19

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa

Oaiaeaethe Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 340.132

I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae??a iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy ooieoe?ei?aaiaie
aioo??oi?o ni?aa

12.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie (i.
Oa?e?a).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iia??aiee ?ai? Ieo?ioaiiae/,

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa (i. Oa?e?a),

eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa,

canooiiee ia/aeueieea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eictha?a Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

Eiinoeoooe?eiee Noae Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a), noaeaey

— eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Io?aoei Ieaenaiae? Aaiiaae?eiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a),

eaoaae?a oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.
Ia/ieeiaa,

eaoaae?a caaaeueiii?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i,

i?aeia?iaeiiai oa i?eaaoiiai i?aaa

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Iaeana)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “27” ethoiai 1999 ?ieo i 10 — 00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.700.03 a Oi?aa?neoao?
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, Oe?a?ia, i. Oa?e?a, i?. 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, Oe?a?ia, i. Oa?e?a, i?. 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “26” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ee?e/aiei A.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaoaeiaa i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa ?io? nioe?aeuei?
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i?, iaoiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue ?ioaineaii? ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai i?aaiaiai aieeao
ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie, iaoai?cio i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, oi?i oa
cania?a ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa, canoinoaaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo
ieoaiue, ye? c ieie iia’ycai?.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? aea?aeaae ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c iaeneiaeueiei
caaacia/aiiyi i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth aea?aeaae
ia?aae a?iiaaeyieiii, i?aeaeuaiiyi aaoi?eoaoo caeiio, eiai noai?ei
aeio?eiaiiyi on?ia aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie, a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie,
eieaeoeaaie e a?iiaaeyiaie, aoaeoeaiith ?iaioith i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

Ca oiia a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa i?aaa ethaeeie e a?iiaaeyieia
yaeythoue niaith iaeio c iaeaaaeeea?oeo nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae. Aiie
eiinoaoothoue i?noea iniae o oeueiio noni?euenoa?, iaaeathoue ?e
?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? aeey i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?? iio?aa.

I?aaa ethaeeie, ?? ?ioa?ane iathoue i??i?eoao ii a?aeiioaiith aei an?o
aac aeiyoeo ?ioeo i?aa oa naiaiae — ?ioa?an?a ? i?aa eieaeoeao, iaoe??,
ia?iaeiino?, i?aai?caoe??, a oiio /ene? e aea?aeaaii?. I?e oeueiio, oeae
i??i?eoao iiaeiai ?icoi?oeny ye iaiiaeeea?noue aoaeue-yei? i?aai?caoe??,
aea?aeaaiiai i?aaio, iaaiiai eieaeoeao oiui iicaaaeoe iniao aai
iaiaaeeoe ?? o oeo i?aaao ? naiaiaeao, ye?, aoaeo/e aa?aioiaai? caeiiii,
neeaaeathoue nooue ?? i?aaiaiai noaoono.

Aeey i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ?acii ?c
i?iaieioaiiyi oa cae??ieaiiyi o Eiinoeoooe?? oa /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?
i?aa ? naiaiae iniae ia iaio aaaeeeai caaacia/eoe ?o oni?oio
?aae?caoe?th ia i?aeoeoe?. Oea ieoaiiy aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa e neeaaeia.
I?eiio ia iio??ai? i?aaia? aeaei?aoe??, yeeie iaieio/a noaia
iaeaeaiie?aoe/i?oee ? nioe?aeueii iaiao?aeiee caeii ca oiia, yeui a?i
aoaea ?nioaaoe o?eueee ia iaia??, ? ia aoaea cae?enithaaoeny o
?aaeueiiio aeeoo?. Aaeaea naia oae? aeaoi?iaoe?? aoee a iao?e e?a?i?
i?ioyaii aaaaoueio aeanyoe??/.

Cae/aeii, ia?o ca ana, oaeee noai ?a/ae aoa ?acoeueoaoii iaaaaeaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, ui iaioaaea o e?a?i?, ae?enii
?aaeueii ae?yoe o iai?yieo aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oa aoiai?caoe?? noni?eueiiai
aeeooy, ine?eueee oea i?ecaaei a o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? aei
e?ea?aeaoe?? ?? naii?. Aea aoea ooo e ?ioa i?e/eia, nooi?noue yei?
iieyaa? o cia/ieo o?oaeiiuao noai?aiiy ae??aiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe??
??ciiiai?oieo ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii ? ci?noii i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi.
Ia?aae iaie neooaoe?y, iiae?aia noaio ?a/ae, yeee ia? i?noea a oai???
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy — aeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaia o an?o nai?o aeaoaeyo
oai??y i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, iinooia?oueny i?aeoeoe? ?o
?aae?caoe??. Ia aeiaaeeiai e o iao?e i?aaia?e iaooe? ieoaiiy
eiinoeoothaaiiy i?aa ? naiaiae iniae, ?o ?icaeoeo, nenoaiaoecaoe?? oiui,
aeine?aeaeai? cia/ii iiai?oa o ii??aiyii? c i?iaeaiaie ?oiuei?
i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??, ae?? iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? oeeo i?aa ? naiaiae,
no?oeoo?e oeueiai iaoai?cio e ?ioeie iiae?aieie ieoaiiyie.

I?i oa?aeoa? ae?th/i? o e?a?i? i?aaiai? nenoaie noaeyoue ia o?eueee c
oiai, ui i?iaieioo?oueny ye caeii, aea ? ye oe? caeiie
ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a aeeooy. Aaaeeea? i?ioean cae?eniaiiy i?aaa ? eiai
?acoeueoao, ooi ? yeeie caniaaie i?aai?co? ?aae?caoe?th i?eien?a
i?aaiaeo ii?i o iiaaae?ioe? oa ae?? noa’?eo?a i?aaa. Oa?aeoa?
iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio, noai caeiiiino? oa i?aaiii?yaeeo o e?a?i?
a?aeia?aaea?oueny ia?o ca ana o i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, eiai eiie?aoieo i?aai?a oa iinaaeiaeo in?a. Oiio
nueiaiaei? aino?i a?ae/oaa?oueny iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? iaoai?cio
aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy caeiio oa eiai ae?? ia nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane, ia
aeaiie?aoecaoe?th oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo
i?aaiaeo cania?a iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? caeiio aenooiathoue
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe, ui cae?eniththoueny aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oa
iinaaeiaeie iniaaie.

Eiaeiee i?aaiaee i?eioeei, eiaeia i?aaiaa ii?ia — oea ia?o ca ana
aeac?aea ia iaaia eiei i?aa oa iaia’yce?a, ye? iathoue o ?aaeueiiio
aeeoo? a?iiaaeyie, ?o ia’?aeiaiiy oa i?aai?caoe??. Ii noo?, iiaa eaea
i?i a?aeiia?aei? noaiaea?oe iiaaae?iee, yeeie ethaee iiaeii? ea?oaaoeny
a eiie?aoieo oeiiaeo neooaoe?yo. Oea aiineoue o noni?euenoai iaiao?aeio
aii?yaeeiaai?noue, niie?e, caaacia/o? ioae?a ii?aeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
?ioa?an?a oa oe?eae. Aea ii?ie i?aaa, ye caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaeie
i?aaeeaie iiaaae?iee, iani?iiiaei? a?aeia?aceoe anth aace?/ oaeoe/ieo
aeeoo?aeo ianoaaei, cie?aia, eiie?aoieo ia’?eo?a i?aaiaiai aieeao. Oea
aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith cae?eniaiiy aeo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa, ye?
caaacia/othoue oaea ??ciiiai?ooy o i?ioean? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy. O oeueiio aniaeo? i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe, ii-ia?oa,
caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th ii?i i?aaa, ii-ae?oaa, aecia/athoue
?iaeea?aeoaeueio i??o iiaeeeai? oa iaeaaeii? iiaaae?iee noa’?eo?a o
eiie?aoieo i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao, ii-o?ao?, caaacia/othoue caoeno
noa’?eoeaieo i?aa oa aeeiiaiiy th?eaee/ieo iaia’yce?a noi??i o
i?aaia?aeiineiao. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaeeeaa oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ia? ??ciia?/ia ?ic?iaea ieoaiiy i?i aeoe canoinoaaiiy ii?i
i?aaa. ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue o ?? iaoeiaiio iiaeeaeaii?, ui iaoiiaeaii
naiei aeeooyi oa iio?aaaie i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? i?aeoeee aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, o oiio /ene? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Niaoe?aeueia iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c aaeineiiaeaiiyi oa
i?aeaeuaiiyi aoaeoeaiino? ?o i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.
Iinoaiiaea oeueiai ieoaiiy ? iniaeeai aeooaeueiith ine?eueee i?aaiai
aioo??oi?o ni?aa a?aeaiaeeoueny aaaeeeaa ?ieue o ni?aa? caaacia/aiiy
i?aa oa naiaiae iniae oa a?iiaaeyieia.

