EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Aeoeaaia Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE: 803.0-541.2

I?EEIAOIEEE IOe?IEE

O NO*ANI?E I?IAOeUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 2000

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?iaoeueei? iiae oa caaaeueiiai

iiaiciaanoaa *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaaeoeueeee A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith i?iaoeueei? iiae oa

caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Naoa?/oe Ethaeieea ?ee?aia

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana

Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

i?iaoeueei? o?eieia??

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

*a?ieoaiei Iaoae?y Ieeiea?aia

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei? iiae

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a

i?iaoeueei? o?eieia??.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “_24_” ___ethoiai_ 2000 ?ieo i _14
aiaeei?_

aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.11 i?e
Ee?anueeiio

iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

ca aae?anith: 252017, Ee?a, aoeuea. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 14, aoiai?oa?iee
ei?ion.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai

iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “__24___” _____n?/iy___ 2000 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
A.Ae. A?eiaa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. E?iaa?noeeo inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue a?aecia/a? ana
c?inoath/ee ?ioa?an aei naiaioe/ii? noi?iie iiae. Canoinoaaiiy o
naian?ieia?? oi?iaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia, ??ciiiai?oieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa noaoenoe/ieo i?eeii?a iieno iiaieo iaeeieoeue,
aeyaeeinue iaaecae/aeii aoaeoeaiei. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
ni?inooaaee iiaoi?thaaia aaaaoueia e?iaa?noaie iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
yaeua naiaioeee ? “oaeoaie, ui ia niinoa??aathoueny” (Aoiaiiaa, Aeooei
1969: 18(, a aaeocue naian?ieia?? acaaae? ia i?aeaea?oueny
oi?iae?caoe??.

Ia?aae naian?ieia?/iith iaoeith a?aee?eeenue iia? ia?niaeoeae,
ianaiia?aae, o ca‘yceo c i?iaeaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaiiino? eaene/ieo
yaeu. Aea/aiiy nenoaiieo ca‘yce?a ie?aieo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi
aeaea?oueny iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiei. Neiaieeiaee neeaae iiae, ui yaey?
niaith neeaaeio eaeneei-naiaioe/io nenoaio, iiaea aooe iai/ii
i?aaenoaaeaiee o nenoaiiiio aeaeyae? eeoa a ?acoeueoao? iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeaeaiue ?? eaene/ieo oa?oioaaiue. Aeooaeuei?noue oe??? i?iaeaie
coiiaeaia oaeiae iaaaeueiith iio?aaith eaeneeia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee.

Aeaia aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee
no/anii? i?iaoeueei? iiae.

Oi/a ioe?iea ? aea/aeanue ye aeaiaio naiaioeee ??ciiiai?oieo eaene/ieo
oa?oioaaiue (Nieieianeay 1979; Na?aaaaa 1980; Eeneoeuia 1982; Aieueo
1985; E?aeeo 1986; Eoeai/oe 1993; Ia?eaeiaa 1994 oa ?i.(, iaaeinoaoiuei
ua ?ic?iaeaieie caeeoathoueny i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? ioe?ii/ii? eaeneee
oa iniaeeaino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
iio?aaothoue oaeiae iaoiaee ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?one?
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei? iiae oa caaaeueiiai
iiaiciaacoaa *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y
Oaaeueeiae/a “Oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe eaeneeieia?? oa
eaeneeia?ao??”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01910034123.

Iniiaia iaoa aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio naian?ieia?/iiio
aeine?aeaeaii? a?oie ioe?ii/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a oeyoii aiae?co ?o eaene/ii?
niieo/oaaiino?.

Ca?aeii c iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie ?iaioe ?:

iienaoe /anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie, aei neeaaeo
yei? aoiaeyoue i?eeiaoieee ioe?iee;

aeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a c ?iaiieeaie
ia ??ai? naiaioe/iiai i?aeeeano oa ie?aiiai neiaa oa anoaiiaeoe
neioaaiaoe/i? ca‘ycee aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a;

c‘ynoaaoe ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?eeiaoieeaie ioe?iee oa
aecia/eoe nooi?iue ?o “neiii?i?/iino?”/“aioii?i?/iino?”;

aeine?aeeoe nieneiao no?oeoo?o i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioaenoieia?/iiai aiae?co;

aecia/eoe aieiaia cia/aiiy oa anoaiiaeoe noaoon eiaeiiai ?c cia/aiue o
nieneia?e no?oeoo?? iie?naiaioe/iiai i?eeiaoieea.

Iaoa??ae, ia‘?eo oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy
iineoaeeee oai?e no/anieo i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ienueiaiiee?a (ooaeiaeiy
i?ica) caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 4 iei. neiaiaaeeaaiue. Ianya aea??ee
neeaa 3960 i?e?ieiioaeno?a. A?aeiinia iioeaea aea??ee – aeecueei 3%.

Ia‘?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?oia i?eeiaoiee?a, ui neeaaea?oueny c 30
ne?a: gut, schoen, angenehm, anstaendig, nuetzlich, fein, vortrefflich,
vorzueglich, ausgezeichnet, guenstig, guetig, wunderschoen, glaenzend,
herrlich, praechtig, schlecht, boese, uebel, elend, minderwertig,
unangenehm, schlimm, klaeglich, kuemmerlich, ungut, miserabel,
unguenstig, erbaermlich, jaemmerlich, schaebig.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/eee aea?? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy:
aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/iee iaoiae (e?eoa??e o?-eaaae?ao, eiao?oe??io
ni?yaeaiino?, ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c), eiioaenoieia?/iee aiae?c,
eiiiiiaioiee aiae?c neiaieeiaeo aeao?i?oe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa ia iaoa??ae?
no/anii? i?iaoeueei? iiae ca aeiiiiiaith oi/ieo iaoiae?a aea/athoueny
i?eeiaoieee ioe?iee. Naian?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ioe?ii/ieo
i?eeiaoiee?a ? eiiieaeniei. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o ?ia?o
iiae?aiiai ?iaeo, aea aiae?coaaeenue aieiaiei /eiii ca‘ycee i?ae
eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie, a aeai?e aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeiae
ca‘ycee i?ae naiaioe/ieie naaiaioaie (ENA), ui iie?eaathoueny cia/aiiyie
oeeo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue. A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaiee a?eueo i?inoee
i?ioeaaeo?iee aa??aio iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy nieneiai? no?oeoo?e
aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa, ui aeicaieea io?eiaoe e?euee?ni? aeai? i?i
naiaioe/iee noaoon eiaeiiai ?c cia/aiue, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
nieneiai? no?oeoo?e oiai /e ?ioiai neiaa.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia aiineoue iaaiee
aianie o iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaiiino?
eaene/ieo yaeu. Aeei?enoaiiy “o?aaeeoe?eieo” iaoiae?a e?iaa?noeee, a
oaeiae anaa?/iee noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aeaiiino?o? iiaeeea?noue
eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy naiaioeee neiaa. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ni?eythoue
iiaeeaeaiith ciaiue i?i i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? ioe?ii/ii? eaeneee, i?i
aca?iica‘ycie eaene/iiai cia/aiiy, niieo/oaaiino? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo
a?aeiioaiue ne?a.

I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue ciaeoe o
eaeneeia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe? i?e oeeaaeaii? iaeiiiiaieo neiaiee?a, a
eaeoe?eieo eo?nao oa nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo c eaeneeieia?? a ?icae?eao:
“Neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy a eaeneoe?”, “Neiii?ie oa
aioii?ie”, a niaoeeo?nao c o?acaieia?? oa naian?ieia??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue oa
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a oaeoeueoaoo
?iicaiieo iia A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.Eioethaeinueeiai (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998), ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
i?iaoeueei? iiae oa caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, ia *aoaa?o?e eiioa?aioe??
anioe?aoe?? aa?iai?no?a Oe?a?ie (Aeiiaoeuee, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? o i’youeio ioae?eaoe?yo, ye? aeeiiai?
aaoi?ii iaeiiin?aii.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1) ENA i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee i?aaenoaaey? niaith i?e?inenoaio iniaeeaiai
oeio, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeaio neiii?i?/ieo ?yae?a, aeii?iaioe yeeo
ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae niaith a aioii?i?/ieo a?aeiioaiiyo.

2) Niieo/oaaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee ? ia?aaeoiiaith
aeey ?aae?caoe?? nenoaiieo ca‘yce?a a iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaii? ENA ia
neioaaiaoe/iiio oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/iiio ??ai?.

3) An? aeaiaioe ENA oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaiaeiaeiaith oe?ioith
niieo/oaaiino? ia ??ai? i?aeeeano oa ie?aiiai neiaa. I?ae /anoioith
aaeeaaiiy eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? oa e?euee?noth noaiaea?oieo neioaaiaoe/ieo
ca‘yce?a ?nio? i?yii i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue. I?ae /eneii anoaiiaeaieo
neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a oa ?ioaineai?noth ca‘yce?a niinoa??aa?oueny
cai?ioia caeaaei?noue.

4) E?euee?noue ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue neiaa caeaaeeoue a?ae
neeaaeiiai ia?aieao?iiy aeae?eueeio /eiiee?a: naiaioe/iiai ia‘?io,
oe?ioe niieo/oaaiino? neiaa, /anoioe eiai aaeeaaiiy, a oaeiae a?ae
e?eueeino? ni?eueieo naiaioe/ieo ia?aoei?a ne?a.

5) Aioii?i?/i? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a iathoue ieceo a?aei?iieo iniaeeainoae
e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai oa?aeoa?o.

6) Nieneiaa no?oeoo?a aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa yaey? niaith noeoii?noue
???a?o?/ii i?aai?ciaaieo cia/aiue, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ci?e a?aenoai?
a?ae naiaioe/iiai no?eaeiy neiaa. Aieiaiei /eiieeii, ui iaoiiaeth?
nooi?iue a?aeaeaeaiino? ENA a?ae ?iaa??aioiiai cia/aiiy neiaa, ?
nooi?iue ni?aiaae?iiy ?o aeeno?eaooeaieo oi?ioe.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe?a.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
oi?ioeththoueny iniiaia iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeai?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny neioaaiaoe/i? ca‘ycee
i?eeiaoiee?a.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? (neiii?i?/i? oa
aioii?i?/i?) a?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?eeiaoieeaie ana?aaeei?
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie “ioe?iea”.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith nieneiaeo no?oeoo?
ioe?ii/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao i?aeaeaathoueny i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa niinoa?aaeaiiy.

A aeiaeaoeao iaaiaeyoueny oaaeeoe? oa ?enoiee.

Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 205 noi??iie. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue
22 aeiaeaoee, a ye? aeeth/ai? 24 oaaeeoe? oa 3 ?enoiee. A?ae?ia?ao?y
ia?aoiao? 204 iacae, nienie aeei?enoaieo ooaeiaei?o oai??a – 40 iaca,
nienie aeei?enoaieo neiaiee?a – 11 iaca.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeine?aeaeaiiy

i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee

Aeaiee ?icae?e aeeth/a? a naaa 3 i?ae?icae?ee.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
eaoaai???th “cia/aiiy”. A aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy eaene/iiai cia/aiiy aa?ooue o/anoue oa ciaoiaeyoue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o?e aca?iica’ycaieo oaeoi?e: iaaeieeoiy ae?eni?noue,
ieneaiiy oa nenoaia iiae. Iaae/a?ii?noue oa neeaaei?noue oeeo eaoaai??e
i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui noi?ioethaaoe caaaeueiii?eeiyoa aecia/aiiy
cia/aiiy iaiiaeeeai. Aeey eiai ia’?eoeaiiai i?ciaiiy ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe
??ci? i?aeoiaee. Nooi?noue eaene/iiai cia/aiiy iaee?aua ?ice?eaa?oueny
/a?ac eiai no?oeoo?o ? aeeth/a? a naaa:

1) noeoii?noue a?aeaeoeo o na?aeiiino? oa no?oeoo?iaaieo o iia? ia’?eo?a
oa yaeu ae?eniino? (naiaioeea);

2) noeoii?noue naiaioe/ieo ni?acia/aiue, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
cae?enith?oueny noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei i?aaeiaoa iii?iaoe?? oa oiia
eiioi?eaoe?? (i?aaiaoeea);

3) noeoii?noue neioaaiaoe/ieo oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue neiaa
(neioaeoeea).

Iniiaiei ieoaiiyi uiaei no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa
? ieoaiiy i?i ???a?o?/iee i?eioeei a?aeiioaiue i?ae eiai cia/aiiyie
(ENA). A aeai?e ?iaio? a?aeaea?oueny ia?aaaaa o?aaeeoe?ei?e oi/oe? ci?o,
ca?aeii c yeith iiae?e cia/aiue ia ia?aeii? oa aoi?eii?, i?yi? oa
ia?aiini? aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaea? ?o ia??aiii?aaiee noaoon o naiaioe/i?e
no?oeoo?? aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa. O aeaiiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny
oaeiae aeaye? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?nai??.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei ciai?oi?i aeyaeaiiyi naiaioeee neiaa ? eiai
niieo/oaai?noue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy niieo/oaaiino? ne?a ? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei oa aeiiiiiei oeyoii i?iieeiaiiy o nieneiao no?oeoo?o oeeo
ne?a. Aiii i?iaiaeeoueny c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy iniaeeainoae naiaioeee
eiaeiiai ie?aiiai /eaia iaaii? eaene/ii? i?e?inenoaie, a oaeiae c iaoith
anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo aeey an?o /eai?a oe??? i?e?inenoaie naiaioe/ieo
oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae o iia? oa iiaeaii?.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee nenoaiiei a?aeiioaiiyi o eaeneoe?,
cie?aia i?iaeai? iieaaiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue oa
oeiieia?? eaene/ieo i?e?inenoai. Na?aae ??cieo oei?a eaene/ieo
i?e?inenoai ne?ae aeae?eeoe eaeneei-naiaioe/ia iiea (ENI),
eaeneei-naiaioe/io a?oio (ENA), neiii?i?/iee ?yae, aioii?i?/io ia?o,
oaiaoe/io a?oio, anioe?aoeaia iiea. Ia’?eoii iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee. Aeaiaioe ENA
ia’?aeiothoueny ni?euei?noth aioo??oiueiiiaieo ca’yce?a, iniiaieie
oeiaie a?aeiioaiue ? neiii?i?/i? oa aioii?i?/i? a?aeiioaiiy.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? c’yniao?oueny nooi?noue ioe?iee ye oaiiiaia
na?aeiiino?, ?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c aen?ieia?/iith eaoaai???th ioe?iee,
yea ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ?acoeueoaoo i?ciaiiy ethaeeiith oe?iiino? yaeu
iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo. Iiaiei aniaeoii aeaii? aen?ieia?/ii? eaoaai??? ?
eaoaai??y ioe?ii/iino? – ae?aaeaiiy a neiaani?e oi?i? ca aeiiiiiaith
??cii??aiaaeo iiaieo cania?a noaaeaiiy iiaoey (noaaeaiiy / ianoaaeaiiy)
aei i?aaeiao?a oa yaeu iaaeieeoiuei? ae?eniino?. Iiaia ioe?iea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniaeeaith no?oeoo?ith, ?? aieiaieie eiiiiiaioaie ?
noa’?eo oa ia’?eo ioe?iee, ioe?ii/iee i?aaeeeao, oeaea ioe?iie c?
noa?aioeiaie, aniaeo ioe?iee oa i?aenoaaa.

A aeena?oaoe?? ii?ooo?oueny ieoaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? ioe?ii/ieo cia/aiue. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eoa??y, ui aa?aoueny ca iniiao, ?ic??ciythoueny oae?
aeaee ioe?iie: 1) iiceoeaia/iaaaoeaia/iaeo?aeueia; 2)
caaaeueia/i?eaaoia; 3) ia’?eoeaia/noa’?eoeaia; 4) aiioe?iiaeueia
/?aoe?iiaeueia/ aiioe?iiaeueii-?aoe?iiaeueia. Caaaeueiiioe?ii/i?
i?eeiaoieee, ye? ? ia’?eoii iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai?
i?eeiaoieeaie gut i schlecht oa ?o noee?noe/ieie neiii?iaie – aiioe?eii
caaa?aeaieie i?eeiaoieeaie, ui iicia/athoue “aenieo iiceoeaio ioe?ieo”
(Aiaoneaaneee 1971: 242( – wunderschoen, herrlich, praechtig,
ausgezeichnet, a oaeiae cieaeaio iaei?aoeaio ioe?ieo: boese, schlimm,
klaeglich, uebel, miserabel oa ?io?. Oe? i?eeiaoieee ?icaeyaeathoueny ye
e?iaa?noe/ia ae?aaeaiiy i?aaiaoe/ii? eaoaai??? ioe?iee, ui a?oioo?oueny
ia i?ioenoaaeaii? iciae “aeia?ee, aa?iee” – “iiaaiee” ? ae?aaeathoue
ioe?ieo a iaea?eueo caaaeuei?e oi?i?.

Eaoaai??y ioe?ii/iino? o?nii iia’ycaia c eaoaai??yie aeni?aneaiino? oa
aiioe?eiino?. ?acii aiie ooai?ththoue eiiioaoeaiee aniaeo cia/aiiy
iiaii? iaeeieoe? ? ii?yae c i?aaeiaoii-iiiyo?eiei aniaeoii neeaaeathoue
naiaioeeo neiaa. ?iciaaeoaaiiy eaoaai??e ioe?ii/iino?, aiioe?eiino? oa
aeni?aneaiino? oa c’ynoaaiiy a?aeiioaiue i?ae ieie ? iniaeeai aaaeeeaei
aeey aiae?co nieneiai? no?oeoo?e neiaa oa aaeaeaaoiiai ?? i?aaenoaaeaiiy
o neiaieeao.

?icae?e 2. Neioaaiaoe/i? ca’ycee i?eeiaoiee?a caaaeueii? ioe?iee

Iaeia?oei (aea /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oei) aoaiii aeine?aeaeaiiy ENA ? ??
aeae?eaiiy, oiaoi ?iaaioa?ecaoe?y. Aiia i?iaiaeeoueny c iaoith
aecia/aiiy iaae aeaii? eaene/ii? i?e?inenoaie aeey iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co
nieneiaeo ca’yce?a i?ae ?? aeaiaioaie. O aeai?e ?iaio? a?aeiaaeoaaiiy
ENA caaaeueiiioe?ii/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
?ioo?oeaii-eia?/iiai iaoiaeo c iii?ith ia /anoioi?noue. Aea??
?ioo?oeaii-eia?/iiai iaoiaeo ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? coiiaeaiee aeaiia iniiaieie
/eiieeaie: ii-ia?oa, aaeeeei nieneiaei ia’?iii i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee ?,
ii-ae?oaa, neeaaei?noth ?o naiaioe/iiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy. Ana oea
ae?aaea?oueny o ??ciiai? oeoia/aiiy aeaii? eaeneei-naiaoe/ii?
ni?eueiino? ??cieie eaeneeia?ao?/ieie aeaea?aeaie ? oaeoe/ii
oiaiiaeeeaeth? ?iaaioa?ecaoe?th aeine?aeaeoaaii? ENA oeyoii nooi
oi?iaeueii? i?ioeaaeo?e. Ae/eaiaiiy ENA i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee aoei
cae?eniaia ca oaeith noaiith:

1) neeaaeaiiy ii/aoeiaiai nieneo ne?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no ne?a-?aeaioeo?eaoi??a o neiaieeao (ii/aoeiaee
nienie iae?/oaaa 160 i?eeiaoiee?a);

2) no?aoeo?eaoe?y nieneo ca e?eoa???i /anoioiino?: neiaa, ui cono??eenue
o iieiaei? ? a?eueoa neiaieeao aoee aaccanoa?aaeii a?aeianai? aei
neeaaeo ENA;

3) iiaeaeueoa ooi/iaiiy neeaaeo ENA ia iniia? /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ne?a o oaenoao.

Noi?iiaaia ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioo?oeaii-eia?/iiai iaoiaeo c iii?ith ia
/anoioi?noue ENA aeeth/a? 30 i?eeiaoiee?a:

i?eeiaoieee iiceoeaii? ioe?iee: gut, schoen, angenehm, anstaendig,
nuetzlich, fein, vorfrefflich, vorzueglich, ausgezcichnet, guetig,
guenstig, wunderschoen, glaenzend, herrlich, praechtig;

i?eeiaoieee iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee: schlecht, boese, uebel, elend,
minderwertig, unangenehm, schlimm, klaeglich, kuemmerlich, ungut,
miserabel, unguenstig, erbaermlich, jaemmerlich, schaebig.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iaoa??ae?a aea??ee c 40 ooaeiaei?o oai??a
i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ienueiaiiee?a io?eiai? noaoenoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee, ye? ianooue cia/ouo ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o iiaeaii?.
E?eoa??e /anoioiino? a aeai?e ?iaio? aenooia? iniiaiei e?eoa???i
aecia/aiiy i?noey eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? a eaeneei – naiaioe/i?e a?oi?. A
ENA i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee aeae?eythoueny yae?i oa ia?eoa??y. Noaoenoe/iee
aiae?c oaeno?a iieacaa, ui yae?i ENA neeaaeathoue iaea?eueo
aeniei/anoioi? i?eeiaoieee c ocaaaeueiaiei cia/aiiyi: gut, schoen,
schlecht, boese, schlimm. ?io? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?eeiaoieee,
/anoioi?noue yeeo ia ia?aaeuo? na?aaeiuei? /anoioe aaeeaaiiy aeaiaio?a
ENA, aoee a?aeianai? aei ia?eoa???.

Niieo/oaai?noue ne?a coiiaeth?oueny aeaiia iniiaieie oaeoi?aie: 1)
?iaeea?aeoaeueiith naiaioeeith neiaa, yea ? a?aeaeoo?aei i?aaenoaaeaiiyi
i?aaeiaoii-eia?/ieo a?aeiioaiue, ui ?niothoue o iaaeieeoiueiio na?o?
i?ae i?aaeiaoaie oa yaeuaie; 2) i?eiaeaaei?noth neiaa aei iaaiiai
a?aiaoe/iiai eeano oa iniaeeainoyie neioaene/ieo i?aaee eiie?aoii? iiae.
O ca’yceo c oeei ?ic??ciythoue aeaa aniaeoe niieo/oaaiino?: eaene/io (o
oe?ieiio niene?) oa neioaene/io. O aeai?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeo?oueny
eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoiee?a, oiio ui aiia yeiaee?aua ?ice?eaa?
naiaioeeo i?eeiaoieea, yeee aenooia? a ?a/aii? aieiaiei /eiii a ?ie?
icia/aiiy. Aea/aiiy eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia aeaio
??aiyo: ia ??ai? ie?aiiai neiaa (iiaeaeue “neiai + neiai”) oa ia ??ai?
naiaioe/iiai i?aeeeana ne?a (iiaeaeue “neiai + i?aeeean”).

Aeey aiae?co niieo/oaaiino? o iiaeae? “neiai + i?aeeean” on? ?iaiieee,
ye? cao?eniaaii o neiainiieo/aiiyo c aeine?aeaeoaaieie i?eeiaoieeaie,
aoei iiae?eaii ia 25 naiaioe/ieo i?aeeean?a, o yeeo, ia iaoo aeoieo,
eaenaia-i?eeiaoiee ?aae?co? eiaeai c nai?o a?aeo?ie?a cia/aiue.
Aeae?eaiiy ii??aiyii aaeeeiai /enea naiaioe/ieo i?aeeean?a ?iaiiee?a
coiiaeaii ianaiia?aae aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieie oaeoi?aie, a naia:
oi?aa?naeueiith caeaoi?noth i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
iaaeieeoi?e na?o, oiio ui “oe?ii?niith i?aaeiaoi?noth aieiae??
aoeaaeueii ana, ui noa? eiiiiiaioii i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie”
(E?aeeo 1986: 19(. Ioaea, on? ?iaiieee aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia oae?
i?aeeeane: 1) ethaee ca i?ioan??th, caaiiyi; 2) ethaee (iaeo?aeuei?
iacae); 3) a?oie ethaeae; 4) aeani? ?iaia; 5) /anoeie o?ea; 6) o?ce/iee
noai ethaeeie; 7) aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie; 8) iiiyooy ienoaoeoaa; 9)
iaaeea? ?a/?; 10) ?aea, ?a/iaeia; 11) iiaiaea, i?e?iaea, oei?a; 12)
oaoia; 13) a?ae??cee /ano; 14) aoae?ae?, caeeaaee; 15) aaia?ao?/i?
ia’?eoe; 16) yaeua noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy; 17) ae??, a/eiee,
i?ioeane; 18) ?iaioa; 19) noai, iieiaeaiiy ia’?eo?a; 20) oi?ia,
no?oeoo?a; 21) ye?noue, aeanoea?noue; 22) e?euee?noue, aa?o?noue; 23)
aano?aeoe??; 24) iiaa, ?icoiiaa ae?yeuei?noue; 25) aei?iaa, a?aenoaiue.

I?e iien? neioaaiaoe/ieo ca’yce?a i?eeiaoiee?a aeei?enoaia iecea
e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue niieo/oaai?noue, cie?aia:
/anoioa, ianya oa oaeeaai?noue i?aeeeano, oe?ioa oa ?ioaineai?noue
niieo/oaaiino?. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui oaeeaai?noue i?aeeeano
i?eeiaoiee?a iiceoeaii? ioe?iee ia?aaeuo? a?aeiia?aeiee ia?aiao?
i?eeiaoiee?a iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee o 2,7 ?ace. Iaea?eueo oaeeaaieie
i?aeeeanaie ?iaiiee?a, ui niieo/athoueny c aeine?aeaeoaaieie
i?eeiaoieeaie aeyaeeeny i?aeeeane: ethaee (iaeo?aeuei? iaeiaioaaiiy);
a?ae??cee /ano; a?oie ethaeae. Oe?ioa niieo/oaaiino? – oea ia?aiao?,
yeee iieaco?, iane?eueee ??ciiiai?oiei ? eiei niieo/oaaeueieo ca’yce?a
ne?a. Aeine?aeaeoaai? i?eeiaoieee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciith oe?ioith
niieo/oaaiino?: iaea?eueoo oe?ioo niieo/oaaiino? iathoue yaea?i?
i?eeiaoieee gut, schoen, schlecht, boese, iaeiaioo – i?eeiaoieee
nuetzlich, unguenstig, miserabel.

I?ae ?ioaineai?noth niieo/oaaiino? ?icoi??oueny neea neioaaiaoe/iiai
ca’yceo i?ae aeaiia neiaaie /e i?aeeeanaie ne?a. Iiieeeiai aaaaea?oueny,
ui aeaiaioe, ye? iaea?eueo /anoi aaeeaathoueny ?acii, ca’ycai? iaea?eueo
o?nieie neioaaiaoe/ieie ca’yceaie. I?iaaaeaiee
aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c i?eeiaoiee?a aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?aeaeuaia /anoioa ni?eueii? cono??aaiino? aeaio ne?a
iiaea aooe coiiaeaia aeaiia oaeoi?aie: a) /anoioieie aeanoeainoyie oeeo
ne?a; a) iniaeeaeie a?aeiioaiiyie, ui iaaeathoue aeayeei niieo/aiiyi
noaoon, aeecueeee aei no?eeino?. Anoaiiaeoe iayai?noue oaeeo iniaeeaeo
a?aeiioaiue i?ae neioaaiaoe/ieie ia?oia?aie iiaeia, aeei?enoiaoth/e
niaoe?aeuei? noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee: e?eoa??e O?-eaaae?ao (?2) oa
eiao?oe??io ni?yaeaiino? (E). Noaoenoe/ii cia/oueie aoaeooue ca’ycee
i?ae neiaaie, aii??e/i? /anoioe ni?eueii? cono??aaiino? yeeo ?noioii
ia?aaeuothoue oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaai? aaee/eie. sseui ae aii??e/ia
/anoioi?noue neiainiieo/aiiy iaeaea ca?aa?oueny c oai?aoe/ii iiaeeeaith,
oi i?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieie iciaeaie ia ?nio? ca’yceo.

Ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th O?-eaaae?ao, yeee aenooia? ye iieaciee
iayaiino? noaoenoe/ii cia/ouiai ca’yceo oa eiao?oe??ioa ni?yaeaiino?, ui
? iieacieeii ?ioaineaiino? oeueiai ca’yceo, aoee anoaiiaeai? aeiaaeee
cia/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy aii??e/ieo aaee/ei a?ae oeo, ui oai?aoe/ii
i/?eothoueny, oa anoaiiaeai? noaoenoe/ii cia/ou? – “noaiaea?oi?” (ca
oa?i?iieia??th E.A. Aeno?iai?) ca’ycee aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a, ui
aeaei ciiao oyaeoe iiaio oa /?oeo ea?oeio iniaeeainoae neioaaiaoe/ieo
ca’yce?a i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee.

Oae, iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue noaoenoe/ii cia/oueo ca’yce?a o eiaei?e c
i?aea?oi anoaiiaeththoue yaea?i? i?eeiaoieee gut, schoen, schlecht, ui
iathoue oaeiae iaea?eueoo oe?ioo niieo/oaaiino? oa ? iaea?eueo
/anoioieie. Ia?eoa??ei? i?eeiaoieee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaiaaeaiith
e?euee?noth noaiaea?oieo ca’yce?a. Ioaea, iaea?eueo /anoioi? i?eeiaoieee
? iaea?eueo “aeoeaieie” o neioaaiaoe/iiio aniaeo?.

?ioaineai?noue niieo/oaaiino?, ye iieacaa aiae?c, ciaoiaeeoueny o
cai?ioi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? anoaiiaeaieo i?eeiaoieeii cia/oueo
neioaaiaoe/ieo ca’yce?a. Iaea?eueoo ?ioaineai?noue iathoue ca’ycee
anstaendig + iacae ethaeae, guetig + /anoeie ethaenueeiai o?ea, schlimm
+ a?ae??cee /ano, schaebig + iaeiaioaaiiy aoae?aaeue, schaebig + iaaeea?
?a/?, jaemmerlich + aeeaa i?e?iaea.

Iaea?eueoee iaa?? noaiaea?oieo neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a o iiaeae?
“neiai-i?aeeean” iathoue i?eeiaoieee iiceoeaii? ioe?iee o ii??aiyii? c
i?eeiaoieeaie iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee.

Aiae?c niieo/oaaiino? ia ??ai? neiaa aeyaea i?aeaeuaio /anoioo
cono??aaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a c ie?aieie ?iaiieeaie. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, aeaye?
i?eeiaoieee ioe?iee niieo/athoueny ia?aaaaeii c iaaieie ?iaiieeaie.
I/aaeaeii, aiie aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo noaiaea?oieo aeaiaio?a
eiioaenooaeueiiai iaai?o oeeo i?eeiaoiee?a ? ooai?ththoue iaeeieoe?, ui
iaaeeaeathoueny ca no?ee?noth aei o?acaieia?/ieo. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aei oaeeo ca’yce?a ie a?aeianee: uebel + Geruch, boese +
Blick, guenstig + Bedingung, guenstig + Gelegenheit, ungut + Gefuehl,
boese + Geist, guetig + Laecheln, schlecht + Gewissen, uebel + Laune,
guenstig + Augenblick, anstaendig + Mensch, schlimm + Zeit, gut + Laune
(ca’ycee iiaeai? o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ni?yaeaiino?).
Iaea?eueoei iaai?ii noaiaea?oieo aeaiaio?a ia ??ai? ie?aiiai neiaa
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?eeiaoieee: gut, schlenht, bose, guenstig, uebel.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeeno?eaooeaii — noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co oa aeaieo
i?i iaea?eueo oeiia? neiainiieo/aiiy, io?eiaieo ?c oeoia/ieo neiaiee?a
i?iaoeueei? iiae, cana?ae/eei iaai? ni?aiaae?iiy. E??i oiai, iaie
anoaiiaeai? aeiaeaoeia? noaiaea?oi? ca’ycee, ye? ia o?enothoueny
neiaieeaie. Ioaea, ia?aaaaa canoiniaaiiai iaie iaoiaeo iieyaa? o oiio,
ui, ii-ia?oa, ca’ycee, ye? iathoue no?eeee oa?aeoa?, o?enothoueny
ia’?eoeaieie iaoiaeaie, ii-ae?oaa, oe? ca’ycee io?eiothoue oi/ia /eneiaa
ae?aaeaiiy.

?icae?e 3. Ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?eeiaoieeaie

caaaeueii? ioe?iee

Ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy, ui ?niothoue o iia?, oa neioaaiaoe/i?
ca’ycee, ui ?aae?cothoueny o iiaeaii?, ?acii iaea?eueo iiaii
?ice?eaathoue naiaioeeo neiaa. Aeina?ae aea/aiiy ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo
a?aeiioaiue iieaco?, ui neiaa, niieo/oaaeuei? aeanoeaino? yeeo
ni?aiaaeathoue, aeyaeythoueny iaea?eueo o?nii ca’ycaieie naiaioe/ii.
Oaeei /eiii, aecia/aiiy e?eueeino? ni?eueieo ia?aoei?a naiaioe/ieo
naaiaio?a ia?e ne?a aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe nooi?iue ?o naiaioe/ii?
ca’ycaiino?. A?aooaaoe onth noeoii?noue iiae?aiinoae oa a?aei?iiinoae o
niieo/oaaiino? iaeii/anii iiaeia, eeoa aeei?enoiaoth/e niaoe?aeuei?
noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee, cie?aia ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c.

Nooi?iue ia?aaeeaiaoe/ii? ca’ycaiino? ae?aaea?oueny aaee/eiith
eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? R, yeee iiaea eieeaaoenue o iaaeao a?ae 0 aei (
1. Eiao?oe??io, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei 0, aeaco? ia a?aenooi?noue
ei?aeyoe?eiiai a?aeiioaiiy, eiao?oe??io, aeecueeee aei 1, aeaco? ia oa,
ui neiaa, ye? ii??aiththoueny, aeecuee? ca cia/aiiyi. Noaoenoe/ii
cia/oueie o iao?e ?iaio? aaaaeathoueny a?aeiioaiiy c eiao?oe??ioii
ei?aeyoe??, a?eueoei i?ae 0,42 (oea a?aeiia?aea? a??ia?aeiino? ?=95%).
Ca’ycee ne?a c eiao?oe??ioii ieae/a 0,42 ie ?ioa?i?aoo?ii ye neaae?,
a?ae 0,42 aei 0,65 – ye na?aaei?, caa?o 0,65 – ye neeuei?.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue i?ae i?eeiaoieeaie
ioe?iee aeicaieea c’ynoaaoe aioo??oith no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th
aeine?aeaeoaaii? ENA oa ca aeiiiiiaith /eneiaeo aaee/ei aei??yoe neeo
neiii?i?/iiai oa aioii?i?/iiai ca’yceo i?ae i?eeiaoieeaie. Aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aenenoaie “caaaeueia iiceoeaia ioe?iea” oa “caaaeueia
iaaaoeaia ioe?iea” oa?aeoa?ecothoueny no?eeeie oa ?ioaineaieie
a?aeiioaiiyie (a?aeiia?aeii 25 oa 31 a?aeiioaiiy). Aeii?iaioe gut oa
schlecht anooiathoue o ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy c on?ia i?eeiaoieeaie
ye ii e?i?? neiii?i??, oae ? ii e?i?? aioii?i??. Aiie, iaeiae, ca
iaaaeeeei aeiyoeii aeyaeeeny iaei?ioaineaieie. Oeae ?acoeueoao
a?aeiia?aea? anoaiiaeai?e o e?iaa?noeoe? caeiiii??iino?, ca?aeii c yeith
neiaa c oe?ieith naiaioeeith oa aenieith /anoioi?noth iathoue iaiaaeaio
e?euee?noue cia/oueo ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue. Ia?eoa??ei?
i?eeiaoieee, iaaiaee, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueo no?eeeie oa
?ioaineaieie, i?ioa ia/eneaiieie ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieie a?aeiioaiiyie.

Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue noaoenoe/ii cia/oueo ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue
ii e?i?? neiii?i?? cao?eniaaii o i?eeiaoiee?a schoen, fein, anstaendig,
unangenehm, kuemmerlich, klaeglich, miserabel. Iaea?eueo neeuei?
neiii?i?/i? ca’ycee anoaiiaeththoue oae? ia?e ne?a: vortrefflich –
ausgezeichnet (0,88), praechtig – ausgezeichnet (0,75), fein – guetig
(0,75), klaeglich – erbaermlich (0,74), miserabel – ungut (0,72).

Iaea?eueoith e?euee?noth aioii?i?/ieo a?aeiioaiue oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i?eeiaoieee fein, schoen, guetig, vorzueglich, miserabel, boese.
Iniaeeai neeuei? naiaioe/i? ca’ycee aeyaeai? i?ae oaeeie aioii?i?/ieie
ia?aie: guetig – boese (0,88), guetig – ungut (0,81), fein – ungut
(0,78), angenehm – unangenehm (0,74), guetig – miserabel (0,73).

Ona?aaeei? ENA i?eeiaoiee?a iiceoeaii? oa iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aeae?eythoueny no?ee? naiaioe/i? eiiieaene, ia aeieth yeeo i?eiaaea?
a?eueoa 70 % on?o noaoenoe/ii cia/oueo a?aeiioaiue. O i?aea?oi?
i?eeiaoiee?a iiceoeaii? ioe?iee – oea i?eeiaoieee schoen, ausgezeichnet
, praechtig, vortrefflich, anstaendig, fein, o i?aea?oi? i?eeiaoiee?a
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee – boese, uebel, klaeglich, miserabel, erbaermlich,
ungut, kuemmerlich.

Ia?a?aoiaai? eaene/i? iaeeieoe? iathoue aaeeeee naiaioe/iee ia’?i,
oiaoi aiie caeaoi? o iaea?eueoiio nooiai? oiniaethaaoe aeanoeaino? oeo
eaene/ieo i?e?inenoai, aei yeeo aiie aoiaeyoue. Oaeei /eiii, /ei
a?eueoei ? naiaioe/iee ia’?i i?eeiaoieea, oei aeeae/a eiai cia/aiiy
iaaeeaea?oueny aei caaaeueiiai cia/aiiy an??? a?oie: “aa?iee, aeia?ee”
aai “iiaaiee”. Naiaioe/iee ia’?i neiaa iiaea aooe ia/eneaiee oeyoii
i?ae?aooieo eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? i?ae niieo/oaaeueieie aeanoeainoyie
oeueiai neiaa oa an??? a?oie (?acoeueoaoe aeea. oaae. 1).

Aeaye? ioe?ii/i? i?eeiaoieee, cie?aia guenstig, herrlich, nuetzlich,
schaebig, unguenstig o nai?o ca’yceao c a?eueo?noth i?eeiaoiee?a
aeine?aeaeoaaii? ENA aeyaeythoue ei?aeyoe?th ?c ciaeii “i?ion”. Oea
icia/a?, ui a niieo/oaaeueieo aeanoeainoyo oeeo i?eeiaoiee?a ii??aiyii c
?ioeie i?eeiaoieeaie a?eueoa a?aei?iiinoae, i?ae iiae?aiino?.

C’ynoaaiiy noeoiiino? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia e?euee?noue
ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue aeaei oae? ?acoeueoaoe: niinoa??aa?oueny
i?yia caeaaei?noue e?eueeino? ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue neiaa a?ae
eiai naiaioe/iiai ia’?io. Acaaae?, neeaaeia ia?aieao?iiy aeae?eueeio
/eiiee?a: naiaioe/iiai ia’?io, oe?ioe niieo/oaaiino?, /anoioe aaeeaaiiy
neiaa oa e?eueeino? anoaiiaeaieo neioaaiaoe/ieo ca’yce?a ? i?e/eiith, ui
aieeaa? ia e?euee?noue ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue neiaa.

?icae?e 4. Naiaioe/iee aiae?c i?eeiaoiee?a

caaaeueii? ioe?iee

Iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy nieneiai? no?oeoo?e neiaa, ui canoiniao?oueny o
aeai?e ?iaio?, aaco?oueny ia iieiaeaii? i?i ia??aiii?aaiee noaoon
naiaioe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a (ENA) o nieneia?e no?oeoo?? neiaa, a oaeiae ia
?aea? i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy “caaaeueiiai (?iaa??aioiiai)
cia/aiiy” (Caaaeioeaa, 1957, n. 217( ye iaaii? iiaii? aano?aeoe?? aeey
c’ynoaaiiy a?aeiioaiue i?ae ENA neiaa. Ia oeeo aeaio iieiaeaiiyo
a?oioo?oueny i?eiouaiiy, yea aoei caiaeii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy: naiaioe/iee ca’ycie eiaeiiai ?c cia/aiue
iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa c ?ioeie cia/aiiyie a noi? (oiaoi c ?iaa??aioii)
iaiaeiaeiaee. Iaeo?ni?oee ca’ycie c on?ia ?ioeie cia/aiiyie ia? aieiaia
cia/aiiy. O iio?aeieo cia/aiiyo aaee/eia neee oaeiai ca’yceo ? i?yii
i?iii?oe?eiith i?noeth, yea caeia? eiaeia c ieo o naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo??
neiaa. Aaee/eia neee oeueiai ca’yceo, iacaaiith oiiaii “???a?o?/iei
?iaeaenii” caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, iane?eueee naiaioeea aeaiiai ENA, ui
ciai? i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac eiai aeeno?eaooe?th, iaaeeaea?oueny aei
naiaioeee (aeeno?eaooeaii? oi?ioee) ?iaa??aioa.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei iiaiei iieacieeii, iaiao?aeiei oa aeinoaoi?i aeey
?iciaaeoaaiiy cia/aiue iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa aenooia? niieo/oaai?noue
ENA, oiaoi aeanoeaino? eiioaenoo, a yeiio eiie?aoia cia/aiiy (ENA)
ooieoe?iio? o iiaeaii?.

Ioaea, ia?oei aoaiii naiaioe/iiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaiiy oa iien
eiaeiiai ?c cia/aiue iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa – i?eeiaoieea ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioaenoieia?/iiai aiae?co. C iaoith ciaioaiiy aeie? noa‘?eoea?cio o
i?aeoiae? aei aeai?o eiioaeno?a, a yeiio neiai ?aae?co? nai? cia/aiiy,
ie aiae?coaaee eiai a on?o cao?eniaaieo eiioaenoao, a oaeiae
a?aeiiaeeenue ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? a?ae ei?enooaaiiy oeoia/ieie
neiaieeaie. Aeey ci?noiaiai aecia/aiiy cia/aiue iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa
a?aany aei oaaae eiioaeno, «aeac?aiee i?i?ioi» yeiai aoa aeinoaoi?i aeey
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oeeo cia/aiue.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui a?eueo?noue i?eeiaoiee?a iiceoeaii?
ioe?iee ? iaeiicia/ieie (9), iaio?noue – iie?naiaioe/ieie (5). O
i?eeiaoiee?a iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioeeaaeia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy: a?aeiia?aeii 3 oa 11. Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue cia/aiue
iathoue i?eeiaoieee gut, schoen, schlecht, boese, fein. sse ?
i/?eoaaeinue, on? aeine?aeaeoaai? i?eeiaoieee iiceoeaii? ioe?iee
i?noyoue o nai?o nieneiaeo no?oeoo?ao cia/aiiy «oaeee, ui a?aeiia?aea?
iaaiei aeiiaai» aai a?aeneeeo aei oeueiai cia/aiiy. Aeaye? aaaaoicia/i?
i?eeiaoieee, cie?aia, fein oa glaenzend, iathoue ie??i ioe?ii/iiai
cia/aiiy oaeiae iaioe?ii/ia, oiaoi oaea, ui icia/a? aeani? yeino?
i?aaeiaoa. O nieneiaeo no?oeoo?ao iaea?eueo /anoioieo i?eeiaoiee?a gut,
schoen oa anstaendig aoea aeyaeaia oae caaia «eaaioeoaoeaia» naia, yea
i?iyaey?oueny i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? i?eeiaoieeii i?aaeiao?a, ui iathoue
e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee /e iieacieee neee aai ?ioaineaiino?.

Iaea?eueo aeooae?ciaaiei cia/aiiyi aeey i?eeiaoiee?a iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aeyaeeinue cia/aiiy «iacaaeia?eueiee ca ye?noth, oaeee, ui ia
a?aeiia?aea? i/?eoaaiiyi». Oea cia/aiiy aai cia/aiiy, ui iathoue
a?aeneeeo aei iueiai, ia? eiaeai c aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a. Oae,
cia/aiiy “aeaetha?aeiee, ceeaeaiiee, iea/aaiee”, ui i?noeoueny o
nieneiaeo no?oeoo?ao i?eeiaoiee?a erbaermlich, jaemmerlich, elend,
kuemmerlich, klaeglich, schaebig, ia ca?aa?oueny iiai?noth ?c
aeuaiacaaiei cia/aiiyi, aea eiai ci?noiaa aenie?eaoe?y i?eaiaeeoue
c?aooith aei iueiai. Aiii ia? aeni?aneaiee oa?aeoa? ? ? noee?noe/ii
iaiaaeaiei. I?eeiaoieee schlecht, boese, schlimm, uebel, ungut i?noyoue
o nieneiaeo no?oeoo?ao cia/aiiy “iaaeia?ee, ceee, oaeee, ui ia
caneoaiao? noaaeaiiy c aieo ii?ae?”, ui neoaeeoue aeey ioe?iee ethaeeie
oa ?? iiaaae?iee ? ni?aa?aeiineoue ?o c iaaieie ii?aeueieie oa aoe/ieie
ii?iaie. Cia/aiiy “i?aeeee, i?e/aiiee”, ui iathoue i?eeiaoieee
miserabel, schaebig, elend, erbaermlich, jaemmerlich, oaeiae
oa?aeoa?eco? ethaeeio, ?? iiaaae?ieo oa niin?a aeoiie, aea, ia a?aei?io
a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai, aiii i?noeoue a?aeo?iie ciaaaae ? oiio ?
noee?noe/ii iaiaaeaiei.

Ae?oaei aoaiii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaiiy aieiaiiai cia/aiiy
neiaa, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy noaoono eiaeiiai ?c cia/aiue (ENA)
iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa oeyoii aei??thaaiiy a?aenoai? oeueiai ENA a?ae
?iaa??aioiiai cia/aiiy neiaa. Oeae iaoiae aaco?oueny ia noaoenoe/iiio
aiae?c? niieo/oaaiino? aeae?eaieo ENA c naiaioe/ieie i?aeeeanaie
?iaiiee?a. Aeey eiaeiiai aaaaoicia/iiai i?eeiaoieea aoei neeaaeaii
oaaeeoeth, a yeo aoee caaaeai? aeai? i?i niieo/oaai?noue ENA oeueiai
neiaa. Aeae? /anoioe a noiaioeyo oaaeeoe? ie i?eeiyee ca iaai? /eneia?
ae?aaeaiiy, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue ??ci? cia/aiiy iie?naiaioe/iiai neiaa, a
noia?i? /anoioe a inoaiiueiio noiaioe? – ca /eneiaa ae?aaeaiiy eiai
caaaeueiiai, ?iaa??aioiiai cia/aiiy. Aoei cae?eniaii ei?aeyoe?eiee
aiae?c a?aeiia?aeieo /anoio. Eiai ?acoeueoaoe ?ioa?i?aooaaeenue
ianooiiei /eiii: /ei aeeae/a eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? R iaaeeaea?oueny aei
1, oei o a?eueo?e i??? ni?aiaaeathoue niieo/oaaeuei? aeanoeaino?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ENA oa ?iaa??aioa, oei a?eueoa aiie ca’ycai?
naiaioe/ii. ENA, ui io?eiaa iaeaeuee eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? ? aeyaea oei
naiei o?niee naiaioe/iee ca‘ycie c ?iaa??aioiei cia/aiiyi, aaaaea?oueny
aieiaiei cia/aiiyi, ENA c iecueeeie eiao?oe??ioaie R iienothoue
ae?oai?yaei? cia/aiiy iie?naiaioa.

Oaeei /eiii, ca aeiiiiiaith oi/ieo oa ia’?eoeaieo iaoiae?a ie c’ynoaaee
aioo??oiueieaenaii? a?aeiioaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a. Oeae
aiae?c iieacaa, ui a?eueo?noue ENA i?eeiaoiee?a iiceoeaii? oa iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee aeyaeee aenieee nooi?iue naiaioe/iiai ca‘yceo c caaaeueiei,
?iaa??aioiei cia/aiiyi neiaa.

Naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a i?eeiaoiee?a anstaendig, praechtig, schoen, boese,
schlimm, schaebig, klaeglich ia? oaeee aeaeyae: aieiaia cia/aiiy neiaa
i?iyaey? iaeneiaeueio aeecuee?noue aei ?iaa??aioa (eiao?oe??io
ei?aeyoe?? iaaeeaea?oueny aei 1), on? ?io? cia/aiiy ? iaaaaaoi
a?aeaeaeai?oeie a?ae ?iaa??aioiiai, a, ioaea, ? a?ae aieiaiiai cia/aiiy
i?eeiaoieea. I?eeiaoieee fein, uebel, jaemmerlich, elend, kuemmerlich
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aeiioaiiyie ?ioiai oeio i?ae ENA nai?o naiaioe/ieo
no?oeoo?. ?o iniaeea?noue iieyaa? o oiio, ui o oeeo i?eeiaoiee?a ia
noaoon aieiaiiai cia/aiiy i?aoaiaeothoue iaeii/anii aeaa cia/aiiy: ca
?acoeueoaoaie ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co aiie io?eiaee iaeaea iaeiaeia?
eiao?oe??ioe R. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo, ne?ae, iaiaaia, aiai?eoe i?i
??aiicia/io (aai iaeaea ??aiicia/io) aeooaeuei?noue oaeeo ENA o
naiaioe/ieo no?oeoo?ao oeeo ne?a.

Ii??aiyiiy io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith eiioaenoieia?/iiai oa
aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/iiai iaoiaeo aeaieo i?i aoaeiao nieneiaeo
no?oeoo? i?eeiaoiee?a c aeaieie, ui i?noyoueny o oeoia/ieo neiaieeao
no/anii? i?iaoeueei? iiae cana?ae/eei ?ica?aeiino? ye o e?eueeino?
cia/aiue, oae ? o ii?yaeeo ?o ?icoaooaaiiy. E??i oeueiai, ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe iaiaeiicia/i?noue i?aaenoaaeaiiy naiaioe/ieo no?oeoo?
i?eeiaoiee?a ??cieie eaeneeia?ao?/ieie aeaea?aeaie. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith
oaeeo ?icoiaeaeaiue ?, ianaiia?aae, ia?ic?iaeai?noue aaaaoueio i?iaeai
oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii? eaeneeia?ao??, cie?aia aecia/aiiy a/aieie –
oii?yaeieeaie neiaiee?a nooiaiy naiaioe/ii? ca’ycaiino? ca aeiiiiiaith
“iiaiiai /oooy”. O ca’yceo c oeei aeaea?oueny iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o eaeneeia?ao?/io i?aeoeeo oi/ieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O?ao?i aoaiii naiaioe/iiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaiiy iaai?o
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a, ui aeyaeeeny iaea?eueo /anoioieie, a
ioaea, iaea?eueo aeooae?ciaaieie aeey a?oie ioe?ii/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co c’ynoaaeinue, ui naiaioe/ia iiea
“iiceoeaia ioe?iea” iieno?oueny iae/ano?oa oaeeie ENA: 1) ”oaeee, ui
a?aeiia?aea? iaaiei aeiiaai, caaeia?eueiee ca nai?ie yeinoyie oa
aeanoeainoyie”; 2) “oaeee, ui caneoaiao? aeniei? ii?aeueii? ioe?iee,
ii?yaeiee”; 3) “i?eoeeueiee, ni?eyoeeaee, aeia?ee”; 4) “aeinoaoi?e,
nie?aeiee, oaeee, ui ? o aaeee?e e?eueeino?”; 5) “oaeee, ui i?eiineoue
anoaoe/ia caaeiaieaiiy, aa?iee, /a??aiee”; 6) “i?e?iiee, aeaaioai?iee,
oaeee, ui ?aaeo?”; 7) “na?aea/iee, ae?oaei?e, aeia?ice/eeaee”; 8)
“?ice?oiee, ieoiee”; 9) “a?aei?iiee, /oaeiaee, iaaecae/aeiee, oaeee, ui
o iaeaeu?e nooiai? a?aeiia?aea? iaaiiio ?aeaaeo”; 10) iaoaoi?e/ia
cia/aiiy, ui aaeeaa?oueny c iaoith ??ii?/iiai i?aeneeaiiy ? i?noeoue
canoaeaeoaaeueio naio.

Naiaioe/ia iiea “iaaaoeaia ioe?iea” iieno?oueny oaeeie ENA: 1)
“iacaaeia?eueiee ca ye?noth, oaeee, ui ia a?aeiia?aea? i/?eoaaiiyi”; 2)
“iai?e?iiee, ia?aae?niee, oaeee, ui ia noaaeth?oueny”; 3)
“iani?eyoeeaee, i?ee?ee, oaeee, ui ia? iacaaeia?euei? iane?aeee”; 4)
“iaaeia?ee, ceee, oaeee, ui ia caneoaiao? noaaeaiiy o ii?aeueiiio
aniaeo?”; 5)“iaaeinoaoi?e, oaeee, ui ? o iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino?”;
6) “aeaetha?aeiee, ceeaeaiiee, iea/aaiee”; 7)“i?aeeee, i?e/aiiee”.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

I?e iien? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ia‘?aeiaieo o ENA, aeooaeueieie ? o?e
iniiai? i?iaeaie:

a) i?iaeaia eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? (i?aeeaenaii? neioaaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy);

a) i?iaeaia “naiaioe/iiai iiey” (i?aeeaenaii? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy);

a) i?iaeaia nieneiai? no?oeoo?e neiaa (aioo?eoiueieaenaii?
ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy).

Aeey iieno neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a i?eeiaoiee?a aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe
ieceo noaoenoe/ieo ia?aiao??a: /anoioo, ianya oa oaeeaai?noue
i?aeeeano, oe?ioo oa ?ioaineai?noue niieo/oaaiino?.

An? aeaiaioe ENA oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaiaeiaeiaith oe?ioith oa
?ioaineai?noth niieo/oaaiino? ia ??ai? i?aeeeano oa ie?aiiai neiaa. Oae,
aeii?iaioe ENA anoaiiaeththoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue noaoenoe/ii cia/oueo
neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a c a?aeiinii iaaaeeeith ?o ?ioaineai?noth.
Ia?eoa??ei? i?eeiaoieee, iaaiaee, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ia/eneaiieie, aea
aeineoue ?ioaineaieie neioaaiaoe/ieie ca‘yceaie. I?ae ia?aiao?aie “/enei
anoaiiaeaieo neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a” oa “?ioaineai?noue ca‘yce?a”
niinoa??aa?oueny cai?ioia caeaaei?noue.

I?ae ia?aiao?aie “/anoioa aaeeaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue” oa “e?euee?noue noaiaea?oieo neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a” ?nio?
i?yii i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue. Iaea?eueo /anoioi? i?eeiaoieee ?
iaea?eueo “aeoeaieie” o neioaaiaoe/iiio aniaeo?.

E?euee?noue ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue neiaa caeaaeeoue a?ae
neeaaeiiai ia?aieao?iiy aeae?eueeio /eiiee?a: naiaioe/iiai ia‘?io,
oe?ioe niieo/oaaiino? neiaa, /anoioe eiai aaeeaaiiy, a oaeiae a?ae
e?eueeino? ni?eueieo naiaioe/ieo ia?aoei?a ne?a. Aeii?iaioe ENA
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaiaaeaiith e?euee?noth ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue
ye ii e?i?? neiii?i??, oae ? ii e?i?? aioii?i??.

Aioii?i?/i? a?oie ioe?ii/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a iathoue ieceo a?aei?iieo
iniaeeainoae ye e?euee?niiai, oae ? ye?niiai oa?aeoa?o. Aiie
a?ae??ciythoueny: a) /anoioith aaeeaaiiy o oaeno?; a) oaeeaai?noth; a)
??aiii??i?noth ?iciiae?eaiiy aeaiaio?a ENA i?ae yae?ii ? ia?eoa???th oa
ie?aieie ciiaie ia?eoa???; a) /eneii anoaiiaeaieo neioaaiaoe/ieo
ca‘yce?a; ae) ?ioaineai?noth neioaaiaoe/ieo ca‘yce?a; a) iniaeea?noth
nieneiai? no?oeoo?e ne?a (iaeiicia/i?noue/aaaaoicia/i?noue).

Nieneiaa no?oeoo?a aaaaoicia/iiai neiaa yaey? niaith noeoii?noue
???a?o?/ii i?aai?ciaaieo cia/aiue, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ci?e a?aenoai?
a?ae naiaioe/iiai no?eaeiy neiaa. Aieiaiei oaeoi?ii, ui iaoiiaeth?
nooi?iue a?aeaeaeaiino? iaaiiai ENA a?ae ?iaa??aioiiai cia/aiiy neiaa, ?
nooi?iue ni?aiaae?iiy ?o aeeno?eaooeaieo oi?ioe. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei oa
ia‘?eoeaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy nieneiai? no?oeoo?e aaaaoicia/iiai
neiaa ? ii?aeiaiiy eiioaenoieia?/iiai oa aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co.

Io?eiai? aeai? i?i neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? ca‘ycee
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a oa ?o nieneiao no?oeoo?o iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e oeeaaeaii? oeoia/ieo ? neiii?i?/ieo neiaiee?a, a oaeiae
neiaiee?a niieo/oaaiino?. I?iaaaeaiiy iiae?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
iaoa??ae? ?ioeo oa?oioaaiue aeanoue ciiao ia’?eoeaii iienaoe
eaeneei-naiaioe/io nenoaio iiae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aeoeaaia I.A. Aea/aiiy eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? ca aeiiiiiaith
aeeno?eaooeaii – noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe. i?. –
*a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. – Aei.1. – N. 54-64.

Aeoeaaia I.A. No?oeoo?a naiaioe/iiai iiey i?eeiaoiee?a caaaeueii?
ioe?iee // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea
o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe. i?. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – Aei. 12. – N. 60 –
63.

Aeoeaaia I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy nieneiai? no?oeoo?e iie?naiaioe/ieo ne?a
(ia i?eeeaae? i?iaoeueeiai i?eeiaoieea gut) // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aa?iainueea o?eieia?y: Ca. iaoe. i?. –
*a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – Aei. 27. – N. 57-61.

Aeoeaaia I.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i neioaaiaoe/i? oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy o eaeneei – naiaioe/ieo a?oiao i?eeiaoiee?a ?c cia/aiiyi
ioe?iee o no/ani?e i?iaoeuee?e iia? // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie e?iaa?noeee
oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia o aoc? oa oeie?: Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oaeoeueoaoo ?iicaiieo iia. – A?iieoey:
AAeI?, 1995. – N. 13-17.

Wyschywana N. Analyse der synonymischen und antonymischen Beziehungen
von lexikalischen Systemen // Iia? i?aeoiaee ? oeyoe o i?aeaioiaoe?
aeeeaaea/?a ? a/eoae?a i?iaoeueei? iiae, aa?iai?no?a ? ia?aeeaaea/?a a
Oe?a?i?: Oace aeiiia?aeae IV eiioa?aioe?? anioe?aoe?? aa?iai?no?a
Oe?a?ie. – Aeiiaoeuee: Aeii AeO, 1996. – n. 52-53.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeoeaaia I.A. I?eeiaoieee ioe?iee o no/ani?e i?iaoeuee?e iia?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae. – Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

A i?aaenoaaeai?e aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee naiaioeei –
noaoenoe/iee aiae?c i?eeiaoiee?a ioe?iee no/anii? i?iaoeueei? iiae ca
oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: eaene/ia oa naiaioe/ia niieo/oaai?noue,
ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy, nieneiaa no?oeoo?a neiaa.

Iienaii /anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee eaeneei – naiaioe/ii? a?oie, aei neeaaeo
yei? aoiaeyoue i?eeiaoieee ioe?iee. Aeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a c ?iaiieeaie ia ??ai? i?aeeeano oa ie?aiiai
neiaa oa anoaiiaeaii neioaaiaoe/i? ca’ycee aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a.

Ia iniia? niieo/oaaeueieo aeanoeainoae c’yniaai? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?eeiaoieeaie oa aecia/aiee nooi?iue ?o
“neiii?i?/iino?”/“aioii?i?/iino?”.

Aecia/aii iniaeeaino? ???a?o?/ieo a?aeiioaiue i?ae ENA o nieneiaeo
no?oeoo?ao iie?naiaioe/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ENA, aeeno?eaooeaii – noaoenoe/iee iaoiae,
niieo/oaai?noue, neioaaiaoe/i? ca’ycee, ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy,
nieneiaa no?oeoo?a neiaa, ENA.

AIIIOAOeEss

Auoeaaiay I.A. I?eeaaaoaeueiua ioeaiee a nia?aiaiiii iaiaoeeii ycuea. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee. – Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth naiaioeee i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ioeaiee a
nia?aiaiiii iaiaoeeii ycuea.

Iaoa?eaeii enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeea auai?ea ec 40 ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee iaiaoeeiycu/iuo ienaoaeae, iauei iauaiii ieiei 4 iei.
neiaioiio?aaeaiee, a oaeaea aeaiiua oieeiauo e neiiieie/aneeo neiaa?ae.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony a?oiia ioeaii/iuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo,
ninoiyuay ec 30 eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe.

Aeenna?oaoeey ninoieo ec e?aoeiai aaaaeaiey, /aou??o aeaa, iaueo
auaiaeia nienea eaeneeia?aoe/aneeo enoi/ieeia e i?eeiaeaiee.

A ia?aie aeaaa ?anniao?eaathony oai?aoe/aneea e iaoiaeieiae/aneea
i?aaeiinueee eco/aiey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ioeaiee, a /anoiinoe i?iaeaia
eaene/aneiai cia/aiey neiaa, nenoaiiua ioiioaiey a eaeneea, a oaeaea
eco/athony iniaaiiinoe ycueiaie eaoaai?ee ioeaii/iinoe.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa eceaaathony ?acoeueoaou eiaaioa?ecaoeee enneaaeoaiie
ENA, auiieiaiiie n iiiiuueth eiooeoeaii-eiae/aneiai iaoiaea e
noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

N iiiiuueth aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/aneiai iaoiaea enneaaeoaony
eaene/aneay e naiaioe/aneay ni/aoaaiinoue i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ioeaiee,
onoaiaaeeaathony iaai?u eo noaiaea?oiuo neioaaiaoe/aneeo ia?oia?ia. I?e
yoii o/eouaaaony ?yae eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia: /anoioa, iau?i e
oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue iiaeeeanna, oe?ioa e eioaineaiinoue ni/aoaaiinoe.

A o?aoueae aeaaa enneaaeothony ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ioeaiee ia iniiaa eo ni/aoaaiinoe n iiaeeeannaie
nouanoaeoaeueiuo.

*aoaa?oay aeaaa iinayuaia eco/aieth niuneiauo no?oeoo? enneaaeoaiuo
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, ii?aaeaeaieth iniaaiiinoae ea?a?oe/aneeo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ENA i?eeaaaoaeueiuo-iieenaiaioia.

ENA i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ioeaiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iee?inenoaio iniaiai
oeia, ninoiyuoth ec aeaoo neiiieie/aneeo ?yaeia, aeiieiaiou eioi?uo
iaoiaeyony iaaeaeo niaie a aioiieie/aneeo ioiioaieyo.

I?e iienaiee neioaaiaoe/aneeo naycae i?eeaaaoaeueiuo oeaeaniia?acii
eniieueciaaoue ?yae noaoenoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia: /anoioo, iauai e
oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue iiaeeeanna, oe?ioo e eioaineaiinoue ni/aoaaiinoe.

Ana yeaiaiou ENA oa?aeoa?ecothony iaiaeeiaeiaie oe?ioie e
eioaineaiinoueth ni/aoaaiinoe ia o?iaia iiaeeeanna neia e ioaeaeueiiai
neiaa. Oae, aeiieiaiou a?oiiu gut e schlecht iaeaaeatho aieueoei
eiee/anoaii noaoenoe/anee cia/eiuo naycae i?e iaaieueoie eioaineaiinoe.
Ia?eoa?eeiua i?eeaaaoaeueiua, iaiai?io, oa?aeoa?ecothony iaei/eneaiiuie,
ii eioaineaiuie naycyie.

Iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie “/anoioa oiio?aaeaiey enneaaeoaiie eaene/aneie
aaeeieoeu” e “eiee/anoai noaiaea?oiuo neioaaiaoe/aneeo naycae”
iaaethaeaaony i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay caaeneiinoue: iaeaieaa /anoioiua
i?eeaaaoaeueiua yaeythony iaeaieaa “aeoeaiuie” a neioaaiaoe/aneii
aniaeoa.

Aeiieiaiou ENA oa?aeoa?ecothony ia?aie/aiiui eiee/anoaii
ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee eae ii eeiee neiiieiee, oae e ii eeiee
aioiieiee. Eiee/anoai ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee neiaa caaeneo io
neiaeiiai ia?aieaoaiey ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia: naiaioe/aneiai iauaia,
oe?iou ni/aoaaiinoe neiaa, /anoiou aai oiio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea io /enea
iaueo naiaioe/aneeo ia?ana/aiee neia.

Aioiieie/aneea a?oiiu ioeaii/iuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo eiatho ?yae
ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae eae eiee/anoaaiiiai, oae e ea/anoaaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a. Iie ?acee/athony: a) /anoioie oiio?aaeaiey a oaenoa; a)
oiio?aaeoaeueiinoueth; a) ?aaiiia?iinoueth ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaiaioia ENA
iaaeaeo yae?ii e ia?eoa?eae, a oaeaea ioaeaeueiuie ciiaie ia?eoa?ee; a)
eiee/anoaii e eioaineaiinoueth neioaaiaoe/aneeo naycae; ae)
iniaaiiinoueth no?iaiey niuneiaie no?oeoo?u neiaa.

Aeaaiui oaeoi?ii, iaoneiaeeaathuei noaiaiue oaeaeaiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ENA io eiaa?eaioiiai cia/aiey neiaa (naiaioe/aneiai noa?aeiy), yaeyaony
noaiaiue niaiaaeaiey eo aeeno?eaooeaiuo oi?ioe.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa naiaioeei-noaoenoe/aneiai
aiaeeca aeaiiua i neioaaiaoe/aneeo naycyo, ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneeo ioiioaieyo
e niuneiaie no?oeoo?a i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ioeaiee, nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ytho
iaoe ciaiey ia eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiee a ?a/e.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ENA, aeeno?eaooeaii-noaoenoe/aneee iaoiae,
ni/aoaaiinoue, neioaaiaoe/aneea nayce, ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey,
niuneiaay no?oeoo?a neiaa, ENA.

SUMMARY

Vyshyvana N.V. Evaluative adjectives in Modern German.- Manuscript.

Thesis for Candidate Degree in Philology. Speciality 10.02.04 – Germanic
Languages. – Taras Shevchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv, 1999.

The present dissertation deals with the complex semantic-statistic
analysis of the evaluative adjectives in Modern German according to the
following aspects: lexical and semantic combinability, paradigmatic
relationships, semantic structure of the word.

Frequency characteristics of the lexico-semantic group of the evaluative
adjectives are presented here. Word combinations of the adjectives with
noun subclasses and separate nouns have been analyzed. Syntagmatic ties
of the studied adjectives have been established and classified.

Paradigmatic relationships between adjectives are learned on the basis
of their combinative powers and the degree of their
“synonymity”/“antonymity” is determined with the help of special
statistical methods.

We have studied the peculiarities of the hierarchical relationships
between lexico-semantic variants (LSV) in the semantic structure of the
polysemantic adjectives.

Key words: LSG, distributive – statistic method, valency, syntagmatic
ties, paradigmatic relationships, semantic structure of the word, LSV.

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