Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

A?euaiei Einoyioei Aaiiaae?eiae/

OAeE 35.073.52:378

I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.07. – oai??y oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai ?

i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?iiiaa E?ae?y Einoyioei?aia,
Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a
eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa, i?ioani?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai Eo/a?yaaiei Ieeiea
Iao?iae/.

2. Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe Ia/ae Aiia Aiaoie??aia, caa?aeoth/a
eaai?aoi???thi?aaiaeo ?aoi?i Oe?a?inueeiai ?inoeoooo ?aoi?i.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo aea?aeaae oa i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25” ethoiai 2000 ?ieo i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.00.1.04. ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe a Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (01017, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea,64.)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (01017,
i.Ee?a,aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea,64).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 19 n?/iy 2000 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ai?iaee N.A.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.. Na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai i?ioyaii inoaii?o
aeanyoee?oue ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ith? nai? noaaeaiiy aei an?o aeae?a
ina?oe. Ina?oa, aieiaiei /eiii – aeua, ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aieiaiee
oaeoi? nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano. I?e/eia oaei? oaaae
iieyaa? a oiio, ui iniiaiei eai?oaeii no/aniiai noni?euenoaa noa?
ethaeeia, caeaoia aei iiooeo oa canai?iith iiaeo ciaiue, aei i?eeiyooy
ianoaiaea?oieo ??oaiue.

?icaeiai? e?a?ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui ciaaaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e aaeoc?
caiaeeoueny aei ciaaaiiy a aaeoc? iaoee ? oaoi?ee. ?acoeueoao oaeeo
ciaaaiue cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny i?ioan?eiith i?aeaioiaeith
a?iiaaeyi, io?eiaiith a ina?oi?e aaeoc?. Naia oey ianoaaeia noaea
ia?oii?e/eiith ina?oi?o ?aoi?i a e?a?iao Caoiaeo oa ssiii?? o 60-70-eo
?ieao, ii/aoeo 80-eo.

A iao?e e?a?i? a oe? ia??iaee oaeiae i?eeiaany ?yae o?yaeiaeo ??oaiue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icoe?aiiy ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeui? oeiee.
Iaeiae ne?ae aeciaoe, ui iao? ?aoi?ie iineee oaeaeoa e?euee?niee ai?ae
ye?niee oa?aeoa? ? ia ciiaee ae??oeoe i?iaeai nenoaie aeui? ina?oe.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a i?aeoe/ii a on?o ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao
niinoa??aa?oueny i?iaaaeaiiy ??cieo ca ianooaaaie oa aeeaeiith ?aoi?i
iaoe?iiaeueieo nenoai aeui? ina?oe. Iaei??th c aieiaieo ? i?iaeaia
aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo. No/ania aeiiii?ea aeiaaa? aeo?a/aiiy i?eaeecii 6 %
AII ia nenoaio ina?oe a iaaeao e?a?ie, i?e oeueiio aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao
ia iaaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ia a ciic? caaacia/oaaoe oaeee ianya
o?iainoaaiue. Aeieea? iio?aaa caeo/aiiy eioo?a c aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae.

A?aoiaoth/e ianooaai?noue ?aoi?i, cia/i? eiooe, ye? aea?aeaaa aeeaaea? a
nenoaio aeui? ina?oe, noa? c?icoi?eith iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o i?iaaaeaiiy ? i?iaeoii-iaoiaeieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy.
Aea?aeaaa aeeoo?ai caoe?eaaeaia a oiio, uia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeui? ina?oe
nie?aeinue ia ?acoeueoaoe ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?
iaiaaeaiee oa?aeoa?, iaiaaath/enue ae??oeoe eieaeuei? ieoaiiy.

Iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co coiiaeaia ia eeoa caaaeueieie aeiiii?/ieie
i?iaeaiaie, ye? ia?aaeeaa? Oe?a?ia, aea e oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie
naii? nenoaie ina?oe. Ii-ia?oa, ina?oiy aaeocue iio?aao? cia/ieo
aeeaaeaiue eioo?a, ye? i?ae neeo eeoa aea?aeaa? /e aaeeeei
o?iainiai-i?iieneiaei a?oiai, oiio i?iaeaia o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe noi?oue
a on?o e?a?iao, /an a?ae /ano caaino?thth/enue a neooaoe?yo, noiaeeo c
oe?a?inueeith. Ii-ae?oaa, oi/a ina?oa ? ei?eniith aaeoccth, ye
iiceoeai?, oae ? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ci?i a o?iainoaaii? a?ae/oaathoueny
eeoa /a?ac aeineoue aeiaaee i?ii?aeie /ano (i?i?ioi 10-15 ?ie?a). Oiio
aeey oaei? aea?aeaae, ye Oe?a?ia, ui io?eiaea o niaaeueio aeineoue
?icaeiaio nenoaio ina?oe, i?ioyaii iaaiiai i?ii?aeeo /ano cia/ia ca
ianyaii o?iainoaaiiy iiaea aeaeaoeny acaaae? iaiio??aiei, ine?eueee
nenoaia ina?oe ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? aeineoue ?ia?oiith.

A iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao aeua ina?oa ia iiaea caeeoaoeny
iaci?iiith. Ia ei?enoue oeueiai na?ae/aoue oaeoe/i?, a iio?i ? i?aaia?
ci?ie. I?ae /an ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee oa o??ciiiai?oiaiiy oi?i
aeaniino? aea?aeaaa ao?a/a? iiiiiie?th ia iaaeaiiy ina?oi?o iineoa;
iaeii/anii ciaioo?oueny ianya eiio?ieueiaaieo aea?aeaaith cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui ciaioo? o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? aea?aeaae.

I?iaeaia ?ic?iaee no/anii? ae??ai? i?aaiai? aace ia aeaiee iiiaio noaea
iaei??th c i??i?eoaoieo aeey ina?oiuei? aaeoc?, ine?eueee iei? ae?th/a
noaia o?iainoaaiiy aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ia aeicaiey? ?ica’ycoaaoe
i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe a iaaeao /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.
Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi ? iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a i?eaaoieo ?
th?eaee/ieo in?a, ine?eueee aea?aeaaa ca?ac ia a ciic? caaacia/eoe
oo?eiaiiy nenoaie ina?oe.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oa ianoaaeia, ui i?aai a?iiaaeyi ia ina?oo
cae??ieaii no. 53 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. Oey noaooy aecia/a? iiaio
caaaeueio na?aaeith ina?oo ye iaia’yceiao, a oaeiae aa?aioo? c aieo
aea?aeaae caaacia/aiiy ?? aeinooiiino? oa aacieaoiino? a
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo oa eiioiaeueieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao. Iaeiae,
caaaeath/e ia aaaeeo aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a e?a?i?, iii?oia iaica?i?iei
ieii iia??oaiiy noaiiaeua caeeaae?a ina?oe, iiaeia neacaoe, ui naia
aeeooy noaaeoue ia?aae iaie i?iaeaio aiae?co i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Cae/aeii, ciaioaiiy aeo?ao aea?aeaae ia
ina?oo ? /e ia iaeaaaii?oith i?e/eiith coaiae?iiy ina?oe, aea ia iaio
aaaeeeaith i?e/eiith o?aaa aaaaeaoe e a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaiiai
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a oe?e aaeoc?. Cie?aia, aeiaaee /an caeeaaee
ina?oe ia iiaee iaea?aeoaaoe i?eaooee a?ae iaaieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?
/a?ac a?aenooi?noue ii?iaoeaii? aace.

E??i oiai, aeine?aeaeaiiy o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaii c caaaeueieie i?aaiaeie ieoaiiyie o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a, ?o i?eioeei?a. Oeei ieoaiiyi, aeinoaoiuei aaaeeeaei, ia iao
iiaeyae ia i?eae?eaii iaiao?aeii? oaaae.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy anueiai eiea ieoaiue,
iia’ycaiiai c i?aaiaei ?aaoethaaiiyi aeo?ao ia aeuo ina?oo, aeicaieeoue
c?icoi?oe i?iaeaie o?iainoaaiiy ina?oiuei? aaeoc?, aecia/eoe aieiai?
oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoii? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? oa ia?niaeoeaieo ieai?a ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

Iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue, ye? noinothoueny o?iainoaaiiy
aeo?ao ia ina?oo, oa oi?ioethaaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo i?iiiceoe?e
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaeo iniia o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe ?
iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaee oaie. I?iaeaia i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia
aeuo ina?oo ?ai?oa eiiieaenii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeanue. A?o/eciyi? th?enoe
?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo ia i?eae?eyee oaaae oe?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?, oi/a
?inoeooo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a aea/aany ?aoaeueii. Oaea neooaoe?y
iiynithaaeanue, a ia?oo /a?ao, aeii?ioaaiiyi a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie
aea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino? ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa.

A/ai?-th?enoe aeine?aeaeoaaee i?aaiao i?e?iaeo aeaeaoe?a aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo a oe?eiio ? ie?aieo aeaeaoe?a ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?
iio?aae. Oae, E. E. Ai?iiiaa ?icaeyioea i?aaia? iniiae aeaeaoe?a
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo , A. N. Naia?aae??a, ?.A. Aayiia ? A.A. Oa?aiia
– i?aaia? iniiae ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

Aeaye? aniaeoe iie?eooy aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo aena?oeai? a ?iaioao
aeiiii?no?a A.A. Aeaeiianueeiai, N.A. No?oi?e?ia, I.E. Ooeue/einueeiai.
Iaeiae oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue aea? iniaeeaino?: ii-ia?oa, oea nooi
aeiiii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiie ia a?aoiaothoue i?iaeai i?aaiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei; a ii-ae?oaa, an? oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy
noinothoueny ia??iaeo ieaiiai? nioe?ae?noe/ii? aeiiii?ee.

A 1986 ?ioe? I.TH. I?eoaa aeeiiaea ia?oa eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia ia?iaeio ina?oo. Aiia
?ice?eea iaoai?ci i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oaeeo aeaeaoe?a ia i?eeeaae?
caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? oa aeui? ina?oe ye iniiaieo eaiie ina?oiuei?
aaeoc? aea?aeaae.

