1

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

?inoeooo aeo?iae?noeee

UA?AAEIAA Ieaia Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 002.07

I?IAEAIA OI?IOAAIIss IAOe?IIAEUeII? AE?OE OE?A?IE

E??CUe I?ECIO I?ANE 90-o ?IE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.08 – aeo?iae?noeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?aaiia Aaea??e Oae?eniae/,

?inoeooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeey? Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/, ?inoeooo
aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeii? aeo?iae?noeee;

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aeaaeeie?ia Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao (Eoaainuee),

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeo?iae?noeee ? o?eieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

EUeA?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “19” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. ia 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.34 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 254119, Ee?a-119, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa,
36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “18” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
A.O.?aaiia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey Oe?a?ie 90-o ?ie?a OO no., ?c
/ano i?iaieioaiiy ?? iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith, ?icii/aany iia?oi?e
?noi?e/iee aoai. ?c-iii?ae /eneaiieo i?iaeai, ui iio?aaothoue nueiaiaei?
naia iaoeiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?o ae??oaiiy, /e ia iaeaieiai?oith
aaaaea?oueny i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe – aeoeaii?
iaioino?, caeaoii? caaaeyee nai?i iniaeeaei yeinoyi aanoe ca niaith oa
oi?aaeyoe noni?euenoaii o oe?eiio, yea a?aeiia?aeaea a caaaeaiiyi
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa, ae?oe “a?aee?eoi?” (aeaiie?aoe/ii?),
aeui? ca nai?i ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiei iioaioe?aeii a?ae “cae?eoi?”
(ath?ie?aoe/ii?, aai iiiaieeaoo?e).

Ieioei a?n?i ?ie?a, ? ia?ai? ?iiaioe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui c?
caeiaoooyi iacaeaaeiino? ?icii/iaoueny ye?nii iiaee iinooi ii aeno?aei?e
a on?o noa?ao a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, cieeathoue i?ae oeneii
aoaeaiieo ?aae?e. Iaoa noni?euenoai ia?aaoaa? o noai? nenoaiii? e?ece,
caaino?ththoueny nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie oa e?ei?iiaaiia neooaoe?y, c?inoa?
iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue oiui.

Aacia?a/ii, aeeiai?/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a
?ioeo noaa?aiieo aea?aeaaao, ca oiia oo?eaiiy a aeeooy ?aea? aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino? aeoeaii aieeaathoue ? ia anth nenoaio cania?a ianiaeo
eiioi?eaoe?e, cie?aia e ia i?ano, aeiei??iii ci?ithth/e ?icoi?iiy
?oiuei? ?ie? oa ooieoe?e. Iniaeea?noth oe??? nenoaie – nai???aeii? ?
iaeiieiaeoi? no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e –
aaaaea?oueny ia?aaeon?i oa, ui iniiaa naiiai ?? aeeooy a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy aoea cnoiooa c a?oioo iaoe?iiaeueiiai. Naia /a?ac caniae
ianiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e, ye aeciathoue no/ani? iaoeiaoe?, eoei aeei??iaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiona?aeiieaiiy, ia aac ?? o/ano? a?aeaoaaeeny
eaoano?io?/i? aeey iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?nioaaiiy ia?iaeo ia?aeine ye o
iania?e na?aeiiino?, oae ? o na?aeiiino? ie?aieo ethaeae.

Ioiae, nueiaiaei?, iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a, eiee c’yaeeeny ?aaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? aeey ni?aaaeiuei? aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, cie?aia ? ia
oa?ai? ae?oiciaanoaa, aeathoueny aciaee ye o?eaaea a?ae??aai?noue a?ae
aeinyaiaiue na?oiai? nioe?aeueii-oai?aoe/ii? aeoiee, oae ? oene
noa?aioei?a. Oea oe?eeii noino?oueny iiiyooy “ae?oa”, eio?a noaei
eeth/iaei o aaaaoueio cao?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ye? ia oae aeaaii, ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, aeciaaaeeny aioeiaoeiaeie “ao?aeoacieie
nioe?ieia?/ieie a/aiiyie”, a oaia? oaeiae iio?aaothoue no/aniiai
ia?ainieneaiiy noiniaii i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Aeiiaaeaaia aiii (iiiyooy “ae?oa”) iicia/aei iacao aeuiai
i?ioa?eo iaioth/iai eeano a ao?aeoaciiio noni?euenoa?; “ia?aia”,
“aeooeaia” eiei ethaeae, a c ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iinooiiai (oa ana
iaiieaaeea?oa) caeeaaea?oueny ??cieie iaae?a caniaaie o ianiao
na?aeii?noue.

I?ioean iiiaeaiiy onueiai a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy, ye?nii iiaee oei
aeaiie?ao?? aeiaaathoue ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeeneon?eiiai ia/aea. ? no/ania
a?o/eciyia i?ana i?aaia ni?eyoe aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa, ?icaeoeo
aeaniino?, a?iiaaeyinueei? aeoeaiino? ethaeae, aeieaoe ana oa, ui
noi?oue ia ia?aoeiae? ?ooia? aei ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i; aiia ia? noaoe
ae?acieeii ieth?ae?cio aeoiie, ui cae?enith?oueny ia iniia?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae, i?eioeei?a oa aoeee. I?ana ? iiioey?ia
(iiaei, aai ianiaa), ? ye?nia (aeoiie, aai ae?oia) ia oiaeueoao nai?o
aeaeaiue iaaea? oi?eaeueio iiaeeea?noue aaaeaiiy aaaaoianiaeoii?
iieai?ee c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, eio?a oi?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano
?aii?oaaeany ?aaeyinueeei noni?euenoaiciaanoaii, ia aac aieeao yeiai
i?aaaeth? ciaaaaeeeai iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy ye aei naiiai iiiyooy “ae?oa”,
oae ? aei oiai noni?eueiiai yaeua, eio?a aiii ?ai?acaioo?.

Oiae, ia noi??ieao i?ane, yea ae?aaea? oii aiioe oa a?aeaeaa? on?
noia?a/eea? ?aae?? 90-o ?ie?a, cie?aia nioe?ieoeueoo?i? oa
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i?, ia auooa? iieai?ea i?i oa, /e ? nueiaiaei? a
Oe?a?i? aeinoaoiuei oe?ieee i?ioa?ie iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe, caeaoii?
i?aeianoe aeooiaiee ? iaoa??aeueiee iioaioe?ae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo? ui
o?aaa c?iaeoe, uia i?ioan?eii eiiiaoaioi?, iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii?
oe?a?inuee? ?ioaeaeooaee ciiaee caeiyoe iaeaaeia i?noea ia an?o uaaeyo
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy? ye? ia?niaeoeae uiaei oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii?
oe?a?inueei? ae?oe ?a?iiaenueeiai c?acea o ??cieo noa?ao
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?? ye aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee iaa??
e?eoa???a ae?oa?iino?, a ia oi?iaeueii? iaeaaeiino? – ae?oiino?, (? ooi,
c?aooith, ia? oea ?iaeoe) c iiaeyaeo caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oa
iaoe?iiaeueieo aa?oinoae o eiioaeno? i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy ae?oa?ii?
iniaenoino? ia iaae? noie?oue?

Aaaeeeai i?iaiae?coaaoe iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? oaiaeaioe??, eio?? ona ae?aci?oa
ie?aneththoueny iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a, eiee cia/ii c??n ina?oi?e
??aaiue ianaeaiiy, uiaei ?ie? i?ane a i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai
aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Ianaiia?aae, eaeaoueny i?i oa, ui
oe? aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iino?eii ii?ooothoueny o i?an? ia ??cieo ??aiyo
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa i?iya?a – a?ae aiioe?eii iaeo?aeueieo aei iaoeiai
aeaaaeaieo ? oaeeo, ui aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aea?aeaaiith
eaae?iaith iie?oeeith Oe?a?ie. Oei naiei io?oe?eii aecia?oueny, ui
oi?ioaaiiy ae?oe noni?euenoaa – oea /anoeia caaaeueii? i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo aeey iiiaeaii? aea?aeaae.

