2

N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I. A. O?oica

Oaaeaeue Naeao Oonaei Aeueoaaa?

OAeE 911.2: 572: 631.4 (477.75)

I?E?IAeII-AIO?IIIAAIIA O?AINOI?IAOe?ss

N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEEO CAIAEUe ??AIEIIIAI E?EIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 11.00. 01 – o?ce/ia aaia?ao?y,

aaio?ceea ? aaio?i?y eaiaeoaoo?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

N?ioa?iiieue -1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a N?ioa?iiieuenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.
A. O?oica I?i?noa?noaa Ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi?
a aia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieia

Aieiaeeie? Ieaenaiae?iae/, N?ioa?iiieuenueeee

aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.A.O?oica, caa

eaoaae?ith aaiaeieia??;

eaiaeeaeao n?eueneiainiiaea?uenueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio Ae?aaai

Iiaaea Ieaen??aia, N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.A. O?oica, aeioeaio eaoaae?e

o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? ? ieaaiieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi?
aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee Ao?aeia Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa ? aa?io?i??, i?ia?aeiee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee, Aaaeue ?aai Iao?iae/,N?ioa?iiieuenueeee

aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. A. O?oica, aeioeaio

eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? ? ieaaiieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.
?. Ia/i?eiaa, eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? aaia?ao?? ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, I?i?noa?noaa Ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” /a?aiy 1998 ? i 13-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 20.02.01 N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. A. O?oica ca aae?anith: 333007 i.
N?ioa?iiieue, aoe. sseoeinueea 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 25 o?aaiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
E. A. Iica/aithe.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi??e a?aeiineoueny aei
iaea?eueo oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaiiai oeio aio?iiiaaiieo ia?aoai?aiue. I?e
iueiio aeieeathoue neeaaei? aca?iiae?? i?e?iaeieo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a. A iaaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue i?e?iaei? a?iaaioeaiice o?ainoi?iothoueny a aa?ioeaiice, a
i?e?iaei? eaiaeoaooe – a aa?ieaiaeoaooe — i?e?iaeii-ae?iaie/? nenoaie,
ui noi?ioaaeeny ? ui ooieoe?iiothoue a ?acoeueoao? iino?eii? aca?iiae??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?e?iaeii? na?aaee, i?e?iaeiiai
eaiaeoaooo (Ieeieaaa, 1987; Oaaan, 1985; ssoeooii, Iaiaea?, 1995;
Ao?aeia, 1985.1993).

A iiaiiio aeaeyae? aiae?c o?ainoi?iaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
caiaeue a E?eio ia i?iaiaeeany. ? aeinoaoiuei aaaaoi ?ia?o, a yeeo
eiinoaoothoueny iani?eyoeea? ci?ie, ui aeaeaoeenue ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caieyo ca inoaii? aeanyoee ?ie?a. Iaeiae eeoa
o iaaaaaoueio ?iaioao (Ae?aaai , 1972, 1993, 1994, 1997) aiae?cothoueny
aaia?ao?/i? caeiiii??iino? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ca’ycie ci?i oa?aeoa?enoee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue c o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieie oiiaaie.
I?aeoe/ii iaia? ?ia?o, a yeeo ae aeaaaany eiiieaeniee aiae?c
i?e?iaeieo ? oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a o?ainoi?iaoe??. Oaeee aiae?c
i?aaenoaaey? aaeeeee ?ioa?an c oi/ee ci?o aeieia?/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo
ioe?iie iane?aee?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. Aeiee aiae?c
ianooaaieo i?ioean?a ?ici?ee ? c?ioaiiy a ??aieiao E?eio
i?iaiaeeoueny ia iniia? iaei?ino?oeo ni?anoaaeaiue i?yieo aeo?ao ia
ia?aoai?aiiy ? i?eaooe?a a?ae io?eiaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?. Caeeoathoueny iaa?aoiaaieie /eneaii?, /anoi iani?eyoeea?,
iane?aeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny c?ioaiiy. Oe? aniaeoe noaee iniiaieie a?aeiinii
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A yeino? ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee acyo? ??aieie E?eio, a iaaeao
yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny iaea?eueo cia/i? ci?ie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
caiaeue. Ia iniia? iiia?aaeiueiai aea/aiiy ieoaiiy aoee noi?ioeueiaai?
iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?iaiae?coaaoe ?ieue o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo ? oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a o
oi?ioaaii? i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ??aiei E?eio, iieacaoe oa?eoi??aeuei?
? oei/ania? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae??ooaaeeny ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aeaoe o?ceei-aaia?ao?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo ??aieiiiai E?eio, caa?oath/e
iniaeeao oaaao ia /eiieee, eiio?iethth/e i?ioeane o a?oioiaiio iie?ia?.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe oa?aeoa? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ??aieiiai E?eio a
ca’yceo c ciiaeueii-i?ia?ioe?eieie iniaeeainoyie, iai?oeoe oeyoe
aaeineiiaeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue.

3. Aeyaeoe ??aaiue i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?aiinoe a?oio?a
??aieiiiai E?eio, caaaeath/e ia o?nio nieao?iiy i?e?iaeieo yaeu ?
i?ioean?a, ui ?i?oe?ththoueny aio?iiiaaiieie /eiieeaie .

4. Iieacaoe i?e?iaeiioi?iii? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ??aieiiiai
E?eio, aeaoe eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/io ioe?ieo o?ainoi?iaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue, nooi?iue ?oiuei? aeieia?/ii?
ii?ooaiino?, iai?oeoe oeyoe iiaeieaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo iane?aee?a
o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiaeue ia iniia? noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
eiiieaeno ? ia?aoiaeo aei aaeaioeaiiai oe?ai?ianoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia iiaa iaoiaeeea
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ??aieiiiai E?eio, c aeiiiiiaith yei?
cae?eniaia ii??aiyiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio ? i??e ?oeioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ii o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo ?aeiiao.
Aeei?enoaiiy noaoenoe/ieo cania?a aeicaieeei ia e?euee?niiio ??ai?
ae?iaeoe aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th caiaeue. A oiae? aiae?co ea?oia?ao?/iiai
iaoa??aeo anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue i?yieo ? iiina?aaeiaieo ca’yce?a
i?ae o?ainoi?iaoe??th caiaeue ? ??aiai ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e a?oioiaeo,
eaiaeoaooieo ? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, i?e i?iaaaeaii?
??ciiiai?oieo iae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a, aeey i?eeiyooy i?iaiicieo ??oaiue
ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiio i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiith ia iniia? aeieia?/iiai
iii?oi??iao aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a ??aieiiiai E?eio.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e
?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aeieia?? ? ?ae?aaoe??
Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1994), ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1994-1998), ia
can?aeaiiyo E?einueeiai a?aeae?eo Oe?a?inueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa
(1995, 1997).