?acii c oei ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ia no/ani?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae aeiee oe?eee ?yae i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo c e?euee?nieie ? no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie a aeiiii?oe?. Ia
nueiaiaei?, iacaaaeath/e ia aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? ci?ie a Oe?a?i?,
i?aaia?e i?iaeaiaoeoe? aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo acaaae?, oa aeuo ina?oo
cie?aia, i?eae?ey?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae. I?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
th?eaee/i? ioae?eaoe?? c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c iaoeiaeie i?iaeaiaie,
iaae yeeie i?aoeth? eaoaae?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?ie caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie a aaeoc? aeui?
ina?oe. Cie?aia, oea: Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, caeiie Oe?a?ie, iinoaiiae
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, oeace ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie,
iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, iaeace I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, eenoe ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaii? Iiaeaoeiai? Aaei?i?no?aoe??
oa i?aeoeea ?o canoinoaaiiy; ii?iaoeai? aeoe i?i?noa?noa, aea?aeaaieo
eii?oao?a oa a?aeiinoa, i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee oa naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Aaoi?ii aoei aea/aii caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, ii?iaoeaia aaca ?yaeo
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i oa i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ie?aieo aniaeo?a
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, ?in??, Aieaa???, ?oioi??, Oai?ueie, Iieueu?,
NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, O?I, Oaaoe??, I?aea?eaiae?a c ieoaiue
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo.

I?e ?iaio? iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi?ii a?aoiaoaaeenue aeniiaee oa
iieiaeaiiy, ui i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo c aea?aeaaiiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai,
o?iainiaiai oa oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii ia o?eueee th?eaee/io, aea e
aeiiii?/io oa iaaeaaia?/io e?oa?aoo?o, i?enay/aio i?iaeaiai aeaeaoe?a ia
ina?oo.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui
aeieeathoue a i?ioean? ni?yioaaiiy aea?aeaaith, o?ce/ieie oa
th?eaee/ieie iniaaie iaaieo eioo?a aei nenoaie aeui? ina?oe ? iathoue
aooe a?aaoeueiaai? ii?iaie i?aaa.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaiia aea/aiiy ieoaiue
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo oeyoii aiae?co noaae?e
i?ioeano i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, a naia – i?aaioai?/i? oa
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae a aaeoc? o?iainoaaiiy aeo?ao ia
aeuo ina?oo. Aaoi? c?iaea ni?iao i?iaiae?coaaoe o?ainoi?iaoe?th iiiyooy
“ o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe ” a ia??iae no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie e
i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui aei i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?inoeoooo i?aaa
aeaniino?, a?aeiineie, ye? aeieeaee c i?eaiaeo aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo,
a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ?aaoethaaeeny ii?iaie o?iainiaiai i?aaa.
I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo cae?enithaaeinue ca
aeiiiiiaith :

— ii?i o?iainiaiai i?aaa, ye? iieeeeai? ?aaoethaaoe
eiooi?enii-athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy

— ii?i o?iainiaiai oa oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, ye? ?aaeaiaiooaaee
o?iainoaaiiy aini?ic?aooieiaeo i?aei?e?inoa oa eiio?aeoio oi?io iaa/aiiy

C iiyaith aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe iaaea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino? i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo /anoeiai aeeoei ca iaae? ae??
o?iainiaiai i?aaa e iaaia ?o /anoeia ?aaoeth?oueny ii?iaie oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeuacacia/aiei, aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaea ia?aae
niaith oae? caaaeaiiy :

— i?iaiae?coaaoe cae??ieaia /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii i?aaiaa aecia/aiiy
o?iainoaaiiy aeo?ao ia ina?oo oa aeeoo?caeaoi?noue cae??ieaiiai i?aaiaei
ii?iaie iaoai?cio o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo ;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe cia/aiiy ina?oe aeey aea?aeaae ? noni?euenoaa,
aecia/eoe no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ina?oe oa iia’ycai? c ieie
i?iaeaie o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe;

— aeine?aeeoe i?aaiaa cae??ieaiiy aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe oa
?aaeuei?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy a ?nioth/iio i?aaiaiio i?inoi??;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeaeaoee ia o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe e cia/aiiy
aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo ia aeacai? oe?e?;

— ?icaeyiooe ?icaeoie o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo a ia??iae
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? o??ciiiai?oiaiiy oi?i aeaniino? ia
caniae ae?iaieoeoaa;

— iieacaoe ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy ii?i a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ?ieue aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeooaaiiy a i?ioean?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? nenoaie aeui? ina?oe;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?i /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ?aaoeth? o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo, c
iaoith e?ea?aeaoe?? ?nioth/eo iaaeie?e?a i?aaiai? aace ina?oe;