Iniaeeaiai ?icaieino i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie
iaaoaa? iaia?aaeiaei?, i?ae /an /e a?ae?aco i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy
aaeeeiianooaaieo a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo caoiae?a. Iaeaaaeeea?o?
ieoaiiy, ui aoee a oeaio?? oaaae aaaaoueio i?aeia?iaeieo ? a?o/eciyieo
oi?oi?a iaoeiaoe?a Aeea., iai?.: AEo?iae?noeea e i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
iiai? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo aea?aeaaao: Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?. iaoeiai-i?aeo. eiio. / Ca caa. ?aae. A.C.Iineaeaiea. – E.,
1996. – 76 n.; Ae?oa oa nioe?aeueia ci?ia: iaoa??aee “e?oaeiai noiea” //
O?ein. ? nioe?ieia. aeoiea. – 1996. – ? 5-6. – N. 201 – 251;
Iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie: Oace
aeiiia?aeae I?aeia?. iaoe. eiio. (18 – 20 ea?o.). – Euea?a, 1996. – 312
n.; *aeee Na?a?e. sse noai?eoe e?aea??a aeey Oe?a?ie // Aeueoa?iaoeaa. –
1998. – ? 26. – 29 /a?a. – 5 eei. – N. 2; Iieiaea ae?oa: aooe
“a?o?eeaie” /e noaoe ca “ooo?aae”? E?oaeee no?e ?aaeaeoe?? aeo?iaeo
“Ethaeeia ? aeaaea” a Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie // Ethaeeia ? aeaaea. – 1999. – ? 2-3. – N. 29 –
35., ciaoiaeeee nai? iiaeaeueoa a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o ??cieo iaae?a
caniaao, cie?aia ia oiaeueoao aacaoii-aeo?iaeueii? ia??iaeeee. Oea aea?
ciiao /eoa/aa? (aeyaea/aa?, neooa/aa?) ia ye?ni?oiio ??ai? ona?aeiieoe
aaaeeea?noue ?ie?, caaaeaiue, oeiieia??, i??i?eoao?a oa oeyo?a
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie.

A?aecia/eii oaeiae ? aieiaio ?eno no/anii? i?ane – ?? aeine?aeieoeueeee
oa?aeoa?. ??/ o o?i, ui a?aeoiae? ye a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy
iiai? aaia?aoe?? iie?oee?a, ai/aaeaeue iinoaea i?iaeaia anaa?/iiai
aea/aiiy oeueiai i?ioeano. A?aeoae, ona /ano?oa i?iaiaeyoueny
aeine?aeaeaiiy, o oiio /ene? e nioe?ieia?/i?, no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
ae?oe (I.Ooeueae, A.Uie?ia, A.Aaaeea oa ?i.). Cie?aia eaeaoueny i?i
caii/aoeiaaia o eaai?aoi??? i?iaiicii-aiae?oe/ii? a?ae?iiao???
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
“Iie?oe/ia ae?oa Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?i?aeae o i?an?” Oaiaoa? I., Oaaei?/oe A.
Ona – i?i iie?oe/io ae?oo // A?ni. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ? 1-2. – N. 91
– 92. oa oi?ioaaiiy o Eieaeeia?e iaeao? Oe?a?ie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ianeao
“Iie?oe/ia oa ae?eiaa ae?oa o i?an? Oe?a?ie” Nooiae A?eoi??y. Oi?ioaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ianeao “Iie?oe/ia oa ae?eiaa ae?oa a i?an? Oe?a?ie” o
Eieaeeia?e iaeao? Oe?a?ie // A?ni. Ei. iaeaoe. – 1997. – ? 5. – N. 22 –
24..

O no/anieo iaoeiaeo eieao i?iaeaiaie ae?o caaaeii oa aiae?cii ??cieo
aniaeo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaeiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oaiiiaio, yeei
oaaaea?oueny oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa, ia i?inoi oe?eaaeyoueny,
?o aea/athoue ? ae??oothoue a/ai? ??cieo aea?aeaaieo oa iaaea?aeaaieo
?inoeooo?a (A.Iineaeaiei, N.Aiaeaie/, A.Iiooeueieoeueeee, A.Aaa?eeeoei,
A.?aaiia, A.Ii/aioeia, A.Oeey?, A.Uie?i, A.Iieioaei, I.Ooeueaa,
I.Eiiiaaoeue, A.Naaa/, A.Nieaeaoaiei, A.Caei?iaaaa, A.A?eaoeueeee,
A.Neo?ao?anueeee, E.Nioaiue, ?.Eaaaiaoeue, A.E?aa/aiei, A.Aaaee oa ?i.).
Eaeaoueny iaa?oue i?i noai?aiiy iiai? eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? aeenoeeie?ie
(A.Aoei) Aeea.: Aoei A.E. Yeeoieiaey. Iieeoe/aneay yeeoa. – I.: IAEII,
1996. – 99 n. – ae?oieia??, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ia noeeo iie?oieia??,
nioe?aeueii? o?einio??, nioe?ieia??, anana?oiuei? ?noi???, nioe?aeueii?
ineoieia??, eoeueoo?ieia?? oa i?aaeiaoii yei? ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai oi?aae?iiy e ae?oe ye noa’?eoa oeueiai
oi?aae?iiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o ?one? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea “A?eueia i?ana a aeaiie?aoe/iiio
noni?euenoa?”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? ?ice?eooy ?ie? aca?iiaieeao a?o/eciyii? i?ane 90-o ?ie?a ia i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie (cie?aia ?ie? i?ane a
i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no uiaei iaeiieai?/i?oi? ?
iaeaaaeeea?oi? aeey ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio aea?aeaaieoeueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa
i?iaeaie) oa a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o i?an? iaoaii?oic iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe a
eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?aae?e.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
caaaeaiue:

1. Iaaiith i??ith ocaaaeueithth/e aeina?ae aena?oeaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy o
a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? oa ia??iaee/i?e i?an?
90-o ?ie?a, iieacaoe ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e ?
i?aeoe/ieo aeeneon?e, ui oi/eeeny aeiaeiea iiiyooy “ae?oa” oa cie?aia
“oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa” oi?iaeiaae OO no., ui ni?eyoeia
ae?iaeaiith eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie.

2. I?inoaaeeoe ca aaiacenii naiiai iiiyooy “ae?oa” oa iniaeeainoyie
aaiethoe?? ae?oa?ieo oai??e o OO no., caoaaaeoth/e ia ?ica?aeiinoyo
iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a noiniaii iaa?oiooaaiiy nooiino?, ?ie?, caaaeaiue,
oeiieia?? oa oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy ae?o, ui iicia/eeiny ia iiaeaeueo?e
iaoeia?e oa?i?iieia?/i?e ? oeiieia?/i?e iaiine?aeiaiino? oa
iaocaiaeaeaiino?, a oaeiae ?icaeyiooe ?ieue ? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe a eiioaeno? oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?.

4. ?ice?eoe ?ieue i?ane 90-o ?ie?a a i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai
aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ia oe? i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, caoaaaeoth/e ia oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iniiaieo
oaiaeaioe?e, iniaeeainoyo oa i?eeeaaeao caeeaaeaiiy o ianiao
na?aeii?noue eeth/iaeo ae?oa?ieo iiiyoue iaae?a caniaaie, a oaeiae ia
oaiaoe/iiio ae?aiacii? ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ia oiaeueoao no/anii?
aacaoii-aeo?iaeueii? ia??iaeeee e aeeiai?oe? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei
?ie?, caaaeaiue, oeiieia??, i??i?eoao?a, oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe.

5. Aeine?aeeoe iaoaii?oice iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno?
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?aae?e o a?aeaeca?eaeaii?
i?ane 90-o ?ie?a, caoaaaeoth/e ia noia?a/iinoyo oiia noaiiaeaiiy oa
ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo iino?aaeyinueei? oe?a?inueei? ae?oe, ui ii?iaeeee o
i?an? ia iaio noia?a/eea? ioe?iee oa?aeoa?o oa iiaeeeainoae
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe c iaeyaeo ia no/ani? i?iaeaie iaoi? aea?aeaae.

6. Aecia/eoe oaiaeaioe?? aca?iiae?? i?ane ? aeaaee uiaei ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
iia?eueiino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.

7. Ie?aneeoe ia?niaeoeae oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe
Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? aea?aeaaii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee ia ii?ic? OO? no.,
caoaaaeoth/e ia aca?iicaeaaeiino? iaoee, ina?oe, eoeueoo?e oa ian-iaae?a
o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie oa
aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii? ae?oa?ii? iniaenoino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ii oa oai?aoe/ii aeena?oaoe?y a?oioo?oueny ia inieneaii?
iiaeyae?a i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a o aaeoc?
iie?oieia??, o?einio??, ?noi???, nioe?ieia??, e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa,
aeo?iae?noeee, eoeueoo?ieia?? oa ineoieia??. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny canoinoaaiiyi caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo ? eiie?aoii-iaoeiaeo
iaoiae?a. Oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c a?ae?ia?ao?/ieie
aeaea?aeaie.