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaia 6 ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 2.6
ae.a.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae.

A iniiao aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeai? aeai?, io?eiai? aaoi?ii a
?acoeueoao? iieueiaeo ? eaia?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeai? a
eaiaeoaooii-a?oioiai-aaio?i?/i?e eaai?aoi??? N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a 1995 – 97 ?.?., ea?oia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee, noaoenoe/i?
aeai?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 207 noi??ieao ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
aie?a, oeeaaeaiiy, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui aeei?enoaeany. Aei ?iaioe ?
aeiaeaoee ia 18 noi??ieao. Nienie aeaea?ae, ui aeei?enoaeeny i?noeoue
130 iaeiaioaaiue, oaeno aeena?oaoe?? — 27 iaethie?a ? 17 oaaeeoeue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny.

1. O?ainoi?iaoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ??aieiiiai E?eio ?
aaaaoinoi?iii?e i?ioean, aeeth/ath/ee cai?io i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiieie (a oiio /ene? oaoiiaaiieie), c? ci?iith
aaieiiiiiaio?a o ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii aoi?eiieo i?ioean?a
(ia?acaieiaeaiiy, ea?no, aeaaoi?o?eaoe?y, caa?oaeiaiiy, oiui).

2. ??aaiue o?ainoi?iaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ? ooieoe??th
aeanoeainoae eaiaeoaoo?a (?oiueiai aenioiiai iieiaeaiiy ,
i?noeaiieiaeaiiy ia eieaeueiiio ??ai?, iniaeeainoae a?oioiooai?thth/eo
ii??ae; iayai?noth aai a?aenooi?noth nieaaeo ai?eciio?a; ao?aeii?
aooa?iino? a?oio?a ), oa?aeoa?o ? ??aiy aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao.

3. Iaea?eueo neeueiei /eiieeii o?ainoi?iaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
caiaeue ? c?ioaiiy, ui aeeeeeaei oe?eee eiiieaen iane?aee?a, ui
ae?aceeenue a ci?i? oa?aeoa?enoee a?oioiaiai iie?iao. Ci?ie, ye?
noaeeny i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy, ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaeiicia/ii
iaaaoeaieie , ai naia ioe?iea iiaea i?iyoeny a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoe
? caaea/ ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aa?iio.

CI?NO
?IAIOE

O ia?o?e aeaa? aeaiee iien o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo oiia ?icaeyaeoaaii?
oa?eoi???.

O ae?oa?e aeaa? aeeeaaeai? iaoiaeieia?y ? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
iniiao aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui noi?ioethaaeeny
a ?iaioao A. A. I?eieaaaa, Ae. E. A?iaiaea, I. O. ?aeia?na, I. A.
Aeacianueei?, TH. Iaeoia, A. Eiiiiia?a, A. N. I?aia?aaeainueeiai,
A. ?. Oaaana, I. A. Oeuaiei, A. I. Ie?eeia, A. TH. ?aoathia, A. A.
Oii/e?aa, A. ?. Ao?aeiaa. O. A. Caeaeaeueiaia, A. A. Iia?eiai?, I. Ae.
Iiaeai?iaeaoeueeiai, I. Ae. A?iaeceinueeiai.

Ie??i caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo i?aeo?ae?a (aeieia?/iee, nenoaiiee oa ?io.) a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue eiie?aoii-iaoeia? caniae:
a?oioia?, aaio?i?/i?, aaio?ce/i?. Oeaio?aeueia i?noea caeia?
aaia?ao?/iee i?aeo?ae, ui iaoe?eth? ia a?aooaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueiino? ?
eiiieaeniino?. Iaeaaaeeea?oei caniaii ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?aeoiaeo a
?iaio? aoa ea?oia?ao?/iee can?a.

Iniiaieie ?iai/eie i?eeiiaie ? iia?aoe?yie io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aoee
ca?? e?oa?aoo?iiai ? oiiaeiaiai aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo (a oiio /ene?
aeai? E?einueeeo o?e?e ?inoeooo?a Oe?caii?iaeo, Oe?IAe?A??i, E?einueei?
a?ae?iaaiaeiai-iaeei?aoeaii? aeniaaeeoe??). Ia i?ioyc? 1995-1997 ?.?.
aaoi? i?iaiaeea iieueia? niinoa?aaeaiiy ia I?enaneoeuee?? ieciaeie, a
I?eneaaoo? ? ia Oeaio?aeueii-E?einuee?e ??aiei?. O oiae? iieueiaeo
?ia?o a ??aieiao E?eio i?iaiaeeeeny ?ica?aeoaaeuei? ? aeine?aei?
ia?o?ooe c ieaiiai? ? aenioiith i?ea’yceith e?aiie niinoa?aaeaiue,
aea/aeeny a?oioia? i?io?e?. Ooi/ithaaeeny a?aaee ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ie?aieo oei?a, aeaeyae?a ? ??ciiaeae?a a?oio?a, aeeiioaaeeny aiae?ce
c?ace?a a?oio?a: a?aioeiiao?e/iee, i?ia?aeia?/iee, o?i?/iee neeaae,
ea?aiiaoi?noue, aieia?noue, u?euei?noue. Oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
iaoa??aee, ui iioae?eoaaeeny: aoei i?iaiae?ciaaia a?ey 200 ?ia?o. E??i
oiai, a iieueiaeo oiiaao aeeiioaaeeny ii?oiaaiaoe/i? a?oioia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, canoiniaoaaany ni?yaeaiee aiae?c noaio eiiiiiaio?a
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai a eieaeueiiio ? ?aa?iiaeueiiio aniaeo?.

C?a?ai? oaeoe/i? iaoa??aee aoee i?aeaeai? nenoaiaoecaoe??, iaoaiaoe/iiio
? eia?/iiio aiae?co.

O o?ao?e aeaa? iieacai? iniiai? ?ene o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a ??aiei
E?eio i?ae aieeaii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Oa?eoi??y
noaiiaiai E?eio aei inoaiiuei? o?aoeie XIX noi??//y aeei?enoiaoaaeany
aeey oaa?eiieoeoaa aenoaineaiiai oeio. I?ney a?aei?ie e??iiniiai i?aaa ?
c ?icaeoeii eai?oae?cio a ?in?? a E?eio ??cei iioe?eeeny iin?ai? ieiu?.

