EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

A?oaethe Aaeaioeia Aaeaioei?aia

OAeE: 802.0 — 541.2

I?EEIAOIEEE ?ICI??O A NO*ANI?E AIAE?ENUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?iaoeueei? iiae oa caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAAEOeUeEEE A?EOI? AANEEUeIAE*,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei? iiae

oa caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

AEOEAIEI AAEA??E A?EOI?IAE*,

aee?aeoi? Oeaio?o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue

oa aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

A?EEINUeEEE IEOAEEI AI?EUeIAE*,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa,

eaoaae?a eaeneeieia?? ? noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.11 i?e Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a, Aoeueaa?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 14, aoiai?oa?iee ei?ion.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 20 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ae.o.i., aeioe. A?eiaa A.Ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aea/aiiy eaene/ii? naiaioeee aea? iiaeeea?noue niinoa??aaoe ca
eiiiiiaioaie eaene/iiai cia/aiiy oa i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
niieo/oaaiino?. O no/ani?e e?iaa?noeoe? aaaaea?oueny, ui ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy (a?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiaieie aeaiaioaie, ye? ooai?ththoue
nenoaio) a iia? o?nii iia`ycai? c neioaaiaoe/ieie a?aeiioaiiyie
(a?aeiioaiiyie i?ae aeaiaioaie o iiaiiio eaioethaeeo), a oiio ? o?, ?
?io? iaiao?aeii aea/aoe o caaaeueiiio ca`yceo. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi (ENA), aeaiaioe yeeo iia`ycothoue oa
ia`?aeiothoue ia?o ca ana aioo??iiai? a?aeiioaiiy, ana /ano?oa iiaeia
ciaeoe ?icae?ee, ye? ?ice?eaathoue aeanoeaino? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue.

Aeaia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith naiaioeee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a
no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.

Iniaeea?noth i?eeiaoiee?a, ye? ae?aaeathoue aeanoeaino? i?aaeiao?a,
ioe?iee ?o yeinoae ethaeueie, ? iaaecae/aeii oe?ieee nieneiaee ia`?i ?
eaaeaa iii?oi? iaae? ?o eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai oa naiaioeei-noee?noe/iiai
aa??thaaiiy. Oea oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, oiio ui a ioi/oth/eo ian
i?aaeiaoi?e, nioe?aeuei?e oa aeooiai?e noa?ao ?nio? iaaaaaoi a?eueoa
aeanoeainoae, yeinoae, i?aaiaoe/ieo oa aiioe?eieo ioe?iie, i?ae naieo
i?aaeiao?a, iiae?e, yaeu oa in?a, yeei aiie iaeaaeaoue.

?ici?? na?aae ?ioeo cia/aiue i?eeiaoiee?a ? iaea?eueo oaeeaaiei ?,
iaaooue, iaea?eueo cia/ouei oiio, ui a?aeia?aaea? iaeio c ?en oa iciae
?a/ae iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo — ?o ?nioaaiiy o i?inoi??. Iiiyooy ?ici??o
a?a? a aeeoo? ethaeeie nooo?ao ?ieue, a ci?ie a neeaae? oa naiaioeoe?
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ye? ?ice?eaathoue oea iiiyooy a o?e aai ?io?e iia?
a i?ioean? ?? ?icaeoeo, aeeeeeathoue aacoiiaiee ?ioa?an.

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe ia?aii? oaie coiiaeaia:

· iio?aaith ooi/iaiiy iniaeeainoae naiaioeee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a iia?
oa iiaeaii?;

· a?aenooi?noth aeaieo i?i iniiai? ia?aiao?e eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie
i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?, ye? aoee a io?eiai?
ca aeiiiiiaith ia`?eoeaieo iaoiae?a aiae?co.

CA`ssCIE ?IAIOE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a ?one? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei? iiae oa
caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a “Oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe eaeneeieia?? oa
eaeneeia?ao??”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01910034123.

Iniiaiith IAOITH aeaii? aeena?oaoe?? ?:

1) iien naian?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a
aiae?enuee?e iia?;

2) aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a c iaea?eueo oaeeaaieie
a?oiaie ?iaiiee?a;

3) aeyaeaiiy oa c`ynoaaiiy ye iiaieo, oae ? iicaiiaieo /eiiee?a, ui
aieeaathoue ia aaeeaaiiy oeo aai ?ioeo i?eeiaoiee?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeeiiothoueny oae? INIIAI? CAAAeAIIss:

1) ?iaaioa?ecaoe?y eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o;

2) io?eiaiiy /anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a?aeiia?aeii
aei ?acoeueoao?a aea??ee;

3) anoaiiaeaiiy ?o eia?ei-eiiiiiaioiiai, eiiiiiaioii-/anoioiiai oa
/anoioiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy;

4) eiiia?aoeaiee aiae?c neioaaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aeine?aeaeaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a o oai?ao aiae?enueei? oa
aia?eeainueei? i?ice;

5) aea/aiiy ia iniia? neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo
a?aeiioaiue i?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieie neiaaie;

6) ii??aiyiiy iniaeeainoae aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a a aaoi?nueeiio noee?;

7) anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae e?euee?noth cia/aiue i?eeiaoiee?a o
neiaieeao ? /anoioith ?o aaeeaaiiy o oaeno?.

?iaioa iia`ycaia c ?nioth/eie IAOIAeAIE aea/aiiy nieneiai? no?oeoo?e
neiaa: eiioaenooaeueiei, no?oeoo?iei, aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/iei. O
aeine?aeaeaiiyo canoiniaothoueny iniiai? noaoenoe/i? i?eeiie oa iiiyooy:
ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c, e?eoa??e o?-eaaae?ao, eiao?oe??io aca?iii?
ni?yaeaiino?, a oaeiae iaoiae ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? eaene/ieo i?e?inenoai c
iii?ith ia oe?iea ?icoi?iiy eiioaenoieia?/iiai aiae?co.

IA`?EO AeINE?AeAEAIIss neeaaea? eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia i?eeiaoiee?a,
yea ioiieth? 13 iaeeieoeue.

IAOA??AEII iineoaeeee 30 oai??a aiae?enueei? oa aia?eeainueei? i?ice O?O
— OO noie?oue (caaaeueiee ia`?i iaeaea 2,5 iei. neiaiaaeeaaiue), a
oaeiae aeaiiiai? oa neiii?i?/i? neiaieee aiae?enueei? iiae. A?aeiinia
iioeaea aea??ee neeaaea? 5%. Aiae?co i?aeaeaii 13 i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o,
ui aoiaeeee o niieo/aiiy c 19 i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a. 6416 i?eeeaae?a
c?a?aii iaoiaeii nooe?eueii? aea??ee c oai??a 25 aaoi??a caaaeueiei
ianyaii 7300 noi??iie.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e a i a ? o a:

· cai?iiiiiaaii aa??aio ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie ne?a
ia iniia? eiiiiiaioiiai oa noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co niieo/oaaiino?
i?eeiaoiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaiiiaieo ? neiii?i?/ieo neiaiee?a;

· anoaiiaeai? neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aeine?aeaeoaaieie neiaaie (i?eeiaoieeaie ?ici??o);

· aeaia ye?nia ? e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a
?ici??o a aiae?enuee?e iia?;

· aaeineiiaeaii aiae?c nieneiai? no?oeoo?e i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o, yeee
aeicaieea aecia/eoe niin?a ooai?aiiy iii?iaoeaieo ? iaoaoi?e/ieo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a (ENA), iai?yiie oa can?a no?oeoo?aoe??
naiaioeee i?eeiaoiee?a;

· io?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae eaeneei-naiaioe/iith
a?oiith i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o oa /anoioith ?o aaeeaaiiy o oaeno?.