Caaaeueio iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue o?einionuee?
iieiaeaiiy i?i anacaaaeueiee ca’ycie, aca?iicoiiaeai?noue oa
oe?e?ni?noue yaeu ? i?ioean?a iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo, i?i nioe?aeueio
ae?yeuei?noue oa oai?/o nooi?noue iniaenoino?, yea aenooia? noa’?eoii
?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e.
I?ia?aeiei iaoiaeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii
eoeueoo?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee ?ice?eaa? ?aei?noue aen?ieia?/iiai,
?noi?e/iiai, iniaeno?noii-i???ioiaaiiai aniaeoo oa ?icaeyaea? ethaeeio
ye iaeaeuo oe?ii?noue noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Ia ??ai? eiie?aoiiai
iaoiaeieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie noaee ?aei?noue
?noi?e/iiai ? eia?/iiai, nenoaiiiai oa oe?e?niiai i?aeoiae?a, ?aei?noue
iniaenoino?, ae?yeueiino? oa eoeueoo?e, ?aei?noue oai?aoe/iiai e
aii??e/iiai a aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe
Oe?a?ie. Aeei?enoaiiy noeoiiino? caaaeueii? oa eiie?aoii? iaoiaeieia??
iio?aaoaaei aeyaeaiiy e iaa?oiooaaiiy aia?aoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaiai
iieno oaeoi??a ? yaeu nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui
aea/athoueny, ?oiueiai aiae?co oa neioaco.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?o/eciyia i?ana 90-o ?ie?a (oe?a?ii- oa
?in?enueeiiiaia) ye neeaaeiaa nenoaie cania?a ianiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e.
I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaeia c iaeiieai?/i?oeo i?iaeai – oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie, – yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ia oe? i?iaeai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cae?eniaii iaeio c ia?oeo a
oe?a?inueeiio aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoa? ni?ia aeine?aeeoe /e ia
iaeaaaeeea?oo ? iaeiieai?/i?oo aeey ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio
aea?aeaaieoeueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?iaeaio – oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe Oe?a?ie e??cue i?ecio i?ane 90-o ?ie?a. ?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue
aca?iiaieeao a?o/eciyii? i?ane ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe Oe?a?ie oa a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o i?an? iaoaii?oic iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe a eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?aae?e.
Iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea iia?oi?o oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?ane uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ia oe?
i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, cie?aia oeo, ye?
noinothoueny iaaecae/aeieo iiaeeeainoae, ui a?aee?eaathoueny nueiaiaei?
– a aiioo “iie?oeee iaaeno/anii? oaoiieia??”. Ie?aneththoueny
ia?niaeoeae oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a
eiioaeno? aea?aeaaii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee ia iaae? noie?oue,
caoaaaeo?oueny ia aca?iicaeaaeiino? iaoee, ina?oe, eoeueoo?e oa
ian-iaae?a o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo
Oe?a?ie oa aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii? ae?oa?ii? iniaenoino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i/aaeaeia, ine?eueee ia o?eueee aeooae?co?
i?iaeaio oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie, ?icaeyaeath/e ?? i?ae
iaaiei iiaeyaeii – e??cue i?ecio a?o/eciyii? i?ane 90-o ?ie?a, aea e
ni?ey? ae?iaeaiith oe?e?niiai oyaeaiiy c icia/aiiai eiea noni?eueii
aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue, aeiiiiaaa? a?oioiai?oa inieneeoe ??
aaaaoianiaeoi?noue ? noia?a/eea?noue.

?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? iaoeiaoeyie, aeeeaaea/aie, ani??aioaie, nooaeaioaie
aeo?iae?nonueeeo niaoe?aeueiinoae oa iineoaoaaoe aeey iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee iaei??? c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ? iaeiieai?/i?oeo i?iaeai no/anii?
Oe?a?ie o iaoe?iiaeueieo iaae?a caniaao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? i?aoe? ?c cai?iiiiiaaii? i?iaeaiaoeee ?
iaeiiin?aieie. Aeena?oaioeith I.A.Ua?aaeiaith ?ic?iaeaii aaoi?nueeee
niaoeeo?n “Iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?inuee? i?aaey/? ae?oe a
eiioeaioe?yo ? aeeneon?yo e??cue i?ecio no/anieo iaae?a cania?a” aeey
nooaeaio?a-iaa?no??a ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ia 1999/2000 iaa/aeueiee ??e (aeea. aeiaeaoie A).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeiaii ia aeaa’youeio
iaoeiaeo i?aeia?iaeieo ? a?o/eciyieo eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao oa
c?a?aiiyo, a naia: 1) i?aeeaoaae?aeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“?ieue CI? a i?ioeanao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy” (E., 1997); 2) Anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a “I?iaeaia iniaenoino? o no/ani?e
iaooe?: ?acoeueoaoe oa ia?niaeoeae aeine?aeaeaiue” (E., 1998);
3) iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea – 98” (E.,
1998); 4) iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio oe?a?inueei-oaaeoea?nueeiio nai?ia??
“No/ania oa iaeaooi? aeo?iae?noeee a ieth?ae?noe/iiio noni?euenoa?” (E.,
1998); 5) A?ei?onueei-??eaiaenueei-oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iia?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo CI? a iinooioae?oa?iee ia??iae” (E., 1998);
6) iaoeia?e nan?? a?aeae?eaiiy Aeaaeai?? aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie (naeoe?y
“Caniae ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??”; E., 1998); 7) “Oaa/aie?anueeeo /eoaiiyo”,
i?enay/aieo 185-?e ??/ieoe? a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (E.,
1999); 9) iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea –
99” (E., 1999); a oaeiae ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae? ?noi??? e?oa?aoo?e ?
aeo?iae?noeee oa ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy I.A.Ua?aaeiai? iioae?eiaaii o a?nueiio noaooyo
a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoeo A.
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 217 noi??iie oaenoo, o oiio /ene?
29 noi??iie nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (iae?/o?oueny 342
iaeiaioaaiiy), aeiaeaoie A i?noeoue o nia? i?ia?aio aaoi?nueeiai
niaoeeo?no.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aena?oeththoueny aeooaeuei?noue, cia/ou?noue, nooi?iue
aeine?aeaeaiino? oaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??; aecia/a?oueny ca’ycie ?iaioe c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie; oi?ioeththoueny ?? iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??, ia’?eo ?
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a; cacia/athoueny oaeiae aeai? uiaei iniaenoiai
aianeo caeiaoaa/a, ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??, ioae?eaoe?e,
no?oeoo?e e ianyao ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – “Ae?oa ye noni?eueia yaeua: aaiacen
iiiyooy oa iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?? ae?oa?ieo oai??e o OO noie?oo?
(?noi?eei-oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe iiaeaeueoi? iieai?ee)” – aeine?aeaeo?oueny
?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy iiaeaeueoi? iieai?ee uiaei ae?oe ye
noni?eueiiai yaeua, caoaaaeo?oueny ia aaiacen? naiiai iiiyooy oa
iniaeeainoyo aaiethoe?? ae?oa?ieo oai??e o OO no.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Aaiacen iiiyooy “ae?oa”: ?ica?i/oaaiiy “i?oo
i?i ae?oo” ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a (aei ?noi??? aeieeiaiiy iieai?/iiai
aeeneo?no)” – ?icaeyiooi aaiacen iiiyooy “ae?oa”, eio?a noaei eeth/iaei
o aaaaoueio cao?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo (oai??yo nioe?aeueii?
no?aoeo?eaoe?? oa iia?eueiino?), ui ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a aeciaaaeeny
aioeiaoeiaeie “ao?aeoacieie nioe?ieia?/ieie a/aiiyie”, oa aeiiaaeaaia
iicia/aei iacao aeuiai i?ioa?eo iaioth/iai eeano a ao?aeoaciiio
noni?euenoa?, “ia?aia”, “aeooeaia” eiei ethaeae, a oaia? iio?aao?
no/aniiai ia?ainieneaiiy noiniaii i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Cacia/a?oueny, ui o aecia/aii? oeueiai iiiyooy iaoea
aeyaey? a?eueoa ?ica?aeiinoae ai?ae caiaee, a a?aeoae, aea? i?aenoaae
aeaoaeuei?oa coieieoeny ia aaaaoianiaeoiino? oeueiai iiiyooy o no/anieo
ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo aeaea?aeao. O?aaeeoe?eii ae o
iie?oieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ae?oa iie?oe/ia aecia/a?oueny ye aeoeaia
iaio?noue noni?euenoaa, ui ? aeinoaoiuei naiino?eiith, aeuith, a?aeiinii
i?ea?eaeiaaiith a?oiith, iaae?eaiith aeaeaoieie ineoieia?/ieie,
nioe?aeueieie e iie?oe/ieie yeinoyie, yea aa?a aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
noaaeaii? oa cae?eniaii? ??oaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aai cae?eniaiiyi aieeao ia ia?; o o?einionuee?e –
iaaiaeeoueny aecia/aiiy ae?oe nioe?aeueii? ye nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei?
oa iie?oieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??, ca eio?ith aoaeue-yea noni?euenoai
iiae?ey?oueny ia “aea?aio” iaio?noue, ui ea?o? noni?euenoaii, ?
“iai?aai?ciaaio” a?eueo?noue, ui ? ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy; a o e?oa?aoo??
eoeueoo?ieia?/i?e ae?oa eoeueoo?ia – oea nioe?aeueii iaoi?iae?ciaaia oa
iaeian?iia?i?oa /anoeia ia?iaeo, eio?a i?enay/o? naaa aaaaoiiai?oi?e
eoeueoo?i?e oai?/ino? ye eoeueoo?iiio neoae?iith. Cacia/a?oueny oaeiae
ia nooiino?, e?eoeoe? oa ?aeayo iniiaiiieiaeii? eiioeaioe?? “oai??y
ae?oe”, caniiaieeaie yei? aaaaeathoueny A.Iinea, A.Ia?aoi, ?.I?oaeuen oa
?io?, ye? c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie na?oiai? e
oe?a?inueei? iaoee.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?? ae?oa?ieo oai??e o
OO noie?oo?” – ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?? ae?oa?ieo oai??e o
OO no., iiaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?ica?aeiinoae iaoeiaeo
i?aeoiae?a uiaei iaa?oiooaaiiy nooiino?, ?ie?, caaaeaiue, oeiieia?? oa
oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy ae?o. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea i?i iaiao?aei?noue
?ic??ciyoe o no?oeoo?? iie?oieia?? iie?oe/io o?einio?th oa iie?oe/io
nioe?ieia?th (ii?yae c ?ioeie iie?oieia?/ieie aeenoeeie?iaie). A?aeoae,
o iaaeao iie?oe/ii? o?einio??, ine?eueee aiia ia? ii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa?,
aeioe?eueii a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao oe?ii?niiio (aen?ieia?/iiio),
ia?eoie?aoe/iiio, e?eoa??th, a a iaaeao iie?oe/ii? nioe?ieia?? ia?ii
i???iooaaoeny ia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee e?eoa??e. E??i oiai,
i?aeo?ae iie?oe/iiai nioe?ieiaa a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai.
Cacae/ae eoeueoo?ieiae canoiniaothoue iiiyooy “ae?oa” aei aeaeaoieo
ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e, ?iiae? a?i aenooia? ye neiii?i “a?enoie?ao?? aeooo”.
Aeey nioe?ieiaa iie?oeee ae?oa – oea oa /anoeia noni?euenoaa (eiai
aeoeaia iaio?noue), eio?a ia? aeinooi aei ?ino?oiaio?a aeaaee.
Aeoeaioo?oueny ia iniaeeainoyo ??cieo oai??e ae?o oa iie?oe/iiai
e?aea?noaa, a oaeiae ia iaoai?ci? a?aeoai?aiiy ae?o. Aecia/a?oueny
aianie aaaaoueio ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaoe?a (I.Aaaa?a, I.Aa?aey?aa, ?.A?iia,
E.Iaiiaaeia, C.O?aeaea, Aeae..Aaea?aeoa, I.A??iaaoia, ?.I?eena,
I.Aeaeeeana, Aeae.Aaeea?a, A.Aiaeia?a, I.Aiae?oian, I.Iaee?aaae?,
I.Aineainueeiai, O.I?oeoa oa ?i.).

