EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai?. OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

NEAAE NA?OEAIA IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 349.3: 368.43

I?AAIA? I?IAEAIE

IAIN?EIIAI CAAACIA*AIIss A OE?A?I?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.05- o?oaeiaa i?aai;

i?aai nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa aeieia?/iiai i?aaa

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aieio?ia I?iaeue Ai?en?aia

eaoaae?a o?oaeiaiai i?aaa

oa i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?ioaiue

Aieiaeeie? Aaa?eeiae/, i?ioani? Oaa??enueeiai

iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, Noaoe?a Aiaaeai

?aaiiae/, aeioeaio canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaa/aeueii?

?iaioe *a?i?a?anueeiai th?eaee/iiai eieaaeaeo

I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16“ eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 10.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee c th?eaee/ieo iaoe Ae 26.001.06 o
Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca
aae?anith: 252017, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60 (th?eaee/iee
oaeoeueoao).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “15“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee naeoaoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,
O.A.Aiaeia?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie cae??ieaii
i?eioeeiiai iia? iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, aecia/aeueiei noa?aeiai
eio?eo ? i?iaieioaiiy Oe?a?ie nioe?aeueiith aea?aeaaith. Aieiaiei
iaia’yceii aoaeue-yei? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ? caaacia/aiiy iniiaieo
i?aa ethaeeie. I?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy i?aa ethaeeie e oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoai?cio ?o ?aae?caoe?? ?noioii aeoea?coaaeanue o neeaaeieo ?
iaiaeiicia/ieo oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa
iie?oeei-i?aaiai? nenoai no/anii? Oe?a?ie. Iniaeeai aino?i iinoaei
ieoaiiy aeio?eiaiiy i?aaa ia iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy iai?aoeacaeaoieo
a?iiaaeyi, cie?aia iain?iia??a ye iaea?eueo /enaeueii? a?oie ?eceeo.

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeanue o noa?? iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, ia aeicaiey?
a?aeeeaaeaoe i?ioean ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy. Iecueeee ??aaiue iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy; iaeaea iiaia a?aenooi?noue aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?ici???a
iain?e; ianai?/ania nieaoa no?aoiaiai cai?o; iayai?noue cia/ieo ia?aaaa
oa i?euea o iain?eiiio caaacia/aii? ie?aieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a — ona
oea ia a?aeiia?aea? i?iaieioaiiio eo?nia? ia nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaio
?eieiao aeiiii?eo. Na?eiciei iaaeie?eii iain?eii? nenoaie ? iaaei??ia
e?euee?noue iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ? iaea?eueo ia?aiaoyaeaiith
aaeoccth caeiiiaeaanoaa, caeeoath/enue i?e oeueiio iaaeineiiaeei.

Iinoa? iaiao?aei?noue cae?eniaiiy aeeaieiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co iiaeo
i?iaeai iain?eiiai i?aaa, ia?aaeon?i oaeeo ye: aeioe?euei?noue aaaaeaiiy
i?aaiai? eaoaai??? no?aoiaiai noaaeo; o?eaae?noue o?oaeiaiai /e
no?aoiaiai noaaeo ye ia?aaeoiiae ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy; caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy iain?eiiai a?eo;
nioe?aeueii-aoe/ia oa i?aaiaa iaa?oioiaai?noue i?eueaiaiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy; aeioe?euei?noue oeyo?a cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ii?yae c
aea?aeaaiith iain?eiith nenoaiith ? i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a iaaea?aeaiiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy; i?aaiaa i?e?iaea iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo
oiiae?a oiui.

Ana oea aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ye ie?aii? aaeoc? i?ecaaee aei iiyae i?aoeue ? a noa??
i?iaeai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Cie?aia oea ?iaioe A.A.A/a?eaia,
I.E.Caoa?iaa (aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiai? i?e?iaee iain??); ss.I.Oiaaey
(nooi?noue i?aaa ia iain?th oa aa?aio?? eiai ?aae?caoe??); ?.?.Ano?aoaia
(i?eioeeie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy); ?.?.?aaiiai? (nooi?noue iain?eieo
i?aaia?aeiinei); ?.A.Aouei (iain?eia caaacia/aiiy eieainiiee?a) oiui.
Iiiia?ao?y A.Ae.Caee?ia ) Caeeei E.Ae. I?aaiioiioaiey ii iaineiiiiio
iaania/aieth. — I.:Ecae. Iine. oieaa?neoaoa, 1974. — 192 n.) i?enay/aia
eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaiith oai??? iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei

Aeaye? i?iaeaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaeenue a
eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?yo a?o/eciyieo a/aieo A.I.Aiae???aa,
A.?.Noaoe?aa, A.N.Noe/einueeiai. O 1998 ?ioe? aeeoia i?ae?o/iee ?c i?aaa
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?.I.Ne?ioe. Ne?ioa ?.I. I?aai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?.-Ee?a:TH??ieii ?ioa?,1998. — 283 n.)

Iaeiae a?eueo?noue ieoaiue iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy naia ca oiia ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue ana ua caeeoathoueny iaeiaeine?aeaeaieie oa aeeneon?eieie,
aein? a?aenooi? eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo canaae noai?aiiy
iiai? iain?eii? nenoaie a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy no/anieo i?aeoiae?a o
nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae oa ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue noni?euenoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy c oaie “I?aaia? i?iaeaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a
Oe?a?i?” cae?eniaii ca ieaiii iaoeiai? ?iaioe th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
oa eaoaae?e o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa aeieia?/iiai i?aaa Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?aaia O?aiea a ?aieao iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai
oa iai?yie?a, caoaa?aeaeaieo Aeaaeai??th i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o
oiio, uia:

— cae?enieoe eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo i?iaeai ae?th/i?
nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i? oa ae?iaeoe ie?ai? oai?aoe/i?
oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? canaaee iiai? iain?eii? nenoaie ?eieiaiai
oeio;

— aecia/eoe i?aaiao i?e?iaeo oa ci?no i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy,
c’ynoaaoe eiai i?noea oa ?ieue a nenoai? nioe?aeueieo i?aa ethaeeie;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe canaaee i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?aae?caoe??
a?iiaaeyiaie i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy;

— aeine?aeeoe iniiai? i?aaia? i?iaeaie oai??? iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei a
oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa i?aaia? i?aenoaae
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? oi?ie iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy — iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy;

— ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy no/aniiai i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iain?eia caeiiiaeaanoai
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae i?iaeoe caeii?a uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei a noa??
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi, iaoeia? aeaea?aea, noaoenoe/i?
aeai?, iaoa??aee i?aeoeee.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui aeieeathoue o noa??
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy oa caeiiii??iino? ?o ?icaeoeo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue nenoaiiee, no?oeoo?iee,
ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, oiiaeueii-th?eaee/iee,
nioe?ieiai-iie?oe/iee oa ?io? iaoiaee iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy. Aeniiaee oa
iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?noyoueny a ?iaio?, nie?athoueny ia iieiaeaiiy
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, aeinyaiaiiy iaoee i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
oa ?ioeo aaeocaaeo th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aiae?c iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa
i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae eiai canoinoaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a
e?a?i?.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia? i?aoe? a?aeiieo
oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo a/aieo o noa?? iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy,
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, o?oaeiaiai i?aaa: I.A. Aca?iai?, I.A.
Aeaenaiae?iaa, A.N. Aiae?a?aa, A.I. Aiae???aa, ?.?. Ano?aoaia, A.A.
A/a?eaia, E.N. Aaoea?ia, ss.?. Aacoaei?, I.A. Aieio?ii?, I.A.
A?aaei?/eea, ?.A. Aoueia, E.A. Caaae?ia, A.Ae. Caee?ia, I.E. Caoa?iaa,
?.A. Coaa, ?.?. ?aaiiai?, A.A. Ea?ooe?y, A.?.Eiceiaa, I.O. Iaianthea,
A.?.Iaoa?noieea, I.Ae.Ieeeiaiea, I.?. Iieoiaiiaa, ?.?. ?eaaeiai?, ?.I.
Ne?ioe, A.?. Noaoe?aa, A.N. Noe/einueeiai, A.E. Noaaioaiea, A.A.
Oa?aniai?, ?.A. Oo/eiai?, ss.I. Oiaaey, TH.ss. Oeaaea?aaoia, A.O.
Oaeoaoae?iiaa; a/aieo- aeiiii?no?a I.Eaioeaaa, A.?.I?uaiea, A.I.
Iaaeoi/?y, TH.?. Iaaeaiea, A.A. ssoeaiea; i?ia?aeieo a/aieo c oai???
i?aaa N.N. Ae?en??aa, ?.A.Eoeaoiai?, I.I. ?aa?iiae/a, ?.I. Oaeo?ii?,
A.A.Oiaeueiai?, E.N. ssae/a oa ?i.

Aii??e/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaee i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aeoe,
Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i iain?eia caaacia/aiiy”, ?io?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe Oe?a?ie, iain?eia caeiiiaeaanoai ie?aieo
ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa (?in??, Iieueu?).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii?
i?aaiaeo i?iaeai ae?th/i? nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy oa ae?iaeaii?
ie?aieo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo canaae oaeineiiaeaiiy
th?eaee/iiai iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy i?aaa ia iain?th a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao
?eieiaeo ?aoi?i; aecia/aii? ? iaa?oiooaaii? iiaeo iaoeiaeo iiiyoue iaoee
i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy (iain?ei? ?eceee, i?ioan?eia noa??noue,
no?aoiaee noaae, iaaea?aeaaiee iain?eiee oiiae) oa i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?o
canoinoaaiiy o caeiiiaeaanoa?; c’ynoaaii? oai?aoe/ieo canaae oa
ae?iaeaii? i?iiiceoe?e iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei oai??? iain?eieo
i?aaia?aeiinei. A ?iaio? aia?oa ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai? aeeaiei
i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aaia? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iaaea?aeaaiiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, ?ieue aea?aeaae a oe?e noa??, iaoiaee oa
i?eioeeie o?iainoaaiiy iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, aecia/ai? iniiai?
iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoeiaith iiaeciith :

— aecia/aiiy nooiino? i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy, eiai i?noey a
nenoai? nioe?aeueieo i?aa ethaeeie, a oaeiae iiiyooy iain?eiiai ?eceeo
ye i?aaiai? i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy iain?eiiai i?aaa iniae;

— i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai th?eaee/iiai
iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy iain?eieo i?aa o?ce/ieo in?a;

— aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oeyoii aianaiiy ci?i,
aeiiiaiaiue oa oi?o?eaoe??;

— aecia/aiiy iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei oai??? iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei,
iiiyooy oa ci?noo iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei, e?eoa???a ?o eeaneo?eaoe??,
iain?eii? i?aainoa’?eoiino?, iniaeeainoae noa’?eoiiai neeaaeo;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iiiyooy oa i?aaiai? i?e?iaee iain?? ye nioe?aeueii?
aeieaoe, ?? iniiaieo aeaeiaeo iciae;

— aecia/aiiy iiiyooy oa aeaoa?i?ioth/i? ?ie? no?aoiaiai noaaeo ye
iain?eiiai th?eaee/iiai oaeoo, eeaneo?eoth/eo eiai e?eoa???a;

— ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aea?aeaaii? caaaeueiiiaia’yceiai? oa iaaea?aeaaii?
iain?eieo nenoai a oiiaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? oa ?eieiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, iaoiae?a oa i?eioeei?a ?o o?iainoaaiiy, a oaeiae ?ie?
aea?aeaae o eiaei?e c oeeo nenoai;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy ye ?inoeoooo i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy oa iniiaii? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? oi?ie iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy, ooiaeaiaioaeueieo eiai iciae, i?aaiaeo iniia cae?eniaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii ni?eyoeia
?icaeoeo iaoee i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, cie?aia oai???
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Iaea?aeai? aeniiaee oa ae?iaeai? i?iiiceoe??
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeo?a c ieoaiue iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy (Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiai?
canaaee iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?”, Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
aea?aeaaia iaia’yceiaa iain?eia no?aooaaiiy”, Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
iaaea?aeaai? iain?ei? oiiaee”). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e aeeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueiiai eo?no “I?aai nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy”, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, eo?n?a eaeoe?e,
a oaeiae a iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeeneon?yo c i?iaeai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a, aiie aeiiia?aeaeenue ia o?ao?e,
/aoaa?o?e oa i’yo?e ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?” (Euea?a, 1997,
1998, 1999 ??.), “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa caeiiioai?aiiy a
Oe?a?i?” (Euea?a, 1998 ?.), aoee ai?iaiaai? i?e iaaiai?aiiyo
aeena?oaoe?? ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa
aeieia?/iiai i?aaa Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia oe?eyie oa oa?aeoa?ii
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a
(aeanyoe i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe,
?ice?eaa?oueny ?? ia’?eo, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie
aeena?oaoe??, aeeeaaeathoueny iaoa, iniiai? caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, io?eiai? oai?aoe/i? oa
i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, a oaeiae aeaco?oueny ia ai?iaaoe?th oa
ioae?eaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?icaeoie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy (iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e)” i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo iniiaieo aoai?a
?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee i?i iain?eia caaacia/aiy oa aiae?co noaio
oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?ioaineai?noue iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
coiiaethaaeanue ?aoi?iaie iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

A 20 — 30 ??. aea/aiiyi i?aaiai? i?e?iaee nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy oa
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy caeiaeenue I.A.A?aaei?/ee, E.A.Caa?e?i oa
?io?. Ia oie /an aeii?ioaaea oai??y nioe?aeueieo ?ecee?a, ca yeith iniaa
io?eioaaea i?aai ia nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy o aeiaaeeo ianoaiiy oaei?
ianoaaeie, yeo noni?euenoai o?aeooaaei ye i?aaii??io i?aenoaao o/ano?
iai?aoethth/iai o ?iciiae?e? eieaeoeaiiai i?iaeoeoo.

