OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?I. A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

I?EOIAeUeEI AAIIA ?AAI?AIA

OAeE 371.037(09) (002.5)

I?IAEAIA O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss INIAENOINO?

O A?O*ECIssI?E IAAeAAIA?*I?E AEO?IAE?NOEOe?

/Ae?OAA IIEIAEIA OO — II*AOIE OO NO./

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Cieiooo?ia Na?oeaia O?ioei?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

??iaeia Na?a?e Neaei?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee ooaeiaeiuei-i?iieneiaee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith

o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Aanueeia TH??e Aaaeeiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee iaeaniee ?inoeooo

oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a
iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Eoaainuee.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith: 310168, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, aoae. 215.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee (310168,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aeieo?aiei O.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? ye i?eiee ceiaiaeaiia a iei?oiueiio noni?euenoa?.
Ianoaa?euei?noue o an?o noa?ao ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy oa cieaeaiiy
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy eiai a?eueoi? /anoeie, iani?eyoeeaa aeieia?/ia
neooaoe?y iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia niin?a aeeooy ethaeeie. Ii?yae c
oeei, a?aeo?ae o oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? a?ae aieiaii? iaoe o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? caaaeaiiy eiai aei nooi ii?iaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo, ui
niinoa??aa?oueny inoaii?i /anii, aeiei??iii i?ioe??/aoue ?aea?
oi?ioaaiiy aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?. Ona oea, a naith /a?ao,
iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia noai? caei?iay o/i?a, iaoai?ci? oi?ioaaiiy
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e, caaeiaieaii? o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaieo ?ioa?an?a
? iio?aa iieiaeiai iieie?iiy, ??ai? eiai o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino?.

?icaycaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie a Oe?a?i? cae?enith?oueny oeyoii
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe, ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo
oe?eueiaeo eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai “Ina?oa”, “O?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy — caei?iay
iaoe??” oiui. Iaeiae oai?/ee iiooe iiaeo oeyo?a ? iaoeiaa ae??oaiiy
oe??? i?iaeaie ca?ac iaiiaeeea? aac ciaiiy ? ia?ainieneaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo ieioeiai, a yeiio iiaeia ciaeoe a?aeiia?ae? ia aaaaoi ieoaiue,
ui aino?i iinoathoue ia?aae no/aniith oeieith.

Inoaii?i /anii na?aae oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo iii?/aii no?eeee ?ioa?an aei
?noi??? a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee. A?i coiiaeaiee iaiao?aei?noth
ia?aaeyaeo ie?aieo i?eioeeiiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa ?o ia?eoeaii?
ioe?iee, i?eaaaeaiiy aei ?aeeii? eia?/ii? nenoaie a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee, a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noeiii?, neeaaeii? ? aaaaoia?aiii?
ea?oeie ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano. Cie?aia, ii/aany i?ioean
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee ? o?aaeeoe?e,
iiaa?iaiiy iacaneoaeaii caaooeo ?iai aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a — o/aieo,
iaoiaeeno?a ? a/eoae?a, aiae?co iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo /e cian?i
iaaeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeai, ui i?ieeaathoue na?oei ia aaaaoi iaa?aeiieo
oaeo?a c ieioeiai a?o/eciyii? iaoee ? eoeueoo?e. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei o
oeueiio ieai? ? caa?iaiiy aei iaaeaaia?ee ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo
OO no., yeith iaeiie/aii oe?iiee iaoa??ae o aaeoc? oai??? oa i?aeoeee
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iei? ia?ii cia/io e?euee?noue ?ia?o iaaeaaia?/iiai, ineoieia?/iiai,
iaoiaee/iiai oa?aeoa?o, i?enay/aieo oaeineiiaeaiith oai??? oa i?aeoeee
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e. Iaeiae ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaii?
i?iaeaie aeoaea iaiaaeai? ?, a iniiaiiio, noinothoueny noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa ie?ii?enueeiai ?ooo a
?aaeyinueeee ia??iae. Oae, iaoiaeieia?/iei ? iaoiaee/iei aniaeoai
?noi??? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e i?enay/aii ?iaioe A.A.A?ei?oniai?,
ss.?.A?euee?ia, ?.I.Aaeea?a, N.?.Aonueeiaa, N.N.??iaeiaa,
O.I.Eaiaaaoeue, A.I.Eaiaea?, A.A.Noieaiaa, I.A.Noi?ea, TH.I.Oii?ia oa
?i. Noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a
??ci? ?iee a?aeaeoi a aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.?.Aa?oea,
A.I.Eiaaeaiea, A.I.Iaiaaeiaa, A.I.Iaaiaeo, A.?.Ia?naaeaiyia,
A.I.Noaitheaia oa ?i.

Ieoaiiyi oai??? ? i?aeoeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a OO — ia ii/aoeo OO no.
i?enay/aii iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue aeaeaiue ? ia??aiioe?iio ca ci?noii
e?oa?aoo?o. A ?noi??ia?ao??, ui a?aeia?aaea? aeaiee ia??iae, iiaeia
aeae?eeoe e?eueea oa??a:

· ca?oa?aeiee, ui i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy a/aieo, ye? iaiaaathoueny
a?aeoai?eoe ea?oeio anana?oiuei? ?noi??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo
(A.Aaiiao, Ae.Aeeenii, E.Eoi, ?.Iae?ioio, Ae.I?o/ae oa ?i.);

· a?o/eciyiee: aei?aaiethoe?eiee (I.Ae.Aooianueeee, Ae.?.Etha/aiei,
?.I.Eiceianueeee, I.I.*a?iy?a oa ?i.) ? no/aniee.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeey no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ieoaiue
a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e aei aeiaoiy 1917 ?ieo aeanoeaa
aocueeioe?eueiaa ni?yiiaai?noue. I?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aenooiaee i?iaeaie: aea/aiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie
I.O.Eanaaooa (?.O.Aoo, I.?.Eii?i, ?.I.?aoa-oaiue, A.A.Oaoaa?aeia),
noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee o?ceoeueoo?ieo eaae??a (A.I.Aeae??i,
A.A.?anoao?a, A.E.Ia?euoe, I.?.Neai?oeia, C.A.Oa?acaaeeoaee? oa ?i.),
?iciianthaeaeaiiy neaoonueeiai ?ooo a e?a?i? (?.I.Iiaeoeiia), ?icaeoie
nii?oeaiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa (?.?.Ia?aaa?c?i) oa ?i. Eeoa a aeayeeo
?iaioao o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no.
?icaeyaeaeinue ye caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia (?.A.Aaai?eyi,
I.I.Ea?iooei, I.A.Ieuaeei, I.?.Iiiiia?ueia, I.I.*a?iiaa). Ocaaaeueiaiiy
a?aeiiinoae c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ciaeoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao I.?.Iiiiia?ueiaa, A.A.Noieaiaa,
A.Ae.Oa?aaoa?, ?.A.*oae?iiaa.

O no/anieo ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo noenei a?aeia?aaeaii
noai i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a caaaeueiiio i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
nenoaie aeoiaaiiy oa ina?oe e?a?ie a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO — ia ii/aoeo OO
no. (O.?.Aaiae?i, A.Ae.Aei?i?ia, A.?.AEo?aeianueeee,
?.O.Caee?aa?-?oa?iooaei, I.I.Eiinoaioeiia, Ae.?.Eaoeoeia,
?.I.Iaaeeinueeee, I.?.Ieneoiia, A.C.Nie?iia, A.E.Oaa??a, I.O.Oaaa?aa oa
?i.).

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo iaoeiaeo iiooe?a, ui ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
iiiia?ao?yo, aeena?oaoe?yo, eieaeoeaieo ca??ieeao, i?enay/aieo ?noi???
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a aei?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae, ia cieaeothoue
iaiao?aeiino? a ocaaaeueithth/eo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? ia ci?iathoue
i?iaeaie. A ia?ene oaei? aaaaoia?aiii? oaie ia iio?aieee ia?aaeoiiae,
noeioee, oiiae, niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ? oeiee,
ie?ai? ?noi?e/i? oaeoe ? oaeoi?e, ui aieeioee ia ca?iaeaeaiiy ?
oi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ye
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?iaeaie.

No/ani? aeine?aeieee, caa?oath/enue aei ?noi?e/ii? niaaeueie, ia?aaaaeii
aeei?enoiaothoue ye aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe?? e?oa?aoo?iee oa a?o?aiee
iaoa??aee, iaioa?e oiui. Aacia?a/iee ?ioa?an o oeueiio a?aeiioaii?
aeeeeea? aeo?iae?noeea — iaea?eueo iia?eueiee c on?o aeae?a iaoeiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? i?iiaaaiaee. Iniaeeainoyie iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee
ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no. aoee: ?icaycaiiy oe?ieiai
ae?aiaciio ieoaiue, a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo aeinyaiaiue a?o/eciyii?
? ca?oa?aeii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee, oaeaeea ?aaaoaaiiy ia caieoe oeiee.

O?ce/iiio aeoiaaiith ye iaeiiio c aeooaeueieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oeo ?ie?a i?eae?eyeinue aeinoaoiuei oaaae o
aaaaoueio caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ieo aeo?iaeao (“Aanoiee ainieoaiey”
(1890-1917), “Ia?iaeiay oeiea” (1869-1889), “Iaaeaaiae/aneee nai?iee”
(1864-1918), “Naiuey e oeiea” (1871-1888) oa ?i.). Ia ii/aoeo OO no.
cyaeeenue ia?o? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? naia ieoaiiyi o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy (“Oece/aneia ia?aciaaiea e nii?o” (1910) ? “Nieie”
(1910-1914)).

Iaaeaaia?/i? aeo?iaee ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no. noaee ia?eoii
aea/aiiy ? aiae?co a aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?.A.Ianaiyoeia
(1948), ?.I.Ia?iaiiai (1962), C.A.Iieoyeoiaa (1967), N.?.Eeniai? (1970),
E.I.Eeoaeia (1975). Ie?ai? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ?
i?aeoeee ca iaoa??aeaie aeo?iae?a aoee ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue
A.O.Aa?aaeii?, A.A.Aa?ac?ii?, A.A.Aiai?oi, ?.A.Cae/aiea,
N.O.Cieiooo?ii?, I.?.Ea?iooea, I.TH.Ia?acoeiai? oa ?i.

Aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui ie?ai? ?iaioe
a?aeia?aaeathoue iaai? aniaeoe o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ca iaoa??aeaie i?ane
ieioeiai. Iaeiae, a oe?eiio, aeaia i?iaeaia ia aoea i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ?nio? iayaia i?ioe??//y i?ae iaiao?aei?noth aeei?enoaiiy
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aeey iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ianaeaiiy nueiaiaei? ? eiai iaaeinoaoi?i iaoeiaei
ii?aoethaaiiyi a iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?, ui coiiaeei aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy: “I?iaeaia o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? o a?o/eciyi?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e aeo?iae?noeoe? (ae?oaa iieiaeia OO — ii/aoie OO no.)”

Ia?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie a?o/eciyiiai o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai??y ? i?aeoeea o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o
a?o/eciyi?e iaaeaaia?/i?e aeo?iae?noeoe? ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo
OO no.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iaoa??ae?a ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo i?inoaaeeoe aeeiai?eo oi?ioaaiiy
a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? oeyoe ?? ?aae?caoe?? a
oe?euei?e ? iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/eoe iniiai? ia?aaeoiiae ca?iaeaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? nenoaie
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

2. Aeyaeoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oai??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO — ia ii/aoeo OO no.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe aaiacen, oaiaeaioe?? oa iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oai???
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

4. Aea/eoe aeina?ae ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a
oe?euei?e oa iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO
no. ? iae?aneeoe oeyoe eiai oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee:

· iieiaeaiiy no/anii? iaoee uiaei ?icaeyaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu o
nioe?ieoeue-oo?iiio eiioaeno?; aca?iicayceo yaeu ioi/oth/iai na?oo, ?o
?ooo ? ?icaeoeo; ae?aeaeoe/iiai ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo ? eiai eaoaai??e;

· i?eioeeie iaoeiaino?, ?noi?ecio, ia?eoeaiino?, ye? aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii?
nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeyoii aiae?co ? nenoaiaoecaoe??
oaeoia?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo;

· nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? a iaeiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
?icaeyaeaoe: ii-ia?oa, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? ye nioe?aeueia
yaeua, ye naiino?eio nenoaio, ui aeeiai?/ii ?icaeaa?oueny a caaaeueiiio
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean?; ii-ae?oaa, iaaeaaia?/io
aeo?iae?noeeo ye nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai, aeaea?aei ?ioi?iaoe?? ? can?a
i?iiaaaiaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ciaiue.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy cyniaoaaeenue ia?aaeoiiae, oaeoi?e,
niiioeaeuei? iioeae, i?e/eie, ui coiiaeee aeieeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
?aeae, ye? noinoaaeeny o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. O aeeiai?oe?
i?inoaaeoaaeenue noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie iiaeyae?a iaaeaaia?a, e?ea??a,
a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a oa ?ioeo niaoe?ae?no?a ia nooue ? ci?no o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy, ioe?ithaaeenue oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? ?aeae ia?aaeiaeo o/aieo o
oe?euei?e ? iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaoiaeeea,
o?aaeeoe?eia aeey ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, yea
a?oioo?oueny ia caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo iaoiaeao (aiae?c, neioac, ii??aiyiiy,
ni?anoaaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy, nenoaiaoecaoe?y, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oiui),
?noi?e/ieo (ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, ?noi?eei-oeiieia?/iee,
?noi?eei-no?oeoo?iee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee), nioe?ieia?/ieo (a?aea??,
o?enaoe?y ? ia?aa??ea oaeo?a, aiae?c ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeo?aeieo aeaieo
aeaea?ae, eiioaio-aiae?c aeo?iaeueieo ioae?eaoe?e).

Canoinoaaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeai?o iaoiae?a aiae?co oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai a?aooaaiiy nioe?aeueieo,
i?e?iaeie/iiaoeiaeo, ineoieia?/ieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo ?
i?aai?caoe?eieo aniaeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie coiiaeaii
iaiao?aei?noth i?inoaaeeoe ca noaiiaeaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii a?o/eciyii?
nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a eiie?aoiee ?noi?e/iee ia??iae.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/ith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee:

· iaaeaaia?/i? aeo?iaee ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no.:
caaaeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? (“AEo?iae Ieienoa?noaa ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey”
(1834-1917), “Iaaeaaiae/aneee nai?iee” (1864-1918), “Ia?iaeiay oeiea”
(1869-1889), “Naiuey e oeiea” (1890-1917), “?onneay oeiea” (1890-1917),
“Ia?aciaaiea” (1892-1909), “Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea” (1896-1917), “Iaoea e
oeiea” (1915-1917) ? niaoe?aeuei? (“Oece/aneia ia?aciaaiea e nii?o”
(1910), “Nieie” (1910-1914));

· nenoaiaoeciaaiee a?ia?ao?/iee aeia?aeiee ? a?ae?ia?ao?/i? iieaae/eee
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no.;

· iiiia?ao?/i? oa aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noaoo?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai oa ioae?oeenoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o;