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? – “?ieue iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe oa i?iaeaie ??
oi?ioaaiiy a eiioaeno? oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?: iaeyae aoai?a ? iai?yie?a” – aena?oeththoueny ?ieue
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe oa i?iaeaie ?? oi?ioaaiiy a eiioaeno? oai?aoe/ieo
eiioeaioe?e oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, eio?? ye iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa
na?oiai? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie aeieeee oiane?aeie ?icaeoeo
ca?oa?aeii? oa a?o/eciyii? iaoee e aoee ?? i?aai?/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi.
Iineoaiaoth/enue ia??iaeecaoe??th oe?a?inueei? iie?oieia?/ii? iaoee,
c?iaeaii iaeyae ia?oeo o?ueio aoai?a (no/aniee ?icaeyaea?oueny o ?icae.
???): aei?aaiethoe?eiee (1848 – 1917), aea cacia/a?oueny ia iiya?
?ioae?aaioe?? ye iin?y iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa aecia/a?oueny
aianie O.Oaa/aiea, I.Einoiia?iaa, I.Eoe?oa, A.Aioiiiae/a, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa
oa ?i.; i?aeai?iiee (1918 – 1939), aea ?icaeyaea?oueny aianie
o/aieo-ai?a?aio?a (I.A?ooaanueeiai, A.Eeieinueeiai oa ?ioeo) o
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?eiai eiiieaeno i?iaeai, ui ?aii?oaaeeny oe?a?inueeith
?aaeyinueeith iaoeith, oa aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia ?ie? Eeieinueeiai o
?icaeoeo o/aiiy i?i ae?oo oa iie?oe/io eoeueoo?o; i?neyai?iiee (1945 –
1991), aea caoaaaeo?oueny ia aianeo ss.Iaeainueeiai, ?.Iecth?a,
?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, A.A?aaiae/a i?e c’ynoaaii? i?noey ? ?ie? ae?oe
a eiioaeno? i?iaeai ?noi?e/ieo ? ia?noi?e/ieo ia?iae?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – “I?ana 90-o ?ie?a ye i?aai?caoi?
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ia oe? i?iaeai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa: oaiaeaioe??, oaiaoe/iee
ae?aiacii, aeeiai?ea a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee” – aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?ieue
i?ane a i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee
ia oe? i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e” – iiaeaii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e, eio?? ona ae?aci?oa ie?aneththoueny
iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a, eiee cia/ii c??n ina?oi?e ??aaiue ianaeaiiy,
uiaei ?ie? i?ane a i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. Uiiaeia?oa eaeaoueny i?i oa, ui oe? aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
iino?eii ii?ooothoueny o i?an? ia ??cieo ??aiyo iaa?oiooaaiiy ? i?iya?a
– a?ae aiioe?eii iaeo?aeueieo aei iaoeiai aeaaaeaieo oa oaeeo, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aea?aeaaiith eaae?iaith iie?oeeith Oe?a?ie.
Oei naiei io?oe?eii aecia?oueny, ui oi?ioaaiiy ae?oe noni?euenoaa – oea
/anoeia caaaeueii? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo
aeey iiiaeaii? aea?aeaae. Caoaaaeo?oueny ia i?iaaaeaii? ?c na?aaeeie
90-o ?ie?a nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ae?oe
(I.Ooeueae, A.Uie?ia, A.Aaaeea oa ?i.). Iiaeaii ei?ioeee aiae?c
caii/aoeiaaiiio o eaai?aoi??? i?iaiicii-aiae?oe/ii? a?ae?iiao???
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai aeine?aeaeaiith
“Iie?oe/ia ae?oa Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?i?aeae o i?an?” oa noi?iiaaiiio o
Eieaeeia?e iaeao? Oe?a?ie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ianeao “Iie?oe/ia oa ae?eiaa
ae?oa o i?an? Oe?a?ie”. Cacia/a?oueny oaeiae, ui iaeaaaeeea?o? ieoaiiy,
eio?? aoee a oeaio?? oaaae aaaaoueio i?aeia?iaeieo ? a?o/eciyieo
iaoeiaeo oi?oi?a, ciaoiaeeee nai? iiaeaeueoa a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o ??cieo
iaae?a caniaao, cie?aia ia oiaeueoao aacaoii-aeo?iaeueii? ia??iaeeee.
Oea aea? ciiao /eoa/aa? (aeyaea/aa?, neooa/aa?) ia ye?ni?oiio ??ai?
ona?aeiieoe aaaeeea?noue ?ie?, caaaeaiue, oeiieia??, i??i?eoao?a oa
oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Caeeaaeaiiy o ianiao na?aeii?noue eeth/iaeo
ae?oa?ieo iiiyoue iaae?a caniaaie: aeoiee, iniaeeaino?, i?eeeaaee” – ia
aaaaoueio i?eeeaaeao i?iaiae?ciaaii aeoiee e iniaeeaino? caeeaaeaiiy o
ianiao na?aeii?noue eeth/iaeo ae?oa?ieo iiiyoue iaae?a caniaaie.
Aeiaiaeeoueny iieai?/ia noaaeaiiy aei yaeua ae?oe c iaeyaeo ia neeaaei?
e noia?a/eea? i?ioeane no/anii? Oe?a?ie, aaeaea o iania?e na?aeiiino?
iaeaaei?noue aei ae?oe aecia/a?oueny nooi ciai?oi?ie iciaeaie,
ia?aaeon?i aeaaeith oa a?ioeia, caeeoath/e iica ?icaeyaeii i?e?iaei?
cae?aiino? oa iaaooo eaae?o?eaoe?th, ye? e noaiiaeyoue oa, ui
iaceaa?oueny i?ioan?eiith eiiiaoaioi?noth. Ia oaeiio noai? na?aeiiino?,
aacia?a/ii, a?aeaeaathoueny ia’?eoeai? oa noia?a/eea? i?ioeane, eio??
aaciina?aaeiuei oi?iothoue a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo, iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeuei?
i???ioaoe??.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Oaiaoe/iee ae?aiacii ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee
ia oiaeueoao no/anii? aacaoii-aeo?iaeueii? ia??iaeeee” – ?icaeyiooi
oe?ieo oaiaoe/io iae?o?o ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee o no/ani?e ia??iaeeoe?
(ye oe?a?inuee?e, oae ? ?in?enuee?e; “Iie?oe/ia aeoiea”, “?icaoaeiaa
aea?aeaae”, “A?/a”, “Aeaiue”, “*an”, “Eiiaiaei?”, “Oi?aa?noi”,
“Ia?niiae”, “Iieiaea iaoe?y”, “A?cian”, “Oaeaiaaeaey”, “Aeanoue”,
“Iauanoaaiiua iaoee e nia?aiaiiinoue”, “Aii?inu oeeinioee”, “Iieen” oa
?i.). Iaaiaeeoueny iecea caaieiae?a ?c a?o/eciyii? i?ane (ii/eiath/e c
1993 ?.), a yeeo a?aeia?aaeaii ia o?eueee eeth/ia? neiaa c ae?oa?ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee, aea e iaaiee i?aeo?ae aei ?ice?eooy cayaeaii? o caaieiaeo
oaie, cacia/ath/e i?e oeueiio ?iaia aaoi??a oa aeaeaiiy. Aeae?eythoueny
iniiai? aeiee ioae?eaoe?e.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Aeeiai?ea a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei ?ie?,
caaaeaiue, oeiieia??, i??i?eoao?a oa oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe Oe?a?ie” – ?icaeyiooi aeeiai?eo a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei ?ie?,
caaaeaiue, oeiieia??, i??i?eoao?a oa oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe Oe?a?ie. Cacia/a?oueny, ui i?ana ? iiioey?ia, ? ye?nia ia
oiaeueoao nai?o aeaeaiue iaaea? oi?eaeueio iiaeeea?noue aaaeaiiy
aaaaoianiaeoii? iieai?ee c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, eio?a oi?iaeiaae
o?eaaeiai /ano ?aii?oaaeany ?aaeyinueeei noni?euenoaiciaanoaii, ia aac
