?INOEOOO I?IAEAI E??IA?IEIA?? ? E??IIAAeEOeEIE IAI OE?A?IE

EIAAEAIEI Na?oeaia ?aaai?aia

OAeE 611.018.51

I?E*EIA OA IAOAI?CI ssAEUA A?IA?OII?*IIAI E??IAAIIE?CO

03.00.19 — e??ia?ieia?y ? e??iiaaeeoeeia

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,
noa?oee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ai?ae??iei ?aaai Ieaenaiae?iae/,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii iecueeioaiia-

?aoo?iiai e??ieiina?aoaaiiy

?inoeoooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ?

e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa. a?aeae?eii e??ia?io?ceee
?inoeoooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie II?NA?A
A?EOI? IEAEN?EIAE*

2. Eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? ?
iieaeoey?ii? a?io?ceee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo AAOAO
NA?A?E AANEEUeIAE*

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e iaaee/ii? a?io?ceee, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «21» aa?aniy 1999?. i 14-30 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.242.01 i?e ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 310015, Oa?e?a —
15, aoe. Ia?ayneaanueea, 23.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue ca aae?anith: 310015, Oa?e?a – 15,
aoe. Ia?ayneaanueea, 23.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «20» na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieo. iaae. iaoe, i?ioani?
Aieueoeaa A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Aea/aiiy i?e/ei oa iaoai?ci?a nainea?e?caoe?? aai i?aeaeuaiiy
?acenoaioiino? ee?oei aei ioieiaeaeaiiy ? iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo
i?iaeai e??ia?ieia??. Ii/eiath/e c 70-o ?ie?a, e??i-a?ieiae ?aoaeueii
aeine?aeaeoaaee, aieiaiei /eiii, aenia?eiaioaeueii, yaeua
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co ye ie?aiee aeiaaeie oe??? caaaeueii?
i?iaeaie. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aei oaia??oiueiai /ano
aeine?aeaeaiue aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? aieiai? caeiiii??iino?
oeueiai yaeua ia oaiiiaiieia?/iiio ??ai?, oiae? ye ni?iae eiai
oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co a?aoiaothoue aai o?eueee ie?ai? noi?iie i?ioeano
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, aai, iaaiaee, iia?othoue aaaaoueia
oaeoi?aie, ui oae /e ?iaeoa oi?eathoueny oe??? i?iaeaie, aac /?oeiai
aecia/aiiy ?o aianeo o iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ca ??ciiiai?oieo oiia
i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo. sse iioiaeeoue c aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e, ca
oaia??oi?e /an iaeiie/aia aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo ? oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae, ye? i?aeaiooaaee a?oio aeey cae?eniaiiy
iine?aeiaiiai oi/iiai o?ce/iiai aiae?co i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny
i?ioyaii a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?ca, oa aeey noai?aiiy oai?aoe/ii?
iiaeae? oeueiai yaeua. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? c oi/ee ci?o
e??ia?ieia?? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iaiaeii?aciai aeneiaeaiith a
e?oa?aoo?? oeueiai i?io?eth aeoieith, ui a?ia?oii?/iee e??iaaiie?c
iiaea i?eaiineoe nooo?aee aeeaae o iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei i?e
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiio eiina?aoaaii? a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a ? ui
aea/aiiy eiai iaoai?cio i?eaaaea aei iaa?oiooaaiiy oa cae?eniaiiy iiaeo
cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?acenoaioiino? ee?oei aei ioieiaeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ca ieaiiaith oaiith ?inoeoooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia??
? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie «Iiaoaeiaa oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea
e?euee?nii? oai??? e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?ia’?eo?a», caoaa?aeaeaii?
iinoaiiaith Ath?i AIAAA?EO I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie a?ae ?4.0?.?996 ?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei
noai?aiiy oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? yaeua a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, ui
iiynith? eiai iaoai?ci ? aieiai? caeiiii??iino?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaea/?:

1) iiaoaeoaaoe oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, yea
a?aoiao?, ui ia ee?oeie ai?iaeiaae oeueiai i?ioeano noeoiii ae?thoue
aeae?eueea o?ce/ieo oaeoi??a: aeaa?ae?aoaoe?y oa aeaoi?iaoe?y
a?eo?ioeeo?a, eaoa?aeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e eiiiiiaio?a oa oa?iio?iiia
no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy i?e 8-13°N o iaia?ai?, ?cio?iiia ?icoyaiaiiy oa
?ic?ea iaia?aie.

2) ia niia? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, ui
iiaoaeiaaia, c’ynoaaoe iaoai?ci oeueiai yaeua ? iiynieoe eiai aieiai?
caeiiii??iino?;

3) i?iaanoe aenia?eiaioe, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aaeaeaaoi?noue
aenoiooeo o aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue i?i a?ia?oii?/iee
e??iaaiie?c.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aenoiooi iia? oyaeaiiy i?i
iaoai?ci a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co. ui iaaeaee iiaeeea?noue o?aeooaaoe
aaaaoi/enaeuei? oaeoe/i? aeai? ia iniia? iaaaeeei? e?eueeino?
oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia. Nie?ath/enue ia iiaoaeiaaio oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue,
iiyniaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany.
Io?eiaii iia? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
aaeaeaaoi?noue noi?ioeueiaaii? o ?iaio? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae?
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
neoaeeoe oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?? ca aeiiiiiaith
??ciiiai?oieo aieeaaiue ye ia nain?a?-e?caoe?th, oae ? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
?acenoaioiino? ee?oei aei aeno?aiaeueieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oaeoi??a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ?
oaeineiiaeaii? ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a oa
?ioeo ee?oei i?ae caoenoii i?iieeath/eo ? ia i?iieeath/eo e??cue ?oi?
iaia?aie e??ii?ioaeoi??a. C’ynoaaiiy iaoai?cio a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co aeicaieeoue oieeiooe iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ia ii/aoeiaeo
aoaiao oeeeeo iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai eiina?aoaaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iiaeaiee o ?iaio? iaeyae ? aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, oi?ioethaaiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a
cae?eniai? iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??. Aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia
?iaioe aeeiiaia aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii i?e eiinoeueoaoeai?e aeiiiiic?
ni?a?ia?oiee?a a?aeae?eo iecueeioaiia-

?aoo?iiai eiina?aoaaiiy ?IE?E IAI Oe?a?ie Ai?ae??iei 0.?. oa Eiaaeaiea
?.O.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia Ae?oaiio c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.) ? ia Ia?oiio c’?cae?
Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie (Oa?e?a, 1995
?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o o aeo?iaeao, ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? oacao aeiiia?aeae ia
iaoeiaeo c’?caeao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 123 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? i?noeoue anooi, iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, ?icae?e
«Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee», iniiaio /anoeio, yea neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy oa aeniiaee, a oaeiae nienie aeei?enoaieo 110
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoue 21 ?enoiie ? aea?
oaaeeoe? ia 12 noi??ieao.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee a?eo?ioeeoe e?ia? aeiii??a, eiina?aiaai? ia
na?aaeiaeu? «aethoeea??» c? no?ieii caa?aaeaiiy aei o?ueio ae?a.
Ee?oeie inaaeaeoaaee oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi e?ia? i?ioyaii 15 oaeeei i?e
300g;. Iio?i aeaeaeyee ie?aeo eaeeioeeo?a ? ieacio. Aei inaaeeo
a?eo?ioeeo?a aeiaeaaaee o?c?ieia?/iee ?ic/ei o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:10
oa ciiao oeaio?eooaoaaee ca oeo aea oiia. I?ney o?ueioe?aoiiai
a?aeieaaiiy ia’?iio eiioeaio?aoe?th ee?oei aeiaiaeeee aei 3% ca
?aooiie ?icaaaeaiiy o?c?ieia?/iei ?ic/eiii.