· iaoeiaa oa iaoiaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a c ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee ?
aeo?iae?noeee, oai??? oa iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ui i?noeoue
?ioi?iaoe?th, yea caeaoia ni?eyoe ae??oaiith caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueii?
iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea,
?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee (i.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), a?ae?ioaee
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueei? aea?aeaaii? Aeaaeai?? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ?i.
I.O.Eanaaooa.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii ia??iaeii ae?oai? iieiaeie
OO — ii/aoeii OO no., oiaoi /anii noaiiaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? nenoaie
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Ieaeith iaaeo ia?aii ye aoai ii/aoeo
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o e?a?i? ? ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii?
aeo?iae?noeee. 60-? ?iee OO no. ni?aaaaeeeai iaceaathoue “iaeyne?aa?oith
noi??ieith a ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee e?a?ie”. Ii/aoie OO no. (aei aeiaoiy
1917 ?.) — oea ?oa?ae, ca yeei ianooia? ci?ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
eaaeo, aeiiii?/ieo oiia, na?oiaeyaeieo iiceoe?e ? ii?aeueiiai ?aeaaeo,
e?ea?aeaoe?y onoaeaii? nenoaie ina?oe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy oa aiae?co iaoa??ae?a iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee
ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no. aia?oa aecia/aii ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeoiiae ca?iaeaeaiiy iaoeiaiai i?aea?oioy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy;
?ice?eoi i?ioean ?icaeoeo io?oe?aeueii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? aaiethoe?th noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?; i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ca?oa?aeiiai
aeina?aeo ia i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy; ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?i aeoeaiiai
a?aeii/eieo a oe?eueio ? iicaoe?eueio i?aeoeeo Ee?aa, Oa?eiaa, Iaeane oa
?i.; aecia/aii ci?no oa niaoeeo?eo ae?yeueiino? i?ioan?eii? ni?eee
a/eoae?a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; ?ice?eoi ?ieue iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee
a iiioey?ecaoe?? iiaeyae?a aaoi?eoaoieo o/aieo ? ae?yeueiino?
iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a o aaeoc? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ae?noaea i?iaeaia aca?iicayceo noni?eueieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, iie?oe/ieo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny
a e?a?i? a ia??iae 1860-1917 ??., c iaeiiai aieo, ? oe?eae, caaaeaiue,
ci?noo, iaoiae?a ? i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, c ?ioiai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ?noi???
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo, i?ae /an iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ca
iaoa??aeaie ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue; ni?eyoe ?icoe?aiith oa iiiaeaiith
ci?noo iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a c ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee ? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e;
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oaiaoe/ieo niaoeeo?n?a o
iaaeaaia?/ieo ? o?ceoeueoo?ieo AOCao ??ciiai ??aiy ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie aeine?aeieea iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? aoai?a ? aeyaeaii?
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? OO — ii/aoeo OO no., aaaaeaii? a iaoeiao noa?o iiaeo, ?ai?oa
iaa?aeiieo oaeo?a c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo; cynoaaii? aianeo iaeia?aeiieo iaaeaaia?a,
e?ea??a ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo canaae o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy oa oeyo?a cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?oi?o ?aeae o oe?eueio oa
iicaoe?eueio i?aeoeeo.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aii
aeei?enoaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo ?noi?eeia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? c
canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo eiai i?aaeiaoo, iao?,
caaaeaiiyi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaeii?aciai ?icaeyaeaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee (1996-1999 ??.), eaoaae?e
i?aai?caoe?? ianiai? o?ceoeue-oo?ii-icaei?ia/i? ?iaioe OaAe?OE
(1995-1999 ??.). Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo ?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o eaeoe?yo o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii?
aeenoeeie?ie “I?aai?caoe?y ianiai? o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/i? ?iaioe” a
OaAe?OE. Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeanue /a?ac
aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy ia Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, nii?o oa caei?iay” (Oa?e?a, 1997),
i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aiae?c no/anii?
nenoaie aeui? ina?oe ? aeoea?caoe?y i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a ?OE” (Oa?e?a, 1997).

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny iieiaeaiiy:

1. Ia?aaeoiiaaie ca?iaeaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
ne?ae aaaaeaoe: ?icaeoie o OO no. ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ? iaaee/ii?
iaoee; iia??oaiiy noaio caei?iay o/i?anueei? oa aeii?eciaii? iieiae?;
aieea iaeiie/aiiai aeina?aeo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i a aaeoc?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; ia?eoeaia iio?aaa a ?aoi?ioaaii? ai?iii? noa?e ?
i?aeaioiaee ?aca?a?a aeey a?i??.

2. Aeey i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO — ia ii/aoeo OO no. oa?aeoa?i? oae?
aoaie: 1860-1890 ??. — ?icoe?aiiy iaae? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
a?ae nooi iaaee/ii? aei nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?; 1890-1910 ??. —
?icaeoie iniiaiiieiaeieo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo; 1910-1917 ??. — ni?iaa noai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

3. ?aae?caoe?y caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
cae?enithaaeanue aaaaeaiiyi o oe?eueio ? iicaoe?eueio i?aeoeeo o?ieo
a?iianoeee, i?aai?ciaaieo oi?i aeoeaiiai a?aeii/eieo, noai?aiiyi
aeeoy/eo naiiae?yeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae oiia caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (332), aeiaeaoe?a (7). Ci?no
aeeeaaeaii ia 179 noi??ieao iniiaiiai oaenoo, yeee aeeth/a? 11
oaaeeoeue, 3 ?enoiee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aea/aiiy ia?aii?
i?iaeaie; aecia/aii ia?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy; noi?ioeueiaaii caaaeaiiy; ?ice?eoi iaoiaeieia?/i?
iniiae, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a; aeeeaaeaii
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyony ia caoeno; iaa?oioiaaii a??ia?aei?noue
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?o ai?iaaoe?th.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? o a?o/eciyi?e iaaeaaia?/i?e aeo?iae?noeoe? (ae?oaa
iieiaeia OO — ii/aoie OO no.)” ?ice?eoi ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy, i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? oai??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino?, iieacaii ?? ia?ic?eaiee caycie ?c
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/iei ?ooii, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa
iie?oe/ieie iniaeeainoyie ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae.

Aiae?c ioae?eaoe?e ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a “Ia?iaeiay oeiea”,
“Iaaeaaiae/aneee nai?iee”, “Naiuey e oeiea”, “AEo?iaea Ieienoa?noaa
ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey” oa ?i. aeaa iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe, ui aei
60-70-o ??. OO no. a e?a?i? aoei noai?aii ia?aaeoiiae aei caaino?aiiy
i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a noni?euenoa?. ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
iaaee/ii? iaoe ? iiyaa a oe? ?iee ia?oeo a?o/eciyieo i?aoeue c ieoaiue
ineoieia?? aeicaieeee a/aiei c iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e iaa?oiooaaoe ?aeath
?aeiino? oa aca?iicayceo aeooiaiiai ? o?ce/iiai aeey oi?ioaaiiy
aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?, ui coiiaeei ia?ai???ioaoe?th
iaaeaaia?ee ia a?aooaaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?e?iaeieo cae?aiinoae aeeoeie a
i?ioean? aeoiaaiiy ? iaa/aiiy.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui iaei??th c iaeaino??oeo
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai OO — ii/aoeo OO no. ye o e?a?i?, oae ? ca ei?aeiiii
aoei iia??oaiiy caei?iay o/i?anueei? iieiae?, ui aeeeeeaei oe?ieee
a?iiaaenueeee ?aciiain o i?an?. Ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a iaaeaaiaaie e
e?ea?yie aa?y/a iaaiai?thaaeenue aeai? io?oe?eii? noaoenoeee (iaaee/ii?
? nai?oa?ii?), ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue, aeyaeyeenue i?e/eie
caoai?thaaiue o/i?a i?nueeeo oe?e, a oaeiae ?oia iiooe oeyo?a ? cania?a
?icaycaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aoiiethaai?noue o i?ioean?
iaa/aeueieo caiyoue, ii?ooaiiy a ?iaio? ooieoe?iiaeueieo nenoai
i?aai?cio, ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiai-ineo?/ieo ?iceaae?a oa aeeoy/i?
nia?oiino? aeeeeeai? iani?eyoeeaeie nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaeie oiiaaie
aeeooy ae?oae, iaaei??ieie ?icoiiaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie, iacaaeia?eueiith
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iith ianoaiiaeith a oeieao, a oaeiae iaaeiioe?ieith c
aieo noni?euenoaa ? n?i? cia/aiiy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi ?noioi? iiceoeai? ci?ie a noaaeaii? o?yaeo aei
i?aai?caoe?? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, ye? aoee
aeeeeeai? iaa?aeeeaaeiith iio?aaith a i?iaaaeaii? a?enueeiai? ?aoi?ie ye
iane?aeeo ii?acee a E?einuee?e a?ei? (1853-1855 ??.).

Iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae o aaeoc? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?
(?icaeoie oai??? oa i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, noai?aiiy a
aaaaoueio e?a?iao iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iianoe/ieo nenoai, aeei?enoaiiy
cania?a o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo ae?oae o oe?euei?e ? iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?,
i?aai?caoe?y niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a oiui) ni?eya
i?iieeiaiith ca?oa?aeieo ?aeae a e?a?io.

Aeuaiacaai? ia?aaeoiiae aeoea?coaaee iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io, iaaee/io
aeoieo a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no. ? aecia/eee io?oe?eio iie?oeeo a aaeoc?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a ianooii? ?iee.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo
oai??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO — ia ii/aoeo OO no.

aoai (1860-1890 ??.) a ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aoa neeaaeiei ? noia?a/eeaei, iaeiae a?i aaaaoi a /iio aecia/ea
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoeiai? aeoiee ia ianooiieo aoaiao. Aeey iueiai
oa?aeoa?ia: ?icoe?aiiy iaae i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a?ae noaoai
iaaee/ii? aei nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?; iaaeiioe?iea cia/ouino?
oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie: aeia?aaeaeaiiy i?aeoeeith ?icaeoeo
oai???; oe?eani?yiiaaia aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeieo aeinyaiaiue o aaeoc?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy a?oie aaoi?eoaoieo a?o/eciyieo
niaoe?ae?no?a.

Iiyaa a ia??iaeeoe? 60-o ??. ie?aieo noaoae ?noi?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o uiaei
?icaeoeo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, ia iao
i?iaeyae, na?ae/eei i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioa?ano ia?aaeiaeo aa?noa
a?iiaaenueeino? aei aeaiiai ieoaiiy. I?ci?oa (e?iaoeue 60-o — ii/aoie
70-o ??.) aeo?iaeuei? ioae?eaoe??, ye? a o?e /e ?ioee i??? oi?eaeenue
i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ye ca ei?aeiiii, oae ? a e?a?i?, noaee
aeoiaeeoe aeineoue ?aaoey?ii ? iaaoaaoe ??ciinoi?iiiuei? oaiaoe/ii?
ni?yiiaaiino?.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a aeo?iae?noeee anoaiiaeaii, ui aei naii?
na?aaeeie 70-o ??. OO no. o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ?icaeyaeaeinue o eiioaeno?
“iaa/aiiy i?i caei?iay” ethaeeie ? ia?aaaaeii noinoaaeinue a?a??i?/iiai
aniaeoo eiai aeeooy (aeiaeyae ca o?eii, ?aaeei oa?/oaaiiy, i?aoe?,
a?aeii/eieo oiui). Iaeiae iia??oaiiy noaio caei?iay o/i?a o oe? ?iee
na?ae/eei i?i iecueeo aoaeoeai?noue ?nioth/i? nenoaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo aeiaeaoeiaeo cania?a ?
iaoiae?a:

· ia?aeiaiiy e?ea??a c iaaeaaiaaie, ye? aenoioee ?aeath iaiao?aeiino?
i?eeoaaiiy oeiee i?i o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy o/i?a (E.Ae.Ooeinueeee,
I.?.Ie?iaia, Ae.?.Iena??a, I.O.Aoiaeia, ?.I.Aea?ea/aa,
N.?.Ie?iiieuenueeee, Ae.Ae.Naiaiia, Ae.?.Oeoiie?ia oa ?i.) c iaoith
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie;

· aaaaeaiiy a a?naiae iaaeaaia?/ieo cania?a o?ce/ieo ai?aa, ye? aein?
/ano?oa canoiniaoaaeeny a i?ioean? i?ioan?eii-i?eeeaaeii? i?aeaioiaee.

Ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy a?o/eciyia nenoaia o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy,
o?aaeeoe?eii, a?ae/oaaea aieea i?iaoeueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee, cie?aia
i?iaoeueei? a?iianoeee. Aiane?aeie oeueiai i?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae ??
cania?a caeiyee a?iianoe/i? ai?aae ia nia?yaeao.

Caaaeii, a 60-o — ia ii/aoeo 70-o ??. o iaoeiaiio na?aaeiaeu? yaii
iaaeiioe?-ithaaeanue cia/ou?noue oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. ??
iaaiai?aiiy ia aeoiaeeei ca iaae? ieoaiue: cia/aiiy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aeey aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?; ?ieue n?i? ? oeiee a ?icaycaii?
caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy a?iianoeee a
eo?n iaa/aiiy oeiee. ? eeoa ioae?eaoe?? e?ea??a a?aeiinii
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai noaio oe?e iineee i?iaeaiiee oa?aeoa?. Aiane?aeie
oeueiai a 70-? ??. i?aeoeea noaea cia/ii aeia?aaeaeoaaoe ?icaeoie
oai???, ui coiiaeei iiyao ??ciiiai?oieo iaaaoeaieo i?iya?a o oe?eueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? (ia?aaaaeaiiy a ci?no? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a no?ieiaeo
ai?aa oa a?iianoe/ieo ai?aa ia nia?yaeao; iaaeinoa/a a/eoae?a
a?iianoeee, ?o iecueea eaae?o?eaoe?y; ?iiae? aeeo/aiiy i?aaeiaoa c eo?no
iaa/aiiy; iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy o/i?a aei caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie), ?
iaa?oue o i?an? cyaeeeny i?iiiceoe?? cai?ieoe a?iianoeeo ye can?a
o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo ae?oae o?oaeiaei aeoiaaiiyi.

Iiooe oeyo?a ?icaycaiiy i?iaeaie niiioeaa a?o/eciyieo o/aieo aei
aeoeaiiai aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo, a cayceo c oeei ia noi??ieao
iaaeaaia?/ieo aeo?iae?a o e?ioe? 70-80-o ??. cyaeeenue i?aoe?
AE.A?eeueiia, AE.Aethiai?ey, O.Eaa?aiaea, A.Iinni, A.O.??/a?aeniia,
A.?iiaeth, A.Niaina?a, ?.O?eno?iaa?a oa ?i., o yeeo ?ice?eaaeenue
nioe?aeueia nooi?noue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, eiai cia/aiiy i?ioyaii
onueiai aeeooy ethaeeie, ?ieue oeiee a i?aai?caoe?? “?aoe?iiaeueiiai”
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a, ci?no ? iaiao?aei?noue oi?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?i
aeoeaiiai a?aeii/eieo a oe?eueio oa iicaoe?eueio i?aeoeeo.

O e?ioe? 70-80-o ??. OO no. a aeo?iae?noeoe? ii/eiathoue ioae?eoaaoeny
ia?o? ?iaioe iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ? i?ia?aii? ?ic?iaee
a?o/eciyieo o/aieo (I.Ae.Aooianueeiai, I.N.Aa?ai?ona, ?.I.Aeaiaioue?aa,
I.A.Caea, N.?.Ie?iiieuenueeiai, I.N.O?e?o?na oa ?i.) c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie ? oi?ioaaoeny eiioeaioe?? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?.A.Iie?ianueeiai
? “o?ce/ii? ina?oe” I.O.Eanaaooa.

aoai (1890-1910 ??.) iciaiaioaaany noni?eueiei i?aeianaiiyi ?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ?ioaineaiith iaoeiaith ?ic?iaeith a?o/eciyii? oai???,
cie?aia ?icaeoeii iniiaiiieiaeieo eiioeaioe?e o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Oeae
i?ioean noeioethaaee oae? i?ioe??//y: i?ae nioe?aeueieie iio?aaaie
no/aniiai noni?euenoaa oa ?nioth/ith nenoaiith ina?oe; iacaaeia?eueiei
noaiii caei?iay o/i?a ? aaaaeaiiyi o iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee “ai?iii?
a?iianoeee” ye caniao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; aeinyaiaiiyie iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee ? eiina?aaoeai?noth oe?eueii? i?aeoeee; aeeiai?/iei ?icaeoeii
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ca ei?aeiiii ? cia/iei eiai a?aenoaaaiiyi o
?in?enuee?e ?iia???.

O oe? ?iee aeo?iae?noeea caaaaoeeanue oaeeie aeaeaiiyie, ye “Aanoiee
ainieoaiey”, “Ia?aciaaiea”, “?onneay oeiea” oa ?i. Ia noi??ieao
ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ??cei c?inea e?euee?noue noaoae oai?aoe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o, a yeeo aoei a?aeia?aaeaii aino?o aeeneon?th c ieoaiue i?i
?ieue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? a ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa;
aca?iicayceo o?ce/ieo yeinoae ? ineoieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniaenoino?;
cia/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaaee/ieo, o?einionueeeo, ineoieia?/ieo ciaiue
aeey ?icaeoeo oai??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; ci?noo, oi?i ? oiia, ye?
caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; niaoeeo?ee
caaaeaiue ? cania?a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ae?a/ao oiui.