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaee iaoeia? i?eioeeie
oa aeine?aeieoeuee? iaoiaee, ye? a?oioothoueny ia aeiiaao ia’?eoeaiiai
oa anaa?/iiai aiae?co i?ioean?a ? yaeu noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie o?iainoaaiiy aeo?ao ia aeuo ina?oo oa ??
i?aaiaeo iniia. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iaoiaee nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo;
no?oeoo?iee, ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ?noi?e/ii i?aaiaee oa eia?/iee iaoiaee;
iaoiae noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiae ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai
aiae?co oa iaoiae i?iaiicoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny aeai?ii
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aii? oaie: ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia
aeuo ina?oo a Oe?a?i? aia?oa aeine?aeaeo?oueny a no/ani?e th?eaee/i?e
e?oa?aoo??. Aeaiaioe iaoeiai? iiaecie iieyaathoue a :

— eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai
aea?aeaaa ?aaoeth? ieoaiiy o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo;

— c’ynoaaii? i?aaiaiai aecia/aiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy nooiino? aeaeaoe?a
ia aeuo ina?oo;

— aea/aii? cae??ieaieo i?aaiaeie ii?iaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a
ia aeuo ina?oo oa i?iaaaeaii? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy;

— i?iaaaeaii? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co i?aaiaeo iniia o?iainoaaiiy
aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo a Oe?a?i? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao, ?acoeueoaoii /iai ?
aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy ?inoeoooo e?aaeeooaaiiy aeui?
ina?oe;

— iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? iie?ioaiiy i?aaiai? aace c iaoith
eaaae?caoe?? oa ?icaeoeo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aeo?ao ia aeuo ina?oo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii? iieiaeaiiy, ae?iaeai? aaoi?ii a
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. A oiiaao c?inoaiiy iaoeiaiai iaiiaiaiiy i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa
?inoeooo aeui? ina?oe ii/eia? a?ae?a?aaaoe ae??oaeueio ?ieue o
iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae. Ca oaeeo ianoaaei iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo.
Aeina?ae aaaaoueio e?a?i na?ae/eoue, ui aea?aeaaa ia iiaea iino?eii
ca?eueooaaoe aeo?aoe ia ina?oo, oiio Oe?a?ia ia? aeiaanoe aeaeaoee
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia ina?oo aei 6,5-7 % AII ? noai?thaaoe
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey caeo/aiiy aei ina?oiuei? aaeoc? eioo?a th?eaee/ieo
oa o?ce/ieo in?a.

2. I?iaeaie o?iainoaaiiy aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe aeeeeeai?
iaaeineiiae?noth i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, yea ? iano/aniei ? ianenoaiiei.
Iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie ae?yeueiino? nenoaie aeui? ina?oe iathoue noaoe :

— ?ic?iaea no/aniiai i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe;

— oo?eiaiiy aea?aeaaith ca ?aooiie athaeaeaoieo eioo?a aaciaeo aeaiaio?a
ina?oiuei? ?io?ano?oeoo?e;

— anoaiiaeaiiy ni?eyoeeaiai i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio aeey caeeaae?a ina?oe ,
iacaeaaeii a?ae i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, aeaeo ? oi?ie aeaniino?;

— caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee an?i aeuei caeeaaeai ina?oe, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi ?ae?a?eieo caeeaae?a;

— noai?aiiy aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo noeioe?a aeey caeo/aiiy i?eaaoieo
?iaanoeoe?e a nenoaio ina?oe.

3. Oi?iaeueii a Oe?a?i? aeei?enoiao?oueny noaia ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa
“eiinoeoooe?eia ii?ia – aaciaee caeii – niaoe?aeueiee caeii”, i?eeiyoa a
aaaaoueio ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao. Ia i?aeoeoe? aaciaee caeii “I?i ina?oo”
iaiaaa?oueny ia?aa?aoe ia naaa ooieoe?? niaoe?aeueieo caeii?a,
anoaiiaethth/e ?aeei? i?eioeeie ae?yeueiino? an?o caeeaae?a ina?oe.

4. Neeaaeia aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua e?a?ie aeiaaa? aoaeoeai?oiai
aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo athaeaeaoieo eioo?a, aeey /iai iaiao?aeii
ci?ithaaoe iaoai?ci o?iainoaaiiy aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe. Aaoi? aaaaea?
ca iaiao?aeia a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae ?iciiae?eo eioo?a aeeeth/ii ia
ii?iaoeai?e iniia?. Iniiaith iaeaooiuei? noaie o?iainoaaiiy aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe ia? noa oe iaoiae i?iaeo?a.

5. Iaa?oioiao?oueny i?iiiceoe?y aaanoe ?aeeio eeaneo?eaoe?th aeioiae?a
aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe, yea a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ia? neeaaeaoeny c
/ioe?ueio /anoei:

1) eiooe caniiaiee?a ;

2) eiooe, io?eioaai? a?ae iaaeaiiy ina?oi?o iineoa ;

3) eiooe, io?eiai? a?ae eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ia iia’ycaii? c
iniiaiith ae?yeuei?noth aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ;

4) niaoe?aeuei? eiooe .