A aenia?eiaioao aeei?enoiaoaaee aiaei? ?ic/eie oei?eaeo iao??th ia?ee
O* c eiioeaio?aoe?yie 0,4I, I,8I, 1,2I, 1,6I, 2I oa ?ic/eie naoa?ice
ia?ee O* ia o?c?ieia?/iiio na?aaeiaeu? c eiioeaio?aoe?yie 0,8I, 1,2I,
1,6I.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y a?eueiiai aaiiaeia?io a noia?iaoaio? aecia/aeany ca
a?aeiiith iaoiaeeeith (Eane?nueeee ?.0., Ieaen??a A.A., 1970).

A?coaeueia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca a?eo?ioeeoaie i?ioyaii a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co cae?enithaaeinue ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueiiai i?eno?ith
aei ?iaa?oiaaiiai i?e?ineiio IA?-13, ?ic?iaeaiiai oa aeaioiaeaiiai a
?IE?E IAI Oe?a?ie. I?ae /an eiaeiiai

aenia?eiaioo i?iaiaeeeenue oioi oa e?ii?aa?no?aoe?y i?ioeano, yeee
aeine?aeaeoaaany.

Aei??thaaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ?icn?yiiai ?icaaaeaiith noniaic??th
a?eo?ioeeo?a na?oea i?ae eooii 9° aei iai?yieo iaaeath/iai io/ea c
aeiaaeeiith oaee? 1 iei cae?enithaaeinue ia i?eeaae?, ?ic?iaeaiiio oa
aeaioiaeaiiio ni?a?ia?oieeaie ?IE?E IAI Oe?a?ie ni?eueii c IAO
«E??ieii» (i. Oa?e?a). *an 50%-aiai aaiie?co, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ney
caio?aiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a 1I-iee aiaeiee ?ic/ei ae?oea?eio, aei??thaaany
ca a?aeiiith iaoiaeeeith (Ai?ae??iei ?.0., Iai?ia TH.?., Ai?ae??iei
0.?., Eiaaeaiei ?.O., 1998).

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a cae?enithaaeanue ca
caaaeueiia?aeiiith noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss.

A iaeyae? e?oa?aoo?e «Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? yaeua a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co» iaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo
aeaieo i?i a?ia?oii?/iee e??iaaiie?c ca ieioe? 45 ?ie?a ? ia iniia?
aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e noi?ioeueiaai? eiai aieiai? caeiiii??iino?, ui
iio?aaothoue oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy.

O i.3.1 o?aoueiai ?icae?eo noi?ioeueiaaia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, yea iieyaa? a ianooiiiio.

Ia ia?o?e noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co i?e caio?aii?
a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie o a?ia?oii?/iee ?ic/ei ia i?iieeath/i? aei ee?oei
?a/iaeie c eiioeaio?aoe??th
picscalex100010009000003b30000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02400280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
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6e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000
bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000300
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
aaea i?ney aeae?eueeio naeoiae aeniiceoe?? ?o a?aeiiniee ia’?i
picscalex100010009000003bd0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02000280031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
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0000500015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000092040000002d01000008000000320a6001b0020100000029000800
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80fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a6001930101000000a5000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff
01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000ff0000000000ffffff00ce
020000ffffff000000000000004600000000 aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyi
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b00201000000290008000000320a8001060101000000280008000000320a800140000100
0000790010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8001b50901000000610008000000
320a80019108010000002d0008000000320a80010e06010000002b0008000000320a8001
ce0401000000610008000000320a80019603010000003d0008000000320a800193010100
0000a5000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02140009000000
0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000
0300000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000000000ffffff00ffffff00ffffff
(1)

aea
picscalex100010009000003dd0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c020002e0071200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffc5ffffffa0070000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000500015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e0000e1040000002d01000008000000320a60011d070100000029000800
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6001b60401000000560008000000320a60010204010000002f0008000000320a6001a502
01000000560008000000320a6001400001000000790010000000fb0280fe000000000000
9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00100000800
0000320a60016901010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000
0000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01
000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000 — a?aeiiniee ia’?i ee?oeie,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 ?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 — iioi/iee ? ii/aoeiaee ia’?i ee?oeie,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,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 — ia’?iia /anoea
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io o aeo?aeiiio noai?,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 —
eiioeaio?aoe?y ia i?iieeath/i? aei ee?oei ?a/iaeie

o iicaee?oeiiiio ?ic/ei?,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 — ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ie?oo a
a?eo?ioeeo?.

Ine?eueee a aenia?eiaioao c aea/aiiy a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co
aeei?enoiaothoueny o?eueee noniaic?? c aeoaea iaaaeeeei aaiaoie?eoii,
oi eiioeaio?aoe?th aeaeo?ie?oo iica ee?oeiaie

picscalex100010009000003b30000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02400280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa5ffffff40020000e50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000050040000002d01000009000000320ae0011901030000006f757400
15000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f
6d616e000050040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80013b0001000000
6e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000
bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000300
0000000000ff0000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaci?iiith, ine?eueee aoaeue-yeee iiaeeeaee

ia?a?iciiae?e ?a/iaei i?ae iac??aiyiii iaeei ia’?iii ee?oei ? aaeeeith
e?euee?noth ioi/oth/iai ?o iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio aeaeo?ie?oo nooo?ai
ia aieeaa? ia neeaae inoaiiueiai. I/aaeaeii, ia’?iia /anoea
aaiiaeia?io o ciaaiaeiai?e ee?oei? aei??aith?
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 (2)

Cia/aiiy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?aeiia?aea? oae caai?e aaenaaiiaeuei?e u?euei?e oiaeiaoe? iieaeoe
aaiiaeia?io. I?e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 a’yce?noue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 aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai
?ic/eio aeoaea oaeaeei

ca?eueoo?oueny, iai?eeeaae, a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiyiiy, aiaeia?/iiai
??aiyiith Ii??, Ioioaea (Oaiiaeue, A?aia?, 1976):
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(3)

aea
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02a00140011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff2500000000010000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000500010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a000137000100000068000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000013bf01000000000001
00000000000000004f00000065000000000000000000 — aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue
?ic/eio, a yeiio i?noyoueny iieaeoee aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io.
Oaeei /eiii, iaaei??ia ciaaiaeiaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a?ia?oii?/ieie
?ic/eiaie oei?eaeo iao??th i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeoeaii? a’yceino? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio ca caeiiii (3). Oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny, eiee eiioeaio?aoe?y aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai aaiiaeia?io
iaaeeaea?oueny aei aai ia?aaeuo? cia/aiiy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,
oiaoi ca cia/aiiyie eiioeaio?aoe?? iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio oei?eaeo
iao??th, ui i?eaeuothoue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.

Ine?eueee caeaaiiy iaia?aie i?e ciaaiaeiaii? ee?oeie a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeoaea oaeaeei, ca /an, oa?aeoa?iee aeey ciaaiaeiaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a, oi
iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeaoi?iaoe?y cae?enith?oueny i?e caaeaiiio (aei
ii/aoeo ciaaiaeiaiiy) ?iciiae?e? eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie acaeiaae ??
iiaa?oi?. Oa caiaeii o iaia?ai?, ui c?aioeany, ii/eia?oueny a?eueo
iia?eueiee i?ioean eaoa?aeueiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie
(Ai?ae??iei ?.0., Ai?iiaa I.A., 1985). I?e oeueiio a?eueia aia?a?y
aeaoi?iaoe?? a?neith, ui caeia?oueny, i?e caaeai?e oi?i? iaia?aie
ciaioo?oueny ca ?aooiie eiioeaio?oaaiiy «i’yeeo» eiiiiiaio?a (oiaoi
eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie c iaioeie iiaeoeyie i?oaeiino?) o ae?eyieao
iaia?aie c a?eueoith e?eaeciith, a oaeiae ca ?aooiie ia?ai?uaiiy
a?eueo «aei?noeeo» eiiiiiaio?a a i?noey c iaioith e?eaeciith. Aoaeo
eaoa?aeueiiai ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie ? i?ioeanii
aeoeaaoe?eiiai oeio ? oiio cae?enith?oueny ca e?ioeaaee oa?i?i
(aeecueei i’yoe-aeanyoe oaeeei i?e 37°N).

Eaoa?aeueia ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny o
aeaoi?iiaai?e iaia?ai? ciaaiaeiaii? ee?oeie, ni?ey?

no?oeoo?iiio ia?aoai?aiith a i?e i?e ianooiiiio ioieiaeaeaii?, yeui
aiii ia? oaeo ae ni?yiiaai?noue, ui e eaoa?aeueia ?icae?eaiiy
eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie i?e oa?iio?iiiiio no?oeoo?iiio ia?aoai?aii?, yea
niinoa??aa?oueny a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 13 — 8°N. Aei oaeiai ae
aeniiaeo i?ecaiaeeoue ? aiae?c iiaeaieo a iaeyae? e?oa?aoo?e
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo uiaei noeeueiino? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a
iaia?aie aei no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy ia a?aei?io a?ae ?o
iaeiiiai?oii? noi?o?.

sseui ioieiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei no?oeoo?iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? 8-13°N, oi a ?acoeueoao? oeueiai
ia?aoai?aiiy ieiua iiaa?oi? eiai iaia?aie ciaioo?oueny ia aeae?eueea
i?ioeaio?a. Aeey oiai, uia oea ci?iaiiy ieiu? a?aeaoeiny iani?aaae?,
a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii iiaeiia ci?ieoeny oi?ia ee?oeie. sseui oi?ia ee?oeie
i?e oaeiio no?oeoo?iiio ia?aoai?aii? o ?? iaia?ai? caeeoeeany a
iaci?iiith, oi o e?ioeaa?e oi/oe? oeueiai ia?aoai?aiiy a i?e aeieeaa
ae ?cio?iiiee iaoya, yeee ca caeiiii Aoea aei??aithaaa ae
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 (4)

aea
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffe5ffffff20010000650100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a40013b000100000047000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000013bf01000000000001
00000000000000004f00000000000000000000000000 — a?aeiia?aeiee iiaeoeue
i?oaeiino? a?neieii? iaia?aie a?eo?ioeeoo (0,4 H/i);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 ?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 —
ieiua iiaa?oi?, yea a na?aaeiueiio i?eiaaea? ia iaeio iieaeoeo iaia?aie
o ??aeeiio ? oaa?aeiio noai? o a?aenooiino? aeaoi?iaoe??.

Ine?eueee ?aae?on e?eaecie iaia?aie a?eo?ioeeoo ye o cae/aeiiio, oae ?
o ciaaiaeiaiiio noai? ci?ith? na?e ciae i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae iaei???
ae?eyiee iaia?aie aei ?ioi?, oi neee, ui aeieeathoue a iaia?ai?
aiane?aeie no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy, iaiaaathoueny cnoiooe ??ci? oa?e
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio a?aeiinii iaeei iaeiiai ? ci?ieoe
oi?io ee?oeie oaeei /eiii, uia iaoya iaia?aie iaa?ioany a ioeue.
Oa?aeoa?iee /an ia?aoai?aiiy oi?ie a?eo?ioeeoo, ca yeee o iueiio cieea?
?cio?iiiee iaoya ca ?aooiie no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy i?e ?C-8°N, iiaeia
ioe?ieoe ye
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 (5)

aea
picscalex1000100090000038d0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c028001a0011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffe5ffffff60010000650100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000084040000002d01000008000000320a400140000100000052000a00
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00cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000
00000000000000004f000000000000000000000000000000000000000000-
oa?aeoa?iee ?ici?? a?eo?ioeeoo o iai?yieo cnoao ie?aieo oa??a
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio a?aeiinii iaeei iaeiiai. O iaciaaiaeiaiiio
aai iaei ciaaiaeiaiiio noai? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiee ?ic/ei aaiiaeia?io a
a?eo?ioeeo? ia? ii??aiyii iaaa-

eeeo a’yce?noue ? oiio, a?aeiia?aeii aei (5), ci?iaiiy oi?ie ee?oeie
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoaea oaeaeei. I?e oeueiio ?cio?iiiee iaoya iaia?aie,
ui aeieea? i?ae /an no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a i?e i?e ioieiaeaeaii?
a?eo?ioeeo?a ia ae?oa?e noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, i?aeoe/ii
aei??aith? ioeth. Iaeiae, i?e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?aeoa?iee /an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 iiaea c?inoaoe o nioi? ?
a?eueoa ?ac?a. sseui o ii?iaeueiiio a?eo?ioeeo?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, oi ca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 /an nyaa?
picscalex100010009000003950000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c001a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffc5ffffff60020000850100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e0000b6040000002d01000008000000320a6001aa010100000063000800
0000320a60012d000200000035300a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000
0000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01
010004000000f00100000300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000 ? a?eueo aenieeo cia/aiue.