O aeeneon?? ii?yae ?c niaoe?ae?noaie c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
(I.Ae.Aooianueeei, I.N.Aa?ai?onii, A.A.Ai??iaanueeei, ?.ss.Aa?aeii,
?.I.Aeaiaioue?aei, I.A.Caeii, I.O.Eanaaooii, ?.A.Iie?ianueeei oa ?i.)
aeoeaio o/anoue a?aei aaaaoi aeaeaoieo iaaeaaia?a o aaeoc? aeeaeaeoeee
oa aeoiaaiiy (A.I.Aaooa?ia, I.O.Eaioa??a, I.I.Ino?iai?nueeee,
A.Ae.Neiianueeee oa ?i.).

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey aeaiiai ia??iaeo
oa?aeoa?iith aoea oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo caaaeaiue ? cania?a
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?. Iinoaiiaea icaei?ia/eo
(?.A.Iie?ianueeee) ? ina?oi?o (I.O.Eanaaoo) caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy coiiaeea ?iciiae?e iaoeiaoe?a ia aea? a?oie, ye? aaee aino?o
iieai?eo a i?an?. O ?icae?e? aeaii aiae?c oai??? “o?ce/ii? ina?oe”
I.O.Eanaaooa, oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie ?.A.Iie?ianueeiai oa eiai
aaaaoi/eneaiieo i?eoeeueiee?a, a oaeiae io?oe?eii? eiioeaioe?? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy, caeeaaeaii? a “?ino?oeoe?th aeey aeeeaaeaiiy a?iianoeee a
/ieia?/eo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao I?i?noa?noaa Ia?iaeii? Ina?oe” (1889
?.), ? iiaeai? i?eioeeiiai ??ci? oi/ee ci?o a?aeiinii caaaeaiue, ci?noo,
oi?i ? iaoiae?a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?. I?ci?oa, ye a?aeiii,
i?ae aieeaii nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a a?aeaoeiny ia?aeiaiiy aeacaieo
eiioeaioe?e ? ia?oi?yaeieie aoei aeciaii icaei?ia/? caaaeaiiy o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui i?iaeaia cania?a o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? iae/ano?oa anueiai iaaiai?thaaeanue o i?an? 1890-1910 ??.
Aeei?enoaiiy a?iianoe/ieo ai?aa ia nia?yaeao aeey ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo
aoei i?aeaeaii ??ce?e e?eoeoe?, a ye aeueoa?iaoeaa — i?iiiioaaeenue
?ooeea? ?a?e. E?eca iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iianoe/ieo nenoai
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, c iaeiiai aieo, ? c?inoaiiy aieeao
aiae?enueei? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nii?oeaii-?a?iai?
ni?yiiaaiino?, c ae?oaiai, ni?eyee ?icaeoeo a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
?ooo ca aeeth/aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ?ooeeaeo ? nii?oeaieo ?ai?, ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa a?a??i?/ieo caoiae?a o ci?no o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.
Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? cania?a o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? coiiaeei
ia?eoeaio iio?aao ?o nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa eeaneo?eaoe??.

O aeaiee ia??iae o oai??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iicia/eeanue oaiaeaioe?y
?icae?eo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ia o?i/i? oa iicao?i/i?, ui ?noioii
?icoe?eei iiaeeeaino? aieeao ia niin?a aeeooy o/i?a ?, cie?aia, ia ?oith
?ooiao aeoeai?noue.

aoai (1910-1917 ??.) a ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
i?aaiaiiyi o/aieo noai?eoe iniiae iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy. Ci?ia caaaeueiiethaenueeiai ?aeaaeo ? iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae
a?iiaaenueeei yeinoyi iniaenoino? ni?eyee c?inoaiith iiioey?iino?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo ye na?aae o/i?anueei? iieiae?, oae ? a
noni?euenoa? caaaeii. Iaeiae nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane ye
noeioethaaee, oae ? aaeueioaaee ?icaeoie oai??? ? i?aeoeee.

Ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a “Oece/aneia ainieoaiea e nii?o”, “Nieie”,
“Aanoiee ainieoaiey”, “Iaaeaaiae/aneee nai?iee”, “Iaoea e oeiea” oa ?i.
c iiceoe?e “o?enoeyinueei?” iaaeaaia?ee, o?einio??, iaaeeoeeie
?ice?eaaeanue ?aei?noue aeooiaii? oa o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie,
nioe?aeueia nooi?noue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; iaa?oioiaoaaany aca?iicaycie
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy c ?icoiiaei, ii?aeueiei, anoaoe/iei; ae?iaeyeenue
aeiiae aei iniaenoino? a/eoaey; oe?iei iaaiai?thaaeenue ??ciiiai?oi?
iaoiaee/i? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? aniaeoe i?iaeaie; aeneiaethaaeenue
noia?a/i? noaeaeaiiy a?aeiinii aeei?enoaiiy ciaaaeueiiai iaoiaeo a
i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo; iaaiai?thaaeenue
caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e, ci?noo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy;
cae?enithaaeenue ni?iae caanoe a ?aeeio eia?/io nenoaio iiiyo?eiee
aia?ao.

Ia?eoeaia iio?aaa noai?aiiy ?aeeieo i?ia?ai c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aeey
a?aeiia?aeieo oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o iaai?e i??? noeioethaaea
c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei ieoaiiy iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ui caeiaei oeaio?aeueia i?noea a iieai?oe?
1910-1917 ??. A ?acoeueoao? iaoeiaeo aeeneon?e /?oei aecia/eeenue a?oie
niaoe?ae?no?a — i?ea?/iee?a nieieuenueei? ? oaaaenueei? a?iianoeee ye
iniiae iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (A.I.Aaooa?aa,
I.O.A??iaanueeee, Ae.I.Eocueiaiei, A.I.I?neia, I.A.Iieoi-?aoeueeee oa
?i.), eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy cania?a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ca iae?eii
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae, ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa ae?oae (I.N.Aa?ai?on,
I.I.E?oa?inueeee oa ?i.), noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? “?onueei?” nenoaie
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (I.E.Aiio?i, O.?.Iae?iaei?o oa ?i.), a oaeiae
?ic?iaee iaoeiai? nenoaie “?aeeii? aeey ia?iae?a on?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae”
(N.E.A?oaiaaeuenueeee oa ?i.).

Oaeei /eiii, o ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi, ui ?icia?ooy iaoeiaeo ?aeae, c iaeiiai
aieo, na?ae/eei i?i iayai?noue ?noioieo i?ioe??/ o iaaeaaia?/iiio
na?aaeiaeu? c ieoaiue ci?noo ? cania?a o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, c
ae?oaiai — i?i i?aaiaiiy noai?eoe ?aeeio nenoaio o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy c
o?aooaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo ? eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e ia?iaeo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “A?aeia?aaeaiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo c o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ia noi??ieao iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee ae?oai?
iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no.” iieacaii ?ieue o?yaeo ? ia?aaeiai?
a?iiaaenueeino? a ?aae?caoe?? ?aea? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aeae?eaii
iniaeeaino? eiai ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?? a oe?euei?e ? iicaoe?euei?e
?iaio?, aena?oeaii aeeiai?eo noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo oiia aeey aoaeoeaiiai
cae?eniaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

Aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO
no. aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui iinooiiaa oi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? oai???
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? coiiaeei ?noioi? ci?ie a oe?euei?e ?
iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? oa aeyaeoe, ui a ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ?nioaaei aeaa a?aeiinii naiino?eieo iai?yiee: o?yaeiaee ?
a?iiaaenueeee.

Io?oe?eia iie?oeea ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iaea ia?aaaaeii ai?iiee oa?aeoa?, ui a?aeaeeinue ia ci?no? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao (aaaaeaiiy “ai?iii? a?iianoeee e
no?ith” a i?ia?aie iaa/aiiy), ia aeai?? a/eoae?a a?iianoeee c
a?aenoaaieo a?enueeiaeo (oioa?-io?oea??a, a?aenoaaieo nieaeao?a oa ?ioeo
in?a), ia caoiaeao o?yaeo c ieoaiue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy “iio?oieo
i?aai?caoe?e”.

Iaeiae ii/eiath/e c 90-o ??. OO no., ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo c i?aai?caoe??
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae? noaea iineoe a?eueo
eiino?oeoeaiee oa?aeoa?: noai?thaaeenue eii?n?? ? eii?oaoe aeey
?icaycaiiy eiie?aoieo ieoaiue; aiooaaeenue ?ino?oeoeai? aeieoiaioe aeey
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a; aaeeaaeenue i?aeoe/i? ae?? uiaei ae??oaiiy
eaae?iai? i?iaeaie (a?aee?eooy ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo eo?n?a aeey i?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a a?iianoeee ? a?iianoe/ieo a?aeae?eaiue i?e iaeii??/ieo eo?nao
i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a; cae?eniaiiy aeiioneo aei aeeeaaeaiiy a?iianoeee a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aeioneiee?a i?eaaoieo a?iianoe/ieo oe?e
I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa; noaneaeoaaiiy eo?n?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
oiaa?enoa oa ?i.); noeioethaaeanue ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, i?eaaoieo in?a ? noai?aiiy aeeoy/eo naiiae?yeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e (“iio?oieo” i?aai?caoe?e oa neaoonueeeo caaii?a);
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue o oe?eueio i?aeoeeo ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie aeoeaiiai
a?aeii/eieo, a oaeiae oia?oa aoei noi?iiaaii aea?aeaaiee i?aai
oi?aae?iiy o?ce/iei aeoiaaiiyi ? nii?oii — “I?aea?aeii/a ?aaea c
o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo”.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iaoa??ae?a iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee a ?icae?e?
?ice?eoi i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy io?oe?eii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy, eiai aca?iicaycie ?c nioe?aeueieie oa iie?oe/ieie ci?iaie a
e?a?i? ? iniaenoith iiceoe??th i?i?no??a ia?iaeii? ina?oe, a oaeiae
?ice?eoi aeeiai?eo iiaeyae?a o?yaeo ia oiiae oni?oii? ?aae?caoe??
caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO — ia
ii/aoeo OO no. a e?a?i? ?icaeaaany neeueiee a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/iee
?oo ia i?aeo?eieo ?aea? oi?ioaaiiy caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy ae?oae
oe?eueiiai a?eo. A eiai ?yaee aa?eoee iaaeaaiae, e?ea??, iie?oeee,
i?aaenoaaieee i?ia?aneaiiai aeooiaainoaa, ae?y/? iaoee ? eoeueoo?e,
a?enueeia?, i?iieneiaoe?, iaoeaiaoe, ?iicaii? niaoe?ae?noe. I?aeoe/io
ae?yeuei?noue ia?aaeiai? a?iiaaenueeino? aoei ni?yiiaaii ia ?aae?caoe?th
caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a iicao?i/iee /an, ui a?aecia/aeinue
?icia?ooyi ci?noo, oi?i i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe ? o?niith aca?iiae??th c
io?oe?eieie i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ina?oe. A ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi ??
iniiai? iai?yie:

· ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?i o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a iianyeaeaiia aeeooy ae?oae:
oe?eani?yiiaaia aea/aiiy i?ia?aneaiiai aeina?aeo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
e?a?i ? ia?aianaiiy /eneaiieo ?aeae o a?o/eciyio oe?eueio ? iicaoe?eueio
i?aeoeeo; aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo o?ce/ieo ai?aa o i?ioean? caiyoue
ae?oae o iicao?i/iee /an; caeo/aiiy aei i?aai?caoe?? aeeoy/iai aeica?eey
ii?eoinueeeo oa aeaaiae?eieo oiaa?enoa; noai?aiiy nii?oeaieo eeoa?a,
ao?oe?a, aeeoy/eo “oiaa?enoa o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo”, a oaeiae
naiiae?yeueieo i?aai?caoe?e (neaoonueeeo caaii?a);

· i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ina?/aiino? ianaeaiiy c ieoaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy:
o/anoue o ?iaio? iaaeaaia?/ieo ? iaaee/ieo c?cae?a, cai??a iaaeaaia?/ieo
oiaa?enoa, eii?oao?a ? eii?n?e c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a; i?aai?caoe?y ia?aae? eo?n?a i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy, aeoiaaoaeueie aeeoy/eo naaee?a, aaouee?a, iaaeaaia?a c
iicaoe?eueii? ?iaioe, a oaeiae aianaiiy i?iiiceoe?e uiaei a?aee?eooy a
e?a?i? ?inoeoooo aeey i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy;
noai?aiiy “oiaa?enoa o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo” ? i?ioan?ii? ni?eee a/eoae?a
a?iianoeee oa ae??oaiiy ?oi?o ianouieo i?iaeai; /eoaiiy a?aee?eoeo
eaeoe?e; i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo caiyoue; noai?aiiy
a?o/eciyiiai oiiaeo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
(i?aeaioiaea oa ioae?eaoe?y iiiia?ao?e, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo
iin?aiee?a, noaoae; aeaeaiiy aacao, aeo?iae?a; ?aoeaicoaaiiy a?o/eciyieo
? ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaiue oiui); ii?caeee ii e?a?i? aeey iiioey?ecaoe??
?aea? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo;
i?aai?caoe?y aenoaaie, ia yeeo aeaiiino?oaaeeny aeinyaiaiiy a ?icaeoeo
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo oiui;

· caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie
oiiaaie: noai?aiiy oa iniauaiiy cae?a ? iaeaeai/ee?a o iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao, ia?eao, neaa?ao; aoae?aieoeoai nii?oeaieo nii?oae; ?icaycaiiy
o?iainiaeo ieoaiue (caeo/aiiy o?iainiaeo cania?a ?c eacie, athaeaeaoo
i?nueeeo oi?aa ? cainoa, a?ae oiaa?enoa ? iaoeaiao?a); ae?iaieoeoai ?
oi?a?aey oiaa?aie o?ceoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy; neeaaeaiiy ??cieo
ae?eiaeo oaiae ?c aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oa caeeaaeaie oa i?eaaoieie
iniaaie.

O ?icae?e? aeaii aiae?c ? ioe?ieo ??cieo aniaeo?a ae?yeueiino? c ieoaiue
?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iaaeaaia?/ieo oiaa?enoa
? “oiaa?enoa o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo” o Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?, Iaean?, Oa?eia?,
Eoaainueeo, Eueaia? oa ?i., a oaeiae ci?noo ina?oe ? i?aai?caoe??
?iaioe o?yaeiaeo ? a?iiaaenueeeo eo?n?a i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy (oiaa?enoa “Nie?e” ? “Aiaaoe?”).

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui aeoeaiee i?aeoe/iee iiooe ?
iiaaoi?nuee? ?aea? aeo?eaee, ia?o ca ana, c i?ia?ioe?eieo i?no e?a?ie
caaaeyee ?i?oe?aoea? cainoa, i?ia?aneaieo iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a,
aiooc?ano?a, iaoeaiao?a. Iai?eeeaae, ?i?oe?aoeaa noai?aiiy aeeoy/eo
?a?iaeo iaeaeai/ee?a o i?noeyo ianiaiai a?aeii/eieo ae?oae iaeaaeaea
/eaio “Oiaa?enoaa caoenoo a?aeaoeeo iiea?aiiy oa aaci?eooeueieo” i.
Iaeane ?.I.?aaeaoeueeiio. Ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a aena?oethaaany aeina?ae
?iaioe iaeaeai/ee?a aeey ianiaeo i?aai?ciaaieo aeeoy/eo ?ai? o Ee?a?,
Oa?eia? oa ?i. O ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
aaeoc? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo a Ee?a? aoei a?aee?eoi ia?oo
oaa?eeo aeey ae?iaieoeoaa nii?oeaieo oiaa??a oa iniauaiiy aeey
a?iianoe/ieo cae?a “O.?.Ieueoaiee ? A.?.Aaoaeia”, niaoe?ae?ciaai?
iaaaceie, cie?aia a?ao?a ?.O. ? E.O.Iaee a Oa?eia?.

O iaaeaaia?/ieo aeo?iaeao ai?uaiee aaaeeeaee iaoa??ae, a yeiio
?ice?eaaeenue iniaeeaino? ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a o ??ci? ia??iaee ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui a i?aeoeoe? aea?aeaaieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ??ciiiai?oi? caniae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy:
aei 1890 ?. ia?aaaaeaee o?ce/i? ai?aae ca i?iaoeueeith ? oaaaenueeith
nenoaiaie (ai?aae ia a?iianoe/ieo nia?yaeao oa a?euei? ai?aae), ca
iaoiaeeeith Ooiaa; i?ney 1890 ?. ? aei 1917 ?. — no?ieia? ai?aae,
ocae/a?i? a ?in?enuee?e a?i??, ? nieieuenueea nenoaia, aeiiiaithaai?
?ooeeaeie ?a?aie. Ci?no o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a a?iiaaenueeeo, i?eaaoieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao oa a caeeaaeao Ai?iiiai a?aeiinoaa a?aecia/aany
a?eueo i?ia?aneaiei oa?aeoa?ii ? iiai?oa a?aeiia?aeaa aeiiaai iaoee oiai
/ano. A ieo caiyooy c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ca nenoaiaie
I.O.Eanaaooa, I.E.Aiio?ia, AE.Aeaeuee?ica oa ?ioeie iaoiaeeeaie. O
?icae?e? iieacaii niaoeeo?eo ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?? o?ie?a “ai?iii?
a?iianoeee” ? ca iaoiaeeeith I.O.Eanaaooa.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO — ia ii/aoeo OO no. caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo ?
i?ia?aneaii? a?iiaaenueeino? o oe?eueio oa iicaoe?eueio i?aeoeeo aoei
aaaaeaii ??ciiiai?oi? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (o?ie,
o?ceoeueoo?i? iaoce, ?ooeea? ia?a?ae, i?iaoeyiee ? aeneo?n??,
i?aai?ciaai? caiyooy o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie a i?noeyo ianiaiai a?aeii/eieo
ae?oae, “a?iianoe/i? nayoa”, aa/i?e, iaeyaee, iieacia? a?iianoe/i?
aenooie, ciaaaiiy), ye? io?eiaee ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ia?aaaaeii, a
iaa/aeueieo ie?oaao, aea ?aae?caoe?y caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aeinyaea cia/ieo oni?o?a: Ee?anueeiio, Oa?e?anueeiio, A?eainueeiio,
Eaaeacueeiio. O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?ea ?o no?oeoo?e, ci?noo ?
i?aai?caoe??.

O i?ioean? iaoeiaiai iiooeo anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ii/aoeo OO no. o a?eueiee
a?ae iaa/aiiy /an o/i? i?nueeeo oe?e (c iaoa??aeueii caaacia/aieo n?iae)
iaee iiaeeea?noue a?aea?aeoaaoe aeeoy/? oiaa?enoaa o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
(“Aeeoy/ee na?o”, “Aeeoy/ee iaye” oiui), a?iianoe/i? ao?oee, o/i?anuee?
nii?oeai? eeoae, ae?aeaeaeaoe ia a?aeii/eiie o “aea/?-eieii??”,
a?aea?aeoaaoe aeeoy/? ?a?ia? iaeaeai/eee a i?noeyo ianiaiai a?aeii/eieo,
a?aoe o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? neaoonueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Oaeei /eiii, o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae o oe?euei?e oa iicaoe?euei?e
i?aeoeoe? iaeiie/aii cia/iee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy,
yeee iio?aao? ia?eoeaii? ioe?iee oa e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy c iaoith
oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

Aea/aiiy oa aiae?c iaoa??ae?a iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee ae?oai?
iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no., a oaeiae aei?aaiethoe?eii? ? no/anii?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeicaieeei c?iaeoe
ianooii? aeniiaee:

1. Iaaeaaia?/ia aeo?iae?noeea ye i?ia?aneaiee ? aeeiai?/iee can?a
i?iiaaaiaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ciaiue ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO
no. anaa?/ii a?aeia?aaeaea ??aaiue ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo iaoeiai?
aeoiee, oaeaeei ?aaaoaaea ia caieoe nenoaie aeoiaaiiy oa ina?oe. Ia
noi??ieao aeo?iae?a ioae?eoaaeenue /eneaii? noaoo? oai?aoe/iiai ?
i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o c i?iaeai o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, a yeeo i??eoaaiiy
aaoi??a, aeeneon?y, iieai?ea, e?eoeea, iaaiai?aiiy i?aeoe/ieo iiieeie ?
ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo ia??aeei aeoiaeeee ca iaae? /enoi iaaeaaia?/ieo
?ioa?an?a ? oi?eaeenue aino?eo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai oiai /ano.

2. Ia?aaeoiiaaie iinoaiiaee ieoaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? a
noni?euenoa? aoee: ?icaeoie o OO no. ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?, iaaee/ii?
iaoe ? i?aaiaiiy iaaeaaia?a aei ia?aaoaeiae nenoaie ina?oe; iia??oaiiy
noaio caei?iay o/i?a oa aeii?eciai? iieiae?; iio?aaa a ?aoi?ioaaii?
ai?iii? noa?e ? i?aeaioiaoe? ?aca?a?a aeey a?i??; aieea ca?oa?aeii?
oai??? ? i?aeoeee o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, yea cia/ii aeia?aaeaeaea
a?o/eciyio a oie ia??iae. Iaaeae?, ye iieacaii o aeine?aeaeaii?, aiie
noaee noeioeii ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee, aaaaoi a /iio aeia?aaeeee
io?oe?eio iie?oeeo a aaeoc? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

3. A?o/eciyia oai??y o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie OO —
ii/aoeo OO no. i?ieoea neeaaeiee aaiethoe?eiee oeyo ?icaeoeo a?ae
iiaiiai iaii?icoi?iiy noni?euenoaii cia/ouino? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino? aei noni?eueiiai aeciaiiy,
a?ae aenoaaiiy ?aea? i?i aca?iicaycie o?ce/iiai, ?icoiiaiai oa
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aei aino?i? iieai?ee c ieoaiue noai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia i?eioeeiao aoiai?cio,
i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeiino?, iaoeiaino?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? oa
eoeueoo?ia?aeiia?aeiino?.

Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee aeicaieea aeyaeoe
aeeiai?eo noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? oai??? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae: 1860-1890 ??. — ?icoe?aiiy iaae i?iaeaie
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a?ae noaoai iaaee/ii? aei nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii?;
1890-1910 ??. — ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie iniiaiiieiaeieo eiioeaioe?e
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; 1910-1917 ??. — ni?iaa noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeei, ui ca iniiao a?o/eciyii? oai???
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? aoei acyoi noai?ai? a e?ioe? 80-o ??. OO
no. icaei?ia/o eiioeaioe?th ?.A.Iie?ianueeiai oa ina?oith —
I.O.Eanaaooa. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. iieai?ea N.E.A?oaiaaeuenueeiai,
I.Ae.Aooianueeiai, I.N.Aa?ai?ona, A.A.Ai??iaanueeiai, I.O.A?eiaanueeiai,
?.I.Aeaiaioue?aa, A.?.?aiaoue?aa oa aaaaoi ?ioeo o/aieo ni?eyea
ia?aeiaiith iaio eiioeaioe?e ? aeciaiith icaei?ia/eo caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ye ia?oi/a?aiaeo.

5. Caneoaith a?o/eciyieo o/aieo aei?aaiethoe?eiiai ia??iaeo ?: iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy caaaeaiue ? ci?noo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?; /?oea
aecia/aiiy o??aaee cania?a (o?ce/ieo ai?aa, i?e?iaeieo nee oa
a?a??i?/ieo oaeoi??a); iaoiae?a ?c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy; oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea ? i?aeoe/ia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i.

6. O ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o oe?euei?e ?
iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no. /?oei
aeae?eaii aeaa iai?yiee: o?yaeiaee ? a?iiaaenueeee, ye? i?eioeeiiai
a?ae??ciyeeny cai?iaaaeaeoaaieie iaoiaeaie oa i?eeiiaie.

7. Ca oiia ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ? eoeueoo?e, aeeeeeathoue
?ioa?an i?aeoiaee iaaeaaia?a ae?oai? iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no. aei
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, oeyoe caeo/aiiy
a?iiaaenueeino? aei ?icaycaiiy aaaeeeaeo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?iaeai. Aeooaeueiith caeeoa?oueny ?aeay aeei?enoaiiy cania?a
?icoiiaiai, anoaoe/iiai ? ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e iniaenoino?. Nueiaiaei? aeieeea ia?eoeaia iio?aaa
ia?aaeyiooe noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?ane ye iiaooiueiai aaaeaey i?iiaaaiaee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ciaiue,
ia?aaeiaiai ina?oiueiai aeina?aeo ? i?aeianaiiy ?? i?anoeaeo.

I?iaaaeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia ae/a?iaii aaaaoianiaeoiino? i?iaeaie.
Ia?eoii iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iiaeooue aooe iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo niaoe?ae?no?a c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
e?ioey OO — ii/aoeo OO no. I.E.Aiio?ia, A.E?aia?aiea, ?.I.?aaeaoeueeiai,
niaoeeo?ea ?icaeoeo nieieuenueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
noaiiaeaiiy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia No?aei?e oa Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?,
?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae ? i?aeoe/ieo ii/eiaiue aei?aaiethoe?eieo
iaaeaaia?a i?ney 1917 ?. oiui.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneea aeo?iaeu OO — ia/aea OO aaea eae enoi/iee
eco/aiey ioa/anoaaiiie nenoaiu oece/aneiai ainieoaiey // O?ce/ia
eoeueoo?a, nii?o oa caei?iay. — Oa?e?a: OaAe?OE, 1997.- N.304-306.

2. AEo?iae “Ia?iaeia oeiea” i?i ?icaeoie o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a OO
noie?oo? //Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997.- Aei.5 —
N.157-160.

3. N.?.Ie?iiieuenueeee i?i caniae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ia?iaeii?
oeiee //Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y. Iai?yie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997.- Aei.4 — N.197-200.

4. O?ce/iee ?icaeoie ae?oae a caaaeuei?e nenoai? aeoiaaiiy N.?.
Ie?iiieuenueeiai //N.?.Ie?iiieuenueeee (1842-1907) — a/aiee, iaaeaaia,
iaoiaeeno. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO,1997. — N.66-74.

5. Eco/aiea ca?oaaaeiie oai?ee e i?aeoeee a iaeanoe oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey ioa/anoaaiiuie iaaeaaiaaie a eiioea OO — ia/aea OO aaea //
Aiaeec nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu aunoaai ia?aciaaiey e aeoeaecaoeey
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia EOE. — Oa?ueeia: OaAEOE, 1997.
— N.107-109.

6. Iai?yiee ?iaioe iaaeaaia?/ieo oiaa?enoa o i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee
oao?aoe?a ? aeoiaaoaeueie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e // Iaaeaaia?ea oa
ineoieia?y. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. — Aeione 8.- N.110-115.

I?eoiaeueei A.?. I?iaeaia o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? a
iaaeaaia?/i?e aeo?iae?noeoe? (ae?oaa iieiaeia OO — ii/aoie OO no.). —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. —
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aiae?co iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee ae?oai?
iieiaeie OO — ii/aoeo OO no. aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. A ?iaio? aeaaaeaii ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo canaae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii
aoaie ? aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? nenoaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae ?aae?caoe??
caaaeaiue o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a oe?euei?e oa iicaoe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?.
?ice?eoi ?ieue iaaeaaia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee a iiioey?ecaoe?? iiaeyae?a
aaoi?eoaoieo o/aieo ? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a a aaeoc?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nenoaia o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aoaie, oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo, caaaeaiiy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, iaaeaaia?/ia aeo?iae?noeea.

I?eoiaeueei A.E. I?iaeaia oece/aneiai ainieoaiey ee/iinoe a
iaaeaaiae/aneie aeo?iaeenoeea (aoi?ay iieiaeia OO- ia/aei OO a.). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei.
A.N.Neiai?iaeu, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaa aiaeeca iaaeaaiae/aneie aeo?iaeenoeee
enneaaeoaony i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey oai?ee oece/aneiai ainieoaiey
ee/iinoe e iooe aa ?aaeecaoeee a oeieueiie e aiaoeieueiie i?aeoeea
aoi?ie iieiaeiu OO — ia/aea OO a.

A ?aaioa ?ane?uaathony i?aaeiinueee nicaeaiey ioa/anoaaiiie oai?ee
oece/aneiai ainieoaiey ee/iinoe. Aiaeece?oaony i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e
?acaeoey iniiaiiieaaathueo eiioeaioeee oece/aneiai ainieoaiey, aai
caaea/, niaea?aeaiey, n?aaenoa, iaoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i.
I?aaenoaaeaiu oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iao/iie iunee a aii?ina oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae. ?ane?uoi aeeyiea ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa
ia i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ioa/anoaaiiie nenoaiu oece/aneiai ainieoaiey.
Iieacaia ia?ac?uaiay acaeiinaycue oai?ee e i?aeoeee oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey, iauanoaaiii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ainoaea?noaa ca
ia?eiae 1860-1917 aa. Aeaia ioeaiea aeeaaea iaaeaaiaia, a?a/ae,
iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae, iaeiecaanoiuo oe?ieiio iaaeaaiae/aneiio e?oao, a
?ac?aaioeo iao/iuo iniia oece/aneiai ainieoaiey.

A aeenna?oaoeee iaiauai iaoa?eae, io?aaeathuee ?ieue i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
ia?aaeiaie iauanoaaiiinoe a ?aaeecaoeee eaeae oece/aneiai ainieoaiey.
Iieacaia aeeiaieea acaeyaeia ioeoeeaeueiuo aeanoae ia caaea/e,
niaea?aeaiea, oi?iu e oneiaey iaania/aiey i?ioeanna oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. I?aaenoaaeaia aeayoaeueiinoue
i?ia?anneaiie iauanoaaiiinoe a inouanoaeaiee eaeae oi?ie?iaaiey
caei?iaiai ia?aca aeecie aeaoae oeieueiiai aic?anoa. Aeaia ioeaiea
niaea?aeaiey ?aaiou iaaeaaiae/aneeo, aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo e “iauanoa
oece/aneiai ?acaeoey” ii ?aoaieth caaea/ oece/aneiai ainieoaiey.
Iieacaiu iniaaiiinoe niaea?aeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee oece/aneiai ainieoaiey
a oeieueiie e aiaoeieueiie i?aeoeea, a oaeaea iaoaieci nicaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aeey yooaeoeaiiai inouanoaeaiey
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Inaauai iiuo aiaae?aiey oi?i
aeoeaiiai ioaeuoa a oeieueioth e aiaoeieueioth i?aeoeeo Eeaaa,
Oa?ueeiaa, Iaeannu e ae?. ?anniio?aiu niaea?aeaiea e niaoeeoeea
aeayoaeueiinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiiai nithca o/eoaeae oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey. ?ane?uoa ?ieue iaaeaaiae/aneie aeo?iaeenoeee a
iiioey?ecaoeee acaeyaeia aaoi?eoaoiuo o/aiuo e aeayoaeueiinoe
iaaeaaiaia-i?aeoeeia a iaeanoe oece/aneiai ainieoaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nenoaia oece/aneiai ainieoaiey, yoaiu, oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey, caaea/e oece/aneiai ainieoaiey, iaaeaaiae/aneay aeo?iaeenoeea.

Prikhodko A.I.The Problem of Physical Education of Personality in
Pedagogical Journalism /second half of OO — beginning XX centuries/. —
Manuscript.

Thesis on defending higher degree of candidate of pedagogical science in
speciality 13.00.01 — Theory and History of Pedagogics/. — Kharkiv State
Pedagogical University named after G.S.Skovoroda, Kharkiv, 1999/.

In this thesis on the basis of analysis of pedagogical journalistics of
the second half of XIX — beginning of XX centuries the process of
formation native system of physical education is considered. In the
paper the hictorical precondition of creation of scientific fundamentals
of physical education is represented. The phases are based and the
tendencies of development of the native system of physical education are
setted down. The experience of realization of the physical education
aims in school and outdoors practice is generalized. The role of
pedagogical journalism in popularization of the authoritative scientists
views and the teacher-practices in the field on the physical education
system is exposed.

Key words: system of physical education, phases, tendencies of
development, aims of physical education, pedagogical journalism.

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