?icaeoie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy oa
aaeocaaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a 50 — 70 ??. (caeiie “I?i aea?aeaai? iain??”
(1956 ?.) ) A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N?. — 1956. — ?15. — No.313 )
oa “I?i iain?? oa aeiiiiiae /eaiai eieaini?a” (1964 ?.) ) A?aeiiino?
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N?. — 1964. — ?29. — No. 340.) caii/aoeoaaee
iinooiiaa oi?ioaaiiy iiai? aaeoc? i?aaa — i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy. Aaaiiee aianie o ?? noaiiaeaiiy ai?n A.N.Aiae?a?a.
Iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee i?aaeiaoa iiai? aaeoc? coiiaeea
ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiue ? a noa?? iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy.
A oeae ia??iae c’yaeythoueny a?oioiai? i?aoe? i?aaiciaaoe?a-o?oaeiaee?a
I.A.Aeaenaiae?iaa, ?.?.Ano?aoaia, E.N.Aaoea?ia, ?.A.Aoueia,
I.E.Caoa?iaa, ?.?.?eaaeiai?, ss.I.Oiaaey oa ?ioeo. A ieo
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue i?iaeaie oai??? iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei,
aecia/aeanue i?aaiaa i?e?iaea iain??, aiae?coaaeeny ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy
iain?eieo caeii?a, ii?oooaaeeny ieoaiiy i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy
iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aia?oa aoea aeneiaeaia ?aeay eieaeoeaiiai
noa’?eoa iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei (?.?. Ano?aoai). A?oioiaiee
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iain?eiiai i?aaa ye i?aeaaeoc? i?aaa nioe?eueiiai
caaacia/aiiy, i?aaiaeo iniia ?icaeoeo iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, aeaeiaeo
iniaeeainoae iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei aoa i?iaaaeaiee o i?ae?o/ieeo ca
?aaeaeoe??th I.E.Caoa?iaa (1966 ?.) Na?aae iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iio??aii aeae?eeoe ?iaioo A.Ae.Caee?ia (1974 ?.), a ye?e ?icaeyiooi
caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? oa aaeocaa? i?iaeaie iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei,
iieacaii ?o aca?iica’ycie c aeiiii?/ieie a?aeiineiaie, iaa?oiooaaii
i?aenoaae eeaneo?eaoe?? iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei oa iiaeaii ?o caaaeueio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo. A iiaeaeueoiio iain?eiee aniaeo a nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ?ic?iaeyee I.A.Aca?iaa, ?.A.Aouei, ?.?.?aaiiaa, A.?.Eiceia,
?.A.Oo/eiaa, A.O.Oaeoaoae?iia, Niaoe?aeuei? ieoaiiy caaaeueii? /anoeie
iain?eiiai i?aaa aeine?aeaeoaaee A.A.Oa?aniaa oa A.E.Noaaioaiei.

Iiaee aoai oi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? iaoeiai? eiioeaioe?? iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ii/aany i?ney i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy” (05.11.1991?.). Na?aae no/anieo a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a
oai?aoe/iei aiae?cii i?iaeai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy caeiathoueny
ss.?.Aacoaea, I.A.Aieio?ia, ?.A.Coa, I.O.Iaianthe oa ?io?. O ia?oiio
a?o/eciyiiio i?ae?o/ieeo c oai??? iain?eiiai i?aaa ?.I.Ne?ioe ia
iniia? caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy aeeeaaeaii i?aaia?
canaaee cae?eniaiiy iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?, iaa?oioiaaii
iiiyooy iain?? oa ?? aeae?a, iiaeaii iiaa o?aeooaaiiy i?eioeei?a
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei. Aeeiiaii ?yae
aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o: A.I.Aiae???aa (oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ?inoeoooo
“o?oaeiaee noaae” o i?aa? iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy)) Aiae???a A.I..
O?oaeiaee noaae ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie: Aaoi?ao. aeen….eaiae.
th?ae. iaoe: 12.00.05. / Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.O.Oaa/aiea.
-Ee?a, — 1997. — 18n.); A.?. Noaoe?aa (aeine?aeaeaiiy th?eaee/ieo oaeo?a
o i?aa? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy)) ) Noaoe?a A.?. TH?eaee/i? oaeoe a
i?aa? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy: Aaoi?ao. aeen…..eaiae. th?ae. iaoe /
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.Oaa/aiea. — Ee?a, 1997. — 19n.);
A.N.Noe/einueeiai (aiae?c i?iaeai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy Nou/eineee A.N. I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey nioeeieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey a?aaeaeai:
Aaoi?ao.aeenn….. eaiae. th?ae. iaoe : 12.00.05. /Oe?. th?ae.
aeaaeaiey. — Oa?eiaue, 1992. — 19 n.).

Na?aae a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a i?iaeaiaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
caeiathoueny TH.?.Iaaeaiei (iniiai? canaaee cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee, iiaeeeaino? ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy oa
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?); A.A.Ai?ae??iei, A.?.I?uaiei,
A.I.Iaaeoi/?e, A.A.ssoeaiei (aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe iaaea?aeaaiiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy).

?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y noni?euenoaa aeooae?co? iaiao?aei?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy iain?eii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, a oea aeiaaa? iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aaeyaeo o?aaeeoe?eieo iinooeao?a oai??? iain?eieo
i?aaia?aeiinei oiui. Aeaye? i?iiiceoe?? c oeueiai i?eaiaeo c?iaeaii
aaoi?ii o nai?io aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “I?aai ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy: oai?aoe/i? iniiae oa
i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy” neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a ? i?enay/aiee
nioe?aeueiiio, th?eaee/iiio oa aeiiii?/iiio aniaeoai i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy, oa?aeoa?enoeoe? eiai caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aecia/aii i?aaiao i?e?iaeo iain?eiiai i?aaa
iniae, eiai i?noea o nenoai? nioe?aeueieo i?aa ethaeeie oa iniaeeaino?
iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?aaa. Iniiaieie ?enaie i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy aaoi? iaceaa? ianooii?: (1) niaoeeo?/ia iciaea noa’?eoa —
aeiaaio?eaaeee aai iino?eiee oa?aeoa? iai?aoeacaeaoiino?; (2) iniaeeaa
i?aenoaaa aeieeiaiiy — ia’?eoeaia ianoaaeia, /a?ac ianoaiiy yei? iniaa
ao?a/a? caei?ia’y /e caniae aeey ?nioaaiiy oa iio?aao? iino?eiiai
iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy; (3) iayai?noue niaoe?aeueiiai
ciaia’ycaeueiiai noa’?eoa — nioe?aeueiiai oiiaeo. Ia iniia? oeeo iciae
cai?iiiiiaaia aecia/aiiy iiiyooy i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy
(iaaiaeeoueny o aeniiaeao). Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ci?no i?aaa ia
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? iai?aoeacaeaoii? iniae
io?eioaaoe ieaoaae? aeey caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?aeo iio?aa ia ??ai? ia
ieae/a aecia/aiiai a aea?aeaa? i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio;
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaee — o oiio, ui iain?? ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeey
?nioaaiiy iain?iia?a. Iain?eia i?aai ? iniiaiei aeeoo?aei (ca oa?aeoa?ii
iio?aa ethaeeie); aeoeaiei (ca niiniaii cae?eniaiiy); ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
(ca noa’?eoiei neeaaeii).

Aecia/aeueieie oiiaaie iain?eii? ?aoi?ie iiaeiii aooe caa?aaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa i?aaiaiai ci?noo i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaiiy th?eaee/iiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe??
oeueiai i?aaa.