aieeao yeiai o iania?e na?aeiiino? i?aaaeth? ciaaaaeeeai iaaaoeaia
noaaeaiiy ye aei naiiai iiiyooy “ae?oa”, oae ? aei oiai noni?eueiiai
yaeua, eio?a aiii ?ai?acaioo?. Ioiae, ianaiia?aae, no/ania i?ana
a?aeaeaa? onth ?ica?aei?noue iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a uiaei oa?i?iieia?/ieo ?
oeiieia?/ieo aecia/aiue, c’ynoaaiiy nooiino?, ?ie?, caaaeaiue, ooieoe?e,
i??i?eoao?a, oeyo?a ? ia?niaeoea oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe
Oe?a?ie, a a?aeoae, onth iaiine?aeiai?noue oa noia?a/eea?noue ??
ioe?iie. Ia?an?/iee /eoa/ ona /ano?oa iii?/a? a aeo?iae?nonueeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo (uiiaeia?oa o caaieiaeao) eeth/ia? neiaa oa ?oi? iio?aei? c
ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee. ? oi/a ii?ieiee ianiaiai /eoa/a (neooa/a e
aeyaea/a) ae?aoo? ?aeeaiia aoaea iae??ciiiai?oi?oi? ae?oii? i?iaeoeoe??
oa iineoa, a oaeiae /eneaii? ?aeoeiae iiioey?iino? e iaai?iaeaeaiiy, a?i
ioneoue ?aooaaoeny ?c oaeei noni?eueiei yaeuai, ye ae?oa, e oeie
i?ioeanaie, eio?? oea yaeua noi?iaiaeaeothoue. Caeiiii??iith aeaea?oueny
? iiyaa ye?nii iiaeo a?o/eciyieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ye?, caaaeath/e
ia nai???aeio aeooiaio i?n?th i?ane, iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a i?aaiooue
iaoe aeania ?ioi?iaoe?eia iaee//y (“No?ae”, “Ia?niiae”, “Iie?oeea ?
eoeueoo?a”, “Iaoeiaee na?o”, “Oe?a?inuee? i?iaeaie”, “Ethaeeia ?
aeaaea”, “Ia?ao?ae-?Y”).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – “Iaoaii?oice iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe
Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?aae?e o
a?aeaeca?eaeaii? i?ane 90-o ?ie?a” – aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoaii?oice
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?aae?e o a?aeaeca?eaeaii? i?ane 90-o ?ie?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – “I?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy iino?aaeyinueei?
oe?a?inueei? ae?oe: iieai?/iee aeeneo?n o i?an?” – aiae?cothoueny
??ciia?/i? aniaeoe iieai?ee uiaei i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy iino?aaeyinueei?
oe?a?inueei? ae?oe, yea iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a, ?c ii/aoeii i?ioeano
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ii/eia? iinooiiai oi?ioaaoeny ii?yae ?c
o?aaeeoe?eiith (?aaeyinueeith) ae?oith, oi/i?oa iiiaieeaoo?ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a “noa?i?” ia?o?eii-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?oe. Ia ii/aoeo 90-o
?ie?a a?aeaoeiny i?iieeiaiiy iaei??? (iiai?) ae?oe aei neeaaeo ?ioi?
(o?ainoi?iiaaii? noa?i?). ?icaeyiooi ?noi?e/io ?eoi?eo oa aaia?aoe??
oe?a?inueeeo ae?o. Caoaaaeo?oueny ia iaiao?aeiino? i?inoaaeeoe ca
ia’?eoeaiith ?ao?iniaeoeaith oe?a?inueei? “ae?oa?ii?” ?noi???, eio?a
aeanoue ciiao aeaoaeoaaoe ? ?? iaoe?iiaeueio ia?niaeoeao. Noia?a/eeaee
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie oa iaiaeiicia/ia
ioe?iea cacia/aiiai yaeua no/anieie iaoeiaoeyie aeathoue i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiaeo, ui iiee ui i?aaey/a aa?o?aea a Oe?a?i? aenooia? ye oi?iaeueia
iie?oe/ia ae?oa, a?aeiia?aeath/e eeoa ie?aiei e?eoa??yi iaeaaeiino? aei
oeueiai iiiyooy. Aiae?co?oueny niaeo? aeoiie uiaei ae?o a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Noia?a/iino? aca?iia?aeiinei eoeueoo?ii? oa
aeaaeii? ae?o a Oe?a?i? o aeca?eae? ian-iaae?a (i?ioenoiyiiy /e
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai)” – aena?oeaii noia?a/iino? aca?iia?aeiinei eoeueoo?ii?
? aeaaeii? ae?o a Oe?a?i?, ?icaeyiooi iiaea?eio i?e?iaeo ae?oe, ??
oe?ii?niee oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee e?eoa???. Ianoith?oueny aeoiea
i?i oa, ui oaiaea i?i aca?iia?aeiineie aeaaeii? ? eoeueoo?ii? ae?o –
iaeaaaeeea?oee /eiiee noaa?eueiino? aea?aeaae ye oaiaea i?ae aeaiia
oiiaieie iiethnaie aeaaee – aeooiaii? oa aeaaeii? (“Caeiiii ?
Aeaaiaeaooth”). Aecia/a?oueny i?noea oa iiceoe?y ?ioae?aaioe?? a
eiioaeno? aeeneon?? i?i ae?oo. Aiae?cothoueny i?iaeaie iie?oe/ii?
eoeueoo?e oa eoeueoo?e iiaeaiiy. ?aaeueiee iiaeyae ia noai aea?aeaaii?
iiae oa eoeueoo?e caaaeii (? iie?oe/ii?, ? a?iiaaeyinueei?), ui
ae?noaeany iai o niaaeueio a?ae ieioeiai, ia aea? ?ethc?e uiaei oaeaeeeo
iaeaooi?o ci?i, aea a?i aeiiiiaaa? oaa?aci ioe?ieoe iniaeeaino?
no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai aeeooy. Cacia/a?oueny, ui iaeaaaeeea?oith
iie?oe/iith i?iaeaiith caeeoa?oueny iaea?/ia a?aenooi?noue o i?eueeii?a
ethaeae iio?aae o iie?oe/i?e eoeueoo??. Iiaeieaiiy a?ae??aaiino?
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? a?ae ia?iaeo – ia’?eoeaia oiiaa oi?ioaaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ieo no?oeoo?, cie?aia ? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo iie?oe/iiai
e?aea?noaa, iie?oe/ii? nenoaie a?eueii? iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie.
?icaeyaeathoueny oaiaeaioe?? aca?iiae?? i?ane ? aeaaee uiaei
?ioi?iaoe?eii? iia?eueiino? iaoe??.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? – “Ia?niaeoeae oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? aea?aeaaii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee
ia ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy” – ie?aneththoueny ia?niaeoeae oi?ioaaiiy
iiaea?ii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? aea?aeaaii? eaae?iai?
iie?oeee ia ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy. Aecia/athoueny oaiaeaioe??
aca?iicaeaaeiino? iaoee, ina?oe, eoeueoo?e oa ian-iaae?a o i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie oa aeoiaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii? ae?oa?ii? iniaenoino?. A?aecia/a?oueny i?ia?aeia
?ieue iiiaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe (iii?e anth ?? ianoi?iiaai?noue) o
iiaeieaii? /eneaiieo i?iaeai noni?eueiiai aeaeeaaiiy ? iinooio, cie?aia
? oeo o?oaeiiu?a, ye? ia?aaeeaa? Oe?a?ia 90-o ?ie?a OO no. Iaaiaeyoueny
aecia/aiiy ae?oe A.Ia?aoi, I.Eoe?oa, O.I?oaae-?-Aannaoa, A.Oieia?,
A.Eeieinueeiai, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, E.ssnia?na, Ae.Aaeea, A.Iiooeueieoeueeiai,
N.Aiaeaie/a, A.Aaa?eeeoeia oa ?i. O i?aenoieo cacia/a?oueny, ui
nueiaiaei?, ia aeaeue, oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia eiai?oa “e?aueo,
aeia??ieo, ia?aieo” ?ua ia “aei?inea” aei iaeaeueo
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaieo c?ace?a, ine?eueee o iaoiio noni?euenoa? iiee
ui ia noai?aii aeey oeueiai a?aeiia?aeieo oiia. ?icaeyaeathoueny
iaeaaaeeea?o? /eiieee oa e?eoa??? oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe Oe?a?ie.