O aoaeaii?e na?aeiiino? ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, cie?aia,
iia’ycaia ianaiia?aae ?c caoiaeaie ii i?eieiaiith ??ciiai ?iaeo
ii?ooaiue a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo, ai?ioueaith c ?ioeie i?ioei?aaieie
ae?yie. O i?eioeei? oea, cae/aeii, i?aaeeueii, aea aeoeaiooaaiiy oaaae
eeoa ia oaeeo noi?iiao ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa caoaeo?
oyaeaiiy i?i ?oith ae?enio nioe?aeueio cia/ei?noue. I?ecia/aiiy oeeo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a o anyeiio aoiaiiiio nioe?oi?, o i?aaia?e aea?aeaa?
iieyaa? ia?o ca ana a oiio, uia aooe iii?/ieeii oa iii?ith eiaeiiio
/eaio noni?euenoaa i?e ?aae?caoe?? iei nai?o i?aa ? naiaiae, o
aeinyaiaii? caeiiieo oe?eae, a caoeno? a?ae ??ciiai ?iaeo iinyaaiue.

A oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa,
iaiao?aeiino? aoaeoeaiiai caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? caoeuaiino? eiaeiiai
/eaia noni?euenoaa, eiaeii? ie?aii? ethaeeie, ?ieue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o
ni?aa, ?o nioe?aeueia i?ecia/aiiy cia/ii c?inoa?, ?acii c oeei c?inoa? ?
ianya ooieoe?e, ye? aiie iiaeii? cae?enithaaoe. Neacaia aeiaiaeeoue
iio?aao aeiei??iiiai iie?auaiiy ae?yeueiino? ye on??? nenoaie i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, oae ? eiaeiiai ie?aiiai ni?a?ia?oieea, aaeineiiaeaiiy
oi?i iaoiae?a oa cania?a i?aaiaiai aieeao ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie.
Aeinyaoe oeueiai iiaeia ia?o ca ana /a?ac iaoeiao ?ic?iaeo ieoaiue
oai??? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy acaaae?, oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, ye?
cae?eniththoueny ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, cie?aia.

Naia o i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeoao a?aeaeaa?oueny aaaaoia?/ia
aeeiiaa/i-?icii?yae/a ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa a nenoai?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oea i?aee?aneth? ?ieue i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
aeo?a a oni?oiiio cae?eniaii? i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a ii aeeiiaiith
caaaeaiue, ye? noiyoue ia?aae i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa a iaoai?ci?
ioi?iie oa ?aae?caoe?? i?aa oa naiaiae a?iiaaeyi, ye? cae??ieai?
Eiinoeoooe??th oa ?ioeie caeiiaie, ?o cia/aiiy o iiia?aaeaeaii? oa
i?eieiaii? ii?ooaiue caeiiiino?, ci?oeiaii? aeenoeeie?ie oa
i?aaiii?yaeeo, caaacia/aii? th?eaee/ieo iaia’yce?a.

Ona cacia/aia ?iaeoue aeooaeueiith oaio aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoiiaeth? eiai ia o?eueee iaoeiao, aea e i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue.
Iniaeeao aaaeeea?noue aeai?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaaea? oa ianoaaeia,
ui a i?e aeine?aeaeothoueny o eie? caaaeueieo i?iaeai aeo?a
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy ye aaaeeeai? oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa, ae?yeuei?noue
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa c aeaaeii? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaeo ii?i, /a?ac
i?eeiyooy a?aeiia?aeieo ??oaiue ?c iaoith i?aai?caoe?? oa aii?yaeeoaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

Ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo
th?eaee/ii? iaoee e ina?oe a Oe?a?i? aecia/a? i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? th?eaee/ieo iaoe acaaae? oa oai???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa cie?aia. Iaeiei ?c oeeo iai?yie?a ? “Aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, caeiii?noue, i?aaiii?yaeie ? i?aaiaa
eoeueoo?a ye nioe?aeuei? oe?iiino? e oiiae ?icaeoeo aeaiie?ao?? a
Oe?a?i?”. Ia oai?aoe/io ?ic?iaeo oe??? i?iaeaie a /ene? ?ioeo
(aeeth/ath/e ? i?iaeaio i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a) iiaeii? aooe
ni?yiiaai? e iniiai? neee a/aieo-th?eno?a, ye? iieeeeai? oai?aoe/ii
caaacia/eoe i?ioean iiaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae1).

I??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia IAN Oe?a?ie ia
ia??iae 1995-2000 ??. aecia/athoue iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
“I?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa o nenoai? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
i?aaiioi?iie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae” (i.1.4.)2).

Na?aae aieiaieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie ia 1996-2000 ??. aecia/aia ieoaiiy “2.
Ooieoe?? aea?aeaae Oe?a?ia, oi?ie e caniae ?o cae?eniaiiy
(?iaeaen1.2.1)”3).

Aeaia oaia ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith caaaeueii?inoeooonueei? i?iaeaie
“I?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa”, ui
?ic?iaey?oueny a Caii??cueeiio th?eaee/iiio ?inoeooo? IAN Oe?a?ie
(i.3.2)4.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aiae?c?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa o oe?eiio oa oeo ?c
ieo, ye? cae?eniththoueny iica aeieoiaioaeueiith oi?iith ae?aco, a
aniaeo? caaaeueii? oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa. Aeinyaoe ?? iiaeia /a?ac
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo, ye? iaeiie/ai? c oeueiai ieoaiiy th?eaee/iith
iaoeith, aeeth/ath/e ??ci? ?? aaeoc?, aea/aiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? i?aeoeee oeeo i?aai?a. Oaea iaiaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa
iaoeiaiai iiooeo aei?aaaeaia. Aiii iaoiiaeaii oei, ui nueiaiaei? a
th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??, ye o caaaeuei?e oai??? i?aaa, oae ? a aaeocaaeo
iaoeao, iiee ia neeaeiny ?aeeii? aeoiee uiaei iiiyooy aeo?a canoinoaaiiy
i?aaa acaaae? oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e, ye? cae?eniththoueny
ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa cie?aia.

Iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

1) e?eoe/iee aiae?c (ye aeo?aeiee ioieo aeine?aeaeaiiy) no/aniiai noaio
?ic?iaee i?iaeai i?aaicanoinoaaiiy oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a o
caaaeuei?e oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ?c cina?aaeaeaiiyi oaaae ia ??
iaae??oaieo oa aeeneon?eieo ieoaiiyo, iiooe a?aeiia?aeae ia ieo;

2) aeine?aeaeaiiy th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee, ooieoe?e i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
aeo?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?ice?eooy ?o oa?aeoa?ieo ?en;

3) i?iaaaeaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, ui
cae?eniththoueny ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa;

4) aecia/aiiy iiiyooy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e oa iaae ?oiueiai
aeei?enoaiiy o i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e i?aeoeoe? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa;

5) ?icaeyae ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueiaeo aniaeo?a oi?ioaaiiy
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo ??oaiue;

6) nenoaiia aeeeaaeaiiy aeiia, ye? noaaeyoueny aei i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
aeo?a-ae?e;

7) a?aei?aoethaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?iiiceoe?e ii
aaeineiiaeaiith ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa (oa i?aeoeee eiai
canoinoaaiiy), ui ?aaeaiaioo? iiaiiaaaeaiiy iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ii cae?eniaiith i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e —
aeo?a, ui ia iathoue aeieoiaioaeueii? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. sse ia’?eo iaoeiaiai iiooeo a ?iaio?
aecia/ai? i?aaicanoinoaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue oa ?? ?acoeueoao —
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe, ye? aeaeathoueny (cae?eniththoueny)
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oa ?oi?ie iinaaeiaeie iniaaie acaaae? oa i?aaiaie
aioo??oi?o ni?aa cie?aia. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii (ye
/anoeia ia’?eoa) — i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
ye? cae?eniththoueny iica aeieoiaioaeueiith oi?iith, — oni?
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe, aeoe-neaiaee (neiaiee), aeoe, ui
cae?eniththoueny /a?ac iaaio iiaaae?ieo i?aaicanoiniaoaa/?a
(eiieethaeaioi? aeoe), oiaoi i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae??.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Iaei??th c i?iaeai eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio i?aai?aae?caoe?? ? iaoeiaee iiooe nooiino?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue neeaaeia yaeua i?aaiai?
ae?eniino?. Aiie ye no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe th?eaee/iiai i?ioeano iiaeooue
i?iyaeoeny a iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo aniaeoao: ye can?a aea?aeaaiiai
ea??aieoeoaa noni?euenoaii; ye i?aai?caoe?eia oi?ia ae?yeueiino? ??cieo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a; ye iaeaaaeeea?oee can?a ?aae?caoe?? th?eaee/ieo
ii?i; ye niaoeeo?/i? th?eaee/i? oaeoe oiui.

Nooo?aei oaeoi?ii, yeee aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? caaaeueiee noai ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
aeo?a o th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??. TH?eaee/iee oa?i?i “aeo canoinoaaiiy
i?aaa” aeei?enoiao?oueny a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ii??aiyii iaaeaaii.
Eiai iiyaa iaoiiaeaia, c iaeiiai aieo, noai?aiiyi ? iiaeaeueoei
?icaeoeii oai??? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy oa a/aiiy i?i iaoai?ci i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy, c ?ioiai — iio?aaith a?aeie?aieoe o oai??? e i?aeoeoe?
oeth naiino?eio i?aaiao eaoaai??th c /enea ??ciiiai?oieo th?eaee/ieo
aeo?a.