6. C iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo a Oe?a?i?
i?iiiio?oueny aaaaeaiiy ?inoeoooo e?aaeeooaaiiy in?a, ye? io?eiothoue
aeuo ina?oo. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iiae?eo aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo
ina?oo ia aea? ie?ai? i?ia?aie :

— i?ia?aia aeaeaoe?a ia aeu? caeeaaee ina?oe;

— i?ia?aia aeaeaoe?a ia in?a, ye? io?eiothoue aeuo ina?oo.

7. Aea/aiiy i?aeoeee i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo
na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeinoaoith a?aaoeueiaai?noue oeueiai ieoaiiy
i?aecaeiiieie ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie, cie?aia AeIA. Cia/iei iaaeie?eii
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? iaocaiaeaeai?noue ? aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y i?ae caeiiaie
Oe?a?ie oa a?aeii/eie aeieoiaioaie. Oaea neooaoe?y aea? i?aai aaaaeaoe
ca iaiao?aeia i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia
aeuo ina?oo.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
aeooaeuei?noth ? iiaeciith ?icaeyiooeo a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeai oa
i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?o ae??oaiiy.

Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue iaoee o?iainiaiai i?aaa, cie?aia –
?inoeoooo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaiaeo iaoe, oai???
oi?aae?iiy, caaaeueii? oai??? i?aaa.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a o?iainiaiai i?aaa a aaeoc? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ?
athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy oa oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a aaeoc? e?aaeeoieo
i?aaia?aeiinei, i?e neeaaeaii? i?ae?o/iee?a oa o/aiaeo iin?aiee?a c
o?iainiaiai i?aaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny eiai
ni?yioaaiiyi ia ae??oaiiy aeooaeueieo i?aaiaeo i?iaeai o?iainiai?
ae?yeueiino? ACI, iiaeeea?noth ai?iaaoe?? ?aaeo ae?iaeaieo aeena?oaioii
i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeui?
oeiee, noai?aiiy iiaiai o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio caeeaae?a
ina?oe.

Noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aianaiiy ci?i ?
aeiiiaiaiue aei ?yaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie i?e
aaeineiiaeaii? caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeuo ina?oo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y i?aeaioiaeaia ia
eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa th?eaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aea
i?iaaaeaii ?? iaaiai?aiiy oa ?aoeaicoaaiiy.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
naie iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo ? aeiineeeny ia iaaiai?aiiy ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a, ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a th?eaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a “ Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i? ”, ui a?aeaoeany a *a?i?aoeyo a ea?oi? 1994 ?ieo,
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a, ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a th?eaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a o 1995 ?ioe?; iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “ O?einio?y
ye neeaaeiaa no/anii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe ”, ui i?ioiaeeea ia eaoaae??
o?einio?? OAeIO ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa o ethoiio 1996 ?ieo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aaoi?ii a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio?, a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Niaoeeo?ea oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee iine?aeiai?noue aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo ? no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye?
iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa’youe i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao??.
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 192 noi??iee, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae –
189 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny,
aecia/aii eiei iniiaieo caaaeaiue, ye? aeiaaathoue naiai ?ica’ycaiiy ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa aoae?aieoeoaa i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae, iaa?oioiao?oueny oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe,
?? iaoiaeieia?/i?, oai?aoe/i? ? ii?iaoeai? iniiae, iiaecia
aeine?aeaeaiiy; oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?icae?e 1 “ Iiiyooy oa aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe ” neeaaea?oueny c
o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue
nenoaie ina?oe aeey noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae.

A no/anieo oiiaao an? aeaee ina?oe i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny ae??oaiith
oe?ieiai eiea aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo caaaeaiue.
I??i?eoaoi?noue oeo /e ?ioeo caaea/ iaoiiaeth?oueny aea?aeaaieie
?ioa?anaie.

?icaoaeiaa iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae aenoaa? iniaeea? aeiiae aei
ae?yeueiino? nenoaie ina?oe, ine?eueee aeieea? iio?aaa a /eiae?e
e?eueeino? niaoe?ae?no?a, caeaoieo cae?enithaaoe oaoi?/ia, aeiiii?/ia oa
i?aai?caoe?eia ea??aieoeoai. Ci?ie a no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa oyaiooue ca
niaith aeieeiaiiy iiaiai na?oiaeyaeo ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
aaeaioaoe?th oaeiae eyaa? ia caeeaaee ina?oe, ina?oa ? aeaiaioii
i?aeaeuaiiy eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. Aea ?icaeyaeaoe ?? o?eueee a
oe?e yeino?, iniaeeai a oiiaao iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, aoei a
iai?aaeeueii. A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aee?aneth?oueny e niaoe?aeueii
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?ieue ina?oe o ae?iaie/?e ae?yeueiino?, ?icaeoeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, c?inoaii? iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie.

Ia iaoo aeoieo aeo?aoe ia i?aeaioiaeo eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a aeey
ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie e?a?ie oa ia iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca nai?i
aeiiii?/iei ci?noii ? aiaeiaii eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, ui ni?yiiaothoueny ia
?icoe?aiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a. Oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa ooai?aiiy
iniiaieo oiiae?a iio?aao? cia/ieo aeo?ao, aoaeo a?ae yeeo noni?euenoai
io?eio? i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai i?ii?aeeo /ano, yeee cae/aeii aei??th?oueny
e?eueeiia aeanyoeaie ?ie?a.

