aeaaioai?ii? ?aeiino?
c i?e?iaeiei oa nioe?aeueiei na?oii, a?aeaeaey?oueny a eiii
o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a??, ooeath/e a i?e aeooiaiee i?eoenoie oa
iiaeeea?noue a?aeiaeoe a??o a iaeaooi?.

Aeiaiaeeoueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui ii?aeue Na?aaeiueia?//y ? neeaaeiei
eiiieaeniei ooai?aiiyi, a yeiio o?enoeyinueea a??a ni?a?nioaaea e c
?ioeie ia iaio aaaeeeaeie /eiieeaie ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy
na?aaeiueia?/ii? ethaeeie: caeeoeaie noa?i? yce/ieoeueei? ?ae?a??,
?aaeueieie nioe?aeueieie a?aeiineiaie, ?aeayie ??aoe/iiai ?ooo. A
noeoiiino? oe? oaeoi?e ni?eyee a?eueo iiaiiio ?ice?eooth iniaeno?niiai
iioaioe?aeo ?iaeea?aea, aenooiath/e cia/iith aeaoa?i?iaioith eiai
ii?aeueii? iiaaae?iee, aaaiiei /eiieeii i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiai
ii?aeueiino?, inoaoi/iiai neeaaeaiiy iiiyooy iniaenoino?.

Ii?aeue Na?aaeiueia?//y iinoa? ye neeaaeiee ianeie?aoe/iee noni?eueiee
oaiiiai, ?acoeueoao aieeao oea?eiaiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai, iaiiaoi?iee ?
oe?eaaee o ni?ia? inieneaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Caaa?ei E.A. Ia?ao?ae a?ae iaueiii? aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ii?ae?:
?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa o?einionueea inieneaiiy // Aeooaeuei?
o?einionuee? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie no/aniino? (Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao). Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. — E.:
Aeae-ai OIA “I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y”, 1998. — N.97 — 105. — 0,5
ae. a?e.;

2. Caaa?ei E.A. ??aoe/iee ?oo ye niaoeeo?/ia oi?ia ii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a (O eiioaeno? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e) // Aeooaeuei? o?einionuee? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie
no/aniino? (Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao). Ca??iee
iaoe. i?aoeue. — E.: Aeae-ai OIA “I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y”,
1999. — N.262 — 271. — 0,5 ae. a?e.;

3. Naaa?ei E.A. Aeaye? aniaeoe aea/aiiy iiiyooy iniaenoino? a
aiioo Na?aaeiueia?//y // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea. Na??y: O?einio?y. Iie?oieia?y. — 1998. — Aei. 28. — N.49 — 53.
— 0,5 ae.a?e.;

4. Naaa?ei E.A. Na?onuee? i?ioa?ee na?aaeiueia?/iiai
noni?euenoaa: ii?aeueiee aniaeo na?oiaeyaeo ( a eiioaeno?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e). — E.: Ciaiiy, 1998. — 24 n. — 1, 44
ae. a?e.;

Aiioaoe??

Naaa?ei E.A. I?iaeaia ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a aiioo
Na?aaei?o a?e?a (a eiioaeno? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e). —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth: 09.00.07 — aoeea. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe??, ia iniia? aiae?co ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaueiii? ii?ae? aei
ii?ae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, iniaeeainoae aieeao na?aaeiueia?/ii?
o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae? oa ??aoe/iiai ?ooo, ye niaoeeo?/ii? oi?ie
nioe?aeueiiai ? ii?aeueiiai i?ioanoo i?ioe io?oe?eii? ?ae?a?eii?
?aeaieia??, ia iniaeno?nia naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie, c’ynoaaiiy i?noey ?
?ie? na?aaeiueia?/ii? ii?ae? a aeooiai?e aaiethoe?? noni?euenoaa,
cae?enith?oueny ni?iaa aeiaaaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo
ethaeeie a aiioo Na?aaei?o a?e?a, a oaeiae iiaeeea?noue o?aeooaaiiy
ii?ae? Na?aaeiueia?//y ye iniaeeaiai ianeie?aoe/iiai noni?eueiiai
oaiiiaio, ui a?oiooaaany ia aca?iica’yceo ??cieo noni?eueieo eean?a oa
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, eiaeia c yeeo c?iaeea iaaiee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy
ii?ae? aiioe acaaae?. Oey ianoaaeia coiiaethaaea, a?aoo?-?aoo,
iaiiaoi?i?noue ii?ae? Na?aaeiueia?//y, yea ia ia? aiaeia?a o nenoai?
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? i?aeoeee ethaenoaa acaaae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?aeue, ii?aeuei?niee ?icaeoie, eoeueoo?a, iniaeno?nia
naiiaecia/aiiy, naiina?aeii?noue, na?oiaeyae.