OAI?AOE*IA CIA*AIIss ?IAIOE iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iaaaeaia a i?e
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe?th? ?nioth/? o no/ani?e e?iaa?noeoe? oyaeaiiy i?i
aca?iia?aeiineie eaene/iiai cia/aiiy, niieo/oaai?noue ? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
aca?iica`ycee ne?a, aeiiiaith? a?aeii? caniae aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeie
i?eeiiaie oa iaoiaeaie.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss IAeA?AEAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A. ?iaioa i?noeoue
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a, ye?
iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe a eaeneeia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe?, a i?aeoeoe?
aeeeaaeaiiy aiae?enueei? iiae ye o oeie?, oae ? o aoc?, a eo?nao eaeoe?e
c eaeneeieia?? aiae?enueei? iiae oa caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa,
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c ieoaiue eaene/ii? naiaioeee (neioaaiaoe/i? oa
ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy a eaeneoe?, nieneiaa no?oeoo?a neiaa,
aca?iica`ycie eaeneee ? a?aiaoeee) oa ia?aeeaaeaoeuee?e i?aeoeoe?, i?e
aeeiiaii? eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, neeaaeaii? aeia?aeiee?a
niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a aiae?enueei? iiae, a oaeiae o i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy ?ioiiiaiiio ni?eeoaaiith, ine?eueee a?i aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia iniia? aeaieo e?iaa?noeee, ineoieia??,
aoiiineoie?iaa?noeee ? o. ?i.

INIAENOEE AIANIE AeENA?OAIOA iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? aeaniiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iieno eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia?, a io?eiaii? an?o oaeoe/ieo aeaieo, ia yeeo aaco?oueny
i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy, o cae?eniaii? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue aeianoe ia caoeno oae?
IIEIAEAIIss:

1. Aeine?aeaeaia eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia i?eeiaoiee?a great, big,
large, little, small, high, tall, low, long, short, wide, broad, narrow,
ye? ooai?ththoue neiii?i?/i? oa aioii?i?/i? ia?e, ia? nai? iniaeeaino?.

2. On? aeaiaioe ENA iathoue ??cio oe?ioo niieo/oaaiino? c
neioaaiaoe/ieie ia?oia?aie ia ??ai? ie?aiiai neiaa oa i?aeeeano ne?a.

3. Aeaye? i?eeiaoieee nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny /anoioi?noth aaeeaaiiy a
ooaeiaei?o oai?ao aiae?enueei? oa aia?eeainueei? e?oa?aoo?e. Baeeaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a ca oaenoaie oai??a ?iciiae?ey?oueny
ia??aiii??ii.

4. Eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaeeeith e?euee?noth neioaaiaoe/ieo ? ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo
ca`yce?a. Neioaaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a
iathoue o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao noaiaea?oi? (nooo?a?) ca`ycee.

5. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae e?euee?nieie ia?aiao?aie i?eeiaoiee?a iineoue
ci?oaiee oa?aeoa?: i?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieie iciaeaie ia ?nio? i?yii
i?iii?oe?eii? caeaaeiino?.

AI?IAAOe?ss. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
oa aeniiaee aoee iaaiai?ai? ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? i?iaoeueei?
iiae ? caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa oa aiae?enueei? iiae,
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, V I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Naiaioeea
iiae ? oaenoo” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996), ?? National TESOL Ukraine
Conference “The Art and Science of TESOL” (Vinnytsia, 1997), IV
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iia? i?aeoiaee aei o?eieia?? o
aeu?e oeie?” (Caii??aeaey, 1998).

IOAE?EAOe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo aeeeaaeaii o 9
ioae?eaoe?yo, ye? aeeiiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii.

NO?OEOO?A E IA`?I ?IAIOE. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoe?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?ethno?othoueny oaaeeoeyie oa ?enoieaie.

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, a?aecia/aia
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie
oaiaie, aeeeaaeai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue
? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ?ICAe?E? 1 ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy, iia`ycai? c i?iaeaiaie
eaene/iiai cia/aiiy neiaa oa iaoiaeaie eiai aea/aiiy, /eiieeaie
oi?ioaaiiy eaene/iiai cia/aiiy, iie?nai??th, eaene/iith naiaioeeith
i?eeiaoiee?a, cia/aiiyi neiaa a iiai?e ae?yeueiino?, i?e/eiaie
naiaioe/ieo ci?i; a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? noaoenoe/i? i?eeiie oa iaoiaee
aea/aiiy eaeneee: ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c, e?eoa??e o?-eaaae?ao, iaoiaee
aecia/aiiy ia`?io aea??ee aeey iaea?eueo oaeeaaieo a?oi i?eeiaoiee?a
?ici??o a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.

O ?ICAe?E? 2 ?ice?eaathoueny ye?nia oa e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o; ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie naiaioe/iiai iiey a
eaene/i?e naiaioeoe?, aeaye? iaoiaee ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? ne?a; i?iiiio?oueny
aa??aio eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co i?eeiaoiee?a, a oaeiae iaaiaeyoueny
/anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa iniaeeaino? aaeeaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a ooaeiaei?o oai?ao aiaei-aia?eeainueei?
e?oa?aoo?e. Iaaiaeyoueny aeai?, iaea?aeai? a i?ioean? noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co oa ia?iaee neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a
c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a; aeine?aeaeaii ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
i?eeiaoieeaie, i?aaenoaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co,
cae?eniaii ii??aiyiiy naiaioe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? oa cia/aiue
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o ca aeaieie neiaiee?a.

O AENIIAEAO ocaaaeueiththoueny aeneiaeai? a ?iaio? i??eoaaiiy oa
niinoa?aaeaiiy, i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
i?iiiiothoueny oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue.

O AeIAeAOEAO iiaeai? oaaeeoey oa ?enoiie.

Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 176 noi??iie. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue
14 oaaeeoeue ? 2 ?enoiee. 13 oaaeeoeue oa 1 ?enoiie aeeth/ai? a oaeno
aeena?oaoe??. Ia?ae?e oiiaieo nei?i/aiue nieneo ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e
nyaa? 30 iaeiaioaaiue. A?ae?ia?ao?y ia?aoiao? 197 iaca.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aea/aiiy eaene/ii?
neioaaiaoeee ? ia?aaeeaiaoeee: aiae?c no/aniiai noaio oa ia?niaeoeae
aeine?aeaeaiiy

Eaene/ia cia/aiiy, ye i?yea ?ioa eaoaai??y iiae, ? i?aaeiaoii o?eaaeeo
iaoeiaeo noia?a/ie. Ia?o ca ana a/aieie aeeneooo?oueny i?iaeaia
iioieia?/iiai noaoono eaene/iiai cia/aiiy, ine?eueee eiai ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y
aaciina?aaeiuei iia`ycaia c ?icoi?iiyi naii? i?e?iaee ethaenueei? iiae,
c iiaeaethaaiiyi eiai a ??cieo e?iaa?noe/ieo iai?yieao.

Cia/aiiy neiaa aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee eiai a?aeiia?aei?noth oiio
iiiyooth, yea ia?aaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oeueiai neiaa; aiii
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae o??? /anoeie iiae, o??? a?aiaoe/ii?
eaoaai???, aei yei? iaeaaeeoue neiai, a?ae eiioaeno?a eiai aaeeaaiiy,
a?ae eiie?aoieo eaene/ieo ca`yce?a c ?ioeie neiaaie, coiiaeaieo
aeanoeaeie aeai?e iia? caeiiaie niieo/oaaiino? iiaieo cia/aiue, a?ae
naiaioe/iiai a?aeiioaiiy c neiii?iaie ? acaaae? c aeecueeeie ca
cia/aiiyi neiaaie, a?ae noee?noe/iiai caaa?aeaiiy neiaa.

Ia no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th naiaioeee aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa ?niothoue
aea? iniiai? oi/ee ci?o:

a) oaeoe iiae na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui cia/aiiy aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa (eiai
ENA) iia`ycai? ???a?o?/ieie a?aeiineiaie ? ae?eyoueny ia iniiai? oa
iio?aei?, i?yi? oa ia?aiini?;

a) cia/aiiy aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa ??aiii?aai?, aeoiea i?i ???a?o?/i?noue
a?aeiinei i?ae aeaiaioaie naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e neiaa ia
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeoaie iiae.

Ie i?e?aeio?iiny aei ia?oi? oi/ee ci?o ?, ne?aeii ca ?ioeie e?iaa?noaie
aaaaea?ii, ui i?e ?cieueiaaiiio iaceaaii? neiaa iaeia c eiai cia/aiue
(ENA) /ano?oa ca ?ioeo ia?oei aeieea? o na?aeiiino?. I?ae ENA neiaa
?nio? ???a?o?y, aea, ia iaoo aeoieo, iaea?eueo aaaeeeaa ia oa, /e ?
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? aa??aioe neiaa ??aiii?aaieie, /e ia??aiii?aaieie, a
nai oaeo ?o ?nioaaiiy.

O iao?e ?iaio? i?eeiaoieee ?ici??o neeaaeathoue nai?ieia?/iee i?aeeean
iciae ?iai, iathoue nai? ye?ni? a?aei?iiino?, niaoeeo?/io i?aai?caoe?th
nai?? naiaioeee oa iniiai? oeie eia?ei-naiaioe/iiai ca`yceo i?ae ENA.
Oaaao a/aieo i?eaa?oaee ??ci? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a
o ??cieo iiaao: neioaaiaoe/i? aeanoeaino? (Eaaeoeueeee, 1966, 1995;
Na?a??aa, 1967; Bolinger, 1967; Beard, 1976;); neiii?i?y oa aioii?i?y
(Aenueiiiaa-Iaoeianueea, 1954; Ie?aa?, 1954; Aeaieniaa, 1962);
eiiia?aoeaiee aiae?c (Kiefer, 1978; C?iii, 1981; Eioithe, 1990);
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? (Farsi, 1968; Givon, 1970; Nae??a,
1978; O?aii, 1979; Ia?aae?oaaeca, 1982; Nieieiaa, 1985; ?oaeee, 1994);
e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e (Aeno?iaa, 1977, 1978; Eeiiee, 1982; Eaiao?oe,
1981, 1997); niieo/oaai?noue (Oaooiai, 1965; Aoaianue?aa, 1976; Aeno?iaa
oa Oaa/aiei, 1986; Iaoieie, 1990); a?aiaoeea (Aieueo, 1978; Oa?eoii/ee,
1986). Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia iae??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe aea/aiiy iie?nai??
i?eeiaoiee?a, ?nio? iaaaaaoi aeine?aeaeaiue ocaaaeueithth/iai oa?aeoa?o
i?i iniiai? ia?aiao?e naia i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e
iia?: /anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee, neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy, a oaeiae iniaeeaino? aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a a aaoi?nueeiio
noee?. Iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeaii ieoaiiy i?i caeaaei?noue i?ae /eneii
cia/aiue i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae e?euee?nieie ia?aiao?aie: oe?ioith niieo/oaaiino?,
/anoioith aaeeaaiiy, /eneii nooo?aeo neioaaiaoe/ieo ? ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo
ca`yce?a o oaeno?, ye? io?eiaii ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo
noaoenoe/ieo i?eeii?a ? iaoiae?a.

Eaene/iee neeaae iiae iiaeia aeine?aeaeoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/ieo
iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a, ui ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei anoaiiaeaiiy iaaieo
caeiiii??iinoae oa iaaeaiiy oei aai ?ioei aeniiaeai iaaii? aeieaciai?
neee.

Aeey noaoenoe/ieo ia/enethaaiue oa aecia/aiiy iaae?eiino? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a o ?iaio? aeei?enoiao?oueny ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c, yeee
i?iaaaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee:

wmetafile8? ??C???s????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  @
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy? ??Y?? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????’???iE
???u?????????»????-????iE???O!???-?????O!???†x
???†x???†Z ???r???z ???u?th??????

(1.1)aea r — eiao?oe??io e?i?eii? ei?aeyoe??; — noia iaea?aeaieo ca
?acoeueoaoii o??? aai ?ioi? iia?aoe?? aaee/ei; a, b — a?aeoeeaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaee/ei a?ae na?aaei?o.

E??i ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ie aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae oae caaiee
e?eoa??e iacaeaaeiino? 2 (o?-eaaae?ao). Ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th 2
iiaeia aecia/eoe ? iayai?noue a?aeiia?aeiinoae, ? iayai?noue ??cieoe?
i?ae ?iciiae?eii /anoio aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaee/ei. Iaea?eueo
?iciianthaeaeaiith oi?ioeith aeey ia/enethaaiiy 2 ?:

wmetafile8? ?? ???C????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????   
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy` ???? ???&?
?MathType??°????uYya?????(1.2)aea 0 — oaeoe/ii aeine?aeaeoaai?
aaee/eie; A — oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaai?, ciae — icia/a? noio. *ei o
a?eueoiio nooiai? aii??e/i? aaee/eie a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae oai?aoe/ieo,
oei a?eueoith a ?acoeueoao? aeyaey?oueny noia 2.

Noia 2 aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe eeoa iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue ca`yceo
i?ae iciaeaie. I??o ca`yceo i?ae aaee/eiaie ie aeyaeee ca aeiiiiiaith
eiao?oe??ioa aca?iii? ni?yaeaiino? E, aei oi?ioee yeiai aoiaeeoue
?acoeueoao 2 oa N – caaaeueia /enei niinoa?aaeaiue:

wmetafile8? ??I???A????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy???„?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????|????|W???ui???ss%
???u?????????»????-????a%???

(1.3)Oae? noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee ie aeei?enoiaoaaee i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
naiaioe/ieo ? noee?noe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia?.

?icae?e 2. Neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aeine?aeaeoaaieie i?eeiaoieeaie ?ici??o a aiae?enuee?e iia?

O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia i?ioeaaeo?a ?iaaioa?ecaoe??, yea iniiaaia
ia eiiiiiaioiiio oa noaoenoe/iiio aiae?c? ? i?iaiaeeoueny aeey a?eueo
/?oeiai aecia/aiiy iaae aeaii? eaene/ii? i?e?inenoaie, a oaeiae aeey
?ice?eooy iniaeeainoae naiaioe/ieo no?oeoo? i?eeiaoiee?a, ia`?aeiaieo
iiiyooyi “?ici??”. Ca aeiiiiiaith eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co ie aeyaey?ii
caaaeuei? oa aeeoa?aioe?ei? iciaee /eai?a i?e?inenoaie.

Neeaae naiaioe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a, anoaiiaeaiee ca neiaieeiaei oeoia/aiiyi,
aeicaiey? a?ae?a?aoe ?yae ne?a, ui iathoue naiaioe/io ni?euei?noue, yea
aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth o an?o ne?a yeiainue iaeiiai ?iaa??aioiiai
eiiiiiaioa cia/aiiy. ?iaa??aioiei eiiiiiaioii aeey aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
?yaeo ne?a aenooia? eiiiiiaio [caaaeueiee ?ici??].

A?aeiii, ui ?iaaioa?ecaoe?y naiaioe/ieo iie?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia?
caaaeueii? naie, yea “caaeaia” naiith ae?eni?noth. Oaeith naiith a
iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?, ye neacaii aeua, [?ici??]. Ca aeiiiiiaith oe???
naie iiaeia aeae?eeoe oaeo a?oio i?eeiaoiee?a, ye? iicia/aoeiooue aai
caaaeueiee ?ici?? (iai?eeeaae, oe?. aaeeeee, aaee/aciee, a?aaionueeee ?
o. ?i.), aai ??ci? oeie a?eueo eiie?aoiiai ?ici??o (aenieee, iecueeee,
aeiaaee ? o. ?i.). An? oe? i?eeiaoieee ooai?ththoue aeineoue aaeeea
a?ia?iiea, yea naiith ae?eni?noth /eaio?oueny ia oae? neeaaeia? /anoeie:
i?e?iiiea aenioe, i?e?iiiea aeiaaeeie ? o. ?i. Ioaea, neeaae
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie i?e?inenoaie aeaoa?i?io?oueny ia?o ca ana
ae?eni?noth, a ia iiaith. Ia ia?oiio aoai? iaie aoea io?eiaia aeacaiei
/eiii eaene/ia i?e?inenoaia, yea neeaaeaeany c 40 i?eeiaoiee?a (thick,
thin, huge, gigantic, colossal, titanic, microscopic, diminutive etc.)
Aea ianooiiee aiae?c oaeeaaiino? oeeo ne?a o oaenoao iieacaa, ui /anoioa
?o aaeeaaiiy ??cei a?ae??ciy?oueny iaeia a?ae iaeii?. Oiio i?e
?iaaioa?ecaoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaii? a?oie ana?aaeai? eiaeiiai i?e?iiiey
[caaaeueiee ?ici??], (aeiaaeeia, aenioa, oe?eia) aoee a?ae?a?ai?
iae/anoioi?o? i?eeiaoieee. Nienie iaeoaeeaai?oeo i?eeiaoiee?a aeeth/a?
13 ne?a, cie?aia: great, big, large, little, small, high, tall, low,
long, short, wide, broad, narrow. Aiie ? noaee i?aaeiaoii iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee eiiiiiaioiee aiae?c i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o aeicaieea
anoaiiaeoe:

1) iayai?noue naiaioe/ii? noi?aeiino? cia/aiiy ne?a;

2) caaaeuei? oa aeeoa?aioe?ei? niieo/oaaeuei? iciaee /eai?a aeaii?
i?e?inenoaie;

3) eaeneei-naiaioe/i? ca`ycee i?ae neiaaie aeine?aeaeoaaii? a?oie.

Iiaeaeueoee eiiia?aoeaiee aiae?c ne?a i?iaaaeaii ia iniia? /anoioieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a ca ?acoeueoaoaie aea??ee c
30 oai??a ienueiaiiee?a aiae?enueei? oa aia?eeainueei? e?oa?aoo?e. A
?iaio? ia noaaeoueny ca iaoo ii??aiyiiy aaoi?nueeeo noee?a ie?aii a
aiae?enuee?e oa aia?eeainuee?e e?oa?aoo??.

Ie acyee aei oaaae ?iciiae?e i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o ca oaenoaie. Cae/aeii,
iieaciee /anoioiino? aaeeaaiiy ne?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ianyao ia?aieo
oai??a, ci?noo, ia?aaaaeath/i? oi?ie aeeeaaeaiiy oai??a — iiiieia?/iiai
/e ae?aeia?/iiai iiaeaiiy oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeth aaoi?a. Aeey
ii??aiyiiy ?c no/aniith aiae?enueeith e?oa?aoo?ith OO noie?ooy iaie
ia?aii oaeiae aeae?eueea oai??a na?aaeeie-e?ioey O?O noie?ooy oaeeo
ienueiaiiee?a, ye A?iioa, Ea?iea, Aa?ae?, Oaaia, Aieie/, Oaeuena,
Oaeueaea, a oaeiae Na?ooa (ii/aoie OVIII noie?ooy).

Oe?eaai cacia/eoe, ui aeniea /anoioi?noue aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a great
oa large oa?aeoa?ia aeey Aienoi?n? ? Na?ooa; big — aeey Oi?aia ?
Noaeiaaea; small — aeey Ieae??aeaea ? Aienoi?n?; low — aeey Oi?aia ?
E?ii?ia; short — aeey E?ii?ia ? Aienoi?n?.

Ii??aiyiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a o oai?ao
??cieo ienueiaiiee?a aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe iaai? aeniiaee uiaei
iniaeeainoae noeeth eiaeiiai c aaoi??a. Noaoenoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaeno?a aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe iaaiee aeia?? ieie i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o oa
anoaiiaeoe aeaye? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?ene aaoi?nueei? oai?/i? iaia?e.
Io?eiaaoe noaoenoe/i? aeai? aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a o oai?ao eiaeiiai
ienueiaiieea, iiaeia c?noaaeoe ?o ?c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oai??a ?ioeo
aaoi??a. Oea aeiiiiaaa? i?ciaoe, a /iio eiaeiee ienueiaiiee
aeio?eio?oueny iaaii? oiiaii? ii?ie, a a /iio a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae ia?,
i?iiiioth/e uinue nai?, iniaenoa.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy noaoenoe/ieo ia?aiao??a aaoi?nueeeo noee?a, ?o
iiae?aiinoae ? ?ica?aeiinoae ia/eneaii e?eoa??e o?-eaaae?ao (2),
eiao?oe??io aca?iii? ni?yaeaiino? (E) oa aeyaeaii cia/ou? ?icoiaeaeaiiy
i?e aaeeaaii? aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a o oai?ao ??cieo aaoi??a.
Aeyaeaii, ui ia caaaeaee aeniei/anoioi? i?eeiaoieee iathoue cia/ou?
iieacieee e?eoa??th 2 oa eiao?oe??ioa aca?iii? ni?yaeaiino?,
caeaaei?noue i?ae e?euee?noth aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a oa aaee/eiith E aai
2 ia caaaeaee i?yii i?iii?oe?eia.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo iiaeaii c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oa,
ui ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eie noaoenoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie aaoi?nueeeo noee?a
aenooiathoue:

1) iaea?eueoa /anoioi?noue aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a little, long, great,
high o oai?ao on?o aaoi??a;

2) iaea?eueoa oaeeaai?noue on?o aeine?aeaeaieo i?eeiaoiee?a o oai?ao
Aienoi?n?, Oi?aia, E?ii?ia;

3) iaeiaioa /anoioi?noue aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a tall, wide, broad,
narrow — o oai?ao on?o 25 aaoi??a;

4) iaeiaioa oaeeaai?noue aeine?aeaeaieo i?eeiaoiee?a o oai?ao I?aoa,
Aaeea?a oa Oaena;

5) cia/ou? iieacieee 2 oa E aeey i?eeiaoiee?a little, great, long, oiaoi
oe? i?eeiaoieee niieo/athoueny c iaaieie i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a /ano?oa,
i?ae oeueiai iiaeia noaoenoe/ii i/?eoaaoe;

6) iaeaeuee iieaciee 2 oa E aeey i?eeiaoieea great o oai?? Na?ooa (2 =
220,94; E=0,19);

7) iaeiaioee iieaciee 2 oa E — aeey i?eeiaoieea little o oai?? A?aaeaa??
(2=4,35; E=0,02);

8) iayai?noue o an?o aaoi??a iaeiiai aai aeaio nooo?aeo iieaciee?a
e?eoa??th 2 oa E aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a;

9) iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue nooo?aeo iieaciee?a 2 oa E aeey i?eeiaoiee?a
big, long, low na?aae oai??a na?aaeeie-e?ioey O?O noie?ooy o Oaaia;

10) a?aenooi?noue nooo?aeo iieaciee?a e?eoa??th 2 oa E, yea oa?aeoa?ia
ye aeey no/anii? e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy (Aaeea?, O?oeaea?aeueae,
Oai?iaoae, I?ao), oae ? aeey e?oa?aoo?e na?aaeeie-e?ioey O?O noie?ooy
(Ea?ie, Aa?ae?, Oaen).

Ioaea, ca aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a iiaeia aecia/eoe
caeiiii??iino?, aenieo oa iecueeo /anoioi?noue aaeeaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o o oai?ao ??cieo aaoi??a.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
iniaeeainoae iiaoaeiae oaeno?a, aeicaieythoue ?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caaaeueiiai aaeeaaiiy ne?a oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiaaoi?nueeeo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeno?a ??cieo ienueiaiiee?a,
ine?eueee aaoi?nueeee noeeue noaiiaeoue niaith caeiiii??iino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaieo cania?a.

Naiaioeea i?eeiaoieea, yeee aenooia? a ?a/aii? aieiaiei /eiii a ?ie?
icia/aiiy (?iiae? i?aaeeeaoeaa), nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae naiaioeee
a?aeiia?aeiiai ?iaiieea. Oiio iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe, ui, eiee a oaeno?
aeae?eueea i?eeiaoiee?a cono??/athoueny a iaei?e ao?eaooeai?e neioaai?,
aenooiath/e aecia/aiiyie iaeiiai e oiai ae ?iaiieea, oi i?ae oeeie
i?eeiaoieeaie ?nio? naiaioe/iee ca`ycie.

sse ? ?io? oeie i?aaeeeaoieo iaeeieoeue, i?eeiaoieee o aeneiaethaaii?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aeiini?noth, aca?iica`yceii nai?? naiaioeee, ui
caaacia/o? a?eueoino? c ieo oe?ieo oa ??ciiiai?oio nenoaio
niieo/oaaiino?. *ei iaeocaaaeuei?oith ? iciaea, yeo aecia/a? i?eeiaoiee,
oei oe?oa eiei oyaeaiue, yeei aiia iiaea a?aeiia?aeaoe, ? oe?oa
niieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoieea c ?iaiieeii, yeee iaceaa? oe? oyaeaiiy.

Aea??eia?noue i?eeiaoiee?a o ?o niieo/oaaiino? c ?iaiieeaie a ?a/aii?
i?ioiaeeoue, aieiaiei /eiii, ia no?eueee ca ??cieie eaeneei-a?aiaoe/ieie
?ic?yaeaie ?iaiiee?a, ne?eueee ca aeineoue aocueeeie oaiaoe/ieie
a?oiaie.

Iaaia e?euee?noue oaiaoe/ieo a?oi ?iaiiee?a, ye? niieo/athoueny c
aeine?aeaeoaaieie i?eeiaoieeaie, ? aaeaioiei iaai?ii, yeee iiaea aooe
oi?iaeueiei iaoiaeii ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oioiaeieo ENA c?noaaieo
aaaaoicia/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a, ine?eueee iaaia eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue
i?eeiaoieea iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye can?a ae?aco eiai eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo
aa??aio?a, ye can?a ?ici?ciaiiy ENA o ??cieo ?a/aiiyo. Oeyoii aei
aeae?eaiiy aaeaioieo iaai??a i?eeiaoiee?a neoaeeoue aiae?c eiie?aoieo
aeiaaee?a niieo/oaaiino? ca iaoa??aeii aea??ee.

On? ?iaiieee, ye? cao?eniaaii a niieo/aiiyo c i?eeiaoieeaie ?ici??o,
aoei iiae?eaii ia i?aeeeane (?ic?yaee). Oeae ?iciiae?e iineoue o iao?e
?iaio? iaoi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y, cae/aeii, ia iiaea
aooe ?aeeiei iiaeeeaei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi neeaaeo ?iaiiee?a aiae?enueei?
iiae, aea aiia coiiaeaia naiaioe/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a, a oaeiae iaaiei eiioaenooaeueiei iaai?ii oeeo
i?eeiaoiee?a.

Aecia/aii 19 i?aeeean?a ?iaiiee?a, o yeeo eaenaia-i?eeiaoiee ?aae?co?
eiaeiee c? nai?o a?aeo?ie?a cia/aiue. Aeae?eaiiy ii??aiyii aaeeeiai
/enea naiaioe/ieo i?aeeean?a ?iaiiee?a coiiaeaii, ianaiia?aae,
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieie oaeoi?aie, a naia: caeaoi?noth i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaaeieeoi?e na?o oa ana, ui noa? ia`?eoii i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie — i?e?iaei? ?a/?, ooo/i? i?aaeiaoe, noni?euei?
aca?iinoinoiee, yaeua ae?eniino?, i?ioeane, ae??, a/eiee, ui iiaeiii
ciaoiaeeoe ?, aacoiiaii, ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iia?.

Aeey an?o 19 eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo i?aeeean?a ?iaiiee?a iaie neeaaeaia
oaaeeoey (aeea. oaae. 1), aea a?aeia?aaeaii /anoioe neioaaiaoe/ieo
ca`yce?a c 13 aeine?aeaeoaaieie i?eeiaoieeaie ?ici??o:

Oaaeeoey 1

Neioaaiaoe/i? ca`ycee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o

Aeine?aeaeoaai? i?eeiaoieee

?

I?aeeeane

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ethaeeie3288412338067423984454615118232Aeani?

iacae2529437913104622001413Ethaee (a?oie

ethaeae) 312220538811711001534Ii/oooy,
aiioe??8085129431032860202965Oa?aeoa?
ethaeeie4723523500700101206Nioe?aeueiee noai,
i?io.7241216715100001187Iaaeea?
i?aaeiaoe9616210333413297742135332581711918Aano?aeoe??

1462914203334802642154255679Oaoia

1814123385226100110210Oei?a

141191961166722009311I?e?iaea,

?? yaeua462412692349020323131930112*an, ia??iae,
?ioa?aae81051416003532101045513Aaaaonoai,
oe?ii?noue154123313210114210011614?aea,

no?aae473245601230005515Aaaa, ia`?i, ieiua686141161092616121025116Caoe,
caiao,

na?oei, eie?? 1371354230378013013217AEeooy, eiai
ia??iaee302180100222300225118I?ioeane, ae??,
oaeoe8220719310280212262910362019?io? yaeua,
iiiyooy9626172043796234712211114631Anueiai896464280185739554173258125718
910935626416

Aeai?, iaaaaeai? a oaae.1, aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe oae? iiia?aaei?
aeniiaee i?i niieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoiee?a c ?iaiieeaie:

1. Iaei? neiaa iathoue oe?iea eiei niieo/oaaiino? (iai?eeeaae, great,
little, high, long), niieo/oaai?noue ?ioeo iineoue iaiaaeaiee oa?aeoa?
(iai?eeeaae, tall, narrow). ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, /anoioe niieo/oaaiino? ne?a
o oaeno? iii?oii a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeii?.

2. Iaa?oue o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee aeine?aeaeoaai? i?eeiaoieee
niieo/athoueny c on?ia i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a, ?iciiae?e /anoio
niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a c ?iaiieeaie iineoue ia??aiii??iee oa?aeoa?.
Oae, /anoioa aaeeaaiiy great c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a “ciai?oi?noue
ethaeeie” oa “aeeooy, eiai ia??iaee” ni?aa?aeiineoueny a?aeiia?aeii
32:3; a little c oeie ae i?aeeeanaie ia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 233:18; high —
67:1; long — 84:222.

I?eeiaoieee low oa short aaeeaathoueny c 16 i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a, aea c
?iaiieeaie, ui iicia/athoue “i?e?iaeo, ?? yaeua” low niieo/a?oueny 20
?ac?a, a short eeoa 3; a c ?iaiieeaie, ui iicia/athoue “/an, ia??iae,
?ioa?aae” oe? ae i?eeiaoieee niieo/athoueny a?aeiia?aeii 0:21.

Oaeei /eiii, niieo/oaaeuei? iioaioe?? neiaa coiiaeai? i?eoiaaieie a?ae
aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy oaeoi?aie. I/aaeaeii, aaaaoi i?e/ei, ui
coiiaeththoue caeaoi?noue neiaa anooiaoe a neioaaiaoe/i? ca`ycee c
?ioeie neiaaie, e?euee?nio aa??aoeai?noue oeeo ca`yce?a, ia?aeiio
i?e/eio aca?iica`yceo aeaio ne?a o oaeno? o?aaa ooeaoe ca iaaeaie iiae —
o ciai?oi?e ae?eniino?. Aeaa neiaa iiaeooue noi?nii cono??/aoeny a
iiaeaii? i?e oiia?, ui i?ae aeaiioaoaie (iicia/oaaieie i?aaeiaoaie aai
eeanaie iaeiioeiieo i?aaeiao?a) oeeo ne?a o ciai?oi?e ae?eniino?
?niothoue iaai?, “i?aaeiaoi? a?aeiioaiiy.

Iacaiiaiai?noue aeayeeo ee?oeiie oaae.1 iiynith?oueny ae??th iaaieo
iicaiiaieo oa aioo??iiaieo oaeoi??a. Iaeiae iiynieoe eeoa oeeie
i?e/eiaie ??cia ?iciiae?eaiiy /anoio aai, i?ino?oa eaaeo/e, /anoioo
niieo/oaaiino? ne?a o oaeno? ia iiaeia. Iaaooue, a?aeiinii /anoioia
noi?nia niieo/oaai?noue aeaio ne?a iiaea caeaaeaoe a?ae /anoioe
aaeeaaiiy eiaeiiai c oeeo ne?a ie?aii. Iai?eeeaae, iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe,
ui niieo/oaai?noue little + “iaaeea? i?aaeiaoe, ?a/?” coiiaeaia
a?aeiinii aenieith /anoioith aaeeaaiiy ye i?eeiaoieea little, oae ?
i?aeeeano ?iaiiee?a, ui iicia/athoue “iaaeea? i?aaeiaoe, ?a/?”. Ae?enii,
ye aa/eii c oaae.1, little caeia? ia?oa i?noea ca /anoioith aaeeaaiiy
(1857) na?aae ?ioeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a, a i?aeeean “iaaeea?
i?aaeiaoe, ?a/?” — ia?oa (1191) na?aae ?ioeo i?aeeean?a ?iaiiee?a.
Ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e /anoio noi?nii? niieo/oaaiino? ne?a noa? a?eueo
iii?oiei i?e ii??aiyii? niieo/oaaiino? ?ioeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a.

Ioaea, niieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniaeeaei a?aeiioaiiyi, neioaaiaoe/i? ca`ycee i?ae
neiaaie iathoue o oaeno? iaiaeiaeiao neeo: “neaae?” a?aeiia?aeathoue
ci?iiiio eiioaenoia?, “na?aaei?” — no?eeiio, a “neeuei?” — noaeiio. Ca
aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a ie anoaiiaeee aaee/eio oeeo ca`yce?a,
ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ? ?iciaaeoaaoe ci?iiee, no?eeee oa
noaeee eiioaenoe.

Neioaaiaoe/i? ca`ycee aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie
?iaiiee?a a?aeia?aaeaii a oaae.1. Ia iniia? oe??? oaaeeoe? iaie
neeaaeaii (oeyoii ciaioaiiy /enea noiaioe?a aai ?yaee?a o aaaaoii?euei?e
oaaeeoe?) oae caai? aeueoa?iaoeai? (/ioe?ei?euei?) oaaeeoe? aeey
iiaeaeueoi? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ? aecia/aii noaiaea?oi? neioaaiaoe/i?
ca`ycee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o c eiaeiei i?aeeeanii ?iaiiee?a ie?aii. Aeey
niieo/aiue, ye? cono??eenue iaioa, i?ae 5 ?ac?a, oaaeeoe? ia
neeaaeaeenue.

O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii eeoa noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i ca`ycee aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a, aeey yeeo i?eeiyoa a
e?iaainoaoenoeoe? noia 2 ia iaioa 3,84 i?e df =1. Oe? ca`ycee ne?aeii ca
?ioeie e?iaa?noaie (E.A. Aeno?iaa) ie iaceaa?ii noaiaea?oieie.

Ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th o?-eaaae?ao oa eiao?oe??ioa aca?iii?
ni?yaeaiino? ie anoaiiaeee aeiaaeee cia/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy aii??e/ieo
aaee/ei a?ae oeo, ui oai?aoe/ii i/?eothoueny, oa aeyaeee noaoenoe/ii
cia/ou? — “noaa?euei?” ca`ycee aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a c
?iaiieeaie. 2 oa E ? aaee/eiaie a?aeiinieie, oaeeie, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae
aeayeeo oaeoi??a, a naia: a?ae /anoioe ni?eueii? cono??aaiino? eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue. Ie i?iaaee nooe?eueiee noaoenoe/iee aiae?c, ui iaaeaei
iiaeeea?noue oyaeoe iiaio oa /?oeo ea?oeio iniaeeainoae neioaaiaoe/ieo
ca`yce?a i?eeiaoiee?a ? a?aeiaaeoaaoe noaoenoe/ii cia/ou? ca`ycee a?ae
?ioeo.

Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a iathoue aeine?aeaeoaai?
i?eeiaoieee great, big, large, little, high. ?io? i?eeiaoieee a iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ooai?eee noaiaea?oi? ca`ycee eeoa c aeayeeie i?aeeeanaie
?iaiiee?a. Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue nooo?aeo neioaaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue c
i?eeiaoieeaie, ca iaoeie ?acoeueoaoaie, ia? i?aeeean ?iaiiee?a
“ciai?oi?noue ethaeeie”.

Oiio, aea/aiiy neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a i?ae neiaaie ia iiaeiii
iaiaaeoaaoeny i?inoei o?enoaaiiyi /anoioe aaeeaaiino? oeeo ca`yce?a o
oaeno?. Aeioe?eueii ? iaiao?aeii, ye iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe,
canoiniaoaaoe niaoe?aeuei? noaoenoe/i? i?eeiie, ui aeicaieythoue
anoaiiaeoe o? ca`ycee, /anoioa yeeo ?noioii ia?aaeuo? oai?aoe/ii
i/?eoaai? aaee/eie.

Aecia/eaoe e?euee?noue ni?eueieo naiaioe/ieo ia?aoei?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a, ie anoaiiaeee nooi?iue ?o naiaioe/ii? ca`ycaiino?.
A?aooaaoe anth noeoii?noue iiae?aiinoae oa ??cieoeue o niieo/oaaiino?
iaeii/anii iiaeia eeoa aeei?enoiaoth/e niaoe?aeueiee noaoenoe/iee
iaoiae, cie?aia, ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c, yeee cae?eniaii o ?iaio? ia
iniia? aeaieo oaae. 1.

Io?eiai? aeai? — oea e?euee?nia a?aeia?aaeaiiy naiaioe/ieo ca`yce?a ne?a
aeine?aeaeoaaii? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a. Cia/aiiy r
eieeaa?oueny a?ae +1 aei -1. Eiao?oe??io, ui aei??aith? /e
iaaeeaea?oueny aei 0, aeaco? ia a?aenooi?noue ei?aeyoe?eiiai
a?aeiioaiiy, eiao?oe??io, aeecueeee aei 1, aeaco? ia oa, ui neiaa, ye?
ii??aiththoueny, aeecuee? a neioaaiaoe/iiio aniaeo?, a ioaea, ? ca
cia/aiiyi.

Caoaaaeeii, ui iiceoeaia ei?aeyoe?eia a?aeiioaiiy oa?aeoa?eco? ye
iiae?aio niieo/oaai?noue, oae ? iiae?aio ianiieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoiee?a.
C e?iaa?noe/ii? oi/ee ci?o ie ?ioa?i?aoo?ii eeoa aeiaaeee, aea
niinoa??aa?oueny ni?eueia cono??aai?noue / iacono??aai?noue oa
niieo/oaai?noue / ianiieo/oaai?noue (eeoa iiceoeai? eiao?oe??ioe).

Iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii 13 ne?a; /enei niinoa?aaeaiue n aeey eiaeii? ia?e
i?eeiaoiee?a aei??aith? 19 (/enei neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a ca oaae.1).
*enei nooiai?a naiaiaee aeey ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co neeaaea? 19–2=17.
I?i?iaeueii cia/ouee eiao?oe??io i?e df=17 aei??aith? 0,46 (?=0,05), aai
0,58 (?=0,01). Oaeei /eiii, ca`ycee ne?a c eiao?oe??ioii ieae/a 0,46
iiaeia aaaaeaoe neaaeeie, a?ae 0,46 aei 0,58 na?aaei?ie, a a?eueoa 0,58
— neeueieie.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe c oaeeie eiao?oe??ioaie ei?aeyoe?? iathoue
noaoenoe/ia cia/aiiy ? aeacothoue ia nooo?aee ca`ycie (i?yiee ca
oa?aeoa?ii) i?ae niieo/aiiyi aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a, iai?eeeaae:
high-narrow (0,95); small-narrow (0,87); little-high (0,86); tall-wide
(0,86); tall-broad (0,86).

Aenieei nooiaiai ei?aeyoe?? (a?ae 0,58 aei 0,98) a?aecia/aii 65%
iiceoeaii ei?aethth/eo ia? i?eeiaoiee?a. Iaea?eueoo neeo ca`yceo, a
ioaea, ? iiae?ai?noue aeeno?eaooe?? aeyaeee oae? neiii?i?/i? ia?e ne?a:
big-large (0,97); wide-broad (0,94); oa aioii?i?/i? ia?e big-small
(0,98); large-small (0,95).

I?eeiaoieee great, tall, long o nai?o ca`yceao aeyaeee ei?aeyoe?th c?
ciaeii “i?ion”. Oea icia/a?, ui a aeeno?eaooe?eieo aeanoeainoyo iacaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a ii??aiyii c ?ioeie aeine?aeaeoaaieie neiaaie a?eueoa
a?aei?iiinoae, i?ae iiae?aiino?, ui a?aeiia?aea? anoaiiaeai?e o
e?iaa?noeoe? caeiiii??iino?, ca?aeii c yeith neiaa c oe?ieith
naiaioeeith iathoue iacia/i? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? ca`ycee i?e aaeee?e
e?eueeino? neiii?i?/ieo ia?oia??a ? aenie?e /anoio? aaeeaaiiy.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue i?ae
aeine?aeaeoaaieie i?eeiaoieeaie, neiaa, niieo/oaaeuei? aeanoeaino? yeeo
ca?aathoueny, aeyaeythoueny iaea?eueo o?nii ca`ycaieie naiaioe/ii. A
?iaio? ?icaeyiooi neeuei? oa na?aaei? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? ca`ycee aeey
eiaeiiai i?eeiaoieea ie?aii, iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee ?o iiceoeaii? (o
/eneiaiio a?aeia?aaeaii?) niieo/oaaiino?.

Aiae?c neiaieeiaeo aeao?i?oe?e i?eeiaoiee?a o no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e
iia?, cie?aia, great, big, large, little, small, high, tall, low, long,
short, wide, broad, narrow iieacaa, ui neiaa a?ae??ciythoueny ye
ii?yaeeii ?icoaooaaiiy ENA, oae ? caaaeueiith e?euee?noth cia/aiue.

O ?iaio? ii??aiyii noaoenoe/ii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe c aeaieie, ye?
i?noyoue aeaye? neiii?i?/i? oa aeaiiiai? neiaieee no/anii? aiae?enueei?
iiae, cie?aia, TH.Ae. Ai?anyia, ?.?. Aaeueia??ia oa A.E. Ithee??a.

I?e ii??aiyii? e?eueeino? cia/aiue i?eeiaoiee?a ca neiaieeaie ie
caa?ioee oaaao ia oa, ui a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a /enei ?o iniiaieo oa
aoi?eiieo cia/aiue ca?aa?oueny, aaeeeeo ?ica?aeiinoae o oeoia/aii?
aeine?aeaeaieo ne?a iaia?. C?icoi?ei, ui iaiaeiicia/i?noue
eaeneeia?ao?/ieo ??oaiue iniaeeai iii?oia o aaeeeeo neiaieeao, ??
iaaiith i??ith iiaeia aei?aaaeaoe neeaaei?noth ia`?eoa iieno, i?ioa
iniiaiith i?e/eiith oaeeo ?icoiaeaeaiue aa?oi ana ae oaee aaaaeaoe
a?aei?iiino? aaoi?nueeeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?eieo iaoiae?a, coiiaeaieo
ia?ic?iaeai?noth aaaaoueio i?iaeai oai?aoe/ii? eaeneeia?ao??.

A ?iaio? aecia/aii na?aaei? /enei cia/aiue aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a
o no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? ca aeaieie neiaiee?a oa caeaaei?noue
e?eueeino? cia/aiue a?ae:

1) oe?ioe niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a;

2) /anoioe aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a o oaenoao;

3) /enea nooo?aeo neioaaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a;

4) /enea ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a.

I?yii i?iii?oe?eii? caeaaeiino? i?ae /anoioith neiaiaaeeaaiue, /eneii
neioaaiaoe/ieo ? ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo ca`yce?a ca iaoeie aeaieie ia
aeyaeaii.

Ioaea, io?eiai? aeai? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a eaeneeia?ao?? i?e
aaoiiaoe/i?e ia?iaoe? oaeno?a (iaoeiiee ia?aeeaae, ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iiooe)
oa i?e neeaaeaii? /anoioiiai neiaieea aiae?enueei? iiae.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAI? O OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

1. A?oaethe A.A. Niieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a aiae?enuee?e
iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea
o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe. i?. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. — Aei.1. — N. 64 — 72.

2. A?oaethe A.A. *anoioi?noue aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a
aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoa??aee V I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
“Naiaioeea iiae ? oaenoo”. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996. — N. 12.

3. Arkheliuk V. V. Lexical Semantics of Adjectives in Modern English //
Proc. 2nd National TESOL Ukraine Conference “The Art and Science of
TESOL”. — Vinnytsia: Vinnytsia Pedagogical Institute, 1997. — pp. 57 —
58.

4. A?oaethe A.A. Nieneiaa no?oeoo?a i?eeiaoiee?a // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe. i?. —
*a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. — Aei. 12. — N. 63 — 66.

5. A?oaethe A.A. E?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eeiaoiee?a //Iaoeiaee
a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe.
i?. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. — Aei. 15. — N. 30 — 34.

6. A?oaethe A.A. I?i iniaeeaino? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a
?ici??o a oai?ao aiae?enueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo ienueiaiiee?a //
Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca.
iaoe. i?. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1998. — Aei. 27. — N. 43 — 56.

7. A?oaethe A.A. I?eeiaoieee oa ?o noee?noe/i? ooieoe?? a ooaeiaei?o
oai?ao no/anii? aiaei-aia?eeainueei? i?ice // Iia? i?aeoiaee aei
o?eieia?? o aeu?e oeie?: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Iaoa??aee IV
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1998. — N.
41 — 43.

8. A?oaethe A.A. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a i?eeiaoiee?a
?ici??o a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe. i?. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO,
1998. — Aei. 41. — N. 46 — 50.

9. A?oaethe A.A. Naiaioeei-noaoenoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a
?ici??o a aiae?enuee?e iia?. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. — 22 n. —
A?ae?ia?.: 37 iaca.- Oe?. — Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?. 14.10.96, ? 1883 — Oe 96.

AIIOAOe?ss

A?oaethe A.A. I?eeiaoieee ?ici??o a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith naiaioeee i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o
a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.

Iine?aeiaii ?icaeyaeathoueny iie?nai?y oa eaene/ia cia/aiiy
i?eeiaoiee?a, ?o ye?nia oa e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeee. Cai?iiiiiaaii
aa??aio ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o
ia iniia? eiiiiiaioiiai oa noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co, yeee aeicaieea
onoaiiaeoe caaaeuei? oa aeeoa?aioe?ei? iciaee i?e?inenoaie ?
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? ca`ycee i?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieie neiaaie.

Ia iniia? /anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeiaoiee?a ca oai?aie ienueiaiiee?a
aiae?enueei? oa aia?eeainueei? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e O?O-OO noie?oue
?icaeyiooi neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy, niieo/oaai?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a c i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a, a oaeiae
iniaeeaino? ?o aaeeaaiiy a aaoi?nueeiio noee?.

Anoaiiaeaii na?aaei? /enei cia/aiue i?eeiaoiee?a ?ici??o a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? ca aeaieie neiii?i?/ieo ? aeaiiiaieo neiaiee?a;
aeine?aeaeaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae e?euee?nieie ia?aiao?aie i?eeiaoiee?a
ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo noaoenoe/ieo i?eeii?a oa iaoiae?a, ui
nooo?ai ooi/ith? ?nioth/? aeai? i?i neeaae ? naiaioeeo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue, ye? ?ice?eaathoue iiiyooy ?ici??o a iia? oa iiaeaii?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a, eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia,
eiiiiiaioiee aiae?c, noaoenoe/i? i?eeiie oa iaoiaee, /anoioi?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeiaoiee?a, niieo/oaai?noue, neioaaiaoe/i? ca`ycee,
ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

A?oaethe A.A. I?eeaaaoaeueiua ?acia?a a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth naiaioeee i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?acia?a
a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea.

?aaioa ninoieo ec e?aoeiai i?aaeeneiaey, aeaoo ?acaeaeia e iniiaiuo
auaiaeia.

Ia?aue ?acaeae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oai?aoe/aneia aaaaeaiea a
enneaaeiaaiea. A i?i ?anniao?eaaaony eaene/aneia cia/aiea neiaa
(?acee/iua oai?ee e ii?aaeaeaiey), iaoiaeu aai eco/aiey, aii?in ia
ea?a?oe/aneii i?eioeeia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo eaeneei-naiaioe/aneeie
aa?eaioaie iiiaicia/iiai neiaa.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeaia ea/anoaaiiay e eiee/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?acia?a, ?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiu naiaioe/aneiai iiey;
i?aaeeaaaaony aa?eaio eiaaioa?ecaoeee eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie a?oiiu
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?acia?a ia iniiaa eiiiiiaioiiai e noaoenoe/aneiai
aiaeeca n eniieueciaaieai niaoeeaeueiuo i?e?iia e iaoiaeia eco/aiey
neiaa, oaeeo eae: ei??aeyoeeiiiue aiaeec, e?eoa?ee oe-eaaae?ao,
eiyooeoeeaio acaeiiie nii?yae?iiinoe. Au/eneaiey i?iecaaaeaiu ii
oi?ioeai, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui auyaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe a naiaioeea
enneaaeoaiuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, niioaaonoaey e ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
yiie?e/aneeie e oai?aoe/aneeie /anoioaie, iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea naycae
iaaeaeo i?eciaeaie e ia?a yoeo naycae.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea /anoiou oiio?aaeaiey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?acia?a aeaia ia
iniiaa auai?ee ec 30 ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aiaeeeneie e
aia?eeaineie eeoa?aoo?u O?O-OO aaeia (iauee iau?i ieiei 2,5 iei.
neiaioiio?aaeaiee). I?iaiaeece?iaaii 13 i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?acia?a, eioi?ua
ni/aoathony n 19 iiaeeeannaie nouanoaeoaeueiuo. Iee?ieiioaenou aua?aiu
ec i?iecaaaeaiee 25 aaoi?ia; iauaa /enei i?eia?ia – 6416. ?anniio?aiu
neioaaiaoe/aneea e ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey, ni/aoaiea enneaaeoaiuo
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo n iiaeeeannaie nouanoaeoaeueiuo, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe eo
oiio?aaeaiey a aaoi?neii noeea.

N iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaii
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiee/anoaaiiuie ia?aiao?aie i?eeaaaoaeueiuo.

1. A oeaeii a?oiia i?eeaaaoaeueiuo great, big, large, little, small,
high, tall, low, long, short, wide, broad, narrow, eioi?ua ia?acotho
neiiieiu e aioiieiu, aeaiiino?e?oao eaeneei-naiaioe/aneia aaeeinoai,
/eaiu eioi?iai iauaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie ?aciuie ii noaiaie
e oa?aeoa?o naycyie. A oeaio?a yoiai aaeeinoaa ieacaeenue neiaa,
eioi?ua iaeaieaa iieii ioia?aaeatho naienoaa anae a?oiiu, a eiaiii: big,
large, little, small, high, short, wide, broad, narrow.

2. Ana yeaiaiou a?oiiu eiatho ?aciue aeeaiacii ni/aoaaiinoe n
neioaaiaoe/aneeie ia?oi??aie ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiiai neiaa e iiaeeeanna
neia. Naiue aunieee iieacaoaeue oe?iou ni/aoaaiinoe o i?eeaaaoaeueiuo
?acia?a little, long, great, high. Naiue ieceee — o wide, broad, narrow,
tall.

3. Iaeioi?ua i?eeaaaoaeueiua nouanoaaiii ioee/athony /anoioith
oiio?aaeaiey a ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo aiaeeeneie e aia?eeaineie
eeoa?aoo?u. Oiio?aaeaiea enneaaeoaiuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo a oaenoao
?ani?aaeaeyaony ia?aaiiia?ii, iai?eia?, Aienoi?ne /aua eniieuecoao
i?eeaaaoaeueiua great, large, little, small, high, long, short; E?iiei —
little, high, low, long, short; Oi?ai — big, little, high, low, long;
Noaeiaae — big, little, long; Naeoo — great, large; Ieae?eaeae — small.
I?eeaaaoaeueiua tall, wide, broad, narrow — iecei/anoioiu a
i?iecaaaeaieyo anao 25 aaoi?ia.

4. Enneaaeoaiua i?eeaaaoaeueiua ?acia?a oa?aeoa?ecothony aieueoei
eiee/anoaii neioaaiaoe/aneeo e ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneeo naycae.
Neioaaiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo n iiaeeeannaie
nouanoaeoaeueiuo a iniiaiii noaiaea?oiua. Naiia aieueoia eiee/anoai
noaiaea?oiuo neioaaiaoe/aneeo naycae oa?aeoa?ii aeey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo
little, great, big, large. Iaeiaiueoaa — aeey wide, broad, narrow. Naiia
aieueoia eiee/anoai ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneeo naycae o i?eeaaaoaeueiiai short.
Naiia iaeia — o long.

5. Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiee/anoaaiiuie ia?aiao?aie i?eeaaaoaeueiuo eiaao
niaoaiiue oa?aeoa?: iaaeaeo enneaaeoaiuie i?eciaeaie ia iaaethaeaaony
i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e enneaaeiaaiee eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie a?oiiu
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ?acia?a iieo/aiu aeaiiua, eioi?ua nouanoaaiii
aeiiieiytho i?aaenoaaeaiea i ia?aiao?ao neiaa a eeiaaenoeea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a, eaeneei-naiaioe/aneay a?oiia,
eiiiiiaioiue aiaeec, noaoenoe/aneea i?e?iu e iaoiaeu, /anoioiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, ni/aoaaiinoue, neioaaiaoe/aneea nayce,
ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey.

ANNOTATION

Arkheliuk V.V. Adjectives of Size in Modern English. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree in Philology. Speciality 10.02.04
-Germanic Languages. — Taras Shevchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is concerned with the semantic study of the adjectives
of size in Modern English.

Polysemy and lexical meaning of these adjectives, their qualitative and
quantitative characteristics are considered in consecutive order. The
inventory variant based on the componential and statistical analyses of
the mentioned lexico-semantic group made it possible to discover the
general and differential features of the microsystem and its
lexico-semantic links.

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships, word combinations of the
adjectives with noun subclasses and the peculiarities of their usage in
the author’s style are analysed on the basis of their frequency
characteristics in English and American literature of the 19th and 20th
centuries.

The average number of the adjectives’ meanings in Modern English on the
data of bilingual dictionaries and those of synonyms is revealed;
correlation between the quantitative parameters of the adjectives is
investigated with the help of special statistical methods. It defines
the existing data on the structure and semantics of the lexical units
which denote size in language and speech more precisely.

Key words: semantic structure, lexico-semantic group, componential
analysis, statistical procedures and methods, frequency characteristics
of adjectives, valency, syntagmatic ties, paradigmatic relationships.

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