A e n i i a e e

1. Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai a oe?eiio oa eiai no?aoeo?eaoe?eia no?oeoo?a
cie?aia iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a ciaoiaeyoueny o noai? o?ainoi?iaoe??.
Caaaeii a on?o iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?iao oeae i?ioean cia/ii
oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui a aaaaoueio ?c ieo aai ia aoei o?aaeeoe?e
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, aai aiie aoee ia?a?aaia ia aeiaa? noie?ooy. Oiio
i?ioean ea?aeeiaeueieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ca?any c
i?ioeanii iiaoaeiae aea?aeaae. Oea icia/a?, ui i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a?aeaoaa?oueny o iaaecae/aeii neeaaei?e
neooaoe?? ? ui aeeiai?ea nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a iinooioae?oa?iiai
ia??iaeo niiioea? a?o/eciyi? iaae?a caniae (? cae/aeii ae, i?ano) aei
ia’?eoeaiiai iiaeyaeo ia ia?aa?a noni?eueieo iiae?e, aei aeoeaii? o/ano?
o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oa noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? oiui.

2. O a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy “ui oaea ae?oa?” iaoea e aein? aeyaey?
a?eueoa ?ica?aeiinoae, ai?ae caiaee, ine?eueee ? /anoeia i?eoeeueiee?a
“oai??? ae?o”, ? /anoeia ?oi?o iiiiaio?a ia oieeee iaiine?aeiaiino? oa
iaocaiaeaeaiino? o oa?i?iieia?/ieo aecia/aiiyo oa oeiieia?/ieo
??ciiaeaeao. Iaaaaeaia o aeine?aeaeaii? iecea aecia/aiue eeth/iaeo
ae?oa?ieo iiiyoue oa i?eeeaae?a eiai caeeaaeaiiy o ianiao na?aeii?noue
??cieie iaae?a caniaaie aeiaiaeeoue iieai?/ia noaaeaiiy ye aei naiiai
iiiyooy “ae?oa”, oae ? aei oiai noni?eueiiai yaeua, eio?a aiii
?ai?acaioo?, c iaeyaeo ia neeaaei? e noia?a/eea? i?iaeaie no/anii?
Oe?a?ie. I?ae oei, caaaeueiiaeciaii – ia?oith ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
?icaeoeo oa naiiaecia/aiiy, cie?aia ia oeyoo ?aae?caoe?? ?aea?
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ? iayai?noue o nioe?aeueiiio i?aai?ci?
aoiino aeinoaoiuei aieeaiaiai i?ioa?eo iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
ae?oe, yea, cina?aaeaeoth/e a nia? on? aeooiai? iaaeaaiiy ia?iaeo,
caa??aath/e ? ?icaeaath/e “eiae iaoe??”, aa?a ia naaa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia eeoa inienethaaoe oa ia?aaeaa/aoe aeieth aoiino,
a aieiaia, ?aaeueii aieeaaoe ia o?ae oeeo ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a.

3. Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie
ia’?aeio? coneeey aaaaoueio a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a, ye? niiae?aathoueny,
ui caii/aoeiaai? oi?oie o/aieo noaiooue o?aaeeoe?eieie a Oe?a?i?,
?icoe?thaaoeiooue ? iiaeeaethaaoeiooue aeaio i?iaeaiaoeeo. Aaeaea
iaaiai?aiiy oeeo i?iaeai aeanoue ciiao /?oe?oa aena?oeeoe eiioeaioe?th
oa ?ioaeaeooaeuei? i?aeaaeeie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, c’ynoaaoe
aea?aeaaioai?/o ?ieue iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe a Oe?a?i?, aecia/eoe iniiai?
e?eoa??? oa /eiieee ?? oi?ioaaiiy ia aeaiiio aoai?, a oaeiae
caii/aoeoaaoe a Oe?a?i? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? oai???
ae?o oa ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa, cao?ooaaoe iaoeiaoe?a, ye?
oe?eaaeyoueny ae?oa?iith i?iaeaiaoeeith.

4. Ii?oooth/e ieoaiiy iiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe, aeiaeiea i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy yei? oae aaaaoi oi/eoueny aeeneon?e, cie?aia o i?an? 90-o
?ie?a, ia?aaeon?i eaeaoueny i?i ethaeae, ye? caeaoi? ia i?inoi
iaea?aeoaaoe ? caa??aaoe ciaiiy, a e oai?/i aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeooiai?
iaaeaaiiy ethaenoaa caaeey i?ia?ano nai?? iaoe??. Naia aiia –
oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa (iii?e anth ?? ianoi?iiaai?noue)
iieeeeaia a?ae?a?aoe i?ia?aeio ?ieue o iiaeieaii? /eneaiieo i?iaeai
noni?eueiiai aeaeeaaiiy ? iinooio, cie?aia ? oeo o?oaeiiu?a, ui
ia?aaeeaa? Oe?a?ia iai?ee?ioe? OO no. Ioiae, neooii o aeaiiio eiioaeno?
ii?oooaaoe i?iaeaio aeoiaaiiy ae?oa?ii? iniaenoino?. Iniaenoino?, yea
ni?iiiaeia nai?i oai?/ei aianeii caaaaoeoe nea?aieoeth ciaiue, aeina?aeo
iaoe?? ? ethaenoaa o oe?eiio.

5. Nueiaiaei?, ia aeaeue, ua a?aeo? iaoeiaeo aecia/aiue ? aeine?aeaeaiue
o ?ic?iaoe? oa iae?aneaii? aieiaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo i?aeaaeei iaeaooiuei?
aea?aeaae – iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. ?aea?, yeo ia iiaeia c?icoi?oe aac
o?aooaaiiy iniaeeaeo oiia aeeooy iaoiai ia?iaeo ai?iaeiaae on??? eiai
?noi???. ? naia iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa – o cia/aii? iaeiaaea?iaai?oeo,
iaee?aueo a onueiio ethaeae – ia? aeieeanoe iaeneioi coneeue aeey
iioe?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, yea ? iiaooi?i /eiieeii
aeeooy, iaa?aeae?eueiei a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? ai?aeino? oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o.

6. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy “iiai? aaia?aoe??” oe?a?inueei? ae?oe iaoi?
aea?aeaae – i?ioean o?eaaeee, neeaaeiee oa noia?a/eeaee. Eiai ia ne?ae
iaaei??ii ae?aiaoecoaaoe /e, iaaiaee, ?iiaioecoaaoe. ssae?i iie?oe/ii?
ae?oe oaeoe/ii neeaeiny, i?iaeaiith caeeoa?oueny aea?? oaei?
iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? ?? a?aeoai?aiiy, yea aeanoue ciiao caiia?aoe
?aa?iiaeueiei i?ioe??//yi oa caaacia/eoe iie?oe/io noaa?euei?noue ?
a?iiaaeyinueeo ceaaiaeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

7. Noia?a/eeaee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie,
a oaeiae iaiaeiicia/ia ioe?iea oeueiai yaeua no/anieie iaoeiaoeyie,
aeathoue i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo, ui iiee ui i?aaey/a aa?o?aea a Oe?a?i?
aenooia? ye oi?iaeueia iie?oe/ia ae?oa, a?aeiia?aeath/e eeoa ie?aiei
e?eoa??yi iaeaaeiino? aei aeaiiai iiiyooy. I?ioa, ai/aaeaeue, ?c /anii
iii?oia /anoeia nueiaiaei?oi?o eae?o?a ia /an iiaea noaoe iaae?eiith
iniiaith ae?oe ni?aaaeiuei? /e, i?eiaeii?, a?ae?a?aoe iaaio ?ieue o ??
noaiiaeaii? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? iaeaooiueiai.