Caeiiiaeaa/iio ?aaoethaaiith iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy o no/aniee ia??iae
i?enay/aiee ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e. Iniiaiei ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaei aeoii, ui
anoaiiaeth? i?aai a?iiaaeyi ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy ? caeeaaea?
i?aeaaeeie nenoaie iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, yea
ia?aaeaa/eea iain?ei? ?eceee, aecia/eea aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy oa
cae??ieea aea?aeaaiee nioe?aeueiee noaiaea?o aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o
iain?? (no.46). Aaciaee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeo — Caeii “I?i iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy” aecia/a? i?aaia?, i?aai?caoe?ei?, nioe?aeuei? oiiae oa
iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy. Iain?ei?
i?aaia?aeiineie ? i?aaeiaoii i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oaeiae niaoe?aeueieo
caeii?a, eio?? aecia/athoue i?aaiaee oa nioe?aeueiee noaoon i?aoe?aiee?a
ie?aieo i?ioan?eieo eaoaai??e. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aaeeea e?euee?noue
niaoe?aeueieo caeii?a ? iciaeith iaaeineiiaeino? iain?eiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, a iayai?noue ??cieo iain?eieo i?ia?ai, ye?
caaacia/othoue cia/i? ia?aaaae oa i?eueae eeoa aeey ie?aieo eaoaai??e
i?aoe?aiee?a a iaaeao ?aeeii? aea?aeaaii? iain?eii? nenoaie, ii?ooo?
i?eioeei nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Aaoi? ?icoi?? nioe?aeueio
ni?aaaaeeea?noue ye caaacia/oaaio aea?aeaaith nenoaio ??aieo
i?aai?caoe?ii-i?aaiaeo oiia aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy. O aea?aeaai?e iain?ei?e nenoai? ianya i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy aeioe?eueii aecia/aoe eeoa o?oaeiaei aianeii iniae, ui
aeeth/a? caaaeueiee o?oaeiaee (no?aoiaee) noaae iniae oa ?? na?aaei?e
aeio?ae i?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo noni?eueii ei?enii? ae?yeueiino?.
Caaaeath/e ia ?noioi? a?aei?iiino? iieiaeaiue iniiaiiai oa niaoe?aeueieo
caeii?a, ui ?aaoeththoue iain?ei? i?aaia?aeiineie, cai?iiiiiaaii
i?eeiyoe ?aeeiee oi?o?eiaaiee caeii “I?i iniiai? canaaee iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?” oa niaoe?aeuei? caeiie i?i
i?aai?caoe?ii-i?aaia? iniiae aea?aeaaiiai oa iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny oai??y iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei ca
oiia iain?eii? ?aoi?ie.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aea?oueny aecia/aiiy iiiyooy iain?ei?
i?aaia?aeiineie, i?iaiae?ciaaii caaaeuei? oa niaoe?aeuei? iciaee oeeo
i?aaia?aeiinei oa cae?eniaia ?o nenoaiia eeaneo?eaoe?y.

A aaeocaa?e e?oa?aoo?? (A.Ae.Caee?i, ?.?.?aaiiaa, ?.?.Ia/oeuenueea,
A.?.Iaoa?noiee, I.?.Iieoiaiia, A.A.Oa?aniaa) niaoeeo?/iith iciaeith
iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei iaceaathoue ?o nioe?aeueio ae?iaioa?i?noue.
Aaoi?, caaaeath/e ia 1) oaeo nieaoe i?aoe?aieeaie aiane?a aei Iain?eiiai
oiiaeo; 2) iaoiiaeai?noue ?ici??o o?oaeiaeo iain?e ieioeeie ca?ia?oeaie
iain?iia?a; 3) aeieeiaiiy i?aaa ia o?oaeiao iain?th ia eeoa /a?ac
iai?aoeacaeaoi?noue iniae, aea ? ca iayaiino? o?oaeiaiai (no?aoiaiai)
noaaeo, caia?a/o? nioe?aeueio ae?iaioa?i?noue ye iciaeo iain?eieo
i?aaia?aeiinei uiaei caaacia/aiiy o?oaeiaeie iain?yie. Ae?iaioa?ieie ?
eeoa i?aaia?aeiineie uiaei caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueieie iain?yie.

Aecia/aeueiei e?eoa???i eeaneo?eaoe?? iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei ?
iain?ei? ?eceee. Ca ?o oa?aeoa?ii iain?ei? i?aaia?aeiineie iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia i?aaia?aeiineie uiaei caaacia/aiiy iain?yie a ?ac?
noa?ino?, ?iaae?aeiino?, ao?aoe aiaeoaaeueieea. Iiyaa aeaio nenoai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy (aea?aeaaii? oa iaaea?aeaaii?) coiiaeoue
a?aeiia?aeio eeaneo?eaoe?th iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei. Aiie
a?ae??ciyoeiooueny noa’?eoaie, oi?iith o/ano? o ieo a?iiaaeyi,
i?aenoaaaie aeieeiaiiy oiui.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii iiiyooy, iciaee oa aeaee
noa’?eo?a iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei; aecia/aii ci?no iain?eii?
i?aainoa’?eoiino?.

Oi?aaiii/aiith noi?iiith iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei ? iai?aoeacaeaoia
o?ce/ia iniaa. Caaaeath/e ia iaeaea iiaio ?aeaioe/i?noue i?aenoaa ?
iaoai?ci?a iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, ?iicaiieo
a?iiaaeyi oa in?a aac a?iiaaeyinoaa, ye? iino?eii i?iaeeaathoue ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iain?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? aeey iicia/aiiy noa’?eoa i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy oa?i?i o?ce/ia iniaa (a ia a?iiaaeyiei). Aaoi? caia?a/o?
?nioaaiiy niaoe?aeueii? iain?eii? i?aaicaeaoiino?. Iniiaiei aeaiaioii
iain?eii? i?aainoa’?eoiino? ? iain?eia ae??caeaoi?noue (ia oioiaeia
oeea?euei?e), oiiae ianoaiiy yei? ia?aaeaa/ai? iain?eiei caeiiiaeaanoaii
oa aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo iain?eieo
i?aaia?aeiinei.

Ca i?aaiaith i?e?iaeith iain?y ca aeneoao ?ie?a ? aeieaoith, ui
iaaea?oueny inia? a ?ac? ao?aoe i?ioan?eii? i?aoeacaeaoiino? (ianoaiiy
i?ioan?eii? noa?ino?), oiaoi ? ??ciiaeaeii iain?? a ?ac? noa?ino?, ui
coiiaeth? iaaeioe?euei?noue ?? aeie?aieaiiy a aaciaiio iain?eiiio
caeii?. A aeena?oaoe?? ianoith?oueny aeoiea i?i aeiiii?/io oa
nioe?aeueio iaa?oioiaai?noue ia?aaaaeaiiy i?eueaiaiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy a ?aiee i?ioan?eieo iain?eieo i?ia?ai a nenoai?
iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Iain?eia ?aoi?ia coiiaeoue iiyao
iiaeo noa’?eo?a iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei. Iaeiei ?c iniiaieo
ciaia’ycaeueieo noa’?eo?a a nenoai? iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy aenooiaoeia iaaea?aeaaiee iain?eiee oiiae, noai?aiee
?iaioiaeaaoeai aeey iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy i?aoe?aiee?a.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny iiiyooy, i?aaiaa i?e?iaea,
iciaee oa eeaneo?eaoe?y iain?? ye ia’?eoa iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei; ??
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c nioe?aeueieie aeiiiiiaaie; aiae?co?oueny iaoe?iiaeueia
oa ca?oa?aeia caeiiiaeaanoai (?in?y, Iieueua) c ieoaiue aecia/aiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai oa iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici???a iain??. Aeaa i?eioeeie —
aa?aioiaai?noue i?i?iaeueiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ? a?aeiia?aei?noue
??aiy iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy o?oaeiaiio aianeo iniae — a?aeia?aaeathoue
aeai?noee oa?aeoa? iain??. Iain?? ? iaae?iaioa?ieie, iiina?aaeeiaaii
ieaoieie oa a?aeiinii aea?aaeaioieie nioe?aeueieie aeieaoaie. O
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
“iain?y” (iaaiaeeoueny o aeniiaeao). Aaoi? aaaaea? aei?aaaeaiei
ia?aaaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iain?? a nenoaio aea?aeaaieo aeiiiiia.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny ci?no noa’?eoeaieo i?aa oa
iaia’yce?a noa’?eo?a iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei oa th?eaee/iee iaoai?ci
caaacia/aiiy noa’?eoeaiiai i?aaa ia iain?th. Noa’?eoeaia i?aai ia
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy aeeth/a? ianooii? iiaeeeaino? noa’?eoa i?aaa ia
iain?th: (1) aeiaaaoe a?aeiia?aeieo ae?e oiiaiiaaaeaieo i?aai?a, ye?
cae?eniththoue iain?eia caaacia/aiiy (i?aaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo /e
(?) Iain?eiiai oiiaeo); (2) naiino?eii a/eiyoe ae?? uiaei ?aae?caoe??
oeueiai i?aaa; (3) caa?oaoeny ca caoenoii aei aea?aeaae o aeiaaeeo eiai
ii?ooaiiy. “Iaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy iaia’yceo” oiiaiiaaaeaieie noa’?eoaie
iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei aeeth/a?: (1) i?ecia/aiiy iain?? a?aeiia?aeiiai
aeaeo oa ?ici??o (ye?niee iieaciee); (2) i?ecia/aiiy oa aeieaoa iain?? o
aecia/ai? a caeiiiaeaanoa? no?iee (e?euee?niee iieaciee).

