IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

I?EIEAIEI Iaai Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 681.335:681.332

I?AOeECIEI? OI?IOAA*? *ANIAEO ?IOA?AAE?A

C EA?OTH*EIE CAIAI’ssOIAOTH*EIE I?ENO?IssIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.13.05 — “Aeaiaioe oa i?eno?i? ia/enethaaeueii?
oaoi?ee

oa nenoai ea?oaaiiy”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
ia eaoaae?? ?ioi?iaoe?eii- aei??thaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e Aeaeaaoiia ?aoa?e
A?eai?iae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii- aei??thaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiiae?aoaiei TH??e Iaioae?eiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith eiii’thoa?eciaaieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy, i. Ieeiea?a

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Aaaaeana?yi Eaaii Ai?eniae/, iaoeiai-
ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “Oa?/ii?iiaaoiiaoeea”, caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th
aiae?oe/ieo niaeo?aeueieo i?eno?i?a, i.Iaeana.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie (EI?)

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 01”____07____ 1999?. a 13-30 aiaeei
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.052.01 a Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, 270044, i. Iaeana. i?.
Oaa/aiea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “_01_”____06____ 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee, e.o.i., i?ioani?
ssiiieuenueeee TH.N.

AAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iniiao aia?aoii? /anoeie oaoi?/ieo i?eno?i?a, ui
i?aoeththoue ii caaeai?e /ania?e i?ia?ai?, noaiiaeyoue, ye i?aaeei
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeuei? e?i?ei? oi?ioaa/? na?aaei?o oa aaeeeeo /aniaeo
?ioa?aae?a. I?e oeueiio aeiiae aei iieaciee?a yeino? oaeeo i?eno?i?a,
cie?aia, aei oi/iino?, oaeaeeiae?? ? iaae?eiino?, iino?eii
i?aeaeuothoueny. ?nioth/? i?eno?i? noai?ththoue aaeee? ? na?aaei? /ania?
?ioa?aaee iaaeniei? oi/iino? /a?ac iayai?noue aaeeeeo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
aeeiai?/ieo iioeaie, oiaoi ia?aceoieo cao?eiie, ye? aeieeathoue a
o?aeoao oi?ioaaiiy /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo. Iniiaia /anoeia iioeaie
aecia/a?oueny o?eaae?noth ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano, yeee aeieea? a iiiaio
oi?ioaaiiy /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo a o?aeo? c aeiaaei eaioethaii
ia?aoai?aiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaai? iia? aeai?eoie ia?aoai?aiiy
oeeo?iaeo eiae?a o aaeee? ? na?aaei? /ania? ?ioa?aaee, ia iniia? yeeo
iiaeeeai noai?thaaoe i?aoeec?ei? e?i?ei? iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeuei?
oi?ioaa/? /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c nooo?ai iie?auaieie iao?ieia?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a yeeo eaioethae o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai
?ioa?aaeo aeeiiothoueny ei?iooeie. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo i?aoeec?eieo
e?i?eieo oi?ioaa/?a o a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo i?eno?iyo aeicaieeoue
iiaeaeueoe oaoi?ei- aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?, a ia?oo /a?ao,
cieceoe ao?aoe ?ioi?iaoe??, yea a ieo ia?aoai?th?oueny.

Oiio aeineiaeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia iie?auaiiy iao?ieiai/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee inioth/eo eiiieieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a
/aniaeo iioa?aaeia, aeeiiaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi aiaeiiiai iaoiaeo
i?aenoioaaiiy iaeeie/ieo /aniaeo i?e?iuoaaiue, ? aeooaeueieie.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. Iaoith ?iaioe ? oai?aoe/i? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea i?aoeec?eieo e?i?eieo iaeii-
oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c iie?auaieie
iao?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe o?aaa ?ica’ycaoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo oa iiaeo aeai?eoi?a ia?aoai?aiiy
oeeo?iaeo eiae?a o /ania? ?ioa?aaee, a oaeiae no?oeoo? iaeii- oa
aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue oe?
aeai?eoie, c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy cania?a i???ioiaaieo ia ciaioaiiy
?ino?oiaioaeueii? aeeiaii/ii? iioeaee, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeiae??
? iaae?eiino? oi?ioaa/?a;

?ic?iaea iiaeae? aaia?aoi?a, ye iaeiiai ?c iniiaieo aoce?a oi?ioaa/?a, ?
io?eiaiiy ia ?? iniia? oaei? eiai no?oeoo?ii? noaie, yea caaacia/o?
aenieo noaa?euei?noue /anoioe aeo?aeieo ?iioeuen?a;

?ic?iaea aeai?eoi?a ?iaioe ? neioac iiaeo no?oeoo? i?aoeec?eieo e?i?eieo
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c? ni?iuaieie
eaiaeaie oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo;

?ic?iaea oa ioe?iea cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?, oaeaeeiae?? ?
iaae?eiino? iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a.

Iaoiaee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue aacothoueny
ia oai??? oeeo?i-aiaeiaiaiai ia?aoai?aiiy eiae?a a /ania? ?ioa?aaee,
caniaao no?oeoo?ii- i?aai?caoe?eiiai iie?auaiiy iao?ieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee e?i?eieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

?ic?iaeai? iia? aeai?eoie ia?aoai?aiiy eiaeia o i?aoeecieii /aniai
iioa?aaee;

Noai?ai? iia? no?oeoo?e i?aoeecieieo eiiieieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo
oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo iioa?aaeia.

I?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue ?iaioe.

1. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey iie?auaiiy iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?i?eieo
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, ye?
?ic?iaeythoueny c o?aooaaiiyi a?aeiiiai iaoiaeo i?aenoioaaiiy iaeeie/ieo
/aniaeo i?e?iuoaaiue.

2. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee i?aoeec?eieo e?i?eieo iaeii- oa
aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
ai?iaaaeaeai? ia Iaeanueeiio aaoi?aiiioiiio caaiae? ?46, ai?i?ciaaiiio
i?ae?icae?e? aaoiiia?eueii? neoaeae IaeAI o aeaeyae?
aeaeo?iiii-oeeo?iaiai aeicaoi?a (AOeAe) aeey ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?iceeao aa?aneaieo ??aeei. Oaeoe/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
ca ??e ia caaiae? neeaa 59, 052 oen. e?a. ia iaeei i?eno??e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia 2-?e ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iie i?aea?aeii/ie eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaeaethaaiiy oa
aaoiiaoecaoe?y i?ioean?a i?iaeooaaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe??
neeaaeieo nenoai” i?e iaoeia?e ?aae? AI O?N? ii eiiieaeniie i?iaeai?
“Oai?aoe/ia aeaeo?ioaoi?ea, aeaeo?ii?ea oa iiaeaethaaiiy” (i. Iaeana,
1983 ?.), ia caniaeaiii naiiia?o «Iioi?iaoeieii- aeii?thaaeueii nenoaie
eiio?ieth i oi?aae?iiy» i?e iaoeiaie ?aaei AI O?N? ii eiiieaeniie
i?iaeaii «Oai?aoe/ia aeaeo?ioaoiiea, aeaeo?iiiea i iiaeaethaaiiy» (i.
Iaeana, 1984?.), ia ?anioae?eainueeiio iaoeiai- oaoi?/iiio nai?ia??
“Iaoeii? iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy e?a?aeo caaea/ (ii. Iineaa- ?eaa, 1985 ?.),
ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1986-1997 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii a 15
ioae?eaoe?yo, a oiio /ene? 6 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ia aeiaoiaee.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, caeeth/aiiy, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e,
aeiaeaoeo. ?iaioa caaaeueiei ianyaii 214 noi?. neeaaea? 135 noi?.
iniiaiiai oaenoo, i?i?ethno?iaaiiai ?enoieaie ia 43 noi?., oaaeeoeyie ia
2 noi?. oa oioia?ao?yie ia 4 noi?.; nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ?c 144
iaeiaioaaiue ia 16 noi?.; aeiaeaoeo ia 14 noi?.

O ?iaio? caoeuathoueny:

Aeai?eoie, ui caaacia/othoue nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? aeaiaio?a o noaiao
o?aeo?a oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo a?aeiieo oi?ioaa/?a.

Noaie oi?ioaa/?a, ui ? ?iaa??aioieie aei eieeaaiue /aniaeo ia?aiao??a
oi?ioth/eo eaioetha?a.

Ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai?
iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, eio?? aeianai? aei caoenoo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? cae?enith?oueny aiae?c no/aniiai noaio iaoiae?a
ia?aoai?aiiy eiae?a o /ania? ?ioa?aaee.

?icaeyiooa eeaneo?eaoe?y e?i?eieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a aaeeei?
oa na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino?, eio?? neeaaeathoue aaeeeee i?aeeean
aeaeo?iiieo ooieoe?eieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c no?oeoo?ieo noai e?i?eieo ?ic?ieiaieo
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c o?aooaaiiyi
i?eioeei?a i?yiiai ia?aoai?aiiy oeeo?iaeo eiae?a o /ania? ?ioa?aaee.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee, iaa?oioiaaii? ?ia?oe?ei?noth
aeaiaio?a o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae oaeaee?noue ? iaae?ei?noue
a?aeiieo ?ic?ieiaieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo e?i?eieo i?eno?i?a,
eio?? oi?iothoue /ania? ?ioa?aaee aaeeei? oa na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino?.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co eeaneo?eaoe?eieo i?eciae?a a?aeiieo
ia?niaeoeaieo ?ic?ieiooeo e?i?eieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a
/aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c i?yiei ia?aoai?aiiyi a?aecia/ai? oi?ioaa/?, eio??
?aae?cothoue oeeo?ia? iaoiaee ia?aoai?aiiy, iath/e i?e oeueiio e?au?
iao?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Ia??ai? c oeei a?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?e noai?aii? i?aoeec?eieo
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo e?i?eieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, eio??
?aae?cothoue oeeo?ia? iaoiaee ia?aoai?aiiy aeieea? ?yae o?oaeiiu?a:

-ia ?nio? aeai?eoi?a, ui aeicaieyee a ?ic?iaeyoe noaie i?aoeec?eieo
oi?ioaa/?a, o yeeo a?aee?e /ano ii/eia?oueny a?ae yeiainue oiiaiiai
ioey, a eaioethae o?aeoa oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo aoee ii
iiaeeeaino? ei?iooeie;

-a?aeii? no?oeoo?i? oa aeai?eoi?/i? iaoiaee ia caaacia/othoue nooo?aiai
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oaeeo i?eno?i?a;

-a?aenooi?noue ocaaaeueiaii? iiaeae? aaia?aoi?a, aeey yeiai ?
oa?aeoa?iith aeniea noaa?euei?noue /anoioe, ia aeicaiey? caaaeaee
i?aaeeueii aecia/eoe noaa?euei?noue /anoioe aaia?aoi??a, ui
?ic?iaeythoueny aeey oi?ioaa/?a c caaeaieie iao?ieia?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai iie?auaiiy iao?ieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee e?i?eieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a, eio??
?ic?iaeythoueny c o?aooaaiiyi oeeo?iaeo iaoiae?a ia?aoai?aiiy.

Noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeeoueny aiae?c cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? aaia?aoi?a, ye /ioe?eiiethnieea, ui a?aeia?aaea? noaie a?aeiieo
? i?iaeooth/eo aaia?aoi??a, aeey aeyaeaiiy noaa?eueiino? /anoio
aaia?aoi??a i?e a?aeoeeaii? ia?aiao??a ?o aeaiaio?a a?ae caaeaieo
cia/aiue.

A?aeiia?aeii cai?iiiiiaaii? ocaaaeueiaii? no?oeoo?ii? aeaeo?e/ii? noaie
aaia?aoi?a (?en.1) caieno?oueny eiai ia?aaeaoia ooieoe?y, ia iniia?
eio?i? ae?iaey?oueny ioe?iea a?aeoeeaiue ?aciiainii? /anoioe aaia?aoi?a
o aeiaaeeo ci?ie iii?iae?a aaee/ei aeaiaio?a.

?en.1

Ia?aaeaoia ooieoe?y W(P) aaia?aoi?a, ye ooieoe?y a?ae ?iiaaeain?a, ia?
ianooiiee aeaeyae:

, (1)

aea Ui- iai?oaa aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy; Uj- iai?oaa ia aeoiae? aaia?aoi?a;
Zi ?iiaaeain aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy; Zj- ?iiaaeain iaaaioaaeaiiy; Zx-
?iiaaeain cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo; Zk- ?iiaaeain ia?aoiaeo «eieaeoi?-aaca»
o?aicenoi?a; Zij=Zi+Zj; Zkx=Zk+Zx.

I?e oeueiio aaee/eia no?oio I aaia?aoi?a iiaea aooe aecia/aia c
oi?ioee(2):

, (2)

— ae?ac aea?aaeaioiiai ?iiaaeaino aeey ia?aeaeueii c’?aeiaieo
?iiaaeain?a Zk oa Zx.

?ic?aooiie aaee/ei a?aeoeeaiue aoaeiiii? /anoioe aaia?aoi?a aeeiio?oueny
aeey 4-o aeiaaee?a. E?euee?noue aeiaaee?a aecia/aii /eneii iaai?o
noaiioaoi?/ieo ??oaiue, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue noio ?iiaaeain?a. O eiaeiiio
aeiaaeeo noia ?iiaaeain?a Z( iiaea?oueny o aeaeyae? 4-o iaai??a
noaiioaoi?/ieo ??oaiue aeeiiaieo ia aac? aeaiaio?a R,L,C.