Naaa?ei E.A. I?iaeaia i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea a yiioo N?aaeieo
aaeia (a eiioaenoa caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe: 09.00.07 — yoeea. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Eeaa, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeaiu i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey
/aeiaaea a yiioo N?aaeieo aaeia a eiioaenoa caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai
N?aaeiaaaeiauey.

Iniiauaaynue ia aiaeeca ia?aoiaea io iaueiiie ii?aee e ii?aee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie, iniaaiiinoae aeeyiey n?aaeiaaaeiaie o?enoeaineie
ii?aee e a?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, eae niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iu
nioeeaeueiiai e ii?aeueiiai i?ioanoa i?ioea ioeoeeaeueiie ?aeeaeiciie
eaeaieiaee, ia ee/iinoiia naiiii?aaeaeaiea /aeiaaea, auyniaiey ianoa e
?iee n?aaeiaaaeiaie ii?aee a aeooiaiie yaiethoeee iauanoaa,
i?aaei?eieiaaony iiiuoea aeieacaoaeuenoaa nouanoaiaaiey i?aanoaaiiiai
?acaeoey /aeiaaea a yiioo N?aaeiaaaeiauey.

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi iicaeiyy
aioe/iinoue eae ia?eiae ?ac?uaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo naycae /aeiaaea e
i?e?iaeu, /aeiaaea e nioeeoia, iioa?e /aoeeo aeeciaiiuo i?eaioe?ia,
aiciiaeiinoe aeeyoue ia niauoey iauanoaaiiie aeecie, aicieeiiaaiey e
?ani?ino?aiaiey o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey, noaea oie ii/aie, ia eioi?ie
noi?ie?iaaeenue iniiau ii?aeueiiai ?acaeoey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai /aeiaaea.

Ii?aeue /aeiaaea N?aaeiaaaeiauey – aeoaiei i?ioeai?a/eaia yaeaiea.
Nianaynue io yenieoaoaoeee e ii?aeueiiai oieaeaiey, /aeiaae iaoiaeee
oaaaeeua a o?enoeaineeo iaueiao. Aianoa n oai io iaai o?aaiaaeenue
nie?aiea, no?aaeaiea e ieeina?aeea, /oi, ii nooe, i?aiyonoaiaaei aai
nianoaaiiiio i?aanoaaiiiio naiiii?aaeaeaieth. Aeaeaaony auaiae i oii,
aeeyiea o?enoeainoaa ia i?aanoaaiioth aeeciue /aeiaaea ia?eiaea aunieiai
e iicaeiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey ia naiii aeaea ia auei cia/eoaeueiui:
/aeiaae ?iaeaeaeny e aeee a aoiinoa?a o?enoeainoaa aacaeueoa?iaoeaii,
/oi a naith i/a?aaeue ?iaeaeaei aaoiiaoeci e iiaa?oiinoiinoue aai
?aeeaeiciiai iiaaaeaiey; ?aaeueiua nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua e
ieacuaaee ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia i?aanoaaiiinoue /aeiaaea,
aeaiiino?e?iaaee ianiioaaonoaea aeaenoaee Oea?eae i?iaicaeaoaiiui ath
ii?iai e i?eioeeiai /aeiaa/aneiai ninouanoaiaaiey; yeaiaiou o?enoeaineie
?aeeaee neioace?iaaeenue a niciaiee iau/iiai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai /aeiaaea n
iiuiui n?acii ieoieiae/aneeo aa?iaaiee e i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a, eioi?ua
ai iiiaii e ii?aaeaeyee aai i?aanoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea.

A enneaaeiaaiee aiai?eoueny i aiciiaeiinoe enoieeiaaiey ii?aee
N?aaeiaaaeiauey eae iniaaiiiai ianeie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaaiiiai oaiiiaia,
eioi?ue iniiauaaeny ia acaeiinayce ?aciuo iauanoaaiiuo eeannia e
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii (oaiaeaeu, e?anoueyinoai, aeeoaee ai?iaeia,
eoia/anoai), eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aianea ii?aaeaeaiiue aeeaae a
oi?ie?iaaiea ii?aee yiioe aiiaua. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaoneiaeei, a
eiia/iii eoiaa, iaiiaoi?eiinoue ii?aee N?aaeiaaaeiauey, eioi?ay ia eiaao
aiaeiaia a nenoaia nioeeieoeueoo?iie i?aeoeee /aeiaa/anoaa aiiaua.

A?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeei ec aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia
aeeyiey ia i?ioeann ii?aeueiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea N?aaeiaaaeiauey.
I?iaicaeaoaaiua a?aoeeaie i?ecuau e i?aanoaaiiie iaii?i/iinoe eae
nayuaiieea, oae e i?inoiai /aeiaaea, ?anne?uoea eie eeoeaia?ey
ainiiaenoaothuae oea?eae, eo no?aieaiea i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue nianoaaiioth
nenoaio acaeyaeia ioeoeeaeueii ooaa?aeaeaiiie, — ana yoi, aaconeiaii,
ieacuaaei aaee/aeoaa iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia i?aanoaaiiia
naiiii?aaeeeaiea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai /aeiaaea, ?anne?uoea aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaeeiiiinoae, nee e niiniaiinoae. A ?aieao
a?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey au?aaaouaaeinue iniaaiiia ioiioaiea e /aeiaaeo,
ainieouaaeinue /oanoai i?ioanoa e iacaaeneiinoe.

I?e aiaeeca niaoeeoeee a?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a yiioo n?aaeieo aaeia
aeaeaaony aeoeaio ia oii, /oi a?aoeci iaeuecy o?aeoiaaoue eae i?iyaeaiea
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey ia?iaeiuo iann e i?ia?anneaiuo neiaa
iauanoaa ( /oi auei oa?aeoa?iui aeey niaaoneie iaaeeaaenoeee),
iineieueeo iii ia auaeaeaaei ieeaeie aeueoa?iaoeau nouanoaothuaio
iauanoaaiiiio no?ith, ia aue iineoaeai iiaie nioeeaeueiie i?ia?aiiu.

Aiaeec th?eaee/aneeo, ?aeeaeiciuo e eeoa?aoo?iuo iaiyoieeia
N?aaeiaaaeiauey, niaoeeoeee o?enoeaineiai “ia?niiae?cia”, iniaaiiinoae
n?aaeiaaaeiaie ynoaoieiaee, eneonnoaa, eeiiia?aoee e iaoee aeaao
iniiaaiey ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eiaiii a yoo yiioo ieii/aoaeueii
oi?ie?oaony iiiyoea ee/iinoe. I?e yoii oeacuaaaony, /oi ia/aea
ii?aeueiie ee/iinoe, enoiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey neaaeoao
oniao?eaaoue a iaeioi?ie noaiaie a o?enoeainoaa (Ao?aae/ A.ss.) e,
iaeiia?aiaiii, n/eoaoue oi?ie?iaaiea n?aaeiaaaeiaie ee/iinoe
eoeueieiaoeeae oao nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo, eoeueoo?iuo e
iaioaeueiinoiuo eciaiaiee a iauanoaa, eioi?ua i?iecioee a ia?eiae n
na?aaeeiu O??-aei na?aaeeiu O???no., a eiaiii: yeiiiie/aneee,
iieeoe/aneee iiaeuai n?aaeiaaaeiaie Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ?acaeoea iaoee,
eoeueoo?u, eneonnoaa, aeoeaioe?iaaiey aieiaiey /aeiaaea ia caiiuo
oeaiiinoyo, inaiaiaeaeaiey io ieia oea?eiaiuo aeiai e o.ae.(AE. Ea
Aioo).

Oaiiiai ii?aee N?aaeiaaaeiauey i?aaenoaaeyaony neiaeiui e
i?ioeai?a/eaui yaeaieai, ?acoeueoaoii aeeyiey eae oea?eiaiiai, oae e
nioeeaeueiiai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?aeue, i?aanoaaiiia ?acaeoea, eoeueoo?a, ee/iinoiia
naiiii?aaeaeaiea, naiiniciaiea, ie?iaicc?aiea.

Severin L.V. The problem of Moral Development of Person During the
Medieval Epoch (in the Context of the West-European Culture). –
Manuscript.

The Thesis for obtaining of the Scientific Degree of a Candidate of
Philosophic Sciences on the specialty: Ethics. – Kiev National Taras
Shevchenko University, Kiev, 1999.

In the thesis, on the basis of the analysis of the transfer from general
morals to the individual one, peculiarities of influence of the
medieval Christian morals and heretic movement as a specific form of
social and moral protest against official religious ideology, on a
personal self-identifying, determining the place and the role of
medieval morals in spiritual evolution of a society, we are making an
attempt to prove the existence of the moral development of a person in
the Medieval Epoch as a special nonsincretic social phenomenon, which
was based on interconnection of different social classes and groups,
each of which contributed to forming of moral epoch in general. This
circumstance caused, in the end, uniqueness of morals of the Medieval
Epoch, which has no analogues in the system of socially cultural
practice of mankind at al.

Kay words: morals, moral development, culture, personal
self-identifying, self consciousness, world outlook.

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