8. ?ioi?iaoe?eia ae?oa ia? noaiiaeoe oo iaeiaaea?iaai?oo /anoeio
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaii? ae?oe, eio?a neeaaea?oueny c i?aaenoaaiee?a
?aeaieia?/iiai iai?yieo, aeaeaoieo oao?aoe?a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, ina?oe,
eoeueoo?e, cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, ye? caaacia/othoue noni?euenoai
oi?ioaaiiyi na?oiaeyaeieo iiceoe?e, oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e, noni?eueieo
?aeae oa aeanieo ia?aeiiaiue ethaeae oiui. Aaeaea naia no/ani?
ian-iaae?a – c ?oi?i iiaooi?i aieeaii ia ianiao na?aeii?noue,
a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, i?aaie oi?aae?iiy – iathoue
iiaeaaaoe c?acie iie?oe/ii?, i?aaiai?, aeiiii?/ii? ?, a?aoo?-?aoo,
eoeueoo?e a?iiaaeyinueei?.

9. *e ia iaeaieiai?oa i?iaeaia, yea iinoa? nueiaiaei? ia?aae no/aniith
oe?a?inueeith aeo?iae?noeeith c on??th aino?ioith, – oea i?iaeaia
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oa, ye? ?aea? ianoeia ?ioi?iaoe?eia ae?oa o
noni?euenoai. A ?aea? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a on?o
noa?ao a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy iaoi? aea?aeaae iaee a ona aeeaoa
i?iieeaoe o ianiao na?aeii?noue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, cae??iethaaoenue
o no?aoaa?yo ae?yeueiino? on?o aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, a?oioiai?oa
ii?aoeueiaoaaoenue o oai??yo aeoiaaiiy e ina?oe, iaoe iaeaaeio
aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo.

10. Iaeia c oa?aeoa?ieo ?en no/anii? i?ane – ?? aeine?aeieoeueeee
oa?aeoa?. Oiae, a?aeoiae? ye a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
aaia?aoe?? iie?oee?a, ai/aaeaeue iinoaea i?iaeaia anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy
oeueiai i?ioeano. ?c na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a i?iaiaeyoueny /eneaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia ? nioe?ieia?/i?, no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ae?oe.

11. Ona ae?aci?oa iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a iii?/athoueny aaaeeea?
oaiaeaioe?? uiaei ?ie? i?ane a i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no c
i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy oa caaaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe. Oe? aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy iino?eii ii?ooothoueny o i?an? ia ??cieo ??aiyo iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
i?iya?a – a?ae aiioe?eieo aei iaoeiai aeaaaeaieo ? oaeeo, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aea?aeaaiith eaae?iaith iie?oeeith. A?aeoae,
ie??i aiae?oe/iino? i?ane, aa?oi aiai?eoe ? i?i aeya oaeeo ??
niaoeeo?/ieo yeinoae, ui aeanoea? i?an? a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae ?aae?i ?
oaeaaa/aiith, ye iine?aeiai?noue oa nenoaiaoe/i?noue. Aei oiai ae,
ae?oeiaaia neiai, ye a?aeiii, aoaeo/e caea?aiaaiei ia iaia??, noa? ?
caeeoa?oueny “o?a/aaeaiei” aeieoiaioii nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy.

12. ?acii ?c oei, aeiaiaeeoueny aeciaoe, ui, ia aeaeue, oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia eiai?oa “e?aueo, aeia??ieo, ia?aieo” ua ia “aei?inea” aei
iaeaeueo ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaieo c?ace?a, ine?eueee o iaoiio
noni?euenoa? iiee ua ia noai?aii aeey oeueiai a?aeiia?aeieo oiia. Iaeiae
“naeaeoe?eii-ae?aeaeoe/i?” i?ioeane, ye-oi eaaeooue, oaea “i?oee”…
Niiae?aa?iinue, ui neooaoe?y ci?ieoueny ia e?aua oiae?, eiee ooieoe?th
aeuiai ea??aieoeoaa cae?enithaaoeiooue o?, ooi ia? iaeaaei? cae?aiino?
aei ea?oaaiiy, ? iin?yie aeniei? ii?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ? aieiae?thoue
aeinoaoiueith eaae?o?eaoe??th. Caaaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, aae aeyaeoe ?
i?aeo?eiaoe naia oaeeo ethaeae – iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo, a?aeaeaieo
ni?aa? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oao?aoe?a on?o ??ai?a, eio?? ciiaeooue aeaanoe
Oe?a?io ?c nenoaiii? e?ece, iinoaaeoe a??aaiue ?c iaeoeea?e?ciaai?oeie
e?a?iaie na?oo, a?aeii ?ai?acaiooth/e ??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeaii aaoi?ii o oaeeo iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ua?aaeiaa I.A. I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ae?oe ia
noi??ieao iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa ia??iaee/ii? i?ane 90-o // A?ni. Ee?a.
oi-oo. AEo?iae?noeea. – 1999. – Aei. 7. – N. 58 – 61;

2. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. A i/?eoaaii? iniaenoino? iiaiai oeio
(“ian?iia?i?noue”–“ia?eoie?ao?y”–“oa?ecia”) // Oe?. aeo?iae?noeea – 99 /
Ca ?aae. A.C.Iineaeaiea. – E.: Oeaio? a?eueii? i?ane, 1999. – N. 106 –
111;

3. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. Aeae?eueea oo?eo?a aei iaa?oiooaaiiy aaoi?nueeiai
niaoeeo?no “Iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?inuee? i?aaey/? ae?oe a
eiioeaioe?yo ? aeeneon?yo e??cue i?ecio cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??” //
No/ania ?ioi?iaoe?eia iie?oeea / Ca ?aae. A.Iineaeaiea. – E.: Oeaio?
a?eueii? i?ane, 1999. – N. 136 – 139;

4. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?ieue ae?oe o no/anieo
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioeanao a Oe?a?i? // ?ieue CI? a i?ioeanao
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy / Ca caa. ?aae. A.C.Iineaeaiea. – E.: OeAI, 1998. – N.
107 – 109;

5. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. Aei i?iaeaie no/anii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ae?oe a
eiioaeno? caaaeueieo i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ae?oe 90-o ?ie?a //
No/ania oa iaeaooi? aeo?iae?noeee a ieth?ae?noe/iiio noni?euenoa? / Ca
?aae. A.Iineaeaiea, I.Aa?ieueae, A.?aaiiaa. – E.: Oeaio? a?eueii? i?ane,
1999. – N. 234 – 238;

6. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. Iiiyooy “ae?oa”: aeaye? aecia/aiiy oa i?eeeaaee
caeeaaeaiiy eiai o ianiao na?aeii?noue caniaaie eiioi?eaoe?? (ia
a?o/eciyiiio aeina?ae? 90-o) // Iia? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo CI? a
iinooioae?oa?iee ia??iae / Ca ?aae. A.Iineaeaiea. – E.: Oeaio? a?eueii?
i?ane, 1999. – N. 172 – 179;

7. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaii?
ae?oe 90-o: aeaye? aniaeoe // Oe?. aeo?iae?noeea-98 / Ca caa. ?aae.
A.C.Iineaeaiea. – E.: OeAI, 1998. – N. 138 – 140;

8. Ua?aaeiaa Ieaia. Oaa/aieiaa a??a a ethaeeio a eiioaeno? i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie // ?ioi?iaoe?eia noa?a ye
aeooiaia yaeua / Ca ?aae. A.Iineaeaiea. – E.: Oeaio? a?eueii? i?ane,
1999. – N. 72 – 78.

Aiioaoe??