I?e oeueiio noia ?iiaaeain?a /a?ac ia?aiao?e aeaiaio?a R,L,C o
?icai?iooiio aeaeyae? caieno?oueny, ye:

, (3)

.

.

? ooieoe?yie ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a R, L, C.

aecia/athoueny i?e ci?iaii? ii?iiaaieo aaee/ei R, L, C aei 10%.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a iieacaee, a ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui iaeneiaeueia noaa?euei?noue /anoioe
aaia?aoi?a (0,3%) aeinyaa?oueny (3-ee aeiaaeie) i?e iaeii/ani?e ci?i?
ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a R, L, C an?o ?iiaaeain?a. I?e oeueiio ?iiaaeain
cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo, ? iine?aeiaiei c’?aeiaiiyi aeaiaio?a R, L, C, a
inoaii? ?iiaaeaine aeaeyaeathoue, ye iine?aeiai? ca’ycee aeaiaio?a R oa
L, ioiieaieo aeaiaioii C. Iaeneiaeueia noaa?euei?noue /anoioe aaia?aoi?a
cieaeo?oueny aei 1,5%; 2,5% oa 1% a?aeiia?aeii o aeiaaeeao ci?i aei 10%:
o?eueee ia?aiao?a aeaiaioa R ?iiaaeaino ia?aoiaeo «eieaeoi?- aaca»
o?aicenoi?a; o?eueee ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a R, C ?iiaaeaina aeaea?aea
iino?eii? iai?oae aai ?iiaaeaina iaaaioaaeaiiy; o?eueee ia?aiao??a
aeaiaio?a C, L ?iiaaeaina cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?aeiieo ?
cai?iiiiiaaieo aeai?eoi?a ia?aoai?aiiy eiae?a o aaeee? ? na?aaei? /ania?
?ioa?aaee, a oaeiae aeeiiaieo ia ?o iniia? ?nioth/eo ? ?ic?iaeaieo
i?aoeec?eieo e?i?eieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a. ?icaeyiooi
i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeo no?oeoo? oeeo i?eno?i?a c aeeeaaeaiiyi
nooo?aino? no?oeoo?iiai ? no?oeoo?ii- aeai?eoi?/iiai iaoiae?a, ui
caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy ?o oi/iino?, oaeaeeiae?? ? iaae?eiino?.

A?aeoai?aiiy /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo aeniei? oi/iino? aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii
ciaioaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee a?aeiieo oi?ioaa/?a, eio?a aeieea? o i-oee
iiiaio /ano ia?aoai?aiiy oeeo?iaiai aea?eeiaiai eiaeo o o?iio /aniaiai
?ioa?aaeo.

Aeeiai?/ia iioeaea ((ni aecia/a?oueny o?eaae?noth /ano ia?ao?aeiiai
i?ioeano aeaiaio?a o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy oi?ioaa/?a, i?eioeeiiai ia onoiaia,
oa ciaoiaeeoueny c ae?aco:

((ni = (ni — (ni(ICI), (4)

aea (ni — o?eniaaia (?aaeueia) cia/aiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo;
(ni(ICI) – ?noeiia (?aeaaeueia) cia/aiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo, yea
caa??aa?oueny o aeaeyae? eiaeo /ano a ICI (iia?aoeaiee caiai’yoiaoth/ee
i?eno??e).

Aeiaaeeia eaioetha?a o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy (ia?aoai?aiiy) aecia/a?oueny
aeaeii no?oeoo?ieo noai a?aeiieo iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo i?eno?i?a
ia?aoai?aiiy oeeo?iaeo aea?eeiaeo eiae?a o /ania? ?ioa?aaee. A naith
/a?ao no?oeoo?i? noaie oeeo i?eno?i?a aoaeothoueny c o?aooaaiiyi
iaaeineiiaeeo aeai?eoi?a ia?aoai?thaaiiy oeeo?iaeo aea?eeiaeo eiae?a o
/ania? ?ioa?aaee.

Ine?eueee o?aeo oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiiiai ocaaaeueiaiiai iaeiieaiaeueiiai
oi?ioaa/a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a neeaaea?oueny, ui iaeiaioa, ?c 4-o
iine?aeiaii aa?ieiaieo aoce?a (AO?- aaia?aoi?a oaeoiaeo ?iioeuen?a, AN-
aeiea neio?ii?caoe??, e?/eeueieea, NIE- noaie ii??aiyiiy eiae?a), oi
aaee/eia aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith (5):

((ni = ((AO? + ((AN + ((E?* + ((NIE. (5)

A cai?iiiiiaaiiio i?eno?i? o?aeo oi?ioaaiiy iiaea neeaaeaoenue c 2-o
aoce?a: AO?, Ae-o?eaa?, aai iaa?oue c iaeiiai (Ae- o?eaa?), oiio
aaee/eia eiai aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith (6):

((/ni = ((AO? + ((AeO . (6)

Ca?aeii c oeei, oi/i?noue /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, ui noai?ththoueny
?ic?iaeaieie iaeiieaiaeueieie oi?ioaa/aie a 1,5…3 ?ace aeua, iiae o
?nioth/eo.

Ia ?en. 2 oa 3 iaaaaeai?, a?aeiia?aeii, no?oeoo?ia noaia
cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aoeec?eiiai iaeiieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a /aniaeo
?ioa?aae?a ? aeai?eoi eiai ?iaioe o aeaeyae? ni?iuaii? /aniai?
ae?aa?aie.

A?ae??ciyth/ith iniaeea?noth no?oeoo?ii? noaie cai?iiiiiaaiiai
iaeiieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a a?ae ocaaaeueiaii? noaie a?aeiieo
iaeiieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a ? oaeineiiaeaia NIE- oa
aieeaiiy ia ?? aeo?ae iiaea?eii? iai’yo?, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c
iine?aeiaii aeeth/aiieo O ? Ae- o?eaa??a . Aeeiai?/iee ao?ae Ae- o?eaa?a
aeeth/aiee a eaioetha “aeo?ae AN- ao?ae e?/eeueieea”

?en.2

?icaeyiaii aeai?eoi ?iaioe oaeineaiaeaii? NIE. Aea?eeiaee eiae /ano,
yeee /eoa?oueny ?c ICI iinooia? ia ?ioe aoiaee NIE, ciaiueoo?oueny a i?e
ia iaeeieoeth iieiaeoiai ?ic?yaeo, a iioii ii??aith?oueny c ?aaeueiei
aea?eeiaei eiaeii /ano e?/eeueieea, ui iinooia? i?ci?oa ia ?? ia?o?
aoiaee.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui ia?aae ioneii oi?ioaa/a neaiaeii “Neeaeaiiy a
ii/aoeiaee noai” an? o?eaa?e e?/eeueieea anoaiiaeththoueny a “1”, O-
Ae- o?eaa?e – a “0”, a o ICI caienothoueny a ii?yaeeo c?inoaiiy
aea?eeia? eiaee /enae /ano, aeeeth/ath/e eiae /enea ioeue.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo aaee/ei aeeiai?/ieo iioeaie a?aeiieo ?
cai?iiiiiaaieo (?en.4) eiiooaoi?ieo e?i?eieo aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a
/aniaeo ?ioa?ae?a.

Aeeiai?/ia iioeaea ((An? a?aeiieo i?eno?i?a oaeiai oeio aecia/a?oueny
noiith ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a iine?aeiaii aeeth/aieo aoce?a (AO?-
aaia?aoi?a oaeoiaeo ?iioeuen?a, AN- aeiea neio?ii?caoe??, Ae*-
ae?eueieea /anoioe, e?/eeueieea, NIE- noaie ii??aiyiiy eiae?a, AE-
aeiea ea?oaaiiy, ICI2- iia?aoeaii caiai’yoiaoth/iai i?eno?iy, EA-
eiiooaoe?eiiai aeiea) a o?aeo? oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo.

A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo (i
cae?enith?oueny ii iaeiiio aeoiaeo aaaaoieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a (iaeia
eiiooaoe?y EA), oi

((An? = ((AO?+ ((AN + ((Ae* +((E?/ + ((NIE + ((AE + ((ICI2 + ((EA.
(7)

?en.3

A ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo, eiee oi?ioaaiiy ?-ai o?iioo /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo (i
cae?enith?oueny «ceio?iiii» ia ?yae? aeoiae?a aaaaoieaiaeueiiai
oi?ioaa/a (n- iine?aeiaieo eiiooaoe?e EA), oi

((An? = ((AO? + ((AN + ((Ae* +((E?/ + ((NIE + n(OAO? + ((ICI2 + ((EA).
(8)

Oiaoi, a ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo aaee/eia ((An? c?inoa? /a?ac iayai?noue a EA
ia o?eueee aaeeoeaii?, aea e ioeueoeieaeaoeaii? iioeaee, i?e/iio inoaiiy
ca?eueoo?oueny caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? iaeii/anii aeeiiaieo eiiooaoe?e
EA.

A cai?iiiiiaaiiio i?aoeec?eiiio aaaaoieaiaeueiiio oi?ioaa/? c
eiiooaoi?ii iine?aeiaiiai (/aniaiai) oeio, a iaio aeiaaeeao, eiee ?-oee
i?ia?aiiee aea?eeiaee eiae /ano ia?aoai?th?oueny a e?iaoeue /aniaiai
?ioa?aaeo ia iaeiiio, aai neio?iiii ia n- aeoiaeao, aaee/eia
?ino?oiaioaeueii? aeeiaii/ii? iioeaee ((‘An? caaaeaee iaioa, iiae o
?nioth/eo, ? aecia/a?oueny ii iaei?e ? o?e aea oi?ioe? (9):

((An? = ((AO? + ((AN + ((Ae* +((AeO (9)

O oi?ioeao (5…9) ((AO?, ((AN, ((Ae*, ((AeO, ((NIE, ((E?/, ((AE,
((ICI2, ((EA – aaee/eie ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeeiaii/ieo iioeaie
a?aeiia?aeii aeie?a AO?, AN, Ae*, Ae- o?eaa?a c aeeiai?/iei
neio?iaoiaeii, NIE, e?/eeueieea, AE, ICI2, EA. Oi?ioea (9) aeieeaa? ?c
?ic?iaeaiiai aeai?eoio ia?aoai?aiiy eiae?a a /ania? ?ioa?aaee, yeee ?
i?aea?oioyi i?eioeeio ?iaioe cai?iiiiiaaiiai eiiooaoi?iiai
aaaaoieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a (?en.5).

?en.4

C ?en. 4 aeaeii, ui iniaeea?noth cai?iiiiiaaieo no?oeoo?ieo noai
eiiooaoi?ieo aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a ?
aeei?enoaiiy oaeineiiaeaii? noaie NIE, a oaeiae aeeth/aiiy iiaea?eii?
iai’yo? ia eiaeai aeo?ae EA (aeaioeueoeieaeni?). Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c
aeaio iine?aeiaii aa?ieiaieo O ? Ae- o?eaa??a c aeeiai?/iei
neio?iaoiaeii. I?e oeueiio neio?iaoiaee Ae- o?eaa??a ia’?aeiai? ?
aa?ieiai? a eaioetha «aeo?ae Ae*- ao?ae e?/eeueieea».

Iaaaaeaii aeai?eoi ?iaioe cai?iiiiiaaiiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai
(/ioe?ueioeaiaeueiiai) oi?ioaa/a (?en.5). Iiia?aaeiuei neaiaeii
“Neeaeaiiy”- a ii/aoeiaee noai anoaiiaeththoueny a?aeiia?aei? oeeo?ia?
aeaiaioe ocaaaeueiaii? noaie eiiooaoi?iiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a.
Aeeiio?oueny caien eiae?a /ano, aeeeth/ath/e eiae /enea ioeue, a oaeiae
i?eienaieo ?i a?oi eiae?a iiia??a eaiae?a a ii?yaeeo c?inoaiiy oa a
aeia?eueiiio ii?yaeeo, a?aeiia?aeii a ICI1 ? ICI2. I?e oeueiio
eaa?oeaaee AO? oi?io? iaia?a?aio iine?aeiai?noue i?yiieooieo ?iioeuen?a
aoaeiiii? /anoioe. I?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? neaiaeo “Ione” i?ia?aiiee
aea?eeiaee eiae /ano /eoa?oueny c ICI1, ciaiueoo?oueny ia iaeeieoeth
iieiaeoiai ?ic?yaeo a NIE ? ii??aith?oueny c aea?eeiaeie eiaeaie
?aaeueieo iiiaio?a /ano, ui ae?iaeythoueny e?/eeueieeii. A iiiaio
??aiino? eiae?a ia aeoiae? NIE oi?io?oueny /aniaee ?ioa?aae o aeaeyae?
iioaioe?aeo, iieiaeaiiy caaeiueiai o?iioo yeiai a?aeiia?aea? iieiaeaiith
iiia?aaeiueiai ?iioeueno AO? (yeee ia i?ia?aio?oueny). Caaei?e o?iio
/aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo iaeii/anii iinooia? ia ea?oth/? aoiaee EA ? AE. I?e
oeueiio c ICI2 /eoa?oueny ia?oa a?oia eiae?a iiia??a eaiae?a (/e iaeei
eiae) c /anoioith AO? (i?e /eoaii? inoaiueiai eiaea a?oie iciaeith “1”
cae?enith?oueny caioeaiiy aeoiae?a ICI2) c iine?aeiaiei caienoaaiiyi ?o
a O- o?eaa?e caaeaieo eaiae?a. C ianooiiei ?iioeuenii AO?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? i?ia?aiiiio eiaeo /ano, oi?io?oueny o?iio yeei caaea?oueny
e?iaoeue /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo iaeii/anii ia ?yae? aeoiae?a (/e ia iaeiiio
aeoiae?) cai?iiiiiaaiiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a.