I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe, caaaeath/e ia nieneiao aaaaoicia/i?noue naiiai
oa?i?io “aeo”, ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeoe-ae??, aeoe-??oaiiy,
aeoe-aeieoiaioe oiui. Na?aeioeoaii oiio iiaeooue aooe aeine?aeaeaiiy
a/aieo o ??cieo aaeocyo i?aaiai? iaoee. ? ana ae oaee a e?oa?aoo??
iae/ano?oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee aeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeaaeiei /eiii
ioi?ieaiee ienueiiaee aeieoiaio, yeee o?eno? i?eeiyoa ??oaiiy, iaaeath/e
eiio io?oe?eiiai cia/aiiy. Oea iia’ycaia c oei, ui o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a oaeee aeo ia? th?eaee/io neeo eeoa oiae?, eiee a?i iaeaaeiei
/eiii ienueiiai ioi?ieaiee. Iiae?aia ?icoi?iiy aeoa canoinoaaiiy i?aaa
cia/ii caoaeo? oyao i?i iueiai, ai ia ioiieth? oae? ??oaiiy aeaaeieo
noa’?eo?a i?aaa, ye? ia ioi?ieththoueny niaoe?aeueiei ienueiiaei
aeieoiaioii, a i?iyaeythoueny aeanoii, onii, neaiaeii oiui. Oiio a
caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? i?iaeaie ia iiaeia iaiaaeeoenue ?icaeyaeii
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a eeoa ye aeieoiaio?a ? oea i?e?iaeii, ai
iiiyooy aeo?a canoinoaaiiy ii?i i?aaa ye ae?? cia/ii oe?oa, i?ae iiiyooy
aeoa ye aeieoiaioa. Ieoiia aaaa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e ?nio? o
noa?? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ye aeaaeieo noa’?eo?a
i?aaa, ? aiie /aeathoue naiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

C oeueiai aeoiaeeoue, ? oea ne?ae aeciaoe, ui o a?o/eciyi?e
caaaeueiith?eaee/i?e iaooe? o ieoaiiyo i?i i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae??
aei oeueiai /ano ?nio? cia/ia i?iaaeeia. A ?ic?iaoe?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a iai?oeeiny iaaia a?aenoaaaiiy a?ae ae??oaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue. O iaaeao ?aaeyinueei? th?eaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e ia
iiaeia ia iii?oeoe iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo aeaiiio
ieoaiith5). O cia/i?e aea /anoei? ?ia?o, ye? iia’ycai? c aeine?aeaeaiiyi
i?iaeaie i?aaicanoinoaaiiy, oaia i?i i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe
?icaeyaeaeany ieiio?aeue. O ?acoeueoao? oaeiai noaio ?a/ae ?nio? aaaaoi
aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue, o aeine?aeaeaii? aeayeeo noi??i i?iaeaie
aeyaeythoueny i/aaeaei? i?iaaeeie. Oae, ia noaee iiee ua i?aaeiaoii
iniaeeai? oaaae ieoaiiy i?i aeoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaa i?aai?a aioo??oi?o
ni?aa, ye? cae?eniththoueny iica aeieoiaioaeueiith oi?iith; ooieoe??
oeeo i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a; iaae? ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy;
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueia? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai
??oaiiy; aeiiae, ui noaaeyoueny aei i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e.
I?ioa o th?eaee/i?e iaooe? oa i?aeoeoe? i?aaicanoinoaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oeeo i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a iaeiie/eany iaaiee, aei oiai ae
/eiaeee iaoa??ae, ui iio?aao? iaoeiaiai aiae?co. Oiio, ia iao iiaeyae,
iac??ea iio?aaa aeiiiaieoe a/aiiy i?i i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe o oe?eiio
?o aeine?aeaeaiiyi noiniaii ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o oa ua e
oaeiai ?o niaoeeo?/iiai ??ciiaeaeo, ye aeo?a-ae?e.

Cacia/ai? ianoaaeie aeiaiaeyoue, ui aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
? naiino?eiei iaoeiaei iiooeii o caaaeueiioai?aoe/i?e iaooe?. A?i
ni?yiiaaiee ia iiaeaeueoa eiiieaenia oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a acaaae?, oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ye? cae?eniththoueny iica aeieoiaioaeueiith
oi?iith cie?aia.

Aeeeaaeai? i??eoaaiiy e iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, oa caaaeueiee
i?aeo?ae aei ?? ?ic?iaee, yea aiana a?aeiia?aeiee aeeaae ia o?eueee a
th?eaee/io iaoeo, aea e i?aeoeeo i?aaicanoinoaaiiy.

?ioi?iaoe?eia oa oai?aoe/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/a? a naaa
Eiinoeoooe?th Oe?a?ie, /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai, i?aecaeiii? aeoe, a oaeiae
oe?eee ?yae iieiaeaiue ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue
i?aaicanoinoaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Iaaia oaaaa
aoea i?eae?eaia i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaei aeieoiaioai. Ie??i oeueiai, ye
?ioi?iaoe?eia oa ?iia?e/ia aaca, a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaiee aeaniee
aeina?ae aeena?oaioa, iaaooee i?ae /an o?eaaeiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy neoaeae a
i?aaiao aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Oai?aoe/io aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iaoeia?
eiioeaioe?? uiaei iaoai?cio i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, th?eaee/iiai
i?ioeano, ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa, i?aaicanoinoaaiiy, i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai
aeoo, ye? ?ic?iaeai? o i?aoeyo a/aieo-th?eno?a. Eiie?aoii eaeaoueny i?i
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, ui i?noyoueny a ?iaioao N.N. Aeaen??aa, I.A.
Aeaenaiae?iaa, A.A. Aoaianue?aa, A.E. Aaaa?aa, Ae.I. Aao?aoa, ?.O.
Aaneeue?aa, I.A. A?o?oea, A.I. Aaa??/?aeca, A.I. Ai?oaiueiaa, O.A.
A?eai?’?aa, A.A. Aeiae?ia, A.A. Ae?aeoaaa, ?.ss. Aeth?ya?ia, A.A.
Eii?e/eeiaa, A.I. Ei?ai?aa, A.I. Eaca??aa, A.A. Eaca??aa, A.A.
I?oeeaae/a, I.A. Iaaeaaeei, A.N. I?aiee?ia, I.I. ?aaeiiae/a, E.I.
?ic?ia, ?.N. Naiiuaiei, A.A. No??eiaa, TH.A. Oeoiie?iaa, ?.A Oa?aa?a,
I.O. Oaoeoe?ia, A.O. Oaaaiiaa, I.A. Oea?ea, A.O. *a?aeaioeaaa, A.A.
THnoiiaa, E.N. ssae/a oa ?i.

O aeena?oaoe??, c o?aooaaiiyi i?io?eth aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoai?
aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc? oaeeo iaoe, ye o?einio?y, nioe?ieia?y, iaoea
oi?aae?iiy, eia?ea, o?eieia?y, ineoieia?y oiui.

I?aee?anethth/e aacia?a/io iaoeiao oe?ii?noue aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeoiaey/e c ianooiiino? a iaooe? ne?ae neacaoe i?i oa, ui ian ia iiaeiai
aaioaaeeoe oaeo iayaiino? na?aae ieo /eiaei? e?eueeino? oaeeo, eio??
yaii no?aaeaeathoue o??th ?aeaieia?/iith ia?aaaioaaeai?noth, ui aoea
i?eoaiaiia noaio ?a/ae ia /an ?o ?ic?iaee, a nueiaiaei? aaea inoaoi/ii
ao?aoeea naith aeooaeuei?noue. Aea aeei?enoaiiy ?o iiaeeeaa ia o?eueee
oiio, ui a?aeiia?aeia th?eaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a ia noai?th?oueny ca iaeio
aiaeeio, a e iaiao?aeia oiio, ui a i?e iiaeia ciaeoe e i?aeaeaoe
e?eoe/iiio aiae?co eeane/i? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? iio??ai? aeey
oi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? i?aaiai? iaoee, yea a a?aeiia?aeaea
nueiaiaeaiith. Aaeaea th?eaee/ia iaoea acaaae? aoea a iaiiaeeeaa, yeae
ci?no on?o aac aeiyoeo ?? noi??iie iiai?noth caeaaeaa a?ae iie?oe/ii?
eii’thieoo?e, ui neeaeany ia iaaiee iiiaio o aea?aeaa?. E??i oiai,
iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?o ca ana ? niaoe?aeueii-th?eaee/i? aniaeoe
i?iaeaie i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caeiie ae?aeaeoeee e eia?ee
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci???ioiaaia ia
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?, yeeie ? ?aea? aoiai?cio, nioe?aeueii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, aeaiie?ao??, caoenoo /ano? oa a?aeiino? iniae,
noai?aiiy ?e a?aeieo ethaeeie oiia ?nioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo. I?aaa ?
naiaiaee ethaeeie noaiiaeyoue niaith iaeaaaeeea?oo neeaaeiao /anoeio
an??? i?aaiai? nenoaie aoaeue-yeiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa. Naia
aiie ? aecia/ieie i???ioe?aie ye i?aaioai?/ino?, i?aai?aae?caoe??, oae ?
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy.

O i?ioean? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee,
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, ii??aiyeueiee, ooieoe?iiaeueiee oa ?io? iaoiaee
i?ciaiiy, ui canoiniaothoueny a th?eaee/i?e iaooe?.