?ioaineai?noue oe?ai?ianueeiai aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi??? iniaeeai
iineeeeany a 60-o ?ieao XX noi??//y a ca’yceo c aoae?aieoeoaii
I?ai?/ii-E?einueeiai eaiaeo ? c?ioaiiyi caiaeue. Aei na?aaeeie 80-o
?ie?a ?ici?ea ioiieea 70-80% oa?eoi???, a ieiua c?iooaaieo caiaeue
aeinyaea iaeaea 380 oen. aaeoa??a. Aiaeii/an a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y
??cei c?inei iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaooe o ca’yceo c ?ioaineaiei
canoinoaaiiyi aeia?ea ? yaeioei?eao?a. Aianaiiy yaeio?i?eao?a neeaaeaei
ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a 4-6 ea ia 1 aaeoa?, i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea — 80-100
ea ia 1 aaeoa?. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaia nenoaia eaioethaiaeo
?aaeoe?e, ui aeieeea a ca’yceo c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi I?aia/ii-e?einueeiai
eaiaeo. Noai?aiiy eaiaeo i?eaaei ye aei iiceoeaieo, oae ? iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a. Iiaia ni?anoaaeaiiy oeo ? ?ioeo iiaeeeai i?e i?ae?aooieo
aeiiii?/ieo, aeieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo ao?ao ? aeaiae, aea oea caaea/a
iaeaooiueiai.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaia no?oeoo?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aeyaeai? ciiaeueii-i?ia?ioe?ei? a?aei?iiino? a aeei?enoaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue. Ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo caaaeaiue
(Caiaeueiee oiiae…, 1995) aaoi?ii ?ic?aoiaaia /anoea ?ici?aieo caiaeue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy (oaae. 1). A ??aieiao E?eio
/anoea ?ici?aiiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue a na?aaeiueiio
neeaaea? 76%. Ii aaei?i?no?aoeaiei ?aeiiai E?eio ?? iieacieee iathoue
cia/io ci?ithaaaai?noue (a?ae 40% aei 90%). E??i oiai, aeyaeaia cia/ia
aa??thaaiiy aaeocaaiai ?icia?ooy ainiiaea?noa ??aiei E?eio. Caaaeueio
ea?oeio oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ?ici?aiiino? aeanoue neeaaeaia ii
iaoa??aeao Aea?aeeiinoaoo ?anioae?ee ea?oa ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeueieo oa?aeue ??aiei E?eio. Iiieaeaia ?ici?aii?noue aeanoeaa
I?eneaaooth (i?ai?/i? ae?eueieoe?), Oa?oaieoonuee?e i?aeianai?? ??aiei?
? i?aaeaii?e ie?a?i? Oeaio?aeueii? i?aeiaeano?.

Oaaeeoey 1

?ici?aii?noue ? c?ioaiiy caiaeue (% a?ae ieiu?) ii i?e?iaeieo ?aeiiao
??aieiiiai E?eio

I?aeiaeano? ? o?ceei -aaia?ao?/i? ?aeiie?ici?ai?noue,% a?ae ieiu?
caiaeueC?iooaai? a?oioe,% a?ae ieiu? caiaeueAn?oC/o

Oa?aeueAn?oC/o

Oa?aeue

A) I?eneaaouea

1. Cao?aeii-i?enaaonueeee

2. Oeaio?aeueii-i?eneaaonueeee

3. No?aeii-i?eneaaonueeee

A) Oa?oaieooneay i?aeianaia ??aieia

4. Oa?oaieoonueeee

5. Aaeaeuenueeee

6. Aeiioceaa-naneoeueeee

7. Naia?/ee-/ioe?eeoenueeee

A) Oeaio?aeueia

8. Nanee-aeuei?inueeee

9. Oeaio?aeueii-e?einueeee

10. ?iaeieuenueeee

52.0

54.3

66.0

44.9

72.0

69.3

72.3

86.2

84.0

48.2

82.2

82.9

91.5

58.8

80.9

82.6

77.0

92.4

93.1

80.2

27.5

27.1

30.8

3.623

27.4

20.8

27.2

26.0

26.4

12.3

43.4

41.3

42.7

4.3

30.8

24.8

29.0

29.6

29.3

20.4

I?aeaeuaia ?ici?ai?noue i?eo?i/aia aei a?aae?a ?icaeoeo iaea?eueo
?iaeth/eo a?oio?a: /i?iicai?a i?aaeaiieo, oaiii-eaooaiiauo
nieiioeueiaaoeo , eieiai -/i?iicaiiuo ? eoeiaeo aeetha?aeueieo
a?oio?a.

A /aoaa?o?e aeaa? ?icaeyioo? aoi?eii? a?oioia? i?ioeane, ui
i?eaiaeyoueny aei o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?oio?a. Naiua aeeaie? aio?iiiaaii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?oio?a ??aieiiiai E?eio ii/aeeny c ?icaeoeii oe?ieiai
c?ioaiiy c 60-o ?ie?a oeueiai noi??//y.

C?iooaaeuei? caie? neeaaeathoue 380 oen. aaeoa??a aai a?ey 23%
n?eueainioaiaeue. A?ey 84% iieeaieo ieiu c?ioothoueny aeiuoaaiiyi, ?io?
— iiaa?oi?i caniaii, a oiio /ene? a?ey 20 oen. Aaeoa??a caoiieaiiyi
(eoeueoo?a ?eno). I?ioaaiua caie? aeaaeooue a?eueo aenie? o?iaea?,
iaeiae aiaea ia caaaeaee aeei?enoiao?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueii, aaaaoi ??
ao?a/a?oueny i?e c?iooaai? canoa??eeie oeiaie aeiuoaaeueieo iaoei. A?ey
20% aiaee eaea ia oaoiieia?/i? na?ine ? o?eueo?aoe?th c oei/aniaeo
c?iooaaeueiee?a Ui??/ia ia??cea ? caneiea inoaii?o aaaea aei ?oeioaaiiy
? cieao ?iaeth/iai iiaa?oiueiai oa?o a?oioo.

Cia/i? ieiu? c?iooaieo caiaeue i?eo?i/ai? aei I?eneaaonueei? ieciaeiii?
??aieie, neeaaeaii? aaaeeeie noaeeieaie, c a?eueoei caianii
nieae. C ii/aoeii c?ioaiiy a?oioia? aiaee i?aei?iaeeny ii 0.8-1.0 i/??e,
a a i?eeaiaeuei? cii? ??/iee i?e??no aeioiaeea aei 1.5 i. Ii i???
i?aeeiio ??aiy a?oioiaeo aiae (OAA) ia c?iooaaeueieo ae?eueieoeyo
niinoa??aaeany noaae?eia ci?ia ?oiuei? i?ia?ae?caoe??, ui nii/aoeo
c?inoaea ca ?aooiie ?ic/eiaiiy nieae, ui i?noyoueny a a?oioao, i?ney
oeueiai ciaiooaaeany ca ?aooiie i??nieo ?io?eueo?ao?a, ? ia?aoo?, i?e
aeinyaiaii? aeeaeie iaio 3 i a?ae iiaa?oi? i?ia?ae?caoe?y ciiao
i?aeaeuoaaeany ca ?aooiie aeo?a/aiiy a?oioiaeo aiae ia aeia?iaoaaiiy
(Eoeiaa, Aaethe, 1976). Aeniea iieiaeaiiy ?AA a ??/iee ia??iae
/a?aaeo?oueny c? cieaeaiiyi aei in?i?. Ieiua i?aeoiieaieo caiaeue ii
?aa?iio neeaaea? 186 aaeoa??a.

Aiae?c oaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a E?einueei? AeAI? iieaco?, ui i?e?iaeia
canieaiiy caa??aa?oueny ia ieiu? 2539 aaeoa?, oaeiae neaaea canieaiiy –
2268 aaeoa?, na?aaei? ? neeueia – 274 aaeoa?. Ia aiaa?ieo caieyo
canieaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny ia 63100 aaeoa?, aea ii aaaaoie?oi?i aeaiei
i?ia?aneaia ?icnieaiiy a?oio?a.

I?ae aieeaii iieeao aaoiii?oi? a?oioe i?aeaeuaieo ae?eueieoeue
ii??niyeenue , a oie /an ye a iiieaeaiiyo ?aeue?oo, a oaeiae a?ey
ianeiieo eaiae?a a?aeaoaaeiny aoi?eiia canieaiiy aeae?iii?oieo ?
iai?aa?ae?iii?oieo a?oio?a.

A a?oioao ? a?oioiaeo aiaeao iaeaea an?o c?iooaaeueieo ae?eueieoeue
niinoa??aa?oueny nii?aaee/aia iiyaa niaee cae/aeii ia aeeaei? 0.5-1.0
i, ??aeoa — ia aeeaei? aei 0.5 ? 1-2 i (Ae?aaai, 1976). Niaeii?iyaeaiiy
a oe?eiio ia aeoaea aeniei?ioaineaia, aea ia??aeei ia?aaeuo? ii??a
oiene/iino? (A?eiue, 1969; Iiaeeiaa, 1973).

Ae?iaeaiee aiae?c ieoaiiy i?i aieea c?ioaiiy ia ?iaeth/?noue a?oio?a
(Aaa???i., 1979; Iieoiai ? A. I. Eaiao, 1978; Aiaieaa, 1988; Eoeiaa,
Aaethe, 1976). Caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y oaea, ui c?ioaiiy aeeeeea?
?oeioaaiiy a?oioiaeo aa?aaao?a, ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith noeaiaioiaaieo
(ceeoeo) o?aaiaio?a a?oioiaiai i?io?eth, ca?eueoaiiy ia?’iii? iane,
n?e?oecaoe??, iniaeeai a /i?iicaiao. I?e/eia iia??oaiiy oeeo
aeanoeainoae — aeenia?aaoe?y ? aioo??a?oioia? aeaao?thaaiy, ia?aciiae?e
ioeenoi? o?aeoe?? ii i?io?eth (eaneaaae), inieiioethaaiiy, inieiae?iiy.

Caoiieaiiy ?eniaeo /ae?a coiiaeth? ?icaeoie a iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciioao
a?oio?a aiaa?ia?ic?no, ioaea, iaea?iiy ? aeeoeiaoaaiiy, aeianaiiy ioeo,
Mg, Ca c iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciio?a, iiieaeaiiy ei?aeiio neeiaiiy
ea?aiiao?a. ?acii c oei a?aecia/a?oueny a?aeiinia iaeiie/oaaiiy
e?aiiacaio, aa?aaaoiiai cae?ca ? ia?aaioeth a eiie?aoe?eieo
iiaiooai?aiiyo. Aeeaeia o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?oio?a i?ae aieeaii ?enin?yiy,
?oiy aeaa?aaeaoe?y aeinoaoiuei oaeaeea, iniaeeai a aeiaaeeao
iaaeiaea?aeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? aa?ioaoi?ee. Aaea ca 4 ?iee ci?ie
iinyoue /?oei aeneiaeaiee oa?aeoa? (?icaiia, 1983).

Aea?ooai?aiiy a oiiaao o?eaaeiai cano?eii — i?iieaiiai ?aaeeio
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaenoo?ii-aeeiynoi? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?io?eth,
a?aea?ethaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo ai?eciio?a. Iaaoaathoueny ?ene a?eueo
aoi?aeieo a?oio?a.

Eaiaeoaooi? oiiae ???eaaoe?eii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?oio?a Aaoi?ii
cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aaia?ao?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae
???eaaoe?eii?o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?oio?a noaiiaiai E?eio. Noaia noai?aia ia
iniia? iiaeo iaoa??ae?a E?einueei? o?e?? Oe?a?inueeiai ?inoeoooo
a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe??, E?einueei? a?ae?iaaieiai-iae?i?aoeaii?
aeniaaeeoe??, E?uiaiaeainio ? iniaenoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a. I?e ??
?ic?iaoe? aaoi? a?aoiaoaaa noaio o?ceei-aaia?ao?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy E?eio
(Iiaeai?iaeaoeeee, 1988) ? a?ae?iaaieiai-iae?i?aoeaiiai ?aeiioaaiiy
(A?ae?iaaieia?y N?N?, 1970). A iniiao noaie iieeaaeaiee eaiaeoaooiee
i?eioeei.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaai? aeaeyaee aieeao eaiaeoaooieo oiia ia o?ainoi?iaoe?th
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue (oaaeeoey 2)

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeaeyaee aieeao eaiaeoaooieo oiia ia o?ainoi?iaoe?th
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue

Eaiaeoaooiua i?ioeane ? yaeuaOa?aeoa? aieeao ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
caie?Oa?aeoa?iee /anI?yiee aieea eaiaeoaooieo nenoai

I?e?iaeia aaiethoe?y eaiaeoaoo?aAeieeiaiy iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae
eaiaeoaooieie oiiaaie (a?oioiai-aeiee?iaoe/iee iioaioe?ae,
aaiii?oieia?/i? oiiae ? ?i.) ? nenoaia oe?ai?ianoaa

Oeny/?, aeanyoee oeny/ ?ie?a

I?e?iaei? noeo?ei? eeoaIeeuei? ao??, aiaeia a?ic?y, iinooa, iia?ae?,
cnoae ? ?io? iani?eyoeea? yaeua. I?inoi?iaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a ca’yceo c
??cieie oeiaie eaiaeoaoo?a

A?ae aeae?eueeio aiaeei aei aeae?eueeio i?nyoe?aAea?? nenoaie
oe?ai?ianoaa: iaai?o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ni?o?a,
aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a, iae?i?aoe?e, aeaeyaee ? e?euee?noue aeia?ea ? o.
Ae.

?iee

?ic?iaeaia noaia eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e aeei?enoaia i?e oeeaaeaii? ea?oe
“Ioe?iea o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiaeue“ (iae. 3).

A i’yo?e aeaa? aeeeaaeai? oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iniiae aeieia?/ii?
ioe?iee o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiaeue. Ae?iaeai? ?ic?aooiee eiao?oe??ioa
aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?thaaiiino? ? ioe?iea o?ainoi?iiaaiino? a?oio?a
??aiei E?eio. Aeei?enoiaoaaeany noaia, cai?iiiiiaaia I. A. Oeuaiei
(1988), ca?aeii ye?e nooi?iue aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ioe?ith?oueny a
aaeao a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy: i?e?iaei?
ioi?iiiaai? oa?eoi??? — 1, e?no-2, aaaia ? caaiei/ai? caie? — 3, eoee —
4, naaee ? aeiia?aaeieee — 5, ??eey — 6, n?euenueea caaoae?aey — 7,
i?nueea caaoae?aey — 8, aiaeinoiaeua, eaiaee — 9, caie? i?iieneiaiai
aeei?enoaiiy — 10.

Aeai? i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiu iacaaieo ?aia?a a iaaeao
caieaei?enooaaiiue aoee io?eiai? ii caiaeueiiio eaaeano?o E?eio, a
oaeiae ii ea?oao ianooaao 1: 200000. Ia ?oi?e iniia? aoa ?ic?aoiaaiee
?iaeaen aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?thaaiiino? (Eaiaoaa, Aio/ei, Aioiai, 1982)
ii oi?ioe?

picscalex100010009000003f90000000200130000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02a003200a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa8ffffffe0090000480300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000e00010000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a0402d80501000000e50008000000320ae00148040100
00003d0013000000fb0200fe00000000000090010000000004020030436f757269657220
4e6577000076040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae001700702000000
727113000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000cc04020030436f7572696572204e65
7700cc76040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a3d03480102000000e0ef
13000000fb0200fe00000000000090010000000004020030436f7572696572204e657700
0076040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae00128000100000055000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc020000
00cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000
,

Aea Uai — ?iaeaen aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?thaaiiino?, r — ?? ?aia, q —
/anoea (%) aeaiiai aeaeyaeo i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a iaaeao
caieaei?enooaaiiy. Aeey a?aooaaiiy aeeaeie aio?iiiaaiiiai ia?aoai?aiiy
eaiaeoaooo I. A. Oeuaiei (1988, c. 41) i?iiiio? a?aoiaoaaoe «aaao»
eiaeiiai aeaeyaeo i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy. Ia iniia? aenia?oieo ioe?iie
?iaeaen aeeaeie ia?aoai?thaaiiino? aecia/aiee ne?aeoth/ei /eiii: e?ne —
1.05, eoee — 1.15, naaee ? aeiia?aaeieee — 1.2, ??eey — 1.25, n?euenueea
caaoae?aey — 1.3, aiaeinoiaeua 1.4. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai nooi?iue
aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?aiiino? aecia/a?oueny I. A. Oeuaiei ii oi?ioe?:
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Aea Eai — eiao?oe?aio aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?aiiino?, r — ?aia
aio?iiiaaiii? ia?aoai?aiiino? eaiaeoaoo?a ii aeaeao aeei?enoaiiy, ? —
ieiua ?aiao (%), q — ?iaeaen aeeaeie ia?aoai?thaaiiino? eaiaeoaooo, n —
e?euee?noue aeae?e?a a iaaeao eiioo?o eaiaeoaooiiai ?aa?iio.

Ae?iaeaiee ?ic?aooiie nooiaiy ia?aoai?aiiino? oa?eoi??e a iaaeao
ainiiaea?noa ii ?icaeyioo?e noai?. Cai?iiiiiaaia ianooiia a?aaeaoe?y
ia?aoai?aiiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue: aeoaea neaaei
ia?aoai?ai? — < 2.0; neaaei ia?aoai?ai? - 2.0-3.0; na?aaeiuei ia?aoai?ai?- 3.0-4.0; neeueii ia?aoai?ai? - 4.0-4.5; aeoaea neeueii ia?aoai?ai? – > 4.5. Ioe?iea o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiaeue ??aiei E?eio
i?iaaaeaia ia iniia? ?aa?iiaeueii? eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e c o?aooaaiiyi
aaee/ei eiao?oe?aioo ia?aoai?thaaiiino? ? ?iia??iino? i?iya aoi?eiieo
iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a. A?aeinue aei oaaae oaeiae a?aeiinia o?eaae?noue
aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a, ui aeaoa?i?ioaaeany ia?aaeon?i aeanoeainoyie a?oio?a ?
??aiai ?oiuei? ?iaeth/ino?. Iaaaaeaiee ae?aiacii aenio eaiaeoaooieo
y?on?a, oa?aeoa? aaiace ?aeue?oo, ooeee iiaa?oi?, aeeaeia cae?aaiiy
??aiy a?oioiaeo aiae (?AA), ?oiy i?ia?ae?caoe?y ? ia?aaaaei? a?oioe.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea a?oi eaiaeoaooieo i?noeaainoae ii 7 aenioieo y?onao
aeaia a oaaeeoe? 3. Aeaeyaee ? aaee/eie o?ainoi?iiaaiiino?, ia/eneai? ii
ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeyo, i?ney oeueiai aoee aaia?ae?ciaai? a oe?eiio
ii ?aa?iio ? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaaeeoe? 4 ? ia iaethieo.

Iaea?eueo iecueei? o?ainoi?iiaai?no?th aeae?eythoueny i?noeaaino? a?oie
1, aea iecueea i?e?iaeia ?iaeth/?noue a?oio?a aeeeth/a? ?oi?
oe?ai?ianueea aeei?enoaiiy. Neaaeith o?ainoi?iiaai?noueth
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?noeaaino? 2 ? 10, aea iaiothoue, a?aeiia?aeii,
canieai? a?oioe ? iaeiiiooaeai? a?oioe c aeoiaeaie ii??ae, ui aecia/eei
?oi? aeei?enoaiiy a aeiaae? iaiei?iaeoeoeaieo ianiaeu. Iaea?eueoi?
o?ainoi?iiaaiino? aeae?eythoueny i?noeaaino? a?oi 3-5, 7, aea ?icaeiooa
c?iooaieo oe?ai?ianoai, a oiio /ene? – ?enin?yiiy, a a
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? ??aiei E?eio o?eno?oueny neeueia
caa?oaeiaiiy. A i?noeaainoyo 3 ? 4 oe?iei oyaeai? nieiioethaao?
eoeiai-eaooaiia? ? oaiii-eaooaiia? a?oioe a eiiieaen? c nieiioeyie. A
oiiaao c?ioaiiy ooo ?icaeaathoueny i?ioeane iniieae?iiy,
aeaaoi?o?eaoe??, e??eiooai?aiy, a i?e i?aeeii? ?AA – aoi?eiia canieaiiy,
iaea?iy, ceeoecaoe?y. Oe? i?ioeane a’yaeai? ? a i?noeaainoyo 5, 7.