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?iainiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? Iain?eiiai oiiaeo ia?aae iain?iia?aie o aeiaaeeo
ianai?/aniiai i?iaaaeaiiy ia?a?aooieo. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio
?aae?caoe?? iain?eieo i?aa, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? caeiiiaeaa/a
cae??ieaiiy ?aeeiiai aea?aeaaiiai nioe?aeueiiai noaiaea?oo
(nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ??aiy caaacia/aiiy a aea?aeaa?) — i?iaeeoeiaiai
i?i?ioio (cai?noue o?ueio anoaiiaeaieo: iaae? iaeicaaacia/aiino?,
i?i?iaeueiiai niiaeea/iai athaeaeaoo, i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio).

I?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy i’yoiai i?ae?icae?eo ? i?aaia? i?aenoaae
aeieeiaiiy, ci?ie oa i?eieiaiiy iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei. Aeaiaioaie
iain?eiiai oaeoe/iiai neeaaeo ?: ia’?eoeai? oaeoe, aieaaeyaeaiiy iniae
oa ??oaiiy eiiiaoaioiiai i?aaio i?i i?ecia/aiiy iain??. Ia’?eoeai? oaeoe
— oea ia?aaeaa/aia th?eaee/ieie ii?iaie noeoii?noue eiie?aoieo
nioe?aeueieo ianoaaei, iaiao?aeieo aeey aeieeiaiiy a iniae i?aaa ia
io?eiaiiy iain??. Aaoi? ?ic??ciy?: (1) aaniethoii ia’?eoeai? oaeoe, ui
ia caeaaeaoue a?ae aie? noa’?eoa (noaoue, aeae iain?eii?
iai?aoeacaeaoiino?) oa coiiaeththoue aeae iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei; (2)
a?aeiinii ia’?eoeai?, ui iia’ycai? c aieaaeyaeaiiyi iniae (o?oaeiaee
(no?aoiaee) noaae) oa aecia/athoue ianya iain?eiiai i?aaa iniae.
Iain?eia ?aoi?ia coiiaeth? ia?ainieneaiiy eaoaai??? o?oaeiaiai noaaeo ye
i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei. Aeena?oaio i?eoiaeeoue
aei aeniiaeo, ui aecia/aeueiei th?eaee/iei oaeoii, yeee iaoiiaeth? i?aai
iniae ia iain?th ? ia o?oaeiaee, a no?aoiaee noaae iniae. No?aoiaee
noaae ? a?aeiiniith iiae??th. A ?iaio? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeioe?euei?noue
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiae uiaei noia?ii? e?eueeino? no?aoiaeo ia??iae?a ye
i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
niaoe?aeueiee no?aoiaee noaae aecia/aoeia i?aai ia i?eueaiaa iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy iica aea?aeaaiith iain?eiith nenoaiith.

Nie?ath/enue ia iieiaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie (no.46) oa iaaee/i?
iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? i?iiiio? a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae iain?eiiai
a?eo ye iain?eiiai th?eaee/iiai oaeoo, caeeaoe eiai ye
i?aaianoaiiaethth/ee th?eaee/iee oaeo o i?aaia?aeiineiao uiaei
caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueieie iain?yie. Aea?aeaaa anoaiiaeoue i?i?iaeueii
iaiao?aeiee no?aoiaee noaae aeey aeieeiaiiy i?aaa ia iain?th oa
cae??ieoue a?aeiia?aeiee iaoai?ci ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o iain??, a iniaa,
iaaoaoe i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiiai no?aoiaiai noaaeo, naiino?eii
ae??ooaaoeia iiaeeea?noue caa?iaiiy ca iain??th.

O noa?? iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ciai?oi?i i?iyaii
aieaaeyaeaiiy noi??i (iain?eiiai oiiaeo oa aeeaaeieea) iiaea noaoe
iain?eiee aeiaia??. Eiai ci?no neeaaeaoeiooue iain?ei? ?eceee, ianoaiiy
yeeo iaoiiaethaaoeia o iniae-o/anieea aeieeiaiiy i?aaa ia iain?th,
?noioi? oiiae canoinoaaiiy iain?eii? i?ia?aie oa ?aae?caoe?? iain?eiiai
i?aaa iniae. Oeeaaeaiiy iain?eiiai aeiaiai?o ia? noaoe ia?oei aeaiaioii
th?eaee/iiai oaeoe/iiai neeaaeo o noa?? iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae ?aoi?ie iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?”, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a
i?enay/aiee oai?aoe/iei iniiaai o?iainoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ? ?icaeyaeo ca?oa?aeiiai a?aeiia?aeiiai
aeina?aeo.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii i?e?iaeiee, aeiiii?/iee,
nioe?aeueiee, th?eaee/iee oa i?aeia?iaeiee aniaeoe ? iciaee i?eioeeio
no?aoiaiai caoenoo iai?aoeacaeaoieo. Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy ? o?iainoaaiiy iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ca ?aooiie no?aoiaeo
aiane?a, a oaeiae o?niee aca?iica’ycie i?ae ?ici??aie no?aoiaeo aiane?a
? ianyaii nioe?aeueieo iineoa. Aaoi? aeae?ey? ?yae iniaeeainoae
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, ye? ?noioii a?ae??ciythoue oeae ?inoeooo a?ae
iaeiieiaiiiai oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai (iaaiaeyoueny o aeniiaeao). Iain?eia
no?aooaaiiy ? aeaeii nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. A?o/eciyia iain?eia
caeiiiaeaanoai ia?aaeaa/a? aea? oi?ie iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy:
iaia’yceiao, yea a?ae?a?a? aieiaio ?ieue, ? aeia?ia?eueio. Ia?oa ?
no?oeoo?iith /anoeiith nenoaie caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaiai aea?aeaaiiai
iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy, ?ieue aea?aeaae o ye?e iieyaa? a: (1) noai?aii?
iaeaaeiiai i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ia
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy ? (2) aa?aiooaaii?, a o./. ? o?iainoaaii?
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a iaaeao i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio oeo
iai?aoeacaeaoieo, eio?? ia ciiaee c iaaieo i?e/ei ca?iaeoe iain?th
a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy.