Iaoeiaee iiooe aacoaaany ia i?eioeeiao ia’?eoeaiino?, ieth?ae?cio,
eiie?aoiino?, ?noeiiino? oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aia iaoith oa
caaaeaiiyie, ye? iinoaaeai?. I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe aenooiathoue
aaaeeeaei caniaii ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. A i?ae oei, ye
oaea cacia/aeiny, ia oeae a?e ni?aae a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aoei
caa?iooi yaii iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae. A?eueo ca ana oai??y
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a aacoaaeany ia eeane/i?e noaeia?e iiaeae?
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy e o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia a?aoiaoaaea iniaeeainoae
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa iinaaeiaeo in?a. Oea
i?ecaiaeeei aei caoaeaiiy oyae i?i aeoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaa, oiio ui ia
ioiiethaaeeny oae? c ieo, ye? cae?eniththoueny iica aeieoiaioaeueiith
oi?iith.

sse ?acoeueoao i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai iaoeiao iiaecio
a?aeaeaathoue ianooii? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

– ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai iiaeyaeo ia i?aaicanoinoaaiiy
aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ?aaeueia ae?th/a iiaeaeue cae?eniaiiy (aeaeaiiy)
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a i?aoeth? a ?aaeei? aaaaoueio i?ioe??/, aiia
/anoi a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae eeane/ii? (noaeiai?) iiaeae? canoinoaaiiy i?aaa
oa ia? iiaeaeoaee ni?iuaiee aeaeyae, oiio ui ci?ith?oueny i?ae aieeaii
?yaeo nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a;

– aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e th?eaee/i?e iaooe? c iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo
canaae o nenoaiaoeciaaiiio aeaeyae? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeai?
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?ic?iaeaia ?o iaoeiaa
eeaneo?eaoe?y;

– c iiaeo iiceoe?e iinoaaeai? oa ae??oai? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c
c’ynoaaiiyi i?ecia/aiiy e i?e?iaee i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a acaaae? oa
aeo?a-ae?e cie?aia; iniaeea?noth, yea a?ae??ciy? inoaii? a?ae ?ioeo
ae?e, ui iathoue th?eaee/ia cia/aiiy aecia/aia oa, ui a ieo i?noeoueny
aeaaeia aeiiaa (i?eien) iinaaeiai? iniae uiaei aecia/aiiy i?aaiaiai
noaio ia?nii?o?eiaaieo noa’?eo?a, yea ae?aaeaia onii aai eiieethaeaioii;

– ia iniia? aiae?co caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ?aaoeth? ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, a oaeiae e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy caaaeueiioai?aoe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e aia?oa aecia/aia iiiyooy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e;

– oai?aoe/ii aecia/athoueny iaae? ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy o
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e i?aeoeoe? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa;

– i?ine?aeaeothoueny iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueiaiai
oi?ioaaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo ??oaiue;

– eiiieaenii aiae?cothoueny aeiiae, ye? noaaeyoueny ye aei
i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio, oae ? aei
i?aaicanoiniaoaa/?a oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e (iniaeeai aei
?oiueiai ciai?oiueiai ae?aco);

– aenoaathoueny oa a?aoiaioothoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?ic?iaeaiiy
oeiiaiai aeai?eoio cae?eniaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e oa
i?iiiceoe?? ii ?o aaeineiiaeaiith.

C oeueiai aeoiaeeoue, ui aea?aia i?iaeaia neeaaea? iaeei ?c naiino?eieo
iai?yie?a o caaaeueiioai?aoe/i?e th?eaee/i?e iaooe?, yeee ni?yiiaaiee ia
caaacia/aiiy iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo oi?i
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a acaaae?, a oiio /ene? i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa?, ii-ia?oa, a oiio,
ui ?ic?iaee oa aeniiaee, ye? i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a yeino? aeo?aeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aaeineiiaeaiith
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaeaiaioo? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy a i?aaiao aioo??oi?o
ni?aa. Ii-ae?oaa, aiie iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe iai?yiee ?
eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei iie?auaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa
ii aeianaiith i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo ??oaiue o aeaeyae? ae?e, neaiae?a,
onii. Ii-o?ao?, cai?iiiiiaai? iiiyooy i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai aeoa-ae??,
?ic?iaee uiaei ?oiuei? no?oeoo?e oa aeiia, ye? aei ieo noaaeyoueny,
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aea/aii? aeecueeeo i?iaeai o ??cieo
aaeocyo th?eaee/ii? iaoee.

Iaoa??ae, yeee i?noeoueny a aeena?oaoe??, ?? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
oaeiae iiaeooue aooe ai?iaaaeaeai? e o i?ioean aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no oai???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa (/eoaiiy eaeoe?e, i?iaaaeaiiy ?ioeo aeae?a caiyoue),
niaoeeo?no aeaii? aeenoeeie?ie, aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo
iin?aiee?a aeey eo?naio?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a IAN Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ii
?icae?eao ? a oe?eiio ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e iai’yo? i?ioani?a Oaaei?iaa
E.A. (12-13 /a?aiy 1996 ?., i. Caii??aeaey); aioo??oueiaoc?anueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo IAN Oe?a?ie:
i?aenoieia?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 1-?e ??/ieoe?
i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie (9 /a?aiy 1997 ?., i. Caii??aeaey),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy,
?ice?eooy oa ?icne?aeoaaiiy cei/ei?a i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa” (28-29
o?aaiy 1998 ?., i. Caii??aeaey); o?aaeeoe?eiiio o?aoueiio nai?ia??
?noi?ee?a aea?aeaae ? i?aaa “Aeaea?aeiciaa/? i?iaeaie
?noi?eei-th?eaee/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue” a Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o ni?aa
(12-13 /a?aiy 1998 ?., i. Oa?e?a).

Aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? i?aeoeee
iai?aaeai? a i?aaie oa i?ae?icae?ee aioo??oi?o ni?aa OIAN Oe?a?ie a
Caii??cuee?e iaeano?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aaoi?ii o iaa/aeuei?e oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio? eo?naio?a oa neooa/?a Caii??cueeiai
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo IAN Oe?a?ie, i?e neeaaeaii? iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie
ii i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eo?naio?a oa neooa/?a.

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii i’youe i?aoeue,
a oiio /ene? /ioe?e iaoeia? noaoo? o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y iiaeaia ia 182 noi??ieao ? neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ui aeeth/athoue o naaa aeaa’youe
i?ae?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. Aei oaenoo aeiaeaii nienie iineeaiue (16
n.), nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (20 n.)

Iniiaiee Ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? ??
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao ? caaaeaiiy, noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, iieacaia
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaia ?? oai?aoe/ia,
ii?iaoeaia aaca, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaicanoinoaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa” — ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy, ui
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe i?noea i?aaicanoinoaaiiy a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa ieoaiiy caeiiiino? a oe?e noa??.

Iieacaii, ui a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa canoinoaaiiy i?aaa
caeia? aaaeeeaa i?noea. Aoaeo/e neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea?aeaaiiai
iaoai?cio, aiie oith /e ?ioith i??ith aa?ooue o/anoue o ?aae?caoe??
ooieoe?e aea?aeaae. Aaaeeeaei o noaiiaeu? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa ? oa,
ui aiie aenooiathoue ia eeoa ye nenoaia aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy
aeanieie neeaie oa caniaaie, aea e aa?ooue o/anoue a oi?aae?ii?
“ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai”. Aiie a ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo
oi?iao i?iaiaeyoue i?io?eaeoe/io ?iaioo — caaaeueio oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
i?io?eaeoeeo i?aaiii?ooaiue; iai?aaeythoue o ?aieao i?eien?a caeiio
iiaaae?ieo ethaeae a a?iiaaenueeeo i?noeyo; caaacia/othoue caoeno i?aa
oa caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi a?ae cei/eiieo iinyaaiue; noai?ththoue
ii?iaeuei? oiiae aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo;
cae?eniththoue iaaeyae ca aeio?eiaiiyi aeo?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue
a?iiaaenueeee ii?yaeie; aaaeooue ai?ioueao c ?ioeie ii?ooaiiyie caeii?a.

I?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa cae?eniththoue nai? ooieoe?? ye /a?ac
i?aaioai?/o, oae ? /a?ac i?aaicanoinoaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue. Ia?oa noai?i
iaiaaeaia e ia caeia? i?ia?aeiiai i?noey. A oae?e noa??, ye iai?eeeaae,
ai?ioueaa c? cei/eii?noth, i?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa acaaae? iicaaaeai?
i?aaioai?/eo ooieoe?e. I??i?eoao ooo ye?ac ca ?o i?aaicanoinoaaeueieie
aeoaie. C oi/ee ci?o ci?noo, oi?i, iaoiae?a oa cania?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny, ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa (aea i?aai
?aae?co?oueny o oi?i? canoinoaaiiy) iiaea aooe iiae?eaia ia
aaei?i?no?aoeaio, iia?aoeaii-?icooeiao oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueio.

Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
? ?icaeyae aeayeeo ieoaiue i?i i?aaia?aeiineie, ui neeaaeathoueny o oe?e
noa??. A?aeiineie o noa?? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy noaiiaeyoue iniaeeao oi?io
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. ?i a?eueo ca ana i?eoaiaii? ona?aeiieai?noue,
ii?iaoeaii-ioe?ii/iee oa?aeoa? oa i?aai?caoe?eia ioi?ieai?noue. A yeino?
neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e eiaeiiai i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai
a?aeiioaiiy iiaeia aeae?eeoe: noa’?eoe a?aeiioaiiy, i?aaeiao
a?aeiioaiiy; naio ae?yeuei?noue, yea neeaaea? ci?no a?aeiioaiiy, oa
ii?io ye iiaeaeue a?aeiioaiiy.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy i?aaeiaoii-i?inoi?iaiai iiey aeey iaoeiaiai iiooeo a
?aieao oeueiai ?icae?eo a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ?icaeyioo?
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Cie?aia, caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa ia ?nioaaiiy na?aae onueiai eiiieaeno ae?e (th?eaee/ieo oaeo?a),
ye? cae?eniththoue ni?a?ia?oieee i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, cia/ii?
e?eueeino? th?eaee/ii cia/oueo ae?e, ye? ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieie aeoaie. Inoaii? a?ae??ciy? oa iniaeea?noue, ui a
ieo i?noeoueny aeaaeia aeiiaa (i?eien) iinaaeiai? iniae uiaei aecia/aiiy
ianyao i?aa oa iaia’yce?a ia?niiaeueii aecia/aieo noa’?eo?a, yea
ae?aaeaia onii aai eiieethaeaioii.

sse ?acoeueoao aiae?co noaio caeiiiino? a i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa a ?iaio? ?icaeyioo? caniae ??
ci?oeiaiiy. ?o i?iiiio?oueny iiae?eeoe ia /ioe?e iniiai? a?oie.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie ne?ae a?aeianoe caniae, ye? aecia/athoue i?aai?caoe?th
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ui iieyaathoue o anoaiiaeaii? iiaeeo?eaoe?e ?o
no?oeoo?e, oe?eae, caaaeaiue, ooieoe?e, iaia’yce?a ni?a?ia?oiee?a oiui.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny caniae, ye? aecia/athoue ii?yaeie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Aiie iia’ycai? c
anoaiiaeaiiyi, iiaeeo?eaoe??th ? i?aeoe/iith ?aae?caoe??th ii?yaeeo
i?aeaioiaee e i?eeiyooy a?aeii/eo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a oa ?ioeo
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, a oaeiae c i?aai?caoe??th ?o aeeiiaiiy;
?icnoaiiaeith nee oa cania?a, ii?yaeeii cae?eniaiiy
aioo??oiueia?aeii/iai eiio?ieth e iaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii? aeiiiiiae
i?aeeaaeei i?aaiai ? ni?a?ia?oieeai; nenoaiith ioe?iee ?oiuei? ?iaioe;
ii?yaeeii aeei?enoaiiy aioo??oiueia?aeii/i? ?ioi?iaoe?? oiui.

O?aoth a?oio cania?a oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao ia noai caeiiiino?
neeaaeathoue caniae, ui aieeaathoue ia eaae?e i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.
Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny i?ioan?eia i???ioaoe?y e a?aea?? eaae??a; ?o
i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea e ia?ai?aeaioiaea; ?iciiae?e ? ?icnoaiiaea;
aeenoeeie?ia?ia i?aeoeea; aeoiaaiiy; i?aai?caoe?y oiui.

Aei /aoaa?oi? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny caniae, ui caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th
oaeo?a ciai?oiueiai (ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa)
aieeao ia noai caeiiiino? a ?o ?iaio? — aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo,
i?aaiaeo, eoeueoo?ieo oiui. Aei ieo, cie?aia, a?aeiinyoueny ?iciiae?e ?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a (oaoi?ee, o?ainii?oo, cania?a
ca’yceo oiui); iaea?aeaiiy e aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ?ioeo a?aeiinoa
(iie?oe/ii?, iaoeiai? e ?ioi? e?oa?aoo?e; iaoa??ae?a ?ioeo
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a oiui); ?aae?caoe?y caniaaie oi?aae?iiy ??oaiue
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a; iaaeaiiy ?ic’yniaiue i?i ii?yaeie canoinoaaiiy ii?i
i?aaa; aeyaeaiiy e onoiaiiy iaaeie?e?a o ?iaio?; i?aai?caoe?y aca?iiae??
c ?ioeie aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie e a?iiaaenuee?noth oiui.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? ? cae?eniaii? caoiae?a ii ci?oeiaiith caeiiiino? o
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa aaoi?
i?iiiio? aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui, ii-ia?oa, ci?oeiaiiy caeiiiino? iiaea
aooe aeinyaiooa ia o?eueee a ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a,
aaciina?aaeiuei ni?yiiaaieo ia ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy, aea e o
?acoeueoao? aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa o
oe?eiio. Oea aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee e?auiio ciaiith ni?a?ia?oieeaie
i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye? canoiniaothoueny, iaaoooth ieie noaeeo iaae/ie ?
ai?iue canoinoaaiiy inoaii?o, a oaeiae caaaeyee cieaeaiith
iaaaioaaeaiiy, iie?auaiith oiia i?aoe?, ai?iaaaeaeaiith iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueieo oa aoaeoeaieo oi?i ? cania?a ?aae?caoe?? i?eien?a caeiio,
iie?auaiith aca?iiae?? ye c ?ioeie no?oeoo?ieie i?ae?icae?eaie i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, oae ? c i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie a oe?eiio. A neeo
oeueiai, caoiaee, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny ii ci?oeiaiith caeiiiino?, iiaeii?
aooe eiiieaenieie ? aeeth/aoe a naaa caoiaee oe?eueiaiai oa?aeoa?o e
i??e, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia caaaeueia aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
a?aeiia?aeiiai i?aaio aai i?ae?icae?eo.

Ii-ae?oaa, aeey ?ic?iaee caoiae?a ii ci?oeiaiith caeiiiino? o
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa iaiao?aeia
iiaia e a??ia?aeia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i noai caeiiiino? a oe?e noa?? ?o
ae?yeueiino?, i?i i?e/eie e oiiae, ui ni?eythoue ii?ooaiiyi caeiiiino?.
Ooo ia?oueny ia oaac?, ui aiae?coaaoe ne?ae an? ii?ooaiiy caeiiiino?, a
ia o?eueee o?, ye? aa?eoee o noaoenoe/io ca?oi?noue. Aeey oeueiai
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaoe yeiiiaa oe?oa eiei aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??. Cie?aia,
ii?yae ?c noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie, iaiao?aeii aea/aoe ?ioi?iaoe?th, ui
i?noeoueny a ?a?no?aoe?eieo aeo?iaeao, ea?oeao, iaoa??aeao a?aeii/iai
eiio?ieth, i?ieo?i?nueeiai iaaeyaeo, noaeiaiai eiio?ieth, eenoao ?
nea?aao a?iiaaeyi, o aenooiao o caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oiui.

Ii-o?ao?, caoiaee caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ia caaaeaee aeaaeooue iaeaaeiee
aoaeo. Oiio aeioe?eueii aecia/eoe iaea?eueo aocuee? i?noey,
aaciina?aaei? ia’?eoe aieeao, i?aaeeueii ?ic?aooaaoe iayai? neeo e
caniae.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, aei oe??? ?iaioe iaiao?aeii i?eaa?iooe oe?ieee aeoea
a?iiaaenueeino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Aeoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?o i?ecia/aiiy oa eeaneo?eaoe?y” — aeine?aeaeothoueny
caaaeueia iiiyooy aeoa canoinoaaiiy i?aaa, ooieoe??, ui aeeiiothoue oe?
aeoe a iaoai?ci? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ?icaeyaea?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, ye? aeaeathoueny (cae?eniththoueny)
ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

C iaoith ocaiaeaeaiiy oe?a?iiiiaii? oa?i?iieia??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a
aeena?oaoe?? (cie?aia, oa?i?ie “i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee”,
“i?aaicanoinia/ee” oa “i?aaicanoiniaiee”), ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo a
e?oa?aoo?? c oai??? i?aaa iicia/athoueny aeoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaa, i?aaie
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy oiui, aeei?enoaia ?ic?iaeaia o no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio
iiaiciaanoa? nenoaia i?aaee, yea iaaea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoenue c
oa?i?iiei/?iei ?yaeii uiaei eaoaai??e oai??? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy, cie?aia,
i?iiiio?oueny cacia/ai? aeua oa?i?ie aaaaeaoe aeoaeaoaie. I?eioneath/e
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia?oeo aeaio ye ??aiicia/ieo, aaoi? ana ae
oaee a?aeaea? ia?aaaao oa?i?io “i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee”, aeoiaey/e c
aeaaicao//y iiae oa c?o/iino? a?oeeoeyoe??. Oa?i?i “i?aaicanoiniaiee”
i?iiiio?oueny aaeeaaoe o a?aeiia?aeieo eiioaenoao, eiee eaeaoueny i?i
caeaoi?noue aeeiioaaoe ianeaio ae?th.