I?noeaaino? a?oi 6, 7, 9 iaea?eueo oe?iei inai?i? a oe?ai?ianoa?, aea
o?ainoi?iiaai? caeaa?eueoiai a na?aaeiueiio nooiai? ? a iaioiio nooiai?
– neeueii, ui coiiaeaia a?aeiinii a?eueo aenieei ??aiai ?iaeth/ano?
a?oio?a (oaiii-eaooaiiauo caeeoeiai-nieiioethaaoeo ? /i?iicai?a), a,
ioaea, ? a?eueoith o?eaae?noth aa?ieaaeoaoo?a aei ?icaeoeo aoi?eiieo
iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a.

Iaa?oue i?e iaeneiaeueiiio cia/aii? eiao?oe?aioa aio?iiiaaiii?
ia?oai?thaaiiino? (a?eueo 4.5) oe? i?noeaaino? a?ae??ciythoueny iaioei
?icaeoeii aoi?eiieo iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a ? a?eueo noaa?eueiith
a?ii?iaeoeoeai?noth (o?iaeayie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?), ?
oiio a?aeiinyoueny aei iacaaieo aeua eaoaai??e, a ia aei aeoaea neeueii,
ui o?ainoi?ioaaeeny.

A oino?e aeaa? ?icaeyioo? oeyoe iiaeieaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo iane?aee?a
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiaeue ??aiei E?eio ia iniia?
iioei?caoe?? aeieia?/ii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aae?
ioi?iithaaieo oa?eoi??e (cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa no?oeoo?a i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
eiiieaeno ia ?icaeyaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? ii aeieiai-aaia?ao?/iei ?aeiiai),
ia?aoiaeo aei aaeaioeaiiai oe?ai?ianoaa.

AENIIAEE

A ??aieieo /anoeiao E?eio o?ainoi?iaoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
caiaeue a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo /eiiee?a ? iaoai?ci?a.
I?e?iaei? oiiae ooai?ththoue iaaia oei, ui neoaeeoue iniiaith aeey
?icai?oaiiy eaioetha?a iane?aee?a, aeeeeeaieo aio?iiiaaiieie /eiieeaie.
Inoaii? aeeeeeathoue ii?ooaiiy ??aiiaaae, ui neeaeany. ?c-ca neeueii?
ia?aoai?thaaiiino? aeinenoai ? iaeaea iiaii? a?aenooiino? i?e?iaeieo
o?oioeaiic?a ?aaoeyoe?ei? iaoai?cie aeyaeythoueny neaaei. E??i oiai,
?icaaeainoaaiy ia?aeeaea?oueny ia ?io? aeinenoaie, ui ua a?eueoa cieaeo?
??aaiue noaa?e?caoe??.

O?ainoi?iaoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ??aieiiiai
E?eio aeeth/a? ye i?i?ioi aea?, ui neeaaeathoue:

1) ia?aoai?aiiy i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a a i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaii?
eaiaeoaooe (aa?ieaiaeoaooe ??cieo aeaeyae?a);

2) o?ainoi?iaoe?y eiiiiiaio?a caiaeue (ia?aaeon?i a?oio?a): ci?ia
o?i?cio, aieiaici?noo, iaoai?/iiai neeaaeo, u?eueiino?, i?iya iiaeo
aeaeyae?a i?ioean?a (iai?eeeaae, e??eaaoe??ii? a?ic??, inieiae?iiy,
ceeoecaoe??), aeaaoi?o?eaoe?? oa ?i.

A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo eaeaoueny i?i cai?io i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a –
?ineeiiino?, a?oio?a, ee?iaoo (ia ??ai? i?noeaaiai ee?iaoo), ?aeue?oo
(ia ??ai? iee?i?aeueaoo ?, ?ieiee, ieci?aeue?oo), iiaa?oi?o aeeeaaeaiue
– ooo/ieie – ?ineeii?noth naae?a, aeiia?aaeiee?a, ca?iiaeo ? i?inaiieo
eoeueoo?, aaaaoie?oi?ie o?aaaie, ooo/ieie ??oioaie, ooo/ieie oa?anaie,
aiaeinoiaeuaie, aoae?aeyie ? o.ae. Cai?ie oaeiai ?iaeo ia iiaeooue aooe
iaeiicia/ii aecia/ai? a ?aieao ioe?iee «aeia?a – iiaaii», ine?eueee
aio?iiiaaii? nenoaie iaiao?aei? aeey ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie. I?iiiaa iiaea
eoe eeoa i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo ?icoiieo oa?eoi??aeueieo i?iii?oe?e
i?ae i?e?iaeieie ? aio?iiiaaiieie nenoaiaie.

A ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo eaeaoueny i?i ia?aoai?aiiy eiiiiiaio?a eaiaeoaooo
aac ci?i naii? nooo?aino? eiiiiiaio?a, iai?eeeaae ci?i oa?aeoa?enoee
a?oio?a. Oe? ci?ie a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeyaeythoueny iani?eyoeeaeie,

Ia? i?noea oaiaeaioe?y a?eueo cia/ii? ?iia??iino? i?iyao
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ci?i aaieiiiiiaio?a a oeo ?aeiiao, aea nooi?iue cai?ie
i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a aio?iiiaaiieie a?eueo aenieee: aeyaeaia /?oea
oaiaeaioe?y a?eueo cia/ii? ia?aai?aiiino a?oioiaiai iie?iao a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ??aieiiiai E?eio ? a c?iooaaeuei? /anoei?
I?eneaaooy, oiai oai, aea a?eueo u?eueia ianaeaiiy, a?eueo aeniea
?ici?aii?noue, a?eueoa o?ainii?oieo oeyo?a, a?eueo ?iaeth/? ?
i?iaeoeoeai? a?oioe. Ia??aeei ia? i?noea neeaaeia ia?aieao?iiy
i?e?iaeieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo i?ioean?a, aeieeiaiiy oae caaieo eaioethaiaeo
?aaeoe?e. Eaioethaia? ?aaeoe?? caoiieththoue oaeiae ae?eueieoe?, ui
?ici?uai? ii?o/ c oeie, ia yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny aieeao. Ia??aeei
iane?aeee ae?yiiy caoiieththoue aeaeaei ?icoaoiaai? a?ae i?noeue ae?yiue
?aeiie.