?en.5

Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aoeec?eiiai oi?ioaa/a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a
iiaeia ?ic?iaeyoe ia?aeaeuei? oa eiiooaoi?i? aaaaoieaiaeuei? i?eno?i?
ia?aoai?aiiy eiae?a o /ania? ?ioa?aaee c iie?auaieie iao?ieia?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

I?e oeueiio aaee/eia aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee ((‘An?, ?ic?iaeaiiai
ia?aeaeueiiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai i?eno?ith ? aaee/eiith aeeiaie/ii?
iioeaee ((‘n? iaeiieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a. Aaee/eia ae aeeiai?/ii?
iioeaee ((‘An? ?ic?iaeaiiai eiiooaoi?iiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai i?eno?ith
(?en.4) o 3…10 ?ac?a iaio, a, i?ae o a?aeiieo ? aecia/a?oueny ii oi?ioe?
(9) o aeiaaeeao aeeiiaiiy ia?aoai?aiiy iaeiiai eiaeo /ano ii iaeiiio /e
iaeii/anii o ?yae eaiae?a.

E??i oiai, iiiaio oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaea a ?ic?iaeaieo
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/ao a?aecia/a?oueny aenieith
noaa?euei?noth aeo?aeieo ia?aiao??a Ae- o?eaa?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei
iiiaioo iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiueiai o?iioo aenieinoaa?eueiiai ?iioeueno
AO? ia aeeiai?/iee neio?iaoiae Ae- o?eaa?a. Oiio iiaeaeueoa iie?auaiiy
aeo?aeieo oa?aeoa?enoee cai?iiiiiaaieo iaeii- ? aaaaoieaiaeueieo
oi?ioaa/?a aeyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei, aac ci?ie ?o caaaeueieo aeai?eoi?a
?iaioe, o?eueee oeyoii cai?ie eeane/iiai Ae- o?eaa?a c aeeiai?/iei
neio?iaoiaeii ia aeaiaioe iai’yo? c a?eueo i?inoith no?oeoo?ith,
iai?eeeaae, ia Ae- o?eaa? c iioaioe?aeueiei neio?iaoiaeii, Ae- o?eaa?
A?ea c ia?aoaciei iioaioe?aeueiei neio?iaoiaeii /e oeeo?ia? aeaiaioe
eii’theoi?e, aeec’theoi?e. I?e aeei?enoaii? ia?ae?/aieo oeeo?iaeo
aeaiaio?a iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? iiiaio?a /ano ni?aoethaaiiy O
? Ae- o?eaa??a c aeeiai?/iei neio?iaoiaeii a o?aeo? oi?ioaaiiy,
a?aeiinii /ano ne?aeoaaiiy oaeoiaeo ?iioeuen?a AOI. Ae?enii O-o?eaa?
ni?aoeueiao? o aoaeue- yeee /an iiia?aaeiueiai oaeoo AO?, oiaoi
ni?aoeueiao? aneio?iii ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeaiiai oaeoo. Iio?i, c
ii/aoeii ianooiiiai oaeoo, ni?aoeueiao? eeane/iee Ae-o?eaa? c
aeeiai?/iei neio?iaoiaeii, ye aeie, yeee ea?o?oueny o?iioii ianooiiiai
?iioeueno AO?, oiaoi o?iioii a?aeiia?aeiei cia/aiith i?ia?aiiiai eiaeo
/ano.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ye iiaeia aeiaeaoeiai cieceoe aeeiai?/io
iioeaeo, aeei?enoiaoth/e /aniaee aeeoa?aioe?aeueiee eiiiainaoe?eiee
iaoiae a i?inoeo ii no?oeoo?? o?aeoao oi?ioaaiiy oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a
iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeuei? ?ic?iaeai? oi?ioaa/? aeiea ei?aeoe??.

Oae ye a oi?ioaa/ao oi/i?noue ? oaeaeeiae?y ia iiiaio oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey
/aniaiai ?ioa?aaea aca?iicaeaaei?, oi cieaeaiiy iioeaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy ?o oaeaeeiae??. Uia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aieeaaei ia ci?io
oaeaeeiae?? o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy, a?i aeeiiaiee c o?aooaaiiyi 2-io a?aeiieo
cania?a ii?iae?caoe?? o?iioo /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo. ?o nooue iieyaa? a
ianooiiiio: oi?ia o?iioo /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo ia ci?ith?oueny aiane?aeie
oiai, ui aeaiaio o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy ia o?eueee ia?aoai?th? ao?aei?
neaiaee, aea i?aeneeth? ? iaiaaeo? ?o.

Iao?ieia?/i? iieacieee oi?ioaa/?a aecia/athoueny oaeiae
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aaia?aoi?a ye iniiaiiai aoaeiio /ano. A ca’yceo c oeei
a aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
aaia?aoi?a, ye ?acenoeaiiai /ioe?eiiethnieea i?inoi? no?oeoo?e, ui
aeicaiey? iia?aoeaii i?iaeooaaoe ?o aeaeo?e/i? noaie oa ioe?ithaaoe
aaee/eie ianoaa?eueiinoae /anoio ia noaae?? ?ic?iaee.

A aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae ?icaeyaea?oueny iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaieo
oi?ioaa/?a, ye a?a?eaeieo i?eno?i?a. Iaae?eia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eiiooaoi?iiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a ye oeeo?iaiai i?eno?ith
aecia/a?oueny i?aaeeuei?noth aeo?aeiiai oeeo?iaiai eiaeo, a aeaiee /e
ianooiiee iiiaioe oi?ioaaiiy o?iio?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, ui
aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii aeiiiaiaiiy eiai aeieaie eiio?ieth aeo?aeii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ii iaia?iino? ? i?iaiicoaaiiy c eiio?ieai ii iiaeoeth aeaa.
C oi/ee ci?o ye?nieo oyaeaiue, oi/ia oa iaae?eia ?iaioa cai?iiiiiaaieo
oi?ioaa/?a aecia/a?oueny i?aeo?eiaiiyi a caaeaieo iaaeao ?o aeo?aeieo
oa?aeoa?enoee.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaiiai i?aoeec?eiiai e?i?eiiai eiiooaoi?iiai
aaaaoieaiaeueiiai oi?ioaa/a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a aeey ea?oaaiiy
aenieioi/ieie aeaioiiceoe?eieie ia’?eoaie, a oaeiae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
aeei?enoaiith eiai i?e ?ic?iaoe? ??cieo c?aceiaeo i?eno?i?a, ui
cae?eniththoue ia?aoai?aiiy eiae?a o /ania? ?ioa?aaee aaeeei? oa
na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino?.

Ia aac? ?ic?iaeaiiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai eiiooaoi?iiai i?aoeec?eiiai
oi?ioaa/a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a ?aae?ciaaii 63-o eaiaeueiee oeeo?iaee
ea?oth/ee i?eno??e aeniei? oi/iino?.

Aaaaoieaiaeueiee oeeo?iaee ea?oth/ee i?eno??e iaeii/anii aenooia?, ye o
?ie? oaeia?iiai i?eno?ith aeniei? oi/iino? oae ? i?eno?ith ea?oaaiiy
iecueei oa aenieioi/ieie aeaioiiceoe?eieie ia’?eoaie.

Aaaaoieaiaeueiee oeeo?iaee ea?oth/ee i?eno??e aeeiiaii ia aac?
noaiaea?oieo ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy ?ioaa?aoe?? ?
aeai?eoi eiai ?iaioe a?aeiia?aea? aeai?eoio ?iaioe cai?iiiiiaaiiai
aaaaoieaiaeueiiai eiiooaoi?iiai i?aoeec?eiiai oi?ioaa/a.

Ii??ayiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo iieacaee, ui i?e
iayaiino? iaeneiaeueii? iaaaioaaeaiino? ia aeoiaeao i?eno?ith aaee/eia
aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee, yea aeieea? a iiiaio oi?ioaaiiy e?ioey /aniaiai
?ioa?aaeo, ia ia?aaeuo? /ano ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano o?aeoo oi?ioaaiiy
o?iioo /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo ? neeaaea? 4…6 in.

Aaaaoieaiaeueiee oeeo?iaee ea?oth/ee i?eno??e ni?aa?aeiinii c
a?ae?inenoaiith aeey ?iceeao aeaeo?ie?oo a aeoioeyoi?i? aaoa?a?
ai?iaaaeaeaii a aaoiiia?euei?e neoaea? Iaeanueeiai a?enueeiaiai ie?oao.
Oeae i?eno??e aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe oaii ?iceeao aeaeo?ie?oo a 12 ?ac?a ?
ci?ieoe aeei?enoaiee ?ai?oa aeey oe??? iaoe i?eno??e E-1428 aeeiiaiee ia
aac? aa?aaaoo aaeoiiiai ?ioaoe?eiiai oeio AA?- 50, oa cieceoe aeo?aoe
aeaeo?ie?oo ia 15…20%.

Ia aac? cai?iiiiiaaieo i?aoeec?eieo- iaeii oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo
oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a iiaeooue ?ic?iaeyoenue oaeiae
ia?aoai?thaa/? aeniei? oi/iino? c i?ii?aeiei ia?aoai?aiiyi: iai?eeeaae:
«/anoioa- eiae», «iai?oaa- eiae».

?ic?iaeai? i?aoeec?ei? eiiooaoi?i? aaaaoieaiaeuei? oi?ioaa/?
aenooiathoue ? ye oi?ioaa/? eiaeiaeo iine?aeiaiinoae, oiaoi ye
ia?aoai?thaa/? eiae?a oa iiaeooue ciaeoe oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy a oaoi?oe?
e?eioia?ao??.

A aeiaeaoeo iaaaaeai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a Iaeanueeiio
a?enueeiaiio ie?oc? (IaeAi) ? ?? oaeoe/io aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue.

A caeeth/aii? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? aeniiaee oa ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe:

I?ney aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?
/aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a iiaeeeaa oeyoii nei?i/aiiy /enea aeaiaio?a a o?aeo?
ia?aoai?aiiy iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee, ui aeieea? a o?aeo?
oi?ioaaiiy /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo cai?iiiiiaaieo i?aoeec?eieo oi?ioaa/?a,
caeaaeeoue o?eueee a?ae oeio iaeiiai oeeo?iaiai aeaiaioa, yeee
aeei?enoiao?oueny a o?aeo?.

?ic?iaeai? iia? aeai?eoie ia?aoai?aiiy oeeo?iaeo eiae?a a aaeee? ?
na?aaei? /ania? ?ioa?aaee aeniei? oi/iino?.

Cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia no?oeoo?a aaia?aoi?a o aeaeyae? ?acenoeaiiai
/ioe?eiiethnieea, ia?aaeaoia ooieoe?y yeiai aeicaiey? oai?aoe/ii
aecia/aoe aaee/eio ianoaa?eueiino? /anoio aaia?aoi??a, ye?
i?iaeoothoueny.

?ic?iaeai? no?oeoo?e iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo i?aoeec?eieo oi?ioaa/?a
/aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c? ni?iuaieie o?aeoaie ia?aoai?aiiy, ui
caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ? oaeaeeiae?? a iiiaio oi?ioaaiiy
e?ioey /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo a?aeiia?aeii a 2…3 ? 3…10 ?acia o
ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie i?eno?iyie iiae?aiiai eeano.

Cai?iiiiiaaii can?a cieaeaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee ?ic?iaeaieo
i?aoeec?eieo oi?ioaa/?a c aeei?enoaiiyi /aniaiai aeeoa?aioe?eiiai
eiiiainaoe?eiiai iaoiaeo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii can?a iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeiae?? ?ic?iaeaieo
i?aoeec?eieo oi?ioaa/?a oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy o ni?iuaiiio o?aeo?, e?ooecie
oi?ioth/iai o?iioo /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo.

I?aeaeuaii oa?aeoa?enoeee iaae?eiino? ?ic?iaeaieo oi?ioaa/?a oeyoii
ciaiueoaiiy ia’?io aeie?a iai’yo?.

Aeeiiaii iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iaae?eiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo
i?aoeec?eieo aaaaoieaiaeueieo eiiooaoe?eieo oi?ioaa/?a, c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiae?a aaoaeiaaiiai eiio?ieth, yeee aea? iia?aoeaio ioe?ieo
i?aoeacaeaoiino? oeeo oi?ioaa/?a oa i?iaiico? a??ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?eno?ith o ianooiieo oaeoao eiai ?iaioe.

Ia aac? ?ic?iaeaiiai i?aoeec?eiiai eiiooaoi?iiai aaaaoieaiaeueiiai
oi?ioaa/a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, noai?aii ? aaaaeaii a ae?th
aeaeo?iiii-oeeo?iaee i?eno??e (AOeI) aeey ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?iceeao aa?aneaieo ??aeei ia Iaeanueeiio aaoi?aiiioiiio
caaiae? ?46, a /a?ac ??e ia?aaeaii o ai?i?ciaaiee i?ae?icae?e
aaoiiia?eueii? neoaeae IaeAI. Oaeoe/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ca ??e a?ae
aeei?enoaiiy AOeI ia caaiae? neeaa 59,052 oen. e?a.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? ne?aeoth/e ?iaioe:

I?ieioueaa A.A., Ieeieaiei E.I., Oeoii/oe N.O. Iiiaieaiaeueiue
i?aia?aciaaoaeue eiaea ai a?aiaiiie eioa?aae/Iaean. iieeoaoi. ei-o. —
Iaeanna, 1984. — 8n.: ee. — Aeaeeia?.: 6 iaca. — Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE
09.07.84, ?1176. — Oe 84.

I?ieioueaa A.A., Ieeieaiei E.I. Iiiaieaiaeueiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue eiae —
a?aiaiiie eioa?aae aeey aeene?aoii-aiaeiaiauo naoi/iuo
iiaeaeae//Iaoeiiua iaoiaeu ?aoaiey e?aaauo caaea/: Oac. aeiee. ia ?ani.
iao/.-oaoi. naieia?a, 29-31 ieoya?y 1985 a., a.?eaa. — I.- ?eaa: 1985. —
N. 35.

Aaeeeee A.E., Ieeieaiei E.I. Ia iaeiie no?oeoo?a iiiaieaiaeueiiai
i?aia?aciaaoaey eiae — a?aiaiiie eioa?aae/Iaean. iieeoaoi. ei-o. —
Iaeanna, 1986. — 14 n.: ee. — Aeaeeia?.: 10 iaca. — Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE
31.01.86, ?364 — Oe 86.

A.n. ? 1231584 NNN?, IEE I 03 E 3/64. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae/ A.A. I?ieioueaa, E.I. Ieeieaiei, N.O.
Oeoii/oe, A.A. O?eae, TH.I. Aano?eeia (NNN?). — ?3677172/24-21; Cayaeaii
22.12.83; Iioae. 15.05.86, Athe. ?18 — N.246.

A.n. ? 1345322 NNN?, IEE I 03 E 3/64. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae/ E.I. Ieeieaiei, Ae.A. Ae?icae, Ai.A.
Ae?icae, A.E. Iieei, N.O. Oeoii/oe (NNN?). — ?4074204/24-21; Cayaeaii
16.04.86; Iioae. 15.10.87, Athe. ?38 — N.251.

A.n. ? 1406736 NNN?, IEE I 03 E 3/64. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae/ E.I. Ieeieaiei, A.E. Iieei, Ae.A.
Ae?icae, Ai.A. Ae?icae e A.A. Aeiieo?iaa (NNN?). — ?4162756/24-21;
Cayaeaii 18.12.86; Iioae. 30.06.88, Athe. ?24 — N.231.

A.n. ? 1439744 NNN?, IEE I 03 I 7/00. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae/ E.I. Ieeieaiei, A.A. Ae?icae, ?.A.
Aeaeaaoiia, Ae.A. Ae?icae e A.E. Iieei (NNN?). — ?4092800/24-21;
Cayaeaii 16.07.86; Iioae. 23.11.88, Athe. ?43 — N.265.

A.n. ? 1499438 NNN?, IEE I 03 E 3/64. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae/ E.I. Ieeieaiei, Ae.A. Ae?icae, A.E.
Aaeeeee e Ai.A. Ae?icae (NNN?). — ?4374566/24-21; Cayaeaii 08.02.88;
Iioae. 07.08.89, Athe. ?29 — N.244 — 245.

A.n. ? 1554115 NNN?, IEE I 03 E 3/64. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae/ E.I. Ieeieaiei, Ae.A. Ae?icae, Ai.A.
Ae?icae, ?.A. Aeaeaaoiia, A.E. Iieei (NNN?). — ?4404046/24-21; Cayaeaii
05.04.88; Iioae. 30.03.90, Athe. ?12 — N.246.

Ieeieaiei E.I. I?aoeeceiiiue oi?ie?iaaoaeue a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia//
I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee (Aei. Oiceei- iaoaiaoe/ii iaoee ?6
(73)).- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea i inaioa.- 1998.- N.8-13.

Ieeieaiei E.I. Iiiaieaiaeueiue oi?ie?iaaoaeue a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia//
I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee (Aei. Oiceei- iaoaiaoe/ii iaoee ?6
(73)).- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea i inaioa.- 1998.- N.13-19.

Ieeieaiei E.I. Eino?oiaioaeueiua aeeiaie/aneea iia?aoiinoe a
oi?ie?iaaoaeyo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia// I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee
(Aei. Oiceei- iaoaiaoe/ii iaoee ?6 (73)).- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea i
inaioa.- 1998.- N.19-23.

Ieeieaiei E.I. Iiiaieaiaeueiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue eiaeia a iaoaie/aneeo e
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo nenoaiao // I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee (Aei.
Oaoii/ii iaoee ?44 (111)).- Aeiii?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea i inaioa.- 1998.-
N. 108-114.

Ieeieaiei E.I. Iaeei ec niiniaia iiauoaiey oi/iinoe oi?ie?iaaoaeae
a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia a iaoaie/aneeo e yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo nenoaiao //
I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee (Aei. Oaoii/ii iaoee ?44 (111)).-
Aeiii?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea i inaioa.- 1998.- N. 99-103.

Ieeieaiei E.I. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue eiaeia a iaoaie/aneeo e
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo nenoaiao // I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee (Aei.
Oaoii/ii iaoee ?44 (111)).- Aeiii?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea i inaioa.- 1998.-
N. 103-108.

Aiioaoe?y

I?eieaiei ?.I. I?aoeec?ei? oi?ioaa/? /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a c ea?oth/eie
caiai’yoiaoth/eie i?eno?iyie .- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 05.13.05- aeaiaioe oa i?eno?i? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa
nenoai ea?oaaiiy.- Aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Iaeana, 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oai?aoe/iei, aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
? ?ic?iaoe? iaeii- oa aaaaoieaiaeueieo i?aoeec?eieo oi?ioaa/?a aaeeeeo
oa na?aaei?o /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a ooieoe?iioth/eo c o?aooaaiiyi
cai?iiiiiaaieo aeai?eoi?a ia?aoai?thaaiiy oeeo?iaeo eiae?a o /ania?
?ioa?aaee aeniei? oi/iino?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee
i?iieneiaa canoinoaaiiy a i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo oei?a i?aoeec?eieo
oi?ioaa/?a /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?ioaa/, aaia?aoi?, o?eaa?, eiiooaoi?, oi/i?noue,
oaeaeeiae?y, iaae?ei?noue, i?eno??e ea?oaaiiy.