sse a?aei?aaia aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iiiio?oueny caaaeueia
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai aeoa, i?ae yeei ?icoi??oueny
io?oe?eia ??oaiiy eiiiaoaioiiai noa’?eoa, i?eeiyoa ia i?aenoaa? ? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iaie i?aaa, ui i?noeoue aea?aeaaii-aeaaeia aae?iiy
c eiie?aoii? th?eaee/ii? neooaoe??, ni?yiiaaia ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie aai
i?eieiaiiy noa’?eoeaieo i?aa e iaia’yce?a ?o o/aniee?a, yea
cae?enith?oueny o aoaeue-ye?e aecia/ai?e oi?i?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui an? ?nioth/? aeaee i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, ye
nai???aeia niaoe?ae?caoe?y i?aaiaeo aeo?a, iathoue ianooiia i?ecia/aiiy,
oiaoi aeeiiothoue ooieoe?? o?enaoe??, aeeiai?/io, ?ioi?iaoe?eio,
oi?aae?iiy, aeoiaio, a oaeiae i?aaiioi?iiio, i?aaiiaae?ethth/o,
i?aaicaaacia/oth/o, noaa?e?caoe?? e i?aaiooai?thth/o ooieoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a,
ui aeaeathoue (cae?eniththoue) iinaaeia? iniae i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
iaia?aae iaoiiaethth/e ?? a?aeiini?noue: a) ca noa’?eoaie
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy: aeoe I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie; aeoe
aieiaieo oi?aae?iue aioo??oi?o ni?aa ?anioae?ee E?ei, i. Ee?aa oa
Ee?anueei? iaeano?; aeoe oi?aae?iue aioo??oi?o ni?aa iaeanoae oa i.
Naaanoiiiey; aeoe i?nueeeo oa ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a (oi?aae?iue)
aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa onoaiia ii aeeiiaiith iiea?aiue; aeoe eiie?aoieo
iinaaeiaeo in?a aeacaieo i?aai?a; a) ca iai?yieaie ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa: aeoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaa iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aai?a
ae?ciaiiy; aeoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaa iinaaeiaeo in?a aia?ao?a
iiia?aaeiueiai ne?aenoaa; aeoe iinaaeiaeo in?a neoaeae ioi?iie
a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo; aeoe iinaaeiaeo in?a aea?aeaaii? aaoiiia?eueii?
?iniaeoe??; aeoe iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aai?a iiaeaaeiiai iaaeyaeo; aeoe
iinaaeiaeo in?a onoaiia ii aeeiiaiith iiea?aiue oiui; a) ca aaeocaaith
iciaeith ii?i i?aaa, ui canoiniaothoueny: aeoe canoinoaaiiy ii?i
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa; aeoe canoinoaaiiy ii?i e?ei?iaeueiiai oa
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa; aeoe canoinoaaiiy ii?i o?oaeiaiai
i?aaa oiui; a) ca oi?iith i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa: iia?aoeaii-aeeiiaa/? aeoe; iia?aoeaii-?icii?yae/?
aeoe; i?aaiioi?iii? aeoe; ae) ca ooieoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith:
aeoe-?aaeaiaioaoi?e, i?aaicaaacia/oth/?; a) ca nai?i th?eaee/iei
cia/aiiyi: iniiai? oa aeiiii?aei?; ae) ca noa?ith ae??: aeoe, ui
ae?thoue o /an?; aeoe, ui ae?thoue o i?inoi??; aeoe, ui ae?thoue
noiniaii eiea in?a; c) ca oi?iith ae?aco ciai? aie? i?aaicanoiniaoaa/a
oa aeiaaaeaiiy ?? aei aae?anao?a: aeoe-aeieoiaioe oa aeoe-ae??; e) ca
iaeiaioaaiiyi: iaeace, iinoaiiae, aeac?aee, i?ioieiee, ??oaiiy,
aeicaiee, iiia?aaeaeaiiy, i?eiene, iiaeaiiy, ?aciethoe?? oiui; e) ca
no?oeoo?ith: aeoe, ye? i?noyoue /ioe?e aeaiaioe — aa?aeio, eiinoaooth/o,
iioeaiai/io oa ?aciethoeaio /anoeio; aeoe, ye? i?noyoue eeoa o?e /anoeie
— aa?aeio, eiinoaooth/o oa ?aciethoeaio (iai?eeeaae, aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa
ne?ae/? i?ioieiee); aeoe, ye? i?noyoue eeoa aea? /anoeie — aa?aeio oa
?aciethoeaio (iai?eeeaae, aeo-aeica?e ia i?eaeaaiiy ca?i?); aeoe, a yeeo
ia?oueny eeoa iaeia ?aciethoeaia /anoeia (iai?eeeaae, aeoe-?aciethoe??
ia a?aeiia?aeieo aeieoiaioao); e) ca oa?aeoa?ii ??oaiiy (i?eieno, yeee o
ieo i?noeoueny): ciaia’ycoth/?; caai?iiyth/?; oiiaiiaaaeoth/?; i?i
caioi/aiiy; caoaa?aeaeoaaeuei?; oae?, ye? o?enothoue oaeoe oa ianoaaeie,
ui iathoue th?eaee/ia cia/aiiy (iai?eeeaae, aeoe ?a?no?aoe??
aaoiiioio?ainii?oo, ca?i? oiui). i) ca oa?aeoa?ii th?eaee/ieo
iane?aee?a: i?aaieiinoaooth/? (i?aaii?aeoaa?aeaeoth/?);
i?aaianoaiiaethth/?; i?aaici?ithth/?; i?aaii?eieiyth/?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae?? a no?oeoo??
i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai i?ioeano i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa” — aeine?aeaeai?
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae??, iaae? aeei?enoaiiy oeeo aeo?a a
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?icaeyioo?
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueia? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
??oaiue, a oaeiae aeiiae, ui noaaeyoueny aei i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
aeo?a-ae?e.

?icaeyae ??cieo noi??i i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e ? aeciaiiy ?o ye
naiino?eii? oi?ie i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai ??oaiiy aeaei i?aenoaae aaoi?o
cai?iiiioaaoe ?o aecia/aiiy. I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae?? — io?oe?eia
??oaiiy eiiiaoaioiiai noa’?eoa, ui cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? ? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iaie i?aaa o oi?i? iaaieo ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueiaeo
oa o?ce/ieo ae?e, oa i?noeoue aea?aeaaii-aeaaeia aae?iiy c eiie?aoii?
th?eaee/ii? neooaoe??, yea ni?yiiaaia ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ?aaoethaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie aai i?eieiaiiy
noa’?eoeaieo i?aa oa iaia’yce?a ?o o/aniee?a.

Iaae? i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
ii-ia?oa, a?aeiia?aeathoue caaaeueiei iaaeai, ui a?aeie?aieththoue
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy a?ae i?aaioai?/ino?, a oaeiae a?ae ?ioeo oi?i
?aae?caoe?? i?aaa (oe?e? oa caaaeaiiy eiaeii? i?aaiai? ii?ie
??ciiiai?oi?). Ii-ae?oaa, aiie coiiaeai? noa?ith ae?yeueiino? ?
eiiiaoaioe??th i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa o oe?eiio ? iniaeeainoyie
ae?yeueiino? ? oa?aeoa?ii eiiiaoaioe?? oiai aai ?ioiai i?aaio cie?aia.
Oe? caaaeuei? i??eoaaiiy uiaei iaae aeei?enoaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
aeo?a a i?aaiao aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiai?noth iiaeii?
aooe ?iciianthaeaeai? noiniaii iaae aeei?enoaiiy aeo?a-ae?e. Ie??i
oeueiai ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui iaae? aeei?enoaiiy aeo?a-ae?e a
ae?yeueiino? oeeo i?aai?a iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith ?o ae?yeueiino?;
iaiao?aei?noth iia?aoeaiiai ae??oaiiy neooaoe??, ui neeaeany; iniaeeaeie
oiiaaie i?aaicanoinoaaiiy; iio?aaith o iaei?ino?oiio aeiaaaeaii? aei
a?aeiia aae?anaoa aeoa ci?noo inoaiiueiai oiui.

I?e aeianaii? ??oaiiy o oiae? canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a?aeaoaathoueny oae?
?icoiia? iia?aoe??, ye aiae?c, neioac, ii??aiyiiy, aano?aaoaaiiy oiui.
Aea ooo cae?enith?oueny oaeiae “ia?ao?ae” a?ae ciaiiy aei aie?, oiaoi
“ia?ao?ae” a?ae ieneaiiy aei i?aeoeee, aei i?eeiyooy aea?aeaaii-aeaaeieo
??oaiue. Aeae?eaiiy a ineo?/iiio i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy i?aaa
i?ciaaaeueii? ? aieueiai? ae?yeueiino? aeicaiey? ?aeue?oi?oa
i?aee?aneeoe ?ieue i?aaina?aeiiino? a canoinoaaii? i?aaa ye iniiae ?
i?iaeoeoo i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Oea iia’ycaia c oei, ui i?e
aa?iii?/iiio ii?aeiaii? ?icoio ? aie? (iniiaieo aeaiaio?a
i?aaina?aeiiino?) ?icoi neeaaea? iniiao aie?, a aiey — noeioeyoi?
oi?ioaaiiy i?iyao ?icoio. Ia?acii eaaeo/e, na?aeii?noue neoaeeoue
ia?aoai?thaa/ai ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aia?a?? i?aaiaeo ii?i ? a?aeiiinoae i?i
oaeoe/i? ianoaaeie o aieueiao aia?a?th i?aaicanoiniaoaa/a, a a
ianooiiiio — ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aia?a?? i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai aeoa a
i?aaeiaoio (oaeoe/io) i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a, o a?aeiioaii?
yeeo c?iaeaia canoinoaaiiy i?aaa. Caaaeueiinioe?aeueia i?aaina?aeii?noue
ye caaaeueia i?aaiaa ?aeaieia?y aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia noaaeaiiy
i?aaicanoiniaoaa/a aei nai?? ae?yeueiino? (ona?aeiieaiiy neoaeaiaiai
iaia’yceo nai?/anii e aoaeoeaii canoiniaoaaoe i?aai), aei oaeoe/ieo
ianoaaei (ona?aeiieaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?o anaa?/iiai ? iiaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ?noeie), aei canoiniaaieo ii?i
i?aaa (ciaiiy ci?noo ii?i iaoa??aeueiiai i?aaa e ona?aeiieaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? noai?iai aeio?eiaiiy i?ioeanoaeueieo aeiia) ? aei ??oaiiy
(aeeaiea ia?aeiiaiiy a eiai caeiiiino? ? i?aaeeueiino?, ona?aeiieaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca i?eeiyoa ??oaiiy). Oeei i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaca
i?i oa, ui i?aaina?aeii?noue i?iieco? an? noaae?? e aeaiaioe
i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