C o?aooaaiiyi aenoiooeo oyaeaiue o ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? iaoya, yeee
aeieea? o iaia?ai? a?eo?ioeeoa i?e no?oeoo?iiio ia?aoai?aii?,
ci?ith?oueny c /anii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 ye
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(6)
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picscalex100010009000003fa0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400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aea
picscalex100010009000003b20000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02a00260011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa7ffffff20010000470200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000084040000002d01000008000000320a03018f00010000002e001500
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e000084040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a60023200010000005400
0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02
000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000
00000000000000ffffff000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 —
oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeaiiy,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 — ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo?, a
yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy o iaia?ai?.

sse a?aeiii, na?aaei?e /an ooai?aiiy iae?ineii?/ii? ii?e a ?cio?iiii
?icoyaiai?e iaia?ai?, aecia/a?oueny ae?acii (Ai?ae??iei ?.0., Iai?ia
TH.?., 1998?.):
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 (7)

A?ao?e ooieoe?? (7) iaaeaii ia ?en. 1(a ? a) (e?ea? 1). sse

?en 1.Caeaaei?noue ?cio?iiiiai iaoyao, yeee aeieea? a iaia?ai? ee?oeie
i?e no?oeoo?iiio ia?aoai?aii? a i?e, a?ae /ano:
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picscalex100010009000003ea0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400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a —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picscalex100010009000003b50000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400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picscalex100010009000003b50000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
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0000c0ffffffc5ffffff00040000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000500015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e0000ed040000002d01000008000000320a6001220302000000293b0800
0000320a60015c0201000000340008000000320a6001cf0101000000280008000000320a
60012a0101000000310008000000320a6001ea00010000002c0008000000320a60013200
0100000030000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0214000900
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001
000003000000000000ff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000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a —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picscalex100010009000003b50000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02000220041200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffc5ffffffe0030000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000500015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000044040000002d01000008000000320a60010a0302000000293b0800
0000320a6001570201000000330008000000320a6001cf0101000000280008000000320a
60012a0101000000310008000000320a6001ea00010000002c0008000000320a60013200
0100000030000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0214000900
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001
000003000000000000ff00ffffff00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000
picscalex100010009000003b50000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02000220051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffc5ffffffe0040000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000500015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000057040000002d01000008000000320a60010d0402000000293b0800
0000320a6001470301000000340008000000320a6001ba0201000000280008000000320a
6001470102000000303508000000320a6001ea00010000002c0008000000320a60013200
0100000030000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0214000900
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001
000003000000000000ff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000
picscalex100010009000003b50000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400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picscalex100010009000003b50000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400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aeaeii, iaa?oue iaaaeeeee iaoya, yeui a?i ae?? aeineoue aeiaai,
aeeeeea? aaiie?c, oiae? ye ii??aiyii aaeeeee, aea ei?ioeioa?i?iiaee
iaoya iaia?aie, iiaea ia ni?e/eieoe aaiie?co.

Caeaaeiino? (6) ca aeayeeo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a iiaeai? ia ?en. 1(a,
a). sse aeaeii, i?e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, ui, ca?aeii c aeeeaaeaieie aeua
oyaeaiiyie, a?aeiia?aea? iacia/iiio ciaaiaeiaiith a?eo?ioeeoo, iaoya
iaia?aie aeyaey?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i aeey aaiie?co. Aea aaea i?e cia/aii?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, yea a?aeiia?aea? a?eueo cia/iiio
ciaaiaeiaiith a?eo?ioeeoo ia?aae ioieiaeaeaiiyi, iaoyae, ui aeieeathoue
a iaia?ai? aiane?aeie no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy, aeinoaoi? aeey
aaiie?co.

sse aeieeaa? c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo iaie /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a,
iaoya iaia?aie ia ae?oaiio aoai? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co nooo?ai
iaaea? c? ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy noniaic?? ee?oei a
iaeano? no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy o iaia?ai?. Oaeei /eiii, ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi (ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith) oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy
?iia??i?noue aaiie?co iii?oii c?inoa?.

Ioaea, iiaoaeiaaia iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co iiynith?, /iio
a?eueo oaeaeea ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueoiai aaiie?co, i?ae
iia?eueia. I/aaeaeii, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a aeieea?, yeui /an,
ca yeee o iaia?ai? a?aeaoaa?oueny no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy, iaeee o
ii??aiyii? c oa?aeoa?iei /anii ?aeaenaoe??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. Ca aenoiooeie oyaeaiiyie
c?icoi?ei, ui aoaeue-yeee aieea ia noniaic?th a?eo?ioeeo?a, a
?acoeueoao? yeiai ca?eueoo?oueny (ciaioo?oueny) /an ?aeaenaoe??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, nainea?e?co? (i?aeaeuo?
no?ee?noue) ee?oei aei a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co.

O i.3.1, aeoiaey/e c o?ce/ii? iiaeae? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co
iiyniai? noi?ioeueiaai? o ?icae?e? 1 aieiai? caeiiii??iino? oeueiai
yaeua.

Cie?aia, oie oaeo, ui /ooeea?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a ia ae?oa?e noaae??
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeiaaio?eaaeino?
aeniiceoe?? ee?oei o a?ia?oii?/iiio ?ic/ei? oei?eaeo iao??th
iiiaaee?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia ia?o?e noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co a?ae ioey aei 5-10 oaeeei, iiynith?oueny ianooiiei /eiii.
Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeieeiaiiy ?ic?eao o iaia?ai? a ?acoeueoao?
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co ? cae?eniaiiy a i?e no?oeoo?iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy i?e 13 — 8°N, ui ia? i?noea eeoa o oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui o
iaia?ai? noaeiny eaoa?aeue-

ia ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a, c yeeo aiia neeaaea?oueny. Aiii ye ?ac ?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca /an aeecueei 5-10 oaeeei. Oaeei /eiii, ia??iae, ca
yeee aeieea? /ooeea?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a aei a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co,
ioioiaeith?oueny c /anii, iaiao?aeiei aeey caaa?oaiiy eaoa?aeueiiai
?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a o iaia?ai?, ui cacia? caeaaiiy. Oea eaoa?aeueia
?icae?eaiiy, o naith /a?ao, ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey cae?eniaiiy
no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy o iaia?ai? ca 13-8°N. Oaeei /eiii, yeui
aeiaaio?eaae?noue ia?oi? noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co
iaaeinoaoiy aeey oiai, uia o iaia?ai? a?eo?ioeeoo a?aeaoeiny
eaoa?aeueia ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ia ia?o?e noaae?? ?, ioaea, aeieeei
no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy o iaia?ai? ia ae?oa?e noaae?? (ca 13-8°N),
aaiie?c ia aeieea?.

?ioa caeiiii??i?noue, yea iieyaa? o oiio, ui a?eo?ioeeoe noathoue
a?eueo /ooeeaeie aei ioieiaeaeaiiy ieae/a oaiia?aoo?e 13 -8°N, yeui
ioieiaeaeaiith ia?aaeo? aeniiceoe?y ee?oei o a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao ia
i?iieeath/i? e??cue iaia?aie ee?oei ?a/iaeie c iniiey?i?noth iiiaae
iaaia e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy (950 — 1300 i?e?iniie?a), oaeiae aeieeaa? ?c
aenoiooeo oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue uiaei a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co.
Ae?enii, yeui iniiey?i?noue iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio ia ia?aaa?oo?
cia/aiiy aeecueei 1200 i?e?iniie?a, oi ia’?iia eiioeaio?aoe?y
aaiiaeia?io a a?eo?ioeeoao ia nyaa? cia/aiiy 0,74, ? oiio /an
?aeaenaoe?? oi?ie a?eo?ioeeoo i?ae aieeaii cnoaath/eo
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiee a?eeiaee ?ic/ei iai?oa ca?aeii c (5) caeeoa?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei aaeeeei aeey oiai, uia o iaia?ai? a?eo?ioeeo?a, a ye?e
a?aeaoaa?oueny no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy, aeieeaa ae aaeeeee ? o?eaaeee
iaoya, aeinoaoi?e aeey ooai?aiiy iae?ineii?/iiai ?ic?eao o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei (7). A oe?e neooaoe?? ?aae?co?oueny aeiaaeie, yeee
a?aeiia?aea? i?aaenoaaeaiiio ia ?en. 1a. sseui ae ciaaiaeithth/ee
ee?oeie ?ic/ei ia?aaeuo? cacia/aio aeua e?eoe/io eiioeaio?aoe?th, oi
aoaeoeaia a’yce?noue aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eeiaiai ?ic/eio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 o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei (5)
nyaa? aiiiaeueii aenieeo cia/aiue. I?e oeueiio, ye aeo?ea? c (2) oa
(6), a i?ioean? no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy o iaia?ai? aeieeathoue
iaoyae, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei iae?ineii?/iiai ?ic?eao, oiaoi aei aaiie?co.
Oeae aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aea? neooaoe??, yea i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.1a.