Aiiioaoeey

Ieeieaiei E.I. I?aoeeceiiiua oi?ie?iaaoaee a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia n
oi?aaeyaiuie caiiieiathueie ono?ienoaaie.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii

niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.13.05 –yeaiaiou e ono?ienoaa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee
e nenoai oi?aaeaiey.- Ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao,
Iaeanna, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?aoaaony caaea/a, naycaiiay n ?ac?aaioeie eeiaeiuo
i?aoeeceiiiuo oi?ie?iaaoaeae aieueoeo e n?aaeieo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia.

Enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony aeooaeueiuie, oae eae iai?aaeaiu ia iiauoaiea
oi/iinoe, auno?iaeaenoaey e iaaeaaeiinoe ecaanoiuo eeiaeiuo
oi?ie?iaaoaeae a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia.

Ecaanoiua ono?ienoaa oi?ie?otho aieueoea e n?aaeiea a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu
ia?aie/aiiie oi/iinoe ec-ca iaee/ey aieueoeo aeeiaie/aneeo iia?aoiinoae,
oi anoue ia?aceoiuo a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae, aicieeathueo a o?aeoao
oi?ie?iaaiey o?iioia a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia. Aaee/eia aeeiaie/aneie
iia?aoiinoe au?aaeaaony a?aiaiai ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeanna, eioi?ue
aicieeaao a iiiaio i?aia?aciaaiey aeaie/iiai eiaea ai o?iio a?aiaiiiai
eioa?aaea. A?aiy ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeanna ii?aaeaeyaony «aeeeiiie» oeaie
o?aeoa oi?ie?iaaiey.

Ionoonoaea niaa?oaiiuo aeai?eoiia i?aia?aciaaiey eiaeia ai a?aiaiiua
eioa?aaeu ia iicaieytho iiea nicaeaaaoue oi?ie?iaaoaee n ei?ioeeie
oeaiyie o?aeoia oi?ie?iaaiey.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec no?oeoo? ecaanoiuo e
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaoaeae. Aiaeec iieacuaaao, /oi oi/iinoue
i?aia?aciaaiey aeaie/iiai eiaea ai a?aiaiiie eioa?aae auoa a
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaoaeyo ii n?aaiaieth n ecaanoiuie, niioaaonoaaiii
a 1,5 … 2 ?aca aeey iaeiieiiaeueiuo e 3…10 aeey iiiaieaiaeueiuo,
no?iyueony n eniieueciaaieai eiiiooaoi?ia a?aiaiiiai i?eioeeia
aeaenoaey.

Oi/iinoue i?aia?aciaaiey iiauoaaony ca n/ao oi?iuaiey no?oeoo?u o?aeoa
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaoaeae (oiaiueoaiey /enea iineaaeiaaoaeueii
aeeth/aiiuo aeieia).

Ec n?aaiaiey ecaanoiiai e i?aaeeiaeaiiiai aeai?eoiia i?aia?aciaaiey
aeaie/iuo eiaeia ai a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu neaaeoao,/oi:

iaa aeai?eoia ooieoeeiie?otho ia iniiaa iaoiaea noiie?iaaiey aaeeie/iuo
a?aiaiiuo i?e?auaiee;

a ecaanoiii aeai?eoia i?aia?aciaaiea aioiaeony e auiieiyaony n
iinooieaieai a o?aeo oi?ie?iaaoaey eiioeuena aaia?aoi?a,
niioaaonoaothuaai aeaie/iiio eiaeo, a a i?aaeeiaeaiiii aeai?eoia
iiaeaioiaea i?aia?aciaaiey auiieiyaony n iinooieaieai i?aaeuaeouaai
eiioeuena aaia?aoi?a.

Iieo/aiiua aeai?eoiu i?aia?aciaaiey ii?aaeaeeee iiaua no?oeoo?u
i?aoeeceiiiuo oi?ie?iaaoaeae a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu niiniau oi?iuaiey no?oeoo?u o?aeoa
oi?ie?iaaiey, a oaeaea iieacaii, /oi oiaiueoaiea aeeiaie/aneie
iia?aoiinoe i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth auno?iaeaenoaey.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony iaaeaaeiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
oi?ie?iaaoaeae a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia, eae aea?eaeiuo ono?ienoa.
Iaaeaaeiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiiaieaiaeueiiai oi?ie?iaaoaey n
eiiiooaoi?ii a?aiaiiiai i?eioeeia aeaenoaey, eae oeeo?iaiai ono?ienoaa,
ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeeueiinoueth auoiaeiiai eiaea a aeaiiue e
iineaaeothuee iiiaiou oi?ie?iaaiey o?iioia a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia, iooai
aeiiieiaiey oi?ie?iaaoaey aeieaie eiio?iey auoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee ii
ia/aoiinoe e i?iaiice?iaaiey n eiio?ieai ii iiaeoeth 2. Iaaeaaeiinoue
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaoaeae, eae aiaeiaiauo ono?ienoa, iaania/eaaaony
iiaeaea?aeaieai a caaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao eo auoiaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, ca
n/ao oi?iuaiey no?oeoo? o?aeoia oi?ie?iaaiey e aaaaeaiey aeieia
ei??aeoeee ii aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiio eiiiainaoeeiiiiio iaoiaeo.
Noaaeeueiinoue o?iioia a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia iaania/eaaaony ea/anoaaiiie
?aaioie o?aeoa oi?ie?iaaiey e aunieinoaaeeueiiai aaia?aoi?a. I?eaiaeeony
iaiauaiiay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aunieinoaaeeueiiai aaia?aoi?a, eae
/aou?aoiiethnieea.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?eiaiaiea a iiae?acaeaeaieyo
Iaeanneiai aiaiiiai ie?oaa a aeaea oeeo?iaiai ono?ienoaa oi?aaeaiey
aeaooiiceoeeiiiuie iauaeoaie aunieie oi/iinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?ie?iaaoaeue, aaia?aoi?, o?eaaa?, eiiiooaoi?,
oi/iinoue, auno?iaeaenoaea, iaaeaaeiinoue, ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey.

Annotation

Nikolenko I.N. Precision drivers of time intervals with controlled
memory.- Manuscript.

Dissertation for a degree of Cand. Sc. (Tech.), specialization 05.13.05
– elements and devices of computer equipment and control systems. –
State polytechnical University, Odessa, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to theoretical, experimental
research and development of one- channel and multichannel precision
drivers of big and average time intervals functioning with regard for
suggested algorithms of digital code conversion into high precision time
intervals. Main results of the thesis found industrial application in
designing new types of precision drivers of time intervals.

Key words: driver, generator, flip-flop, commutator, precision, speed
of operation, reliability, control device.

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