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Причини і механізми зниження заплідненості корів та її корекція: Автореф. дис… канд. вет. наук / С.С. Волков, Харк. зоовет. ін-т. — Х., 1999. — 16 с

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OA?E?ANUeEEE CIIAAOA?EIA?IEE ?INOEOOO

Aieeia Na?a?e Naiaiiae/

OAeE 619:618.17:636.2

I?E*EIE ? IAOAI?CIE CIEAEAIIss CAIE?AeIAIINO? EI??A OA ?? EI?AEOe?ss

16.00.07 – aaoa?eia?ia aeooa?noai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?ieo
iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a A?eioea?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oa?ooa A?eai??e
A?eai?iae/, A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa ? ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy n.-a. oaa?ei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii?ic ?aai Aa?aneiiae/, Eoaainueeee
aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ?
o?c?ieia?? n.-a. oaa?ei

eaiaeeaeao aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, aeioeaioIeoaaoe?ueia A?eoi? Iaaeiae/,
Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e o??o?a?? ? aeooa?noaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a aeooa?noaa ? ooo/iiai
in?iai?iiy n.-a. oaa?ei, I?i?noa?noai aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 2 ” eeiiy 1999 ?. i 9-00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.070.01 i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio ciiaaoa?eia?iiio ?inoeooo? ca aae?anith: 312050,
Oa?e?anueea iaeanoue, Aea?aa/?anueeee ?aeii, i/a Iaea Aeaiee?aea, OCA?

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
ciiaaoa?eia?iiai ?inoeoooo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
______________ Naaaiei I.I.

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noai a?aeoai?aiiy iiaie?a’y aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae
iiei/iiai iai?yio a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
cieaeaiiyi aeoiaeo oaeyo ia 100 ei??a, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny
ca?eueoaiiyi iaie?aeiino? naiie ? cia/ieie aeiiii?/ieie caeoeaie. Na?aae
??cieo oi?i iaie?aeiino? ei??a iaei??th c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo ? ooo/ii
iaaooa, yea a ie?aieo ainiiaea?noaao ?a?no?o?oueny o 45–49 % oaa?ei. Ca
aeaieie A.N. Oeieeiaa (1977), A.N. Oeieeiaa, A.E. Eiiuoeia (1980), A.A.
Ca???ai?, I.?. Na?a??iea, A.I. *oo??y (1984), A. Ai?aeiia (1989), I.E.
Iieyioeaaa, A.I. Neiyaeia (1989), aeieeiaiiy ooo/ii iaaooi? iaie?aeiino?
iia’ycaia c iai?aaeeueiei aecia/aiiyi iioeiaeueiiai /ano in?iai?iiy,
aeei?enoaiiyi nia?ie iecueei? yeino? oa iaeiaoaeoeaieo niinia?a ??
aaaaeaiiy, ii?ooaiiyie oaoiieia?? ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy, ?aii?oaaiiyi
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie uiaei iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeiaiino?. Aiane?aeie
ia?a?aoiaaieo i?e/ei caie?aeiai?noue ei??a a?ae iaeiiai in?iai?iiy
aeinyaa? 50 %, a a ?aooe oaa?ei ?a?no?othoue ooo/ii iaaooo
iaie?aei?noue. Ca iaoeie aeaieie, nooo?aith i?e/eiith iaie?aeiino?
ei??a ? cieaeaiiy caie?aeiaiino? aiane?aeie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
?iceaae?a noaoaai? nenoaie ? iaiiaiioe?iiiai ia?aa?ao oaiiiai?a noaae??
caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo. A na?aaeiueiio aeecueei 30 % ei??a i?ae
/an noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo iathoue ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei?
?iceaaee y?/iee?a ? iaoee, a i?e no?eeiaiio oo?eiaii? ?o e?euee?noue
c?inoa? aei 60 % ? a?eueoa.

A?aoiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia aeua, ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy
caie?aeiaiino?, ye caniao i?io?eaeoeee iaie?aeiino? ei??a c ?iceaaeaie
oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy ? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aai?oae?e,
? iniaeeai aeooaeueiith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeiny ye
/anoeia ?iiiaaoe?eii? oaie 2.18-AO oa aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie 082/1-8,
iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0193042476.