Aeiaeaaaiiy aei noniaic?? a?eo?ioeeo?a ii?yae c oei?eaeii iao??th aai
naoa?icith i?iieeath/iai aei ee?oei e??ii?ioaeoi?o (i?e

noae?e iniiey?iino? iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio) cieaeo? iioeiaeaeoth/ee
aoaeo a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, ai i?e oeueiio ia’?i a?eo?ioeeo?a ii
i??? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy e??ii?ioaeoi?o aei ee?oei, ca?eueoo?oueny, a
aoaeoeaia a’yce?noue aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eeiaiai ?ic/eio
a?aeiia?aeii ciaioo?oueny. I/aaeaeii, aoaeo cieaeaiiy /ooeeaino?
a?eo?ioeeo?a aei a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co oei cia/i?oee, /ei oaeaeoa
i?iieea? aei a?eo?ioeeo?a ?ic/eiaiee o iicaee?oeiiiio na?aaeiaeu?
e??ii?ioaeoi?. E??i oiai, ynii, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
i?iieeath/iai aei ee?oei e??ii?ioaeoi?o ca iaci?ii?e noia?i?e
iniiey?iino? iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio, yeee i?noeoue ye i?iieeath/o, oae ?
ia i?iieeath/o a ee?oeie ?a/iaeio, cieaeo? /ooeea?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a
aei a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co.

sseui iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co a?aeieoe
ee?oeie o?c?ieia?/iei ?ic/eiii, oi ianooiia ioieiaeaeaiiy ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai aaiie?co, ine?eueee i?e oeueiio, iaa?oue
yeui o iaia?ai? ia?a?nia ciaaiaeiaii? ee?oeie a?aeaoeiny eaoa?aeueia
?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ? aiane?aeie oeueiai i?e ianooiiiio
ioieiaeaeaii? aeieea? aeua caaaeoaaia no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy o
iaia?ai?, ia’?i ee?oei i?e ?o a?aeieaaii? o?c?ieia?/iei ?ic/eiii
a?aeiiaeth?oueny aei ii/aoeiaiai cia/aiiy. I?e oeueiio /an ?aeaenaoe??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 ciaioo?oueny iano?eueee,
ui ?cio?iiiee iaoya iaia?aie o i?ioean? ?? no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy ia
nyaa? iaiao?aeieo aeey ooai?aiiy iae?ineii?/ii? ii?e cia/aiue.

Eiee oaiia?aoo?a ia ae?oa?e noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co
«ieoo?ai» ciaioo?oueny a?ae cia/aiiy, ui ia?aaeuo? 20°N, aei
oaiia?aoo?e ieae/a 10°N, a iio?i oaeaeei i?aeaeuo?oueny aei oaiia?aoo?e
aeua 20°N, aaiie?c ia a?aeaoaa?oueny, ai i?e oeueiio ?cio?iiiee
iaoya, ui aeieea? o iaia?ai?, oi/a e iiaea nyaaoe ii??aiyii aaeeeeo
cia/aiue, oa /an eiai ae?? aeyaey?oueny iaaeoi iaeei aeey aeieeiaiiy
?ic?eao iaia?aie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c (7).

Aiaeia?/ii o i.3.2 iiyniaii ?io? caeiiii??iino? a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co.

O i.4.1 iaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe a?coaeueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy i?ioeano
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co i?ae na?oeiaei i?e?ineiiii. ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue io?eiai? ?ioeie aaoi?aie aeai?, ca?aeii
c yeeie a?eo?ioeeoe, ui aoee ia?aianai? aei

iii??ii a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/ei?a oei?eaeo iao??th aai naoa?ice,
iaaoaathoue oi?ie e?aiiaaiiai o oi?i?aeaeuei?e /anoei? ? niethuaiiai o
iaeano? a?ey a?n? neiao???, aeeneioeeoo. O a?eueo eiioeaio?iaaieo
?ic/eiao
(1,2Ipicscalex1000100090000035400000000001200000000000500000009020000000
00400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000
0050000000b0200000000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000
010000000c0ffffffa5ffffffe0000000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d617468547
97065000050000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000000300000000000000450
000007400000079000000000000000000000000000000000000000000NaCl ? a?eueoa)
a?eo?ioeeoe iaaoaathoue oi?ie aeoaea niethuaiiai aeeneioeeoo.

I?e ia?aoiae? noniaic?? a?eo?ioeeo?a, ui ioieiaeaeo?oueny, e??cue
iaeanoue oaiia?aoo? 13 — 8°N e?aiiaai? i?ney aeanyoeoaeeeiii?
aeniiceoe?? o iii??ii a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao oei?eaeo iao??th oa
naoa?ice ee?oeie o?ioe ie?oaeythoueny, ui na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue
aenoiooeo a ?iaio? oyaeaiue i?i ciaioaiiy ieiu? iiaa?oi? iaia?aie
a?eo?ioeeoo i?e oa?iio?iiiiio no?oeoo?iiio ia?aoai?aii? o cacia/ai?e
iaeano? oaiia?aoo?.

sseui ae ?cioa?i?/ia aeniiceoe?y ia ia?o?e noaae?? a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co cae?enith?oueny o ?ic/eiao oei?eaeo iao??th, eiioeaio?aoe?y
yeeo aei??aith? aai ia?aaeuo? 1,2I, oi a i?ioean? ianooiiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy aei 0°N c? oaeaee?noth 30°N/oa aeaye? ee?oeie i?e
ia?aoiae? e??cue iaeanoue oaiia?aoo? 13-8°N o?ainoi?iothoueny a noa?e,
i?ney /iai ao?a/athoue aaiiaeia?i ? ia?aoai?ththoueny ia o?i?. sse /an
noa??o?eaoe??, oae ? /an ciaaa?aethaaiiy i?e oeueiio ca ii?yaeeii
aaee/eie noaiiaeoue 10n. I?e ioieiaeaeaii? ae a?eo?ioeeo?a, ui aoee
iiia?aaeiuei i?iaeniiiiaai? a 1,2I ? 1,6I-ieo aiaeieo ?ic/eiao oei?eaeo
iao??th aai naoa?ice ia i?ioyc? aeanyoe oaeeei, c? oaeaee?noth 3°N/oa
oi?ia ee?oei a i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo e??cue iaeanoue oaiia?aoo? 13-8°N
iii?oii ia ci?ithaaeanue, ? ciaaa?aethaaiiy ee?oei ia a?aeaoaaeiny.

Io?eiai? o oeueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?iaioe ?acoeueoaoe i?e?ineii?/iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy aeineoue caaeia?eueii aeeaaeathoueny o iiaoaeiaaio
oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co.