O no?oeoo?o ineo?/iiai i?ioeano i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
aoiaeyoue ni?eeiyooy, niinoa?aaeaiiy, i?ciaiiy, ieneaiiy, ui
i?ecaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy aioo??oiueiai ia?aeiiaiiy ? aieaaeyaeaiiy
i?aaicanoiniaoaa/a. Aioo??oi? ia?aeiiaiiy a ii??aiyii? c? ciaiiyi i?aaa
? i?aaiaeo yaeu yaey? niaith a?eueo aenieee uaaaeue i?aaina?aeiiino?, ia
yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aoai?aiiy ciaiue o ia?aeiiaiiy e inoaiiueiai — o
na?aeiii-aieueiao onoaiiaeo i?eeiaoe iaiao?aeia ??oaiiy. A onoaiiaea
aaciina?aaeiuei noeea?oueny c aieueiaei i?ioeanii oe?eani?yiiaaii?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ii ae?iaeaiith e i?eeiyooth aai
cae?eniaiith ??oaiiy.

A ?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueiaee i?ioean i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
ii?yae c ?aeayie e oyaeaiiyie aoiaeyoue i?aaia? ii/oooy e aiioe??, aac
yeeo, ye a?aeiii, ia i?io?ea? ? i?ioean ieneaiiy. Aiie iiaeooue c?iaeoe
ye iiceoeaiee, oae ? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia ci?no i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo
??oaiue. Ii/oooy iaia’yceo, ni?aaaaeeeaino?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? o.i.
niiioeathoue aei anoaiiaeaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ?noeie ? aeaeaiith
(cae?eniaiith) caeiiiiai aeoa. A ii/oooy ei?eno?, iaiaaeno?, cacae?ino?,
iniaenoi? caoe?eaaeaiino? e ?io? iiaeooue oaanoe o a?e a?ae i?eeiyooy
ia’?eoeaiiai ??oaiiy. Ia iiaea aooe aacaeiaaiiei aioo??oi? ia?aeiiaiiy
oeo i?aaicanoiniaoaa/?a, ye? a?ae ia’?eoeaiiai ciaiiy iaiaaathoueny
eiiiainoaaoe nai?ie aeoieaie, a aeniiaee oi?ioethaaoe ia ia iniia?
a??ia?aeii anoaiiaeaiiai e ia’?eoeaiiai ciaiiy, a ia i?eiouaiiyo.

Ae??oaiiy th?eaee/ii? ni?aae iiaea aooe noa?aeoa?eciaaia c o?ueio
noi??i: a) ye oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee i?ioean; a) ye oai?/ee i?ioean; a) ye
aea?aeaaii-aeaaeia ae?yeuei?noue eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a.

Eiei ieoaiue, ia ye? aea? a?aeiia?ae? iniaa, ui i?eeia?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueia ??oaiiy, iine?aeiai?noue ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue ? a
e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo iiae?aieie aeey eiaeiiai aeiaaeeo aeianaiiy
i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai aeoa. Caaaeaee ae??oothoueny ieoaiiy i?i
iayai?noue a?aeiia?aeieo oaeo?a, ?oiuei? th?eaee/ii? eaae?o?eaoe?? ?
o.i. Oea aeicaiey? iiaoaeoaaoe aeai?eoi, i?eaeaoiee aeey aeei?enoaiiy
i?aaicanoiniaoaa/ai, ui ?icaeyaea? ni?aao. Ia aac? oeueiai aeai?eoio
iiaeia ?ic?iaeoe aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo th?enaeeeoe?eiiai i?ioeano na?e
niaoe?aeueiee aeai?eoi, yeee a?aeaeaa? niaoeeo?eo ieoaiue, ye?
ae??oothoueny o aeaiiio i?ioean?, ui iiaea aooe cae??ieaiee o
ii?iaoeaieo aeoao.

Na?aae aeiia, iinoaaeaieo aei i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e, iiaeiia
aooe any ?o noeoii?noue, ui noaaeoueny aei i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai
i?ioeano, ? a?aeiia?aeii ioiiethaaoe o?e iniiaieo aeiee.

Aei ia?oiai aeieo ne?ae a?aeianoe aeiiae, ui noaaeyoueny aei naii? iniae
i?aaicanoiniaoaa/a ye iiaiiaaaeiiai noa’?eoa, yeee caaacia/o?
ii?iaeueiee o?ae anueiai i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai i?ioeano. Na?aae ?ioeo,
oea aeiiae eiiiaoaioiino?, aoe/iino?, ina?/aiino?, a?oaeiaaiino?,
?i?oe?aoeaiino?, naiiaeaaeaiiy, naiie?eoe/iino?, niinoa?aaeeeaino?,
i?aai?ciaaiino?, naiino?eiino?, iaiieaaeeaino?, i?eioeeiiaino?,
aoiaiiino?, /oeiino?, oa?ieiino?, iiaaae, aeia?ice/eeaino? oiui. E??i
oeueiai, i?aaicanoiniaoaa/ iiaeiai iaoe aenieee ??aaiue iie?oe/ii? oa
i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e.

Aei ae?oaiai aeieo — aeiiae, ui noaaeyoueny aei naii?
i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Aei ieo i?iiiio?oueny a?aeianoe,
cie?aia, aeiiae ia’?eoeaiiai oa iiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoe/ieo
ianoaaei; noai?a aeio?eiaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueiei i?aaiii ii?i
iaoa??aeueiiai i?aaa; i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy a iaaeao eiiiaoaioe?? ? a
onoaiiaeaieo caeiiii i?ioeanoaeueieo oi?iao; caaacia/aiiy eiio?ieth oa
iaaeyaeo ca caeiii?noth i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?; i?aai
inea?aeaiiy iacaeiiieo aeo?a; anoaiiaeaiiy noai?i? th?eaee/ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iinaaeiaeo in?a oiui.

Aei o?aoueiai — aeiiae, ui noaaeyoueny aei i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai aeoo,
yeee ia’?eoeao? ?acoeueoaoe i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Na?aae ?o
cia/ii? e?eueeino? ne?ae aeae?eeoe ianooii? aeiiae: i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee
aeo iiaeiai cae?enithaaoeny ia iniia? oa o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c ii?iaie
i?aaa, oiaoi iineoe i?aeii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa?; aooe eiiiaoaioiei, oiaoi
cae?eniaiei oiiaiiaaaeaieie ia oa i?aaiaie aea?aeaae, iinaaeiaeie
iniaaie; aooe cae?eniaiei o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eienaie ii?i
iaoa??aeueiiai oa i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa; neoaeeoe iaeiei ?c cania?a
aeeiiaiiy i?aai?coth/i? oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae. Ii?yae c
iaaaaeaieie iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe ? aeiiae eiie?aoiino?, ei?ioeino?,
/?oeino?, yniino?, aiioeaiaaiino?, aeieeaaeiino?, iiaiioe, c?icoi?eino?,
ei?aeoiino?, eoeueoo?iino? oiui.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe aeaa iai?yiee
aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaoeth? i?aaicanoinoaaeueio
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, aea aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeoe-ae??, a oaeiae eiai i?aeoeee. Ia?oa c ieo — aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaeo
ii?i, ye? cae??ieththoue i?aaiii/iino? iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa uiaei aeianaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?aaiaeo ??oaiue iica
aeieoiaioaeueiith oi?iith (iaoa??aeuei? ii?ie), ? ae?oaa — ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ioeaaeo?e, i?ioeano ?o ?aae?caoe?? (?icaeoie i?ioeanoaeueieo ii?i). O
ii?iaoeaieo aeoao ne?ae aeinyaaoe caaeainiaaiino?, iioeiaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeiino? oeeo aeaio aeae?a i?aaiaeo ii?i.

C iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? aaaaea?oueny ca aeioe?eueia cae??ieoe a ii?iaoeaieo aeoao,
ui ?aaoeththoue th?enaeeeoe?eio i?ioeaaeo?o, ia?ae?e ae?e, ye?
aeicaiey?oueny cae?enithaaoe noa’?eoo i?aaicanoinoaaiiy. Oeae ia?ae?e
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeai?eoi ae??oaiiy ni?aae. Oea ia? aeooaeuei?noue
i?e cae?eniaii? ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o aeo?a-ae?e, /a?ac ye?
cai?iaaaeaeothoueny caoiaee i?eiono. Ii?iaoeaia cae??ieaiiy aeaiiai
aeai?eoio ni?eyoeia onoiaiith iiieeie oa i?yieo ii?ooaiue caeiiiino? i?e
i?aaicanoinoaaii?.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? iiiyooy oa ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Oaiaeaethe A.A. Ii?aeueii-aeooiaiua i?eioeeiu a i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe // Oacenu aeieeaaeia e niiauaiey. Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “2000
eao n ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa”.— Caii?iaeuea.— 1997.— N.257-259.