Iaoa ?iaioe – iaa?oiooaaoe ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee iaie?aeiino?
ei??a oeyoii i?iaieoaaiiy iaoeyoe?? ? iie?ioaiiy ethoaiaaiaco i?e
aeayeeo neiioiiieiiieaenao ii?ooaiue oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy ?
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ?iceaaeao noaio y?/iee?a oa iaoee ia?aae
in?iai?iiyi.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? cacia/aii? iaoe aoee aecia/ai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

· aea/eoe i?e/eie ? iaoai?cie ii?ooaiue oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy
noaoaaiai oeeeeo oa cieaeaiiy caie?aeiaiino? ei??a;

· aea/eoe oi?ie ? /anoioo ii?ooaiue ia?aa?ao oaiiiai?a noaae??
caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo oa ?o aieea ia caie?aeiai?noue;

· iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeiaiino? ei??a i?e ii?ooaiiyo
o?/ee, caaaeueiiai caoaeaeaiiy, noaio y?/iee?a ? iaoee;

· ai?iaoaaoe iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeiaiino? ei??a oa aeaoe
aeiiii?/iee aiae?c aeioe?eueiino? ?o canoinoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
c’yniaai? i?e/eie oa aeaye? iaoai?cie ?iceaaeo oaiiiai?a noaae??
caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo ? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aai?oae?e oa
iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee ei?aeoe?? caie?aeiaiino? ei??a i?e ??cieo
neiioiiieiiieaenao noii?aiiai i?iaiico oeyoii i?iaieoaaiiy iaoeyoe??,
ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo aeiaoiai o?ea, i?io?eaeoeee aia??iiaeueii? nia?oiino?
c aeei?enoaiiyi i?inoaaeaiaeeio F2, aiiaaeio?ii?i-?ae?c?ia oaeoi?o (A?O)
? iie?a?oai?i?a. Onoaiiaeai? aiaeie?eii? ci?ie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
o?ainoi?iaoe?th aeiaoiai o?ea noaoaaiai oeeeeo a aeiaoa o?ei aaa?oiino?
oa ia?oo ? ae?oao oaee? ?inoo oie?eoe?a o o?eueieo ? iaie?aeieo ei??a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeai?,
iaea?aeai? i?e aea/aii? i?e/ei ? iaoai?ci?a cieaeaiiy caie?aeiaiino?
ei??a c neiioiiieiiieaenii noii?aiiai i?iaiico, oa iane?aeee ??
ei?aeoe?? aeathoue i?aenoaae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe i?aeoe/iei oao?aoeyi
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie canoiniaoaaoe noia?oai, no?oaaii ? oao?aa?o aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeiaiino? ei??a i?e aeyaeaii? o ieo iieaciee?a ?iceaaeo
oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo ? noaio aai?oae?e ia?aae
in?iai?iiyi. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aea/aii?
eo?no “Aeooa?noai, a?iaeieia?y ? a?ioaoiieia?y ?iciiiaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei” ia oaeoeueoao? aaoa?eia?ii?
iaaeeoeeie, cii?iaeaia?iiio oaeoeueoao? oa a ?inoeooo? i?neyaeeieiiiiai
iaa/aiiy ea??aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie i?e
A?eioea?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, oa?eoee aei “Iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii a?aeoai?aiith noaaea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae iiei/iiai
iai?yio”, noaaeaieo ?aaeith oaeoeueoaoo aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie
A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?aaeith Oe?ieaiia’?aeiaiiy, a oaeiae – aei
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e “Ooo/ia in?iai?iiy ei??a ? oaeeoeue”, noaaeaieo ?aaeith
oaeoeueoaoo aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ye? aeaeai? ianiaei oe?aaeai.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii aeeiiaii aanue ianya
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeeany ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa
aea?aeaaieo iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (i. A?ea
Oea?eaa, 1994, 1995, 1998; i. Ee?a, 1994, 1996; i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1994) oa ia can?aeaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oiaa?enoaa ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa
A?eioea?e?anueeiai AeAO (1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iioae?eiaaii o o?ueio noaooyo, ui aeeoee a aeo?iaeao “Oaa?eiieoeoai
Oe?a?ie” (2) ? “Aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie” (1) oa iaoa??aeao 7
eiioa?aioe?e (7 ioae?eaoe?e).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 127
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 24 oaaeeoeyie ? 4
?enoieaie. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
aeeeaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e
ae?iaieoeoao oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e c 228
iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio /ene? 35 – ?iicaiieo.