Ianooiiith ooieoe??th nenoaie ina?oe ? caaacia/aiiy iath aaciaee
aea?aeaae a no?aoaa?/iiio ieai?. Cae/aeii ia iiaeia neacaoe, ui
iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo iiaeia aa?aiooaaoe caniaaie ina?oiuei? iie?oeee,
aea oea aaaeeeaee, iaiao?aeiee aeaiaio. Ia aeaeue, a no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? oaea i?ia?aia a?aenooiy, oiio ?nioth/a ina?oiy
i?aeoeea iio?aao? aei?aaeaiue, aeiiiaiaiue oa iaaeaiiy ?e oe?e?niiai
oa?aeoa?o.

Aoaeoe a?ae nenoaie ina?oe i?iyaeythoueny ia an?o ??aiyo aaciaee – a?ae
noni?euenoaa oa aea?aeaae aei eiie?aoii? iniaenoino?. Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii,
ui aeiiii?/ia ? a?enueeiaa aaciaea aea?aeaae aaco?oueny ia
eaae?o?eiaaieo eaae?ao; oaoiieia?/ia aaciaea o?nii iia`ycaia c iaoeiaeie
?ic?iaeaie. A?o/eciyi? oa ca?oa?aei? aeine?aeieee yaeu aeiaaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o ?aeei? a aeoioe?: ethaenoai i?e?a/aia ia aeie?aiiy aac iiai?
eoeueoo?e, aac ?iiiaaoe?eiiai a/aiiy. Ui ae noino?oueny aaciaee
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, oi ina?oa caaaeaee aenooiaea ooiaeaiaioii
eoeueoo?e. AEiaeia noni?euenoai ia iiaea ?nioaaoe ? ?icaeaaoeny aac
nenoaie oe?iiinoae, ?iaeoa aiii ia?aoai?th?oueny a iaoiai. Iaeia c
ia?oeo i?noeue a nenoai? oi?ioaaiiy oe?iiinoae iaeaaeeoue no?oeoo?ai
ina?oe. Nueiaiaei? an? noi?iie aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa
ciaoiaeyoueny a e?eciaiio noai? ? aac caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueieo oiia
nenoai? ina?oe aeeoe c oeueiai noaiiaeua ia ciiaeooue.

O 80-o ?ieao iaoiai noie?ooy inoaoi/ii noi?ioaaeanue oaiaeaioe?y
na?oiaiai ?icaeoeo, yea na?ae/eea, ui i?noea oa ?ieue aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie
a ?iciiae?e? i?aoe? ia i?aeia?iaeieo ?eieao, ?? eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue
a ia?iai?e aaeoc? oa aaeoc? i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e caeaaeaoue ia?o ca
ana a?ae aeaio aca?iicaeaaeieo oaeoi??a:

— yeino? i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a;

— oiia, ye? e?a?ia ooai?th? aeey i?iyao oa ?aae?caoe?? ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
iioaioe?aeo a/aieo.

Aiae?c cia/aiiy ina?oe a no/aniiio aeeoo? oa noai oe?a?inueei? nenoaie
ina?oe aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i
a ?nioth/?e ia iei?oi?e iiiaio nenoai? ina?oe.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny iiiyooy ina?oe oa aeaeaoe?a ia
ina?oo.

Nenoaia ina?oe, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny a oe?e ?iaio?, aecia/a?oueny iaie
ye iino?aaeyinueea nenoaia ina?oe. Ie aaeeaa?ii oaeee aeaui iaeiie?aoiee
oa?i?i, ine?eueee ia?ii ni?aao c caeeaaeaie, onoaiiaaie, oa a?aeiineiaie
i?ae ieie, ye? neeaaeathoueny a aea?aeaa?, ui aeieeea ia oa?ai? aoaoiai
N?N?.

Ca?ac o ca`yceo c caaaeueiei i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy aeiia aei ina?/aiino?
ethaeeie oa?i?i ”ina?oa” iaaoa aaeeei? iiioey?iino?. I?iaeaia iaoiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui a aea?aeaa? iaia?
aeiaeiiai eaaaeueiiai aecia/aiiy oa?i?io “ina?oa” . ?? aeao?i?oe?? iaia?
a Caeii? O?N? “I?i ina?oo”. Ia iaoo aeoieo iieiaeaiiy “Ina?oa – iniiaa
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai, eoeueoo?iiai, aeooiaiiai, nioe?aeueiiai, aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae I?aaiaoea Caeiio “I?i ina?oo”(? oa ??
?aaeaeoe??)” oaeaeoa a?aeia?aaea? iie?oe/ia noaaeaiiy aea?aeaae aei
oe??? aaeoc? ai?ae aea? iiaeeea?noue c?icoi?oe, ui niaith yaey? ina?oa.