2. Iia??aiee ?.I., Oaiaeaethe I.A. Aeaye? oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy uiaei
aeo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa // A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa.—
Oa?e?a: Oi-o aioo??oi?o ni?aa, 1997.— Aei.2.— N.88-93.

3. Oaiaeaethe I.A. Aeaye? ieoaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaiiy a ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa: Oai?aoe/iee aniaeo // A?niee Caii??cueeiai
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo.— Caii??aeaey: TH?eaee/iee ?i-o IAN Oe?a?ie,
1997.— Aei.1.— N.15-23.

4. Oaiaeaethe I.A. Aeaye? oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy eeaneo?eaoe??
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, ye? i?eeiathoueny (cae?eniththoueny)
ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa // A?niee Caii??cueeiai
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo.— Caii??aeaey: TH?eaee/iee ?i-o IAN Oe?a?ie,
1997.— Aei.2.— N.9-19.

5. Oaiaeaethe I.A. I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae?? — iaoeiiaa oi?ia
i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai ??oaiiy // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa.— Iaeana: ?i-o aioo??oi?o ni?aa, 1997.— ?3.— N.44-47.

Oaiaeaethe I.A. I?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe-ae?? a iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy
ooieoe?e i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa.— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue.— Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai oai??? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy,
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e, ye?
cae?eniththoueny iinaaeiaeie iniaaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Ia
i?aenoaa? oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co th?eaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, ii?iaoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoeee aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy i?noey oa
?ie? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, iiiyooy
oa ooieoe?? i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a oeeo i?aai?a, ?o aeaee. Iieacaia
cia/aiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a-ae?e a oe?e ae?yeueiino?, ?o
i?e?iaea, iaae? aeei?enoaiiy, aeiiae, ui aei ieo noaaeyoueny,
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aieueia? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai
??oaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa, i?aaicanoinoaaiiy,
i?aaicanoinoaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue, i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee i?ioean,
i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee aeo, i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee aeo-ae?y, ooieoe??
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, caeiii?noue.

Oaiaeaethe A.A. I?aaii?eiaieoaeueiua aeou-aeaenoaey a iaoaiecia
inouanoaeaiey ooieoeee i?aaiaie aioo?aiieo aeae.— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa; enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee.— Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo
aeae, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai oai?ee i?aaii?eiaiaiey,
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeoia e i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeoia-aeaenoaee,
inouanoaeyaiuo aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae. Ia iniiaa
oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, ii?iaoeaiiai iaoa?eaea,
iaiauaiey i?aeoeee enneaaeothony aii?inu ianoa e ?iee i?aaii?eiaiaiey a
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae, iiiyoea e ooieoeee
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeoia yoeo i?aaiia, eo aeaeu. Iieacaii cia/aiea
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeoia-aeaenoaee a yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, eo i?e?iaea,
i?aaeaeu eniieueciaaiey, o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iei,
eioaeaeooaeueii-aieaaua oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaii?eiaieaoaeueiiai ?aoaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaiu aioo?aiieo aeae, i?aaii?eiaiaiea,
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiue i?ioeann,
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiue aeo, i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiue aeo-aeaenoaea, ooieoeee
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeoia, caeiiiinoue.

Fandaluk A.V. Law using Acts-actions in the mechanism of realization of
functions by organs of internal affairs.— Manuscript.

Dissertation on cosearching of a scientific degree of candidate of law
sciences on speciality 12.00.01 — a theory and history of state and
rights; history of political and law sciences.— University of internal
affairs, Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the problems of the theory of law using and law
using acts, law using acts-operations made by the officials of
law-enforcement bodies.

On the basis of the theoretical analysis of the literature on law,
normative material, the generalizations of practice in the first part —
“The general Characteristics of the law using activity of
law-enforcement bodies” — questions which allow to determine law using
activity of law-enforcement bodies and problems of legitimacy in this
sphere are investigated.

The law-enforcement bodies participate in realization of functions of
the state, carrying out them through law creation and law using. The
first form of activity is strictly limited, law using acts have the
priority. Among all the group of operations (law facts), which are made
by the employees of law-enforcement bodies, there is a large quantity of
law significant operations, which are law using according to their
nature. The Last are distinguished by the imperous order of the official
concerning the definition of the rights and responsibilities of the
personally determined subjects certain persons expressed orally or
conductively.

The analysis of the legitimacy condition in law using activity of
law-enforcement bodies has allowed to select and to study out four main
groups of means it of strengthening: a) means defining organization of
law-enforcement bodies; b) means defining the order of their operation;
c) means, which influence their personnel structure; d) means, ensuring
realization of the facts of external influence on a of legitimacy
condition in their work economic, political, legal, cultural etc.

In the second part “The Acts of application of the legal norms of
law-enforcement bodies, their purpose and classification” — general
concept of the act of application of the right, function of the acts in
the mechanism of legal regulation are investigated; the classification
of law using activity is studied out which are made by the employees of
law-enforcement bodies.

Law using act is official solution of the competent person accepted on
the basis and in correspondence with norms of the right, containing
state-imperous order on a certain legal situation directed to the
individual regulation of the public relations by establishing, change or
termination of the subjective rights and responsibilities of their
participants made in a definite form.

It is known, that law using acts execute the function of fixing, dynamic
function, information, management, educational, law-enforcement, right
giving, right providing, stabilizing and right creation function.

As the basis for the classification of law using acts of law-enforcement
bodies are offered: the subjects of law using; directions of their
activity; branch signs of used norms of the right; the form of law using
activity; functional signs; legal significance; sphere of operation; the
name; structure; the instruction, contents; character of legal
consequences; the form of external expression of will of law user and
giving it to the addressees.

In the third part — “Law using acts-operations in structure of the law
using process of law-enforcement bodies” — the limits of their usage in
law using practice of law-enforcement bodies, the law using
acts-operations, the aspects of creation are investigated of law using
solutions, request to the acts-operations the intellectual aspects of
creation of law using solutions are studied out.

As the independent form of law using solution, the law using
act-operation — official solution of the competent subject made on the
basis and in correspondence with the norms of the right in the form of
certain intellectual — strong-willed and physical operations, and
containing state-imperous order in a certain legal situation, which is
directed on individual regulation of the public relations by
installation, change or termination of the subjective rights and
responsibilities of their participants.

The limits of usage of the law using acts-operations in law-enforcement
bodies answer the general rules, which distinguish law using from law
creation, and also from other forms of realization of the right. They
are determined by sphere of their activity and competence, by the
necessity of the urgent solving of the situation, by the special
conditions of, by the necessity of the elementary and urgent giving of
information to the addressee.

The structure of mental process of the law using activity includes
perception, observation, knowledge, thinking. They result into creation
of internal belief and the expressing of will of law user. The
consciousness is the converter of information energy of the law norms
and items of information on actual circumstances in strong-willed energy
of the law user, and further — information energy of law using act in
factual practical activity of the subjects, concerning which the
application of the right is accomplished.

Among requests to law using acts-operations, three main blocks are
selected. Requests, to the law user are the following: to be ethic,
educated, erudition is necessary, initiative, self-control, keenness of
observation, organization, independence, persistence, to de a person of
principle, humanity, keenness, tolerance, respect etc. Requests to law
using activity: objective and complete investigation of factual
circumstances; strict observance of norms of the substantive law;
decisionmaking within the framework of the competence and in the
statutory remedial forms; maintenance of the control and supervision of
legitimacy; the right of the appeal of the illegal acts; establishing of
the strict legal responsibility of the officials etc. Requests to law
using act, which approves the results of law using activity: The act
should be specified, brief, precise, clear, motivated, complete,
correct, cultural etc.

Key words: organs of internal affairs, law usage, law using activity,
law using process, law using act, law using act-action, functions of
law-using acts, legitimacy.

___________________________

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2. Aeea.: Aeiaeaoie ?2 aei ??oaiiy Eieaa?? IAN Oe?a?ie a?ae 28 ethoiai
1995 ?. ?4 EI/2.

3. Noaaeaii ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa 5
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4. Noaaeaii ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai
?inoeoooo IAN Oe?a?ie 28 n?/iy 1997 ?. I?ioieie ?1.

5. Aeea.: A?eai?ueaa O.A. Aeou i?eiaiaiey ii?i niaaoneiai i?aaa:
Aeenn… eaiae. th?eae. iaoe: 12.00.01.— Na?aoia, 1971; Eaca?aa A.A.
Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeoia.— Eacaiue, 1975; Iiaeeia A.A.
I?aaii?eiaieoaeueiua aeou a no?oeoo?a th?eaee/aneiai i?ioeanna: Aeenn…
eaiae. th?eae. iaoe: 12.00.01.— Oa?ueeia, 1984; *a?eania A.Ae.
I?aaii?eiaieoaeueiua aeou i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae niaaoneiai
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Na?aoia, 1986.

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