Aea?? iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoa??aeoa iaoiaee aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe

Iaoa??aeii aeey aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue neoaeeee ei?iae /i?ii-?yai?
ii?iaee, a?eii 3–5 ?ie?a ? c na?aaeiuei??/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
3000–3500 ea iieiea, ui iaeaaeaee eieaeoeaiiio iaeiaiio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio oiaa?enoao “Onoei?anueea” Aaneeuee?anueeiai
?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? oa o/ainio A?eioea?e?anueeiai AeAO.

O?/eo o ei??a aecia/aee iaeyaeii noaoaaeo aoa ? neeciai? iaieiiee
ia?aaeaeaa?’y i?oae, caaaeueia caoaeaeaiiy – niinoa?aaeaiiyi ca
iiaaae?ieith, noaoaao ioioo aeyaeyee aoaa?i-i?iaieeii, iaoeyoe?th –
iine?aeiaiei o?ain?aeoaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi y?/iee?a /a?ac eiaei? o?e
aiaeeie i?ney aeyaeaiiy noaoaai? ioioe. Noaoaaee oeeee aaaaeaee
neio?iiiei i?e 30-aiaeeiiiio ?ioa?aae? i?ae aeyaeaiiyi noaoaai? ioioe ?
iaoeyoe??th. I?e ca?eueoaii? cacia/aiiai ?ioa?aaeo noaoaaee oeeee
a?aeiineee aei aneio?iiiiai.

Ii?oieia?/iee noai aeiaoeo o?e y?/iee?a aecia/aee iaeueiaoi?ii i?e
o?ain?aeoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii?. sse?noue aeiaoeo o?e aecia/aee ca
iaoiaeeeith A.A. Oa?ooe (1994) c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?ici???a (ae?aiao?,
aenioa), oi?ie oa ?ici?uaiiy ia iiaa?oi? y?/ieea.

O?euei?noue ae?aaiinooaaee iaoiaeii o?ain?aeoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
/a?ac 60–75 aei?a i?ney inoaiiueiai in?iai?iiy. Ae?aaiinoeeo cao?eiaiiy
iine?aeo, noa?iaiethoe?? iaoee, i?ney?iaeiaiai aiaeiiao?eoo,
ia?nenoaioe?? aeiaoiai o?ea, ethoa?iiaeo e?no, neea?ico oa a?iiooieoe??
y?/iee?a i?iaiaeeee ca i?eeiyoeie a aeooa?noa? iaoiaeeeaie. I?iaiic
caie?aeiaiino? ei??a anoaiiaethaaee niinoa?aaeaiiyi ca ia?aa?aii o?/ee ?
noaoaaiai caoaeaeaiiy oa o?ain?aeoaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi noaio y?/iee?a
? iaoee.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo i?iaanoa?iio, ano?aae?ieo, oanoinoa?iio, ei?oeciio oa
i?ieaeoeio a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? i?iaiaeeee ?aae?i?ioiieia?/iei iaoiaeii
i?ney ?? iiia?aaeiueiai caii?iaeoaaiiy o iie?noe?ieiaeo i?ia??eao.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?aae?iae?aaiinoe/ieo iaai??a
?aaaaio?a ae?iaieoeoaa OII?AIO AI A?N?, aeaoaeoiaaieo J 125 ia
aaoiiaoeciaaieo -e?/eeueieeao ??A–300 o??ie LKB a oiiaao
?aae?i?ioiieia?/ieo eaai?aoi??e ?aaiianueeiai n.-a. ?inoeoooo oa
Ee?anueeiai IAe? iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia??.

Aoaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy caie?aeiaiino? ei??a aecia/aee ia
/ioe?ueio a?oiao oaa?ei i?ney anoaiiaeaiiy noii?aiiai i?iaiico.
I?aia?aoe aaiaeeee aioo??oiueii’yciai i?ioyaii aiaeeie ia?aae
in?iai?iiyi ei??a. Noaia i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a iaaaaeaia o oaae. 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Noaia aeine?aeo c aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy
caie?aeiaiino? ei??a i?ae /an in?iai?iiy

A?oie oaa?eiAaaaeaiiy i?aia?ao?aAeine?aei?1Oao?aa?o – 15 ie2Oao?aa?o –
15 ie, no?oaaii – 2 ie3Oao?aa?o – 15 ie, noia?oai – 2
ieEiio?ieueiaI?aia?aoe ia aaiaeeee

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeee ca ?.A. Iea?iei
(1960), ca?aeii c i?ia?aiith eiii’thoa?a Pentium 166.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeaie O.O. A?eioniaa c ni?aaao.
(1982) oa INA N?N? (Aaoa?eia?ey.– 1984.– ? 1.– N. 73–79).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o aiae?c

I?e/eie ? iaoai?cie cieaeaiiy caie?aeiaiino? ei??a

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui a iaeiaiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio oiaa?enoa?
(INAO) “Onoei?anueea” Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? aeo?ae
oaeyo i?ioyaii 1991–1993 ?ie?a noaiiaea 79,5–70,4 aie?a, ui
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioa?aaeo i?ae ioaeaiiyi ? caie?aeiaiiyi
aei 144–175 aei?a, o?eaaeino? i?aeioaeueiiai ?ioa?aaeo aei 429–460
aei?a, e?eueeino? aei?a iaie?aeiino? ia ei?iao – aei 114–145 oa
cieaeaiiyi ?aae?caoe?? iioaioe?aeo a?aeoai?aiiy – aei 70–61%. Na?eiciith
i?e/eiith cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a a?aeoai?aiiy, aoea iecueea
caie?aeiai?noue ei??a, yea noaiiaeea 30–33 %, ui ia 17–20 % ieae/a a?ae
e?eoe/ii aeiionoeiiai ??aiy. Oea i?ecaiaeeei aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaeaeno
in?iai?iiy aei 3,0–3,3 ? aeei?enoaiiy oanoe ? a?eueoa nia?iiaeic ia
iaeia caie?aeiaiiy.

Aiae?aey ei??a, iniaeeai a ceiiaee ia??iae, aoea iaiiaiioe?iiith.
Eaeooth/? oaa?eie iaaeiiaea?aeoaaee oeoei?, n?eue eooiiio, eaeueoe?e,
oinoi?, eiae. Oeoe?iai-i?ioa?iiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a ?aoe?ii? aeey
eaeooth/eo ei??a ia ceiiaee ia??iae aoei iecueeei ? noaiiaeei 0,44:1
(i?e ii?i? 0,8–1,5:1), eaeueoe??ai-oinoi?ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aei??aithaaei 3,8:1 i?e iecueeiio ai?no? oinoi?o (ia 100 a ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa?io – 3 a) ? aenieiio ai?no? eaeueoe?th (11 a). Ai?no eae?th a
aeiaiaiio ?aoe?ii? aoa aeuei a?ae ii?ie (75 a i?e ii?i? 40–60 a) ca
a?aenooiino? nie? eooiiii?, iio?aaa a ye?e noaiiaeoue 75 a (30 a
iao??th).

A ia??iae c eenoiiaaea ii o?aaaiue a ainiiaea?noa? i?aeoeeoaaee
oe?eiaeiaiaa i?ea’ycia oo?eiaiiy ei??a, ui aeeeth/aei iioe?ii oa
?inieyoe?th. Cacia/ai? ii?ooaiiy aiae?ae? oa oaoiieia?? oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei
o ainiiaea?noa? i?ecaiaeeee aei ii?ooaiue iai?io ?a/iaei a i?aai?ci?
ei??a ? ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe aeooa?nueeeo oai?ia. Cao?eiaiiy iine?aeo
?a?no?oaaee o 34 % ei??a aeaiiai noaaea, noa?iaiethoe?th – o 44 %, a
aiaeiiao?eo ?icaeaaany o 34 % c 800 oaa?ei. Iane?aeeii iani?eyoeeaiai
aieeao aeciaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?aai?ci ei??a oa aeniei? /anoioe
aeooa?nueeeo iaoieia?e aoei ianiaa aeieeiaiiy a?iaeieia?/ieo oai?ia c
o?aaeaiiyi y?/iee?a ? iaoee (oaae. 2) oa aiao?iaeec??th (a?aenooi?noth
i?iyao noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo i?ioyaii 30 ? a?eueoa aei?a
i?ney ?iae?a), yeo ?a?no?oaaee o 91 % ei??a.

Oaaeeoey 2

*anoioa a?iaeieia?/ieo oai?ia ei??a c iciaeaie aiao?iaeec??

A?iaeieia?/i? oai?iaen%A?iiooieoe?y y?/iee?a1326Ia?nenoaioia aeiaoa o?ei
y?/iee?a714Neea?ic y?/iee?a510A?iioii?y, aoii?y iaoee36E?noa aeiaoiai
o?ea12A?iiooieoe?y y?/iee?a; a?iioii?y, aoii?y iaoee714Ia?nenoaioia
aeiaoa o?ei; a?iioii?y, aoii?y iaoee612Neea?ic y?/iee?a; a?iioii?y,
aoii?y iaoee12E?noa aeiaoiai o?ea, aoii?y iaoee12Aac ee?i?/ieo ci?i o
y?/ieeao ? iaooe? (ee?i?/ii caei?ia?)612Onueiai ei??a50100Na?aae
a?iaeieia?/ieo oai?ia iaea?eueoa iioe?aiiy iaee oai?iae y?/iee?a
(a?iiooieoe?y, ia?nenoaioe?y aeiaoiai o?ea, neea?ic) – 50 % oa
anioe?aoe?? oai?ia y?/iee?a ? iaoee (a?iiooieoe?y, ia?nenoaioe?y aeiaoeo
o?e, a?iioii?y aai aoii?y iaoee) – 26,6 %. O /anoeie ei??a (12 %) i?e
o?ain?aeoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? noaio y?/iee?a ? iaoee a?aeoeeaiue a?ae
ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ia aeyaeee, ui na?ae/eoue i?i eiia??i?noue
iioeaee i?e aecia/aii? o ieo iioeiaeueiiai /ano aeey aaaaeaiiy nia?ie
ee?i?ei-a?coaeueiei iaoiaeii.

Ioaea, o 88 % ei??a i?e/eiith aiao?iaeec?? aoee a?iaeieia?/i? oai?iae c
o?aaeaiiyie y?/iee?a ? iaoee, ye? coiiaethaaee ii?ooaiiy ?icaeoeo
oie?eoe?a, e?ceno aeiaoeo o?e aaa?oiino? oa noaoaaiai oeeeeo.

I?ae /an noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo a ei??a niinoa??aaee
aenieo /anoioo ii?ooaiue a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia?. Ii?ooaiiy ai?noo
eaeueoe?th caaaeueiiai, a?oai?io A, ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a oa
eaeueoe??ai-oinoi?iiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy niinoa??aaee o 50–78 % oaa?ei;
ai?no caaaeueiiai a?eea, oinoi?o iai?aai?/iiai, ea?ioeio – o 23–28 %.
Ii?ooaiiy iai?io ?a/iaei noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ?iceaaeaie noa?i?aeiaaiaco.
Ai?no i?iaanoa?iio aoa ii?ooaiee o 75 % ei??a, ano?aae?ieo – o 83 %,
ei?oeciio – o 83 % oaa?ei. Ii?ooaiiy i?iaanoa?iii-ano?aae?ieiaiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy niinoa??aaeiny o 67 % ei??a. E?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a ?
eaeeioeeo?a ia a?aeiia?aeaea ii?i? o 82 ? 65 % ei??a a?aeiia?aeii, a
ai?no aaiiaeia?io ii?oooaaany o 35 % oaa?ei. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
aoei cieaeaiiy ai?noo ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a o 50 % ei??a, eaeueoe?th
caaaeueiiai – o 43 %, a?oai?io A – o 70 %, i?iaanoa?iio – o 67 %,
ano?aae?ieo – o 83 %, i?iaanoa?iii-ano?aae?ieiaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy – o
58 %, ai?noo ei?oeciio – o 75 %, a?eo?ioeeo?a – o 82 %, eaeeioeeo?a – o
54 % oaa?ei oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaeueoe??ai-oinoi?iiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o 47 %
ei??a.

Cacia/ai? i?e/eie coiiaethaaee oaeiae ii?ooaiiy ia?aa?ao oaiiiai?a
noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo ? noaio aai?oae?e o ei??a. Oae,
aiano?aeueiee noaoaaee oeeee niinoa??aaee o 34 % ei??a, a?aaeoeaiee – o
3 %, ii?ooaiiy ia?aa?ao iaoeyoe?? – o 31 % naiie (aneio?iiiee ia?aa?a
iaoeyoe?? – o 16 %, aiiaoeyoi?iee noaoaaee oeeee – o 15 %) oa
aiano?aeueii-aiiaoeyoi?iee – o 3 %.

Iaiiaiioe?iia aiae?aey, ii?ooaiiy iai?io ?a/iaei ? noa?i?aeiaaiaco oa
ia?aa?ao oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo ni?aaeyee
iaaaoeaiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie aeiaoeo o?e o ei??a.

I?e iiaiioe?iiiio ia?aa?ao noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo 62 %
ei??a iaee aeiao? o?ea a?aei?iii? oa aeia?i? yeino?, 31 % –
caaeia?eueii? ? o 6 % ei??a aeiao? o?ea ia iaeueioaaeeny. Aneio?iiiee
noaoaaee oeeee noi?iaiaeaeoaaany cieaeaiiyi yeino? aeiaoeo o?e; 25 %
ei??a iaee aeiao? o?ea aeia?i? yeino?, a o ?aooe 75 % oaa?ei aeiao? o?ea
ioe?ithaaee o 3 aaee. Aiano?aeueiee ? aiiaoeyoi?iee noaoaaee oeeeee
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ooai?aiiyi aeiaoeo o?e iecueei? ii?oieia?/ii? yeino?,
ioe?iea yeeo ia ia?aaeuoaaea 3 aaee, i?e/iio a 50 % ei??a c
aiiaoeyoi?iei noaoaaei oeeeeii aeiao? o?ea ia iaeueioaaeeny.

?iceaaee ethoaiaaiaco a ei??a i?ecaiaeeee aei a??ia?aeiiai cieaeaiiy ?o
caie?aeiaiino?, ui iia’ycaii c? c?inoaiiyi eiia??iino? aia??iiaeueii?
nia?oiino?.

Ia caie?aeiai?noue ei??a aieeaaea aeeiai?ea ai?noo i?ieaeoeio,
i?iaanoa?iio ? ano?aae?ieo i?ioyaii 0–22-ai aeiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo (oaae.
3).

Oaaeeoey 3

Aeeiai?ea ai?noo o e?ia? ei??a i?ieaeoeio, i?iaanoa?iio ? ano?aae?ieo

oa ?? ca’ycie ?c caie?aeiai?noth (n=9)

?acoeueoaoe in?iai?iiyIieacieeeAi?no ai?iii?a o ??ci? aei? noaoaaiai
oeeeeo0M±m10–11M±m16–17M±m21–22M±mNoaee o?eueieiei?ieaeoei,

ieII/ie46,80±4,3070,70±24,3078,70±25,44134,55±45,50i?iaanoa?ii,

iiieue/e1,77±0,866,22±1,087,02±2,983,72±1,64ano?aae?ie,

iiieue/e0,07±0,020,12±0,060,04±0,010,05±0,01I:A25:152:1175:174:1Caeeoeee
ny iaie?aeieiei?ieaeoei,