Aeine?aeeaoe anaa?/ii oeth i?iaeaio, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ieoaiith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeaio
iiiyoue: “ina?oa” oa “iaa/aiiy”. Iaiao?aei?noue /?oeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy
aeeeeeaia ioioiaeiaiiyi a?eueo?noth ?iaeea?ae?a ina?oe c iaa/aiiyi ca
noaiith “iaa/aany – io?eiaa ina?oo”. A/ai?, ye? caeiaeeny oe??th
i?iaeaiith, aiaaiaii i?iaiaeeee iaaeo i?ae oeeie iiiyooyie, ine?eueee
??cieoey ?nio? ? ia iaoo aeoieo ? i?eioeeiiaith.

Iiaeia aecia/eoe ina?oo a iaecaaaeuei?oiio aeaeyae? ye iino?eii
o?eaath/ee i?ioean canai?iiy ethaeeiith nioe?aeueii-cia/ouiai aeina?aeo,
io?eiaiiai a?ae iiia?aaei?o iieie?iue; ?icaeoie aeanieo oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae, ui aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaaeae? i?iaeoeoaaoe iiaa
nioe?aeueii cia/oua ciaiiy. ?aeaaeueii ethaeeia ana nai? aeeooy
caeiaoaa? ina?oo, aeieath/e i?e oeueiio iaai? oi?iaeuei? aoaie, i?i ui
iiaea aeaeaaaoeny iina?ae/aiiy (aoanoao i?i na?aaeith ina?oo, aeeieii
i?i aeuo ina?oo ? o.ae.).

Oaeee iiaeyae ia ina?oo c ianooo?aeie aa??aoe?yie aeneiaeth?oueny aaea
i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a, aea /a?ac iaoaaao i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
oa oi?aae?iiy ia ciaeoia i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy a ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioao
oa i?ia?aiao ?icaeoeo ina?oe, ui ia aea? iiaeeeaino? noi?ioaaoe
no?oeoo?o aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, ieoaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo a Oe?a?i? ca?ac ? iniiaiith
i?iaeaiith, ui iiaeiia oo?aoaaoe aaeocue. A oiiaao o?ii?/ii? ianoa/?
eioo?a ia iiaea aooe e iiae i?i na?eicia ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe oa
?? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie.

A N?N? o?iainiai-i?aaiaa iaoea aeoiaeeea c caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai a
th?eaee/i?e iaooe? iiiyooy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, ye? ?icoi?ee ye
?aaeaiaioiaaiee i?aaiaeie ii?iaie ieaiii??iee i?ioean aeei?enoaiiy
iia?e?ciaaieo ?aaeyinueeith aea?aeaaith a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia iio?aae
ia?iaeii? ina?oe. C caaaeueiioai?aoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o oaea iiceoe?y ?
eia?/iith ? aeaaaeaiith, aea i?e oeueiio iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiaoaaeany
niaoeeo?ea iaoi? aea?aeaae. Eiee iiaa eaea i?i aea?aeaao c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?/iith nenoaiith, oi ia?aaeuaiiy aeaeaoe?a a iaaeao aea?aeaae iaae
aeaeaoeaie aea?aeaae ia iaaio aaeocue ia iio?aao? ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy. A oaeeo aea?aeaaao ?nio? aeae?eueea aeae?a (oi?i)
aeaniino?, i?e/iio aea?aeaaia aeani?noue a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a ia ? aeii?ioth/ith. I?eaaoi? iniae oa th?eaee/i? iniae
iaaea?aeaaieo oi?i aeaniino? aeae?eythoue iaai? noie eioo?a ia ina?oith
aaeocue. Oe? eiooe e neeaaeathoue ia?aaeuaiiy aeaeaoe?a aea?aeaae iaae
aeaeaoeaie aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icae?eo 1 aiae?cothoueny i?iaeaie o?iainoaaiiy
ina?oiuei? aaeoc?. Iiia?aaei?e aiae?c iieaco?, ui ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio
ieoaiue o?aaeeoe?eii i?eeiyoi iia`ycoaaoe c iaaeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth
?ano?n?a. O ca`yceo c oeei iio??aii c`ynoaaoe iane?eueee aeoeaii aieeaa?
ianya o?iainoaaiiy ia e?ecia? yaeua a nenoai? ina?oe.

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany a Oe?a?i? c o?iainoaaiiyi nenoaie ina?oe,
ioe?ith?oueny iaie ye eaoano?io?/ia. A?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeiaoe?y ?nioth/eo
caeeaae?a, a iaoii?noue ia a?aeaoaa?oueny cai?ie ia/aaoi iaiio??aieo
aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ( ACI ) oa oe?e ia o?, ui ?aaeueii iaiao?aei?
oa?eoi??yi. Ii?o/ c oeei ianya eioo?a, ye? iathoue ni?yiiaoaaoeny c
athaeaeaoo, ciaioo?oueny ye o a?aeiinieo oae ? a aaniethoieo iaeeieoeyo.
Nenoaio ina?oe caeioaa/othoue o ?ia?oiino? e aaeee?e e?eueeino?
“caeaeo” caeeaae?a, aea e?euee?noue ACI ia? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei
ca?eueoaiiy e oea noino?oueny ia o?eueee i?eaaoieo ACI.