Noai?aia a ?iaio? oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co,
cie?aia, aeoiaeeoue c i?eiouaiiy, ui nainea?e?caoe?y a?eo?ioeeo?a aei
ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e a?ia?oii?/iiio e??iaaiie?c? i?aeaeuo?oueny ii i???
ca?eueoaiiy aei aeae?eueeio oaeeei aeiaaio?eaaeino? aeniiceoe?? ee?oei
o a?ia?oii?/iiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? oei?eaeo iao??th aai naoa?ice
iia’ycaia c yaeuai eaoa?aeueiiai ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a o aeaoi?iiaai?e
iaia?ai?. sseui oea i?eiouaiiy ? neooiei, oi caio?aiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a
i?ney aeniiceoe?? o a?ia?oii?/iiio ?ic/ei? oei?eaeo iao??th aei
a?iioii?/iiai aiaeiiai ?ic/eio i?iieeath/i? aei ee?oei ?a/iaeie
aoaea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ianooiieo aoaeo?a. I?ney aeae?eueeio oaeeei ii-

ia?aaeiuei? aeniiceoe?? ee?oei o a?ia?oii?/iiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei?
oei?eaeo iao??th iiaeaeueoee a?iioii?/iee aaiie?c iiaeiai a?aeaoaaoeny
o a?eueo ei?ioeee oa?i?i, i?ae i?e ioeueiaiio oa?i?i? aeniiceoe??,
oiio ui o ?acoeueoao? eaoa?aeueiiai ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a
iaia?aie a i?e c’yaeythoueny ie?ai? ae?eyiee, caaaa/ai? iaio o?eaeeie
e?i?aeaie ?, ye iane?aeie, aaiie?c aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny ca a?eueo ei?ioeee
/an. Aeey oiai, uia i?aeoaa?aeeoe oeae oai?aoe/iee i?iaiic, aoea
aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aia caeaaei?noue /ano 50%-aiai aaiie?co
a?eo?ioeeo?a o 1I-iiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? ae?oea?eio a?ae aeiaai
o?eaaeino? aeniiceoe?? o a?ia?oii?/ieo aiaeieo ?ic/eiao iaoiaeii
na?oei?icn?thaaiiy. Iiia?aaeiy aeniiceoe?y i?iaiaeeeany o aiaeieo
?ic/eiao oei?eaeo iao??th c eiioeaio?aoe?yie 0,4I, 0,8I, 1,2I ? 2,II oa
o ?ic/eiao naoa?ice ia o?c?ieia?/iiio ?ic/ei? (0,4I, 1,2I ? 1,6I) ca
37°N. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaeai? o aeaeyae? a?ao?e?a ia ?en.2(a,a).

?en.2 Caeaaei?noue /ano 50%-aiai aaiie?co a 1I-iiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei?
ae?oea?eio a?ae o?eaaeino? iiia?aaeiuei? aeniiceoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a a
a?ia?oii?/iiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei?:

a — c eiioeaio?aoe?yie oei?eaeo iao??th 0,4I, 0,8I, 1,2I oa 2I a — c
eiioeaio?aoe?yie naoa?ice 0,4I, 1,2I oa 1,6I.

Ae?enii, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeiaai o?eaaeino? aeniiceoe?? ee?oei o
a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao oei?eaeo iao??th oa naoa?ice aei aea e?eueeio
oaeeei /an iiaeaeueoiai ca oe??th aeniiceoe??th a?iioii?/iiai aaiie?co
cia/ii ciaioo?oueny a ii??aiyii? c ioeueiaith o?eaae?noth
aeniiceoe??. sse aeaeii c iaaeaieo ia ?en.2(a,a) aeaieo, ?c c?inoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? ia i?iieeath/i? aei ee?oei ?ic/eiaii? o iicaee?oeiiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ?a/iaeie cacia/aiee aoaeo ca?eueoo?oueny, ui o na?oe?
aenoiooeo oyaeaiue i?i a?ia?-

oii?/iee e??iaaiie?c o?aeoo?oueny ianooiiei /eiii. Iiia?aaei?
ciaaiaeiaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoaea oaeaeei. I?e oeueiio
iaia?aia a?eo?ioeeoo, ui ciaaiaeith?oueny, ia ii/aoeo i?ioeano
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co aeaoi?io?oueny i?e iaci?iiiio (ii/aoeiaiio)
?iciiae?e? eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie o ca’yceo c oei, ui oa?aeoa?iee /an
eaoa?aeueiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie cia/ii ia?aaa?oo?
/an ciaaiaeiaiiy ee?oei. Iio?i a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo iia?eueiee
i?ioean eaoa?aeueiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo, ine?eueee a?i i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy a?eueii? aia?a?? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaia?aie ?, oae?i /eiii, ?
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii aea?aeiei i?ioeanii. Aea, c ?ioiai aieo, i?e oeueiio
ciaioo?oueny aio?ii?y ci?ooaaiiy, ui c oi/ee ci?o oa?iiaeeiai?ee ?
iaaea?aeiei aoaeoii. Ine?eueee cacia/ai? aoaeoe ae?thoue o
i?ioeeaaeieo iai?yieao, nooi?iue eaoa?aeueiiai ?icae?eaiiy caeaaeeoue
a?ae aaee/eie aeaoi?iaoe??: /ei a?eueoa aeaoi?iaoe?y, oei a?eueoa
nooi?iue eaoa?aeueiiai ?icae?eaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, o a?eueo
a?ia?oii?/iiio ?ic/ei?, yeee, i/aaeaeii, i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueo cia/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaia?aie ee?oeie, ui ciaaiaeith?oueny, aoaeo eaoa?aeueiiai
?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie a?eueo iayaiee, ? oiio a?iioii?/iee
aaiie?c aeieea? oaeaeoa, i?ae o iaio a?ia?oii?/iiio ?ic/ei?.

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? a ?iaio? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaaeai? aeua oai?aoe/i? i?iaiice ? noi?ioeueiaaio a
?iaio? o?ce/io iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co.

O na?oe? aenoiooeo oyaeaiue i?i i?e/eio oa iaoai?ci a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aianie oeueiai yaeua o
e??iiioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai
eiina?aoaaiiy. sseui caii?iaeoaaiiy — a?ae?a??a a?eo?ioeeo?a
cae?enith?oueny i?ae caoenoii ia i?iieeath/iai aei ee?oei
e??ii?ioaeoi?o ? aeiaaio?eaae?noue aeniiceoe?? ee?oei o e??icaoeniiio
na?aaeiaeu? aei ii/aoeo ioieiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue aeecueei 5-10
oaeeei, oi iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ca ?aooiie a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co
iiaea aiineoe nooo?aee aianie aei caaaeueiiai e??iiioeiaeaeaiiy. Iaa?oue
ii??aiyii iaaaeeea iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oeeeeo
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai eiina?aoaaiiy aaaaoi?aciai iineeth?oueny ia
ianooiieo aoaiao. A?aoiaoth/e, ui cacae/ae i?ae caoenoii ia
i?iieeath/iai aei ee?oei e??ii?ioaeoi?o ioieiaeaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny c
aenieith oaeaee?noth, iiaeia iii?oeoe, ui o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ye ?ac
aeeiiothoueny

oiiae, ca yeeo aeieea? iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ca ?aooiie a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co. Oea iioeiaeaeaiiy ia? i?noea ua aei ii/aoeo
e?enoae?caoe?? o c?acoe?, ui caii?iaeo?oueny, ? iiaea nooo?ai
a?aeaeoeny ia ?acoeueoao? anueiai oeeeeo e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a oe?eiio
naia oiio, ui aeo?aeiee noai ee?oei aeoaea aieeaa? ia caa?aaeaiiy
ee?oei i?ae /an caii?iaeoaaiiy — a?ae?a??ao. sseui ae caii?iaeoaaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a cae?enith?oueny i?ae caoenoii i?iieeath/iai aei ee?oei
e??ii?ioaeoi?o. oi iaaaciaea iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ca ?aooiie
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co cia/ii cieaeo?oueny aai cian?i a?aenooiy.
Iaaaaeai? a?aoiaioe iiyniththoue, /iio aianie a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co aei e??iiioeiaeaeaiiy ca iaaaeeei? oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeaiiy, yea, ye i?aaeei, iio?aao? iayaiino? o e??icaoeniiio
na?aaeiaeu? ii??aiyii aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?iieeath/iai e??ii?ioaeoi?o,
ciaaaaeaii iaeee o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie.

Aiane?aeie cia/iiai ?ica?ao cia/aiue ee?oeiieo ia?aiao??a o noniaic??
ia i?ioyc? a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co ??ci? ee?oeie caciathoue
aaiie?co a iaiaeiaeia? iiiaioe oeueiai i?ioeano. sse aeieeaa? c
aenoiooeo iaie oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue, o ia?oo /a?ao ?oeiothoueny ee?oeie
c iaeiaioeie cia/aiiyie eiao?oe??ioo e?i?eiiai iaoyao ia a?aieoe?
?ic?eao, ui aeieea? a iaia?ai?, oa c iaea?eueoeie cia/aiiyie
eiao?oe??ioo iiaa?oiaaiai ?icoyao iaia?aie. Aaee/eie iaio oeeo
ia?aiao??a caeaaeaoue a?ae noaio e?i?ae?a ? a?ee?a o iaia?ai? oa
i?eeaaeeo aei ieo oa??a ae?eieae?eno. Oiio aoaeue-yea ae?yiiy, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?iaiiy noaio oeeo eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aie, i/aaeaeii,
iiaea a?aeiia?aeii aieeiooe ia ?acoeueoao a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co. C oe??? i?e/eie ia?niaeoeaiei, ia iao iiaeyae,
caeeoa?oueny iiooe cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?acenoaioiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a aei
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co i?ae ae??th ??ciiiai?oieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia noai ?oi?o iaia?ai.

Aenoioo? a ?iaio? oai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy uiaei iioeiaeaeaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie i?e a?ia?oii?/iiio e??iaaiie?c? iathoue
oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ? a iiaeaeueoiio aac i?eioeeiiaeo oneeaaeiaiue
iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? aeey aiae?co e??iiioeiaeaeaiiy ?ioeo ee?oei.

AENIIAEE

1) Ca iaoiai /ano a ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi/enaeueieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii aieiai? caeiiii??iino? yaeua a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co ia oaiiiaiieia?/iiio ??ai? ? oei naiei i?aeaioiaeaii a?oio
aeey noai?aiiy aaeaeaaoii? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? oeueiai yaeua, ui
iiynith? eiai aenia?eiaioaeueia aecia/ai? caeiiii??iino?.

2) Iaoiaeaie oai??? i?oaeiino? oiieeo iaieiiie, a?ae?iaeeiai?ee ca iaeeo
/enae ?aeiieueaena, oa?iiaeeiai?ee iaiai?ioieo i?ioean?a ia?a?aieo
nenoai ? oai??? ?iia??iinoae i?iaaaeaii o?ce/ii oi/iee aiae?c
i?ioean?a, ye? i?e ii?aeiai?e ae?? aeeeeeathoue a?ia?oii?/iee
e??iaaiie?c.

3) Iieacaii, ui ??aaiue iioeiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie
aiane?aeie a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe??th
iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio, nooiaiai ciaaiaeiaiiy ee?oei ? eaoa?aeueiei
?icae?eaiiyi neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a ?o iaia?ai, a’yce?noth
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai a?eeiaiai ?ic/eio, oaeaee?noth ioieiaeaeaiiy
ee?oeiii? noniaic?? ? aaee/eiith ?cio?iiiiai iaoyao ee?oeiii? iaia?aie,
ui aeieea? a ?acoeueoao? oa?iio?iiiiai no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a i?e
i?e 13-8°N.

4) Noai?aia o?ce/ii oi/ia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co, eio?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo, o?aoiao? iniiai?
oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia iueiai, ? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee i?ae
ieie, a oaeiae iiynith? aieiai? caeiiii??iino? oeueiai yaeua.

5) Aecia/aii, ui iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey aeieeiaiiy a?ia?oii?/iiai
e??iaaiie?co ? ciaioaiiy ia 3-5% ieiu?, yea a na?aaeiueiio i?eiaaea? ia
iaeio iieaeoeo a iaaeaoi?iiaai?e iaia?ai?, aiane?aeie ?? oa?iio?iiiiai
no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? ?C-8°N.

6) Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa?iee /an ci?iaiiy oi?ie ciaaiaeiaiiai
a?eo?ioeeoo i?ae ae??th nee, ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ?cio?iiiiai
iaoyao eiai iaia?aie, ? i?yii i?iii?oe?eiei aoaeoeai?e a’yceino?
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio oa iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eiei iiaeoeth
?cio?iiiiai ?icoyae?iiy ee?oeiii? iaia?aie.

7) Iaoiaeii na?oeiai? i?e?ineii?? iieacaii, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e a?ia?oii?/iiio e??iaaiie?c? a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaeano?
oaiia?aoo? 13-8°N oa noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny noa??o?eaoe??th oa
iaacaa?aeaiiyi ee?oei ca aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a naeoiae.

8) Iaoiaeii iaeieooiaiai na?oei?icn?yiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui

/an 50%-aiai aaiie?co a?eo?ioeeo?a a 1I-iiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei?
ae?oea?eio ciaioo?oueny i?ney iiia?aaeiuei? 5-10 oaeeeiii? aeniiceoe??
ee?oei a a?ia?oii?/ieo ?ic/eiao oei?eaeo iao??th oa naoa?ice ia
25-45%.

9) ssaeua a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co aiineoue nooo?aee aeeaae a
caaaeueia iioeiaeaeaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e caii?iaeoaaii?-a?aeoathaaii?,
yeui iicaee?oeiiee ?ic/ei i?noeoue o?eueee ia i?iieeath/ee a ee?oeie
e??ii?ioaeoi? ? ioieiaeaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny c aaeeeith oaeaee?noth, a
naia c? oaeaee?noth, i?e ye?e oa?aeoa?iee /an ci?iaiiy oi?ie
ciaaiaeiaiiai a?eo?ioeeoo cia/ii ia?aaeuo? /an, ca yeee a?aeaoaa?oueny
oa?iio?iiia no?oeoo?ia ia?aoai?aiiy iaia?aie a iaeano? 13-8°N.

10) A?ia?oii?/iee e??iaaiie?c ia aiineoue nooo?aiai aeeaaeo a ?acoeueoao
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a i?ae caoenoii oaeaeei i?iieeath/iai a
ee?oeie e??ii?ioaeoi?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? I?AOeUe

?.Ai?aeeaiei A.A.. Eiaaeaiei N.A.Aeioece/aneay iiaeaeue yaeaiey
aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eiaaiieeca//I?iae. e?eiaeieiaee.- 1996.-?4.-N.24-32.

2.Ai?aeeaiei A. A. , Eiaaeaiei N. A. Iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe yaeaiey
aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eiaaiieeca//I?iae. e?eiaeieiaee. -1997. -?C. -N.3-7.

3.Eiaaeaiei N.A.Oece/aneay iiaeaeue yaeaiey aeia?oiie/aneiai
e?eiaaiieeca//Aanoi. OAO. -?422. -Aeioec. aanoi. -aui. 2. -1998. -N.
82-84.

4.Ai?aeeaiei I.E., Eiaaeaiei N.A.Oece/aneee aiaeec acaeiinayce iaaeaeo
iaoaieciaie yaeaiee aeiioiie/aneiai aaiieeca e aeia?oiie/aneiai
e?eiaaiieeca//Aeooaeueiua aii?inu ?ai?iaeoeoieiaee e
e?eiiaaeeoeeiu.-Oa?ueeia.-OAIO.-1998. -N.205-209.

5.Ai?aeeaiei A.A., Eiaaeaiei N.A., Iooea?ue I.N.Oece/aneay iiaeaeue
naineaeeecaoeee c?eo?ioeeoia /aeiaaea e ioeaaeaeaieth a aeia?oiie/aneeo
?anoai?ao//Oacenu 1 nueacaea Oe?aeineiai oiaa?euanoaa e?eiaeieiaee e
e?eiiaaeeoeeiu.-1995.-Oa?ueeia.-N. 48-50.

6.Ai?ae??iei ?.0., Eiaaeaiei N.?.I?e/eia oa iaoai?ci yaeua
a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co/Oace aeiiia?aeae II c’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai
a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa.-Oa?e?a.-1998.-N.201.

AIIOAOe??

Eiaaeaiei N.?.I?e/eia oa iaoai?ci yaeua a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co.-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.19 e??ia?ieia?y ? e??iia-aeeoeeia.- ?inoeooo
i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Noai?aia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue a?ia?oii?/iiai e??iaaiie?co, yeee
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e ioieiaeaeaii? ee?oeiii? noniaic?? i?ney
iiia?aaeiuei? aeniiceoe?? a?eo?ioeeoo a a?ia?oii?/iiio ?ic/ei?
iai?iieeath/i? ?a/iaeie. Iieacaii, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoii
aeaoi?iaoe??, yea aeieea? a iaia?ai? ee?oeie i?e aeaa?ae?aoaoe??
a?eo?ioeeo?a ? aiane?aeie oa?iio?iiiiai no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a
iaia?ai?, oiae? ye ie?aii oe? oaeoi?e ia iioeiaeaeothoue ee?oeie
iaiai?ioii a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy oa
eiioeaio?aoe?e iicaee?oeiiiai a?ia?oii?/iiai ?ic/eio. *enaeuei?
aenia?eiaioe aeiaiaeyoue, ui i?e aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio oa aeinoaoiuei oaeaeeiio ioieiaeaeaii?
ee?oeiii? noniaic?? a iaia?ai? a?eo?ioeeoo iiaea ooai?thaaoeny
iae?ineii?/ia ii?a, ? oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiai?ioiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy
ee?oeie. Iiaeaeue iiynith? aieiai? caeiiii??iino? oeueiai yaeua,
aeoiaey/e c iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? aeo?aeieo i?eiouaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?eo?ioeeo ethaeeie, a?ia?oii?/iee e??iaaiie?c,
oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue, e??iiioeiaeaeaiiy.

Eiaaeaiei N.A.I?e/eia e iaoaieci yaeaiiy aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eiaaiieeca.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.19 — e?eiaeieiaey e e?eiiaaeeoeeia.-
Einoeooo i?iaeai e?eiaeieiaee e e?eiiaaeeoeeiu IAI Oe?aeiu. Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Nicaeaia oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeia?oiie/aneiai e?eiaaiieeca,
eioi?ue iaaethaeaaony i?e ioeaaeaeaiee eeaoi/iie noniaicee iinea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie yeniiceoeee y?eo?ioeeoia a aeia?oiie/aneii ?anoai?a
iai?iieeathuaai aauanoaa. Iieacaii, /oi iia?aaeaeaiea yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii aeaoi?iaoeee, eioi?ay aicieeaao a iaia?aia eeaoie i?e
iaacaiaeeaaiee, e aneaaenoaea oa?iio?iiiiai no?oeoo?iiai
i?aa?auaiey a iae, oiaaea eae ii ioaeaeueiinoe yoe oaeoi?u ia
iia?aaeaeatho eeaoee iaia?aoeii a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia nei?inoae
ioeaaeaeaiey e eiioeaio?aoeee aiaeeaoi/iiai aeia?oiie/aneiai ?anoai?a.
*eneaiiua yenia?eiaiou aeieacuaatho, /oi i?e aeinoaoi/ii aieueoeo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo aiaeeaoi/iiai ?anoai?a e aeinoaoi/ii auno?ii
ioeaaeaeaiee eeaoi/iie noniaicee a iaia?aia y?eo?ioeeoa iiaeao
ia?aciaaoueny iae?ineiie/aneee ?ac?ua, e yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaia?aoeiiio
iia?aaeaeaieth eeaoie. Iiaeaeue iaueyniyao iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe yoiai
yaeaiiy, enoiaey ec iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa enoiaeiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: y?eo?ioeeo /aeiaaea, aeia?oiie/aneee e?eiaaiieec,
oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue, e?eiiia?aaeaeaiea.

Kovalenko S.E. The reason and mechanism of hypertonic cryohemolysis
phenomenon.-Manuscript.

Thesis for scientific candidate`s degree on speciality 03.00.19 –
cryobiology and cryomedicine.-Institute for problems of cryobiology and
cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of the Ucraine,
Kharkov, 1999.

The theoretical model of hypertonic cryohemolisis observed during the
cooling of cell suspension after preliminary erythrocyte exposure in
hypertonic solution of nonpenetrating substance has been created.
Damaging was shoun to be occured as a result of deformation, appearing
in the cell membrane during the dehydration of erythrocytes and as a
result of membrane thermotropic structural transition, while
separately these factors don`t damage the cells irreversibly in a wide
regions of cooling rates and extracellular hypertonic solution
concentrations. Numerical experiments proved that under the
extracellular solution concentrations large enough and rather rapid
cooling rates of cell suspension the macroscopic pore can be formed,
that leads to the irreversible cell damage. The model created explains
the main regularities of this phenomenon determined experimentally
basing on the small quanta of the input assumptions.

Key words: human erythrocyte, hypertonic cryohemolysis, theoretical
model, cryoinjury.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 05.07.99 ?. Oi?iao 60 84 116.

Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oiiai. ae?. e. 1,0

1. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ?

i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 68. Aeieoiaio Na?a?n. (0572) 43-07-78

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