Na?oiaa i?aeoeea cia? aeaa iaoiaee o?iainoaaiiy iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
— ia?a?iciiae?eue/ee oa iaeiie/oaaeueiee. Ia?oiio a?aeiia?aea?
nie?aea?iee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae iain?eii? nenoaie, eiee aeoeaia /anoeia
ianaeaiiy o?iaino? ia aeani? iaeaooi? iain?ei? aeieaoe, a iain??, ye?
aeiea/othoueny iiia?aaeiueiio iieie?iith i?aoe?aiee?a — nueiaiaei?oi?o
iain?iia??a. Ae?oaee aaco?oueny ia i?eioeei? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, eiee eiaeia iniaa i?ioyaii o?oaeiaiai ia??iaeo
niea/o? no?aoia? aianee, ye? aeoioeththoueny ia ?? ia?nii?o?eiaaiiio
?aooieo, c yeiai aiia o iaeaooiueiio io?eioaaoeia iain?th. Caaaeeaoe
ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee oeeo iaoiae?a, a oaeiae nioe?aeueio ooieoe?th
iain?eieo nenoai, aaoi? ianoith? aeoieo, ui a iniia? aea?aeaaii?
iain?eii? nenoaie iiaeiai eaaeaoe ia?a?iciiae?eue/ee iaoiae, a
iaeiie/oaaeueiee aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoa a ?aieao aeiaeaoeiaeo
?, ye i?aaeei, aeia?ia?eueieo iain?eieo nenoai.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aii aea/aiith i?aaiaeo iniia ae?yeueiino?
Iain?eiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie, aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy oa i?iaeai eiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy. Iiaoaeiaa ?eieiai? iiaeae? iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy aeeeeea?
iaiao?aei?noue ?aoi?ie Iain?eiiai oiiaeo o aeaio aniaeoao: 1)
?iciaaeoaaiiy aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ye niiniao iaeiie/aiiy cania?a,
aeinoaoi?o aeey caaacia/aiiy iain?eieo aa?aio?e; 2) cae??ieaiiy niinia?a
oa iai?yie?a aeei?enoaiiy aeoioeueiaaieo eioo?a.

I?aaiao i?e?iaeo cai??a ia iain?eia no?aooaaiiy aecia/athoue niaoeeo?/i?
iciaee: oe? cai?e aenooiathoue aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy eeoa iain?eieo
aeieao, o?nii iia’ycai? ?c iain?eieie ?eceeaie ? iathoue iiina?aaeeiaaii
eiiiainaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?. I?aenoaaith aeey aecia/aiiy ?ici???a cai??a ia
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaa iain?eia no?aooaaiiy iiaeiai aooe ca?ia?oie
i?aoe?aieea, iaiaaeaiee i?i?iaeueiith oa iaeneiaeueiith aaee/eiith.
Inoaiiy iaoiiaeaia iayai?noth a aea?aeaa? i?aoe?aiee?a c ??cei
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieie aeioiaeaie, a oaeiae iaiao?aei?noth noeioethaaiiy
iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy ? iiaea aecia/aoenue ??aiai
na?aaeiueiai ca?ia?oeo a aea?aeaa?.

I?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy o?aoueiai i?ae?icae?eo ? oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe oa
oeyoe i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy nenoaie iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy. Iaaea?aeaaia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy icia/aoeia
ia?a?iciiae?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiinno? ca iain?eia caaacia/aiiy i?ae on?ia
noa’?eoaie iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei: aea?aeaaith (ye aa?aioii
?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy), i?aoe?aieeii (ye iaeaooi?i
iain?iia?ii) oa ?iaioiaeaaoeai (ye niiaeeaa/ai ?iai/i? neee
i?aoe?aieea). Iaeiioe?ai?oei ?inoeoooii iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ? iaaea?aeaai? iain?ei? oiiaee — th?eaee/i? iniae, noai?ai?
?iaioiaeaaoeyie c iaoith aeoioethaaiiy eioo?a aeey iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy i?aoe?aiee?a. An? iaaea?aeaai? iain?ei? oiiaee iiaeooue
aooe a?aee?eo? (aeinooii? aeey an?o noa’?eo?a) ? cae?eo? (ei?ii?aoeai?).
I?ioan?ei? iain?ei? nenoaie (ye? oi?iothoueny ca iciaeith i?eiaeaaeiino?
?o noa’?eo?a aei iaaii? i?ioan?eii? a?oie) iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoenue
eeoa /a?ac ei?ii?aoeai? iain?ei? oiiaee, ye? noai?thaaoeiooueny
?iaioiaeaaoeai aai a?oiith ?iaioiaeaaoe?a c iaoith aeiaeaoeiaiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy in?a, ye? ia?aaoaaee o o?oaeiaeo a?aeiineiao c
oeei ?iaioiaeaaoeai (?iaioiaeaaoeyie) ca iaaiith i?ioan?eiith iciaeith.

Aaoi?, caaaeath/e ia ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae, iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue
aeaio ??ai?a i?ioan?eiiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy: 1) iaia’yceiaee (noa?a
oa ianya canoinoaaiiy aecia/athoueny oeaio?ae?ciaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi); 2)
aeia?ia?eueiee (ia?aaeaa/aiee a ?aieao nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa).
Iaia’yceiaa iaaea?aeaaia i?ioan?eia no?aooaaiiy aeioe?eueii cai?iaaaeeoe
a oeo aaeocyo, aea ?iaioa ? oe?aeeeaith, aaaeeith ? iaaacia/iith aeey
caei?ia’y i?aoe?aiee?a. ?ieue aea?aeaae o nenoai? iaaea?aeaaiiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ia? iieyaaoe eeoa o caeiiiaeaa/iio a?aaoethaaii?
oiia oa ii?yaeeo noai?aiiy iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo oiiae?a ? eiio?ie? ca
?o ae?yeuei?noth /a?ac i?ioeaaeo?o ?a?no?aoe?? oa e?oeaicoaaiiy.

O aeniiaeao, ui caaa?oothoue ?iaioo, i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeneiaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy iain?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. Iniiai? c ieo:

1. I?aai ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy — oea iiaeeea?noue iniae, yea noaea
iai?aoeacaeaoiith aiane?aeie ianoaiiy iain?eieo ?ecee?a, io?eioaaoe ca
?aooiie niaoe?aeueieo nioe?aeueieo oiiae?a ieaoaae? aeey caaacia/aiiy
aeeoo?aeo iio?aa ia ??ai? ia ieae/a i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio.

2. Iain?ei? ?eceee — oea aecia/ai? caeiiiaeaanoaii th?eaee/i? oaeoe-
iiae??, aiane?aeie ianoaiiy yeeo iniaa ao?a/a? i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ?
caniae aei ?nioaaiiy oa iio?aao? iino?eiiai nenoaiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy c aieo aea?aeaae. Iain?eieie ?eceeaie ?
noa??noue, ao?aoa aiaeoaaeueieea, ?iaae?aei?noue. Iain?ei? ?eceee
coiiaeththoue iain?eio iai?aoeacaeaoi?noue; ? i?aaiaith i?aenoaaith
aeieeiaiiy i?aaa iniae ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy; aenooiathoue iniiaith
iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? iain?eieo i?aa; ? iniiaiei eeaneo?eoth/ei
e?eoa???i iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei.

3. Eiinoeoooe?eia aecia/aiiy Oe?a?ie nioe?aeueiith aea?aeaaith icia/a?,
ui aea?aeaaa oeyoii naiiciaia’ycaiiy aa?a ia naaa iaia’ycie anoaiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi
a Oe?a?i? o ?ac? iiaii?, /anoeiai? aai oei/aniai? ao?aoe
i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ao?aoe aiaeoaaeueieea, aac?ia?ooy c iacaeaaeieo a?ae
ieo ianoaaei, o noa?ino? (no.46). C oeueiai aeieeaa?, iio?aaa ?aeeiiai
eiioeaiooaeueiiai Caeiio “I?i iniiai? canaaee iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a
Oe?a?i?”, o yeiio ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe ?aeei? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?eioeeie
oa e?eoa??? iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy; aecia/eoe noa’?eo?a i?aaa ia
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy; cae??ieoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiai? iain?eii? nenoaie oa nenoaie iaaea?aeaaiiai
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy; aecia/eoe aea?aeaai? aa?aio?? oa ?ieue
aea?aeaae a eiaei?e c oeeo nenoai. Ia aac? iieiaeaiue oeueiai
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai Caeiio aeioe?eueii i?eeiyoe ie?ai? caeiie i?i
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a ?aieao aeaio
nenoai: aea?aeaaii? oa iaaea?aeaaii?.

4. Iniiaiith i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaith oi?iith cae?eniaiiy iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ? iain?eia no?aooaaiiy ye aeae caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaiai
aea?aeaaiiai nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy ?
?inoeoooii i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, ui ?noioii a?ae??ciy?
nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy a?ae no?aooaaiiy oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai ca
ianooiieie iciaeaie: ?iia?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?; iayai?noue niaoe?aeueieo
noa’?eo?a; nie?aea?ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o/aniee?a iacaeaaeii aai
iiina?aaeeiaaii caeaaeii a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? o/ano? eiaeiiai cie?aia;
aeaia?nii?o?eaoe?y no?aoiai? noie; aea?aeaaia aa?aio?y aeeiiaiiy
nioe?aeueieo a?ioiaeo ciaia’ycaiue niaoe?aeueieo oiiae?a,
ia??iaee/i?noue oa nenoaiaoe/i?noue a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
nioe?aeueieo aeieao; ni?aa?aeiini?noue ?ici??o nioe?aeueiiai no?aoiaiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ? na?aaeiuei? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o/anieea.

5. I?eueaiaa iain?eia caaacia/aiiy aeioe?eueii ia?aaanoe a ?aiee
i?ioan?eieo iain?eieo i?ia?ai a nenoai? iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy. Caeiiiaeaa/i ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe aeaa ??ai? i?ioan?eiiai
iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy: iaia’yceiaee oa aeia?ia?eueiee. Noa’?eoaie
o?iaianiaiai iaia’yceo i?eueaiaiai iain?eiiai caaaciacia/aiiy iiaeii?
aooe ?iaioiaeaaoe? iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?.

6. Nioe?aeueia ae?iaioa?i?noue ia ? iciaeith iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei;
aiia oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiineie, ui neeaaeathoue i?aaeiao i?aaa
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae — i?aeaaeoc? i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy.

7. ?aoi?ia iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aeiaaa? ?noioiiai i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie?
?iaioiaeaaoey a iaeaooiueiio iain?eiiio caaacia/aiiy i?aoe?aiee?a: a?i
aenooia? noa’?eoii nieaoe no?aoiaeo aiane?a a aea?aeaai?e iain?ei?e
nenoai? oa a nenoai? iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo i?ia?ai.

8. Iain?y — oea ia?aaeaa/aia caeiiii aai aeiaiai?ii nenoaiaoe/ia
iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy iai?aoeacaeaoieo ca ?aooiie niaoe?aeueieo
iain?eieo oiiae?a o ca’yceo c ianoaiiyi oaeeo iain?eieo ?ecee?a ye
noa??noue, ?iaae?aei?noue, ao?aoa aiaeoaaeueieea o ?ici???,
i?iii?oe?eiiio ?o o?oaeiaiio (no?aoiaiio) noaaeo.

Nioe?aeueia iain?y ca i?aaiaith i?e?iaeith ? aea?aeaaiith aeiiiiiaith
iai?aoeacaeaoiei a?iiaaeyiai iioeeiai a?eo, ye? ia iathoue o?oaeiaiai
(no?aoiaiai) noaaeo, ? ia iiaea aeeth/aoenue aei nenoaie iain?eieo
aeieao. Oiio a iain?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? cai?noue aeaio oa?i?i?a —
nioe?aeueia iain?y oa o?oaeiaa iain?y ne?ae iaiaaeeoenue iaeiei oa?i?iii
— iain?y.

9. O iain?eiiio caaacia/aii? aecia/aeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?a? no?aoiaee, a
ia o?oaeiaee noaae iniae. No?aoiaee noaae ye iain?eiee th?eaee/iee oaeo
— oea ia??iae, i?ioyaii yeiai iniaa i?aeeyaa? iaia’yceiaiio aea?aeaaiiio
iain?eiiio noaooaaiith oa ca yeee niea/aii iaeaaei? no?aoia? aianee, aai
ia??iae nieaoe no?aoiaeo aeeaae?a ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy a noa??
iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae caeiiiaeaa/i i?e??aiyi?
aei ieo ia??iaee. Aeioe?eueii caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieoe aeaa aeaee
no?aoiaiai noaaeo: aianeiaee oa iaaianeiaee.

10. Iain?eiee a?e ia ? iain?eiei ?eceeii, a oiio iiaeia a?aeiiaeoenue
a?ae aecia/aiiy iain?eiiai a?eo ye th?eaee/iiai oaeoo, ui coiiaeth?
aeieeiaiiy i?aaa iniae ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy. Oaeei iain?eiei ?eceeii
? noa??noue. Iain?eiee a?e aeioe?eueii caa?aaoe eeoa ye ia?aaeoiiao
aeieeiaiiy i?aaa ia nioe?aeueio iain?th.

11. Nioe?aeueio ni?aaaaeeea?noue a iain?eiiio caaacia/aii? iiaeia
aecia/eoe ianooiieie i?eioeeiaie: ??ai? aeey an?o i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy
i?aaa ia iain?th; iaeiaeiaee iaoai?ci ?ic?aooieo na?aaeiueiai ca?ia?oeo
ye iniiae aecia/aiiy ?ici??o iain??; aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ?ici??o iain?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae o?oaeiaiai (no?aoiaiai) noaaeo iniae; a?aeiia?aei?noue
i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o iain?? aea?aeaaiei nioe?aeueiei noaiaea?oai;
ni?aaaaeeeaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai oa iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici???a
iain?? a nenoai? caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaiai aea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
no?aooaaiiy. Canaaea nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? aeiaaa? a?aaoethaaoe
oiiae oa ii?yaeie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy an?o a?iiaaeyi a ?aieao
aea?aeaaii? iain?eii? nenoaie ?aeeiei caeiiii, ui aaco?oueny ia
??aiicia/i?e ioe?ioe? noni?eueii ei?enii? i?aoe? a on?o ?? oi?iao, ia
iaeiaeiaiio iaoai?ci? ?ic?aooieo oa i?ecia/aiiy iain??, ia
ia?nii?o?eaoe?? iain?eieo i?euea.

12. Nenoaia aea?aeaaieo aa?aio?e o iain?eiiio caaacia/aii? ia?
aeeth/aoe: caeiiiaeaa/a aecia/aiiy oiia oa ii?yaeeo iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy; i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth c aieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ca
?aae?caoe??th iain?eieo i?ia?ai; o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy iain?eieo aeieao
ca ?aooiie Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo a iaaeao aea?aeaaieo nioe?aeueieo
noaiaea?o?a o aeiaaeeo aeao?oeeoo Iain?eiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie.

13. C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy th?eaee/iiai iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy i?aaa
ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy aeioe?eueii caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieoe aea?aeaaiee
nioe?aeueiee noaiaea?o — i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi ye ?aeeio iniiao
nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ca a?aeiia?aei?noth ?ici???a iain?e oa ca?ieao
iaiao?aeiiio i?iaeeoeiaiio ??aith. Aeey oeueiai iio??aii oaeiae
caeiiiaeaa/i aecia/eoe no?iee aeieaoe iain??, ii?yaeie ei?eaoaaiiy
?ici??o iain?? a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aeaeno ?ioeyoe?? oa ia?aaeaa/eoe
oaeee can?a caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy a?ioiaiai ciaia’ycaiiy
Iain?eiiai oiiaeo, ye iaiy.

14. Aei?aaaeaiei ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaio iain?eieo nenoai: aea?aeaaii?
oa iaaea?aeaaii?. Aieiaio ?ieue i?iaeiaaeoaaoeia, aacoiiaii,
a?ae?a?aaaoe aea?aeaaia iain?eia nenoaia, yea iiaeiia aa?aiooaaoe
i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ? cae?enithaaoeny ia iniia?
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaiai iain?eiiai no?aooaaiiy an?o o?ce/ieo in?a,
iacaeaaeii a?ae aeaeo aeeiioaaii? ieie noni?eueii ei?enii? ae?yeueiino?.
A nenoai? iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaa noai?th?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? canaaee ae?yeueiino? iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo
oiiae?a, ye? a aa?aiooaaee ?o aoaeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue, ia?aaeaa/aee
iaoai?ci caoenoo eioo?a aiane?a.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Neaae N. Eiinoeoooe?ei? aa?aio?? i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy ?
iain?eia ?aoi?ia // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ?12. — N.70-75

2. Neaae N. I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i? // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?1. — N.119-121

3. I?aaia? i?aenoaae iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei ? iain?eia ?aoi?ia //
Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai. Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. — Aeione
2. — Ee?a: ?i-TH?a, 1999. — N.268-275

4. Caaaeuei? aniaeoe iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Iieueu? // I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?: iaoa??aee ???
?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Euea?a. — 1997. — N.198-202

5. Neaae N. ?aoi?ia iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?: i?ioan?ei?
iain?ei? nenoaie // A?niee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. –
Na??y th?eaee/ia. – 1997. – Aeione 34. – Euea?a,1999. – N.125-127

AIIOAOe??.

Neaae N.I. I?aaia? i?iaeaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.05 — o?oaeiaa i?aai oa i?aai nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ci?no i?aaa ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy
oa i?aaiaa i?e?iaea iain??; i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c iain?eiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa; aecia/athoueny i?eioeeiiai iia? i?aeoiaee aei oai???
iain?eieo i?aaia?aeiinei a?aeiia?aeii aei ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue
noni?euenoaa; aiae?cothoueny i?eioeeie oa iaoiaee o?iainoaaiiy iain?eieo
nenoai; aeine?aeaeothoueny oa?aoe/i? aniaeoe oa oeyoe cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i? nenoaie iaaea?aeaaiiai iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny th?eaee/iiio iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy i?aaa ia iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy. Iaa?oioiaothoueny eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iain?y, iain?eia no?aooaaiiy, no?aoiaee noaae, iain?ei?
?eceee, iain?eiee oiiae, i?aai ia iain?eia caaacia/aiiy.

Sivak S. M. “Legal gaps of the pension security in Ukraine”-Manuscript

Dissertation for gaining the scientific degree of candidate of
juridical sciences on the specialty12.00.05-labour law and the law of
social security- Kiev National University named after Taras Shevchenko.

The dissertation deals with the essence of the right to social
security and the legal nature of pension; it provides the analysis of
the legislation on pension, new ideas of the theory of pension
relationships according to the free-market reforms in the society. The
author also analyzes the principles and methods of financing the system
of pensions and provides a research on the theoretical aspects of
implementing a non-governmental system of pension security in Ukraine.
The key-note of the dissertation is – the legal ways to guarantee the
right to pension security. It also includes proposals and
recommendations to improve the valid legislation and the practice of its
applying.

Key-words: pension, pension security, length of service, pension risks,
pension fund, the right to pension security.

Neaae N.I. I?aaiaua i?iaeaiu iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey a Oe?aeia. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.05. — o?oaeiaia i?aai e i?aai
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey. — Iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana
Oaa/aiei, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony niaea?aeaiea i?aaa ia iaineiiiia
iaania/aiea e th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea iainee; aeaaony aiaeec iaineiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa; ii?aaeaeythony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua iiaeoiaeu e
oai?ee iaineiiiuo i?aaiioiioaiee ioiineoaeueii e ?uieiaui ioiioaieyi;
aiaeece?othony i?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu oeiaine?iaaiey iaineiiiuo nenoai;
enneaaeothony oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou e iooe aiciiaeiiai aaaaeaiey a
Oe?aeia iaainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey. Iniaia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony th?eaee/aneiio iaoaiecio ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa ia
iaineiiiia iaania/aiea. Iainiiauaathony eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e
i?aeoeee aai i?eiaiaiey.

Aeenna?oaio ?anniao?eaaao nouiinoue i?aaa ia iaineiiiiia iaania/aiea eae
aiciiaeiinoue iao?oaeiniiniaiiai a neeo iaineiiuo ?eneia eeoea
iieo/aoue auieaou aeey iaania/aiey aeeciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae ia o?iaia ia
ieaea i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia ca n/ao niaoeeaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo oiiaeia.
Iainey — yoi ii?aaeaeaiiia caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii nenoaiaoe/aneia
iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea iao?oaeiniiniaiuo ca n/ao nioeeaeueiuo
iaineiiiuo oiiaeia, i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo o?oaeiaiio (no?aoiaiio) noaaeo.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiia ii?aaeaeaiea Oe?aeiu nioeeaeueiui ainoaea?noaii,
iaicia/aao, /oi iia aa?ao ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai nicaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaiai iaoaiecia iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey
oece/aneeo eeoe a neo/aa iieiie, /anoe/iie eee a?aiaiiie
iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe, oo?aou ei?ieeueoea, noa?inoe, oo?aou ?aaiou ii
iacaaeneiui io ieo ianoiyoaeuenoaai..

?aoi?ia iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey i?aaeoniao?eaaao aaaaeaiea aeaoo
iaineiiiuo nenoai: ainoaea?noaaiiie e iaainoaea?noaaiiie. Aeiieie?othuay
?ieue ioaiaeeony ainoaea?noaaiiie iaineiiiie nenoaia, eioi?ay aeieaeia
aa?aioe?iaaoue ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey e
inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaaiee iaycaoaeueiiai iaineiiiiai no?aoiaaiey anao
oece/aneeo eeoe. Nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee iaineiiiiai
iaania/aiey aeieaeia aeeth/aoue: caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea oneiaee
e iaoaiecia iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey; inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia ca ?aaeecaoeeae iaineiiiuo i?ia?ai; oeiainiaia
iaania/aiea iaineiiiuo auieao ca n/ao Ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa a
i?aaeaeao nioeeaeueiuo noaiaea?oia a neo/aa aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa
Iaineiiiiai oiiaea Oe?aeiu. A nenoaia iaainoaea?naaiiiai iaineiiiiai
iaania/aiey ainoaea?noai ii?aaeaeyao i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua iniiau
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineiiiuo oiiaeia.

Iniiaiie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iie inouanoaeaiey iaineiiiiai
iaania/aiey yaeyaony iaineiiiia no?aoiaaiea eae aeae nioeeaeueiiai. A
?aaioa ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua /a?ou nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiey eae
einoeoooa i?aaa nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iainey; iaineiiiia no?aoiaaiea; no?aoiaie noaae;
iaineiiiua ?enee; iaineiiiue oiiae; i?aai ia iaineiiiia iaania/aiea.

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