Oaaeeoey 3.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea eaiaeoaooieo i?noeaainoae ??aieiiiai E?eio

Eaiaeoaooi? y?oneAe?aia-

cii aenio iaae o.i.Aaiacen ?ae’?ooOoeee ?ae’?oo

%Aeeae-ia OAA

iI?ia?ae?-caoe?y AA

a/eA?oie eaiaeoaooieo i?noeaainoaeAeoioeyoeaiee e?oa?aeueii-ieceiiee
inaiioeoiaee oa nieii/aeiai-nieiioeiaee0 — 5Aeoioey-oeaiee0,0000—1,5aei
1501.Aacethaei? noaie i?n/aieo e?n

2. I?eaa?aaei? ieceii? ioeeno? ??aieie c aaeioeoiaeie
eoeaieNoia?aeaaeueiee a?ae?iii?oiee ieinei??aieiiee
aaeioeoiai-eoaiai-noaiiaee5—10Aeoioey-oeaiee0,000—0,0012—3

4—710—403. Eiueiii-aaeeiaee aaeioeoiai-eoaiaee

4. I?aeaaeeia? oe?ieioaeeyno? ??aieie c iai?aionoeiieie noaiaie

Noia?aeaaeueiee o?ainaeoioeyoea-iee ieinei??aieiiee
aaeioeoiai-??ciio?aaii-eoaiaee aeaai?o
aeaeueo5—10Aeoioey-oeaiee0,000—0,0020,5—33—105. Ieinei??aieiiee
aeaaiueiaeaeueoiaee aaeioeoiai-??ciio?aaii eoaiaeeNoia?aeaaeueiee
iaiaetha?aeueiee ieinei??aieiiee
a?aeii-??ciio?aaii-ceaeiaee10—40Aeoioey-oeaiee0,001—0,0025—255—156.
Na?aaeiueiieceii? ieinei??aieii? oei/aeiai-a?aeii??ciio?aaii-noaiiaee o
ii?aeiaii? c iieeiii-ceaeiaeieO?ainaetha?aeue-iee aeieeiii-nooi??/eiaee,
aeieeiii-oa?aniaee eoaiaee10—50Aeoioey-oeaiee0,0001—0,0031—30,5—37.
Aeieeiii-nooi??/eiaee iacio?eueii-eoaiaee

7a. Aeieeiii-aeoioeyoeaii-oa?aniaee eoaiaeeAetha?aeueiee noaaa?aeueiee
aiaeiae?eueiee-??aieiii-eiueiiee
??ciio?aaii-oei/aeiai-eiaeeueiee40—90No?oeoo?ii-aeaiooaoe?e-iee,
a?ic?eii-aeoioeyoe-aiee0,003—0,0105—60Iaioa 18.Neaaeioaeeynoi-??aieiiee
oei/aeiai-??cii?aaii-noaiiaee

9. Iieiai-iioeei-??aieiii-eeueiiee ??ciio?aaii-noaiiaee ca o/anoth
iao?io?o?aAeaaiueiaetha?aeue-iee inoaioeaai-aiaeiae?eueiee
iao?ioeoii-noaiiaee90—196No?oeoo?ii-aeaioaeaoe?e-iee0,015—0,02060 ?
a?eueoaIaioa 110. Aeaioaeaoe?eiee inoaioeaai-aiaeiae?eueiee
iao?ioeoiai-noaiiaee

Oaaeeoey 4

Ioe?iea o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiaeue ??aieiiiai E?eio

?iaeaen eaiaeoaooii? i?noeaain

o?A?oio, ui ia?aaaaea?Aoi?eii? iaaaoeai? i?ioeaneEiao?oe??io
ia?a-oai-?th-aaiiyNoo-i?iue o?ainoi?i-aoe?? ca-iaeueCaoiaee uiaei
noaa?e?caoe?? aainenoaia?ic?yAeaoeyoe?yaeaaoieo?eaoe?yi?aeeii
OAAcanieaiiyinieiioethaaiiyaeiin Na oa
e??eiooai?aiiyinieiae?iiyiaea?iiyeieueiaoa

aeceeoecaoe?yAeano?oeoe?y i?io?eth12345678910111213141516171Aea?iia?
i?ei?oeai? i?n/ai?+++< 2 Aeoaea neaaeaIaiaaeai-iy iaoai?/-ieo aieea?a2Nieii/aee oa nieiioe? a?ae?iii?oi?+ ++ ++++ ++ ++++ + ++ +++< 2 2.0-3.0 3.0-4.0 > 4.0Aeoaea neaaea

Neaaea

Na?aae-iy

Aeoaea neeueiaIi?iiaa-iee aeian, a?aeoai-?aiiy i?e?iae-iiai o?aain-oith,
caiia?-aaiiy i?aeoii-eaiiy3Eoaiai-eaooaiia? nieiioeaaao? o eiiieaen? c
nieiioeyie++

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3.0-4.0

4.0>Neaaea

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Aeoaea neeueiaIi?iae?-caoe?y aiaeii-nieueiaiai oa iia?o?yiiai ?aaeei?a
a?oio?a oeyoii aaeineiia-eaiiy ae?aiaae-ii-c?i-ooaaeue-ieo nenoai;

Iioei?caoe?y aaeaino aoiono4Oaiii-eaooaiia? nieiioeaaao? o eiiieaen? c
nieiioeyie+

+

++

+

+++

+++

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+++

++2.5-3.0

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Aeoaea neeueiaI?ioeaea-oeyoe?ei?; Ii?iae?-caoe?y aiaeii-nieueiaiai
?aaeeio oa aaeaino aoiono

5

Eoaia?, /i?iicaiii-eoaia?, a o. /. nieiioeaaao?

++

+

++

++

++

+

3.5-4.0

Neeueia

Ii?iae?-caoe?y aiaeii-nieueiaiai ?aaeeio (ae?aiaae)

6Oaiii-eaooaiia? neaaei-nieiioeaaao?; /i?iicaie i?aaeaii? inoaoi/ii
nieiioeaaao?+

+ +

+ +

+++

+++

+++++

++3.5-4.0

> 4.0Neeueia

Aeoaea neeueiaCaaacia-/aiiy iioe-iaeueiiai aiaeiini-eueiaiai ?aaeeio
a?oio?a oa iiceoea-iiai aaeaino aoiono; i?ioe aeaoeyoe?e-i?7,
7aEoaiai-/i?iicaii?; /i?iicaiii-eoaia?;

eoaia?+

+

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Aeoaea neeueiaCaiia?aaiiy i?aeoiieaith oa iioiaa-iith8

8a*i?iicaie i?aaeaii? cae/aei? oa i?oeaey?ii-ea?aiiaoi?

*i?iicaie uaaaienoi-aaea/ieeia?+++

+

+++

++

+

++2.0-2.5

3.0-4.5

> 4.5Neaaea

Na?aae-iy

NeeueiaCaiia?aaiiy ?icaeoeo aetha?aeue-ieo i?ioean?a (aeiin Na, ?ooiieo
?a/iaei), aeaaoi?o?ea-oe?y9

*i?iicaie inoaoi/ii-ea?aiiaoi? uaaaieno? o eiiieaen? c
aea?iiai-ea?aiiaoieie+

++

++++

+

++

+++

+

+

+++< 2.0 2.0-3.0 3.0-4.5 > 4.5Aeoaea neaaea

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NeeueiaI?ioea?i-c?ei?, i?ioeaea-oeyoe?ei?10Aea?iia? ea?aiiaoi? o
eiiieaen? c iaieaiiyi u?eueieo ii??ae+

++

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+

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3.0-3.5

4.0-4.5Neaaea

Na?aae-iy

NeeueiaI?ioea?i-c?ei?; a?aeiiaeaiiy oa a?aeoai-?aiiy o?aa’yiiai iie?iao,

Ii?iiaa-iee aeian

Ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aeueoaaae O.N.O. E aii?ino i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiie neeoecaoeee ii/a
//I?iaeaiu yeieiaee e ?ae?aaoeee Aciai-*a?iiii?neiai ?aaeiia. Iaoa?eaeu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ?aaeiiaeueiie eiioa?aioeee. – Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?eaea,
1995. – N.250-252.

2. Aeueoaaae O.N. O. I?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiay o?ainoi?iaoeey ii/aaiiiai
iie?iaa ?aaieiiiai E?uia a nayce n eaiaeoaooiuie oneiaeyie.
Neioa?iiieue, 1996. – 24n. Aeaeeia?aoey.: 16 iaca. — ?on. — Aeai. a
AIOA Oe?aeiu 14.10.96. ? 1905 — oi 96.

3. Ae?aaai I. A., Aeueoaaae O. N. O. I?iaeaiu e caaea/e io?aiu ii/a
?aaieiiiai E?uia //I?e?iaea. Anoanoaaiii-aaia?aoe/aneee aeo?iae. –
Neioa?iiieue, 1996. — ? 2. – N. 24-26.

4. Aeueoaaae O. N. O. O?ainoi?iaoeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue
?aaieiiiai E?uia//Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. — Neioa?iiieue,
1998. — N.16.

5. Ae?aaai I. A., Aeoaaae O. N. O. Ioeaiea o?ainoi?iaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue ?aaieiiiai E?uia//O/aiua caienee
Neioa?iiieueneiai oieaa?neoaoa, 1998. — ? 5 (44). — N. 74-77.

6. Aeueoaaae O. N. O. Aio?iiiaaiiua eciaiaiey a aa?ieaiaeoaooao
?aaieiiiai E?uia//O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai oieaa?neoaoa, 1998. —
? 5 (44). — N. 77-79.

Oaaeaeue N. O. Aeueoaaa? I?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y
n?euenueainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ??aieiiiai E?eio. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? 11.00. 01 — o?ce/ia aaia?ao?y, aaio?ceea ? aaio?i?y
eaiaeoaoo?a.- N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. A.
O?oica I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, N?ioa?iiieue, 1998.

?iaioa i?ena’y/aia aiae?co i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ??aieiiiai E?eio. I?iaiae?ciaaia ?ieue
i?e?iaeieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a a ci?i? no?oeoo?e aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue, ci?i? no?oeoo?e ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?oio?a,
aeyaeai? iniiai? i?ioeane aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oioiaiai iie?iao, anoaiiaeaiee
ca’ycie aeaa?aaeaoe?iiieo i?ioean?a c eaiaeoaooieie y?onaie ? ?o
i?noeaiieiaeaiiy. Neeaaeai? ea?oe aeaa?aaeaoe?iiieo i?ioean?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue, ia?aoai?thaaiiino? eaiaeoaoo?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? caie?, aa?ieaiaeoaooe,
o?ainoi?iaoe?y a?oio?a, aainenoaia, aa?ioeaiic.

Oaaeaeue N. O. Aeueoaaae. I?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiay o?ainoi?iaoeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue ?aaieiiiai E?uia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.01 — oece/aneay aaia?aoey, aaioeceea e
aaioeiey eaiaeoaooia. — Neioa?iiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
ei. I.A.O?oica Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Neioa?iiieue, 1998.

?aaioa iinayuaia aiaeeco i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue ?aaieiiiai E?uia. I?iaiaeece?iaaia ?ieue
i?e?iaeiuo e aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia a eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u eniieueciaaiey
caiaeue, eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u e oeceei-oeie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ii/a,
auyaeaiu iniiaiua i?ioeannu aeaa?aaeaoeee ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa,
onoaiiaeaia naycue aeaa?aaeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia n eaiaeoaooiuie y?onaie
e ianoiiieiaeaieyie. Ninoaaeaiu ea?ou aeaa?aaeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caiaeue, i?aia?aciaaiiinoe eaiaeoaooia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee, aa?ieaiaeoaoou,
o?ainoi?iaoeey ii/a, aainenoaia, aa?ioeaiic,

Fadhl S. H. Alshawbi. Natural and anthropogenetic
transformation of agricaltural lowland of the Crimea. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 11.00.01 – physical
geography, geophysics and geochemistry of landscapes. – Simferopol State
University named after M.V.Frunze, Simferopol, 1998.

This work is concerned with the analysis of natural and antropogenetic
transformation of agricaltural lowland of the Crimea. In this paper, the
role of natural and antropogenetic reasons for the change in the land
usage structure has been analyzed. Also the change in structure and
physico-chemical nature of soil have been examined. The main processes
of soil degradation have been found out, the relation of degradation
processes of agricultural lands and landscape reorganization have been
drawn up.

Key words: agricaltural lands, agrolandscapes, soil transformation,
geosystem, agrosenoz.

Iiaeienaii e ia/aoe 20.05.1998 a. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16

One. ia/. e. – 1,0. Oe?aae 100 yec. Caeac ? 3283.

E?ui, a. Neioa?iiieue 333036, oe. sseoeineay, 4,

Neioa?iiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

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