Ua?aaeiaa I.A. I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie e??cue
i?ecio i?ane 90-o ?ie?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.08 – aeo?iae?noeea. – ?inoeooo
aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeine?aeaeo? iaeio c iaeiieai?/i?oeo ? iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeey
ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio aea?aeaaieoeueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?iaeaio –
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie e??cue i?ecio i?ane 90-o ?ie?a.
Cae?eniaii iaeio c ia?oeo a oe?a?inueeiio aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoa? ni?ia
?ice?eoe ?ieue aca?iiaieeao no/anii? a?o/eciyii? i?ane ia i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe oa a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy o i?an? iaoaii?oic
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe a eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?aae?e, a oaeiae aiae?co?oueny ?ieue i?ane a
i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeneo?no c ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ia oe?
i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. ?icaeyaeathoueny
oa?aeoa?enoeee iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e, iniaeeaino? oa i?eeeaaee
caeeaaeaiiy o ianiao na?aeii?noue eeth/iaeo ae?oa?ieo iiiyoue iaae?a
caniaaie, oaiaoe/iee ae?aiacii ae?oa?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee ia oiaeueoao
no/anii? aacaoii-aeo?iaeueii? ia??iaeeee e aeeiai?ea a?iiaaenueei?
aeoiee uiaei ?ie?, caaaeaiue, oeiieia??, i??i?eoao?a ? oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe. Ie?aneththoueny ia?niaeoeae oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? aea?aeaaii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee
ia iaae? noie?oue, caoaaaeoth/e ia aca?iicaeaaeiino? iaoee, ina?oe,
eoeueoo?e oa ian-iaae?a o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie oa aeoiaaiiy ae?oa?ieo iniaenoinoae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?oa, iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa, aeaaea, i?ana 90-o ?ie?a,
a?iiaaenueea aeoiea, iieai?ea, noia?a/iino? aca?iia?aeiinei eoeueoo?ii?
oa aeaaeii? ae?o a Oe?a?i?, aeo?iae?noeea, ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiee
iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie, ae?oa?ia iniaeno?noue.

––––––––––––––––––

Shcherbakova O.A. Problem of formation of the national elite of Ukraine
through the prism of 90’s press. – Manuscript.

Thesis for getting scientific degree of a candidate of philological
sciences on speciality 10.01.08 – a journalism. – Institute of
Journalism of Taras Shevchenko’s University in Kiev, Kiev, 1999.

Thesis studies one of the most polemical and important problem of
transitional stage of the State construction – formation of the national
elite of Ukraine through the prism of 90’s press. One of the first
attempts in the Ukrainian journalistic knowledge is realized to reveal a
role of mutual influence of modern domestic press in the process of the
national elite formation and reflection in the press of metamorphosis of
the national elite in the context of social-cultural and
internal-political reality. The 90’s press role is also analysed in
organization of public debate on elite problems against the background
of problems of Ukrainian society transformation. Accent is made on the
characteristic of main trends, particularities and examples of
introduction of key elite notions in the mass consciousness by methods
of mass media, on thematic range of elite problems on sheets of modern
newspaper and journal periodicals. Dynamics of public thought regarding
to a role, task, typology, priority and way of the national elite
formation is tracked. Prospects of formation of the modern national
elite of Ukraine are outlined in the context of the State personnel
policy on the border of centennials, taking into account the
interdependence of science, education, culture and mass media in the
process of formation of intellectual spiritual potential of Ukraine and
upbringing of elite personalities.

Key words: elite, national elite, power, press of 90’s, public thought,
polemics, contradictions of relations of cultural and powerful elite in
Ukraine, journalism, intellectual spiritual potential of Ukraine, elite
personality.

––––––––––––––––––

Ua?aaeiaa A.A. I?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou Oe?aeiu
neaicue i?ecio i?annu 90-o aiaeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.08 – aeo?iaeenoeea. – Einoeooo
aeo?iaeenoeee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey enneaaeoao iaeio ec naiuo iieaie/iuo e iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
aeey ia?aoiaeiiai yoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa i?iaeaio –
oi?ie?iaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou Oe?aeiu neaicue i?ecio i?annu 90-o
aiaeia. I?aaei?eiyoi iaeio ec ia?auo a oe?aeineii aeo?iaeenoeeiaaaeaiee
iiiuoie ?ane?uoue ?ieue acaeiiiai aeeyiey nia?aiaiiie ioa/anoaaiiie
i?annu ia i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou e io?aaeaiea a
i?anna iaoaii?oic iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou a eiioaenoa nioeeieoeueoo?iuo e
aioo?eiieeoe/aneeo ?aaeueiinoae, a oaeaea i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ?ieue i?annu
a i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai aeeneo?na ii yeeoa?iie i?iaeaiaoeea ia oiia
i?iaeai o?ainoi?iaoeee oe?aeineiai iauanoaa.

?anniao?eaathony oa?aeoa?enoeee iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee, iniaaiiinoe e
i?eia?u caeeaaeuaaiey a ianniaia niciaiea eeth/aauo yeeoa?iuo iiiyoee
iaaeea n?aaenoaaie, oaiaoe/aneee aeeaiacii yeeoa?iie i?iaeaiaoeee ia
no?aieoeao nia?aiaiiie aacaoii-aeo?iaeueiie ia?eiaeeee e aeeiaieea
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey ioiineoaeueii ?iee, caaea/, oeiieiaee, i?ei?eoaoia
e iooae oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou.

I/a?/eaathony ia?niaeoeau oi?ie?iaaiey iiaea?iie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou
Oe?aeiu a eiioaenoa ainoaea?noaaiiie eaae?iaie iieeoeee ia ?oaaaea
noieaoee, ioia/aaony acaeiicaaeneiinoue iaoee, ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u e
ian-iaaeea a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey eioaeeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiiai
iioaioeeaea Oe?aeiu e ainieoaiey yeeoa?iuo ee/iinoae.

Iaaaaeaiiue a enneaaeiaaiee ?yae ii?aaeaeaiee eeth/aauo yeeoa?iuo
iiiyoee e i?eia?ia aai caeeaaeuaaiey a ianniaia niciaiea ?aciuie
oe?aeineeie iaaeea n?aaenoaaie (e, i?aaeaea anaai, i?annie)
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iieaie/iii ioiioaiee eae e naiiio iiiyoeth “yeeoa”,
oae e e oiio iauanoaaiiiio yaeaieth, eioi?ia yoi iiiyoea ?ai?acaiooao,
enoiaey ec neiaeiuo e i?ioeai?a/eauo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeiu.

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai, eioi?ay noieo naaiaeiy ia?aae nia?aiaiiie
oe?aeineie aeo?iaeenoeeie ni anae ino?ioie, – yoi i?iaeaia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oa eaeae, eioi?ua aoaeao ianoe a iauanoai
eioi?iaoeeiiiay yeeoa, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea iiuioth neeo iaaeea n?aaenoa
– aeeyiea ia ianniaia niciaiea, iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, nioeeaeueiua
einoeooou e i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey. A eaeae oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou
Oe?aeiu ai anao noa?ao iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie iaoaai
ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu au aeoaaea i?iieeaoue a ianniaia niciaiea
oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, cae?aieyony a no?aoaaeyo aeayoaeueiinoe anao
i?aayueo no?oeoo?, aeaoaeueiaa i?i?aaaouaaoueny a oai?eyo ainieoaiey e
ia?aciaaiey, eiaoue aeieaeioth ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo.

I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia i/aaeaeii, iineieueeo iii
ia oieueei aeooaeece?oao i?iaeaio oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeeou
Oe?aeiu, ?anniao?eaay aa iiae ii?aaeaeaiiui oaeii c?aiey – neaicue
i?ecio i?annu 90-o aiaeia, ii e niaeaenoaoao au?aaaouaaieth oeaeinoiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ii iaicia/aiiiio e?oao iauanoaaiii aaaeiuo aii?inia,
iiiiaaao aeaoaeueiaa iniuneeoue aa iiiaianiaeoiinoue e
i?ioeai?a/eainoue. Aeenna?oaioeie A.A.Ua?aaeiaie ?ac?aaioai oaeaea
aaoi?neee niaoeeo?n “Iaoeeiiaeueiay yeeoa Oe?aeiu e oe?aeineea i?aayuea
yeeou a eiioeaioeeyo e aeeneonneyo neaicue i?ecio nia?aiaiiuo iaaeea
n?aaenoa” aeey nooaeaioia-iaaeno?ia Einoeoooa aeo?iaeenoeee Eeaaneiai
oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei ia 1999/2000 o/aaiue aiae.

?acoeueoaou aeaiiiai aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu o/aiuie, i?aiiaeaaaoaeyie, anie?aioaie, nooaeaioaie
aeo?iaeenoneeo niaoeeaeueiinoae e iineoaeeoue aeey aeaeueiaeoae
?ac?aaioee a iaoeeiiaeueiuo iann-iaaeea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeeoa, iaoeeiiaeueiay yeeoa, aeanoue, i?anna 90-o
aiaeia, iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, iieaieea, i?ioeai?a/ey acaeiioiioaiee
eoeueoo?iie e aeanoaothuae yeeo a Oe?aeia, aeo?iaeenoeea,
eioaeeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiue iioaioeeae Oe?aeiu, yeeoa?iay ee/iinoue.

––––––––––––––––––

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 5. 07. 1999 ?. Oi?iao 60×84/16.

Aa?i?oo?a “Oaein”. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,38. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,05.

Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 21.

Iaae?oeiaaii o iaa/aeuei?e ae?oea?i? ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

254119, Ee?a-119, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

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