ieII/ie47,46±6,1463,96±8,4653,66±6,9764,02±22,57i?iaanoa?ii,

iiieue/e0,80±0,535,68±2,505,62±1,331,10±0,47ano?aae?ie,

iiieue/e0,09±0,040,05±0,020,09±0,040,15±0,14I:A9:1113:162:17:1

Ai?no i?ieaeoeio i?ioyaii 0–22-ai aeiy o o?eueieo ei??a iinooiiai
c?inoaa, ui i?aeaeuoaaei caaacia/aiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
aeiaoiai o?ea i?ioyaii 0–17-ai aeiy ? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aaeaeaaoiei
c?inoaiiyi ??aiy i?iaanoa?iio. Ia 21–22-e aeaiue niinoa??aaee cieaeaiiy
ai?noo i?iaanoa?iio o o?eueieo ei??a. Iaeii/ania i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo
i?ieaeoeio oa cieaeaiiy ai?noo i?iaanoa?iio (aei 3,7 iiieue/e)
?icoe?ith?oueny iaie ye oi?eaeueia yaeua o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiaoiai o?ea
noaoaaiai oeeeeo a aeiaoa o?ei aaa?oiino?.

??cea cieaeaiiy ??aiy i?iaanoa?iio iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c ii/aoeii
?iieaioaoe?? aia??iia ? ca’ycoaaiiyi eiai o oeaieiao iaoee. Ia 10–11-e
aeaiue noaoaaiai oeeeeo niinoa??aaeiny cieaeaiiy ai?noo ano?aae?ieo o
iaie?aeieo ei??a oa i?aeaeuaiiy I:A ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aaeueioaaiiy ia?oi? oaee? ?inoo oie?eoe?a. C 16–17-ai aeiy a?aei?/aee
c?inoaiiy ??aiy ano?aae?ieo ? cieaeaiiy I:A ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui
iiynith?oueny iie?ioaiiyi oie?eoeiaaiaco i?ae /an ae?oai? oaee?.

O aeine?aeieo ei??a, e??i ii?ooaiue oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy
(aiano?aeueiee, a?aaeoeaiee, aiiaoeyoi?iee noaoaa? oeeeee, aneio?iiiee
ia?aa?a iaoeyoe??), niinoa??aaee oaeiae ?iceaaee noaio y?/iee?a (ci?ia
?ici???a, oi?ie, ou?eueiaiiy eiinenoaioe??, ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a
a?aaoiaa i?oo?oey, iayai?noue “a?eoaaoeo” aeiaoeo o?e) oa iaoee
(a?iioii?y aai aoii?y). A.A. Oa?ooa (1995) cacia/ai? iieacieee
a?aeiineoue aei neiioiiieiiieaeno noii?aiiai i?iaiico caie?aeiaiino?
ei??a. Caie?aeiai?noue ei??a c iieacieeaie neiioiiieiiieaeno ii?ooaiue
ia?aa?ao oaiiiai?a noaae?? caoaeaeaiiy noaoaaiai oeeeeo oa noaio
aai?oae?e cieaeoaaeany ii??aiyii c e?eoe/ii aeiionoeiei ??aiai (50 %) ia
26 % ? noaiiaeea 24 %.

Iieacieee neiioiiieiiieaeno noii?aiiai i?iaiico caie?aeiaiino? (N±) a
ie?aieo aeine?aeieo oaa?ei iaee ??cio eiia?iaoe?th ? e?euee?noue (a?ae
N±1 aei N±8). Caie?aeiai?noue i?ney ia?oiai in?iai?iiy o ei??a, ui ia
iaee oaeeo iieaciee?a (c? ni?eyoeeaei i?iaiicii caie?aeiaiino?, N+),
noaiiaeea 80 %, a o ei??a c iaeiei iieacieeii (N±1) – iacia/ii
cieaeoaaeany (ia 8,6 %). I?e iayaiino? aeaio ? a?eueoa iieaciee?a (N±2 –
N±8) caie?aeiai?noue ei??a ??cei cieaeoaaeany aei 18 % (?

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