Ne?ae caaaeaee iai’yoaoe, ui ieoaiiy o?iainoaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe o?aaa
?icaeyaeaoe a eiioaeno? ?ioeo i?iaeai, caaaeaoe ia eiie?aoio neooaoe?th,
aaeaea ina?oa ? eeoa iaei??th c noi??i aeeooy noni?euenoaa. O?aaa
?icoi?oe, ui aeiiii?ea e?a?ie ia? no?iai aecia/aio noio iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeioiaeo, ui i?aeeyaa? ?iciiae?eo. *anoeia iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo,
ia/aaoi i?ecia/aiiai nenoai? ina?oe, iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia e ia ?io?
oe?e?; naia oiio ?ioa?ane ina?oe noeeathoueny c ?ioa?anaie ?ioeo aaeocae
aeiiii?ee.

I?iaeaia iaoi? aea?aeaae iieyaa? a oiio, ui naia ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
a?aenooi? ?icoi?iiy aeeoo?ai? iaiao?aeiino? a eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?e
nenoai? ina?oe. A na?o? i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe: noni?euenoai ia caaaeaee
?icoi?? iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo ina?oe e aea?aeaa? ca aeiiiiiaith
??ciiiai?oieo noeioethth/eo ii?i aeiaiaeeoueny i?aeaiaeeoe a?iiaaeyi aei
aeoiee i?i iaiao?aei?noue io?eiaiiy ina?oe aenieiai ??aiy, a ia
ciaiooaaoe aeaeaoee ia ina?oo.

Na?oiaa i?aeoeea ia cia? aeiaaee?a noaa?e?caoe?? aeo?ao ca aeiiiiiaith
cania?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeiiii?th eioo?a. Iiaeia aeinyaoe oei/aniaiai
ciaioaiiy aeo?ao, aea iane?aeeii aoaea ao?aoa aeinyaiooiai ??aiy
?icaeoeo nenoaie ina?oe e?a?ie. ?icaeiai? aea?aeaae ieaiothoue ui??/ia
ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia nenoaie ina?oe (ca?eueoaiiy a aaniethoieo
iaeeieoeyo).

A ?icae?e? 2 “ I?aaioai?/?noue aea?aeaae a aaeoc? aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo ”
?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo noai, yeeie iiaeooue
?aaoethaaoeny a?aeiineie a aaeoc? ina?oe, ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee.

Caeiiiaeaanoai i?i ina?oo neeaaea?oueny c oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio i?aaiaeo
ii?i ? aeieoiaio?a, eiaeiee ?c yeeo ia? aeani? aecia/ai? oe?e? oa ci?no.
Ci?no caeiiiaeaanoaa caeaaeeoue a?ae iie?oe/ii? eiio?ao?aoe??
ia?eaiaioo, aeai?o aeai?oe?a ? i??i?eoao?a, anoaiiaeaieo a?aeiia?aeii
aei i?ia?aie o?yaeo. Iaa?oue yeui c?iaeoe ni?iao iaiaaeeoe iie?oecaoe?th
ina?oiueiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, aieea ia?eaiaionueeeo ?aeaieia?/ieo
onoaiiaie iaieio/ee. Cae/aeii caeiiiaeaanoai ni?yiiaaia ia a?aeoai?aiiy
a aeeoo? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aai aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie ina?oe.

O oeaio?ae?ciaaieo nenoaiao, a?eueo?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ? o?iainiaeo
iiaiiaaaeaiue neiioeaio?iaaii a ?oeao aea?aeaae. Nooi?iue eiioeaio?aoe??
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a ooaaeaii? ??oaiiy ci?ith?oueny a?ae iaei??? e?a?ie
aei ?ioi?. Ca caaaeueiei i?aaeeii a?eueo?noue iiaiiaaaeaiue uiaei
ooaaeaiiy ??oaiiy neiioeaio?iaaii a i?i?noa?noaao.

Ia ne?ae aaaaeaoe, ui aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai? nenoaie ina?oe ciaoiaeyoueny a
iiiceoe?? aei ?aea? aea?aeaae ye aa?aioa iaaeaiiy ina?oi?o iineoa. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaieo nenoai, oa?i?i «Aea?aeaaa» o
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaieo nenoaiao a?eueoa ia ioioiaeith?oueny o?eueee c
iaoe?iiaeueiith ( ?ieiee — oaaea?aeueiith ) aeaaeith, a canoiniao?oueny
e aei aaoiiiiieo ?aa?iiaeueieo neeaaeiaeo ina?oe a oe?eiio.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icae?eo 2 ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo aaciaei caeiiii Oe?a?ie. Iiaa
oe?a?inueea caeiiiaeaanoai ia i?eae?ey? iaeaaeii? oaaae i?aaiaiio
?aaoethaaiith o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caeeaae?a. O caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo” oe?e oai? i?enay/aii eeoa
aeae?eueea noaoae.

Caeiiiaeaa/a aaca caeeoa? ia?ica’ycaieie aaaaoi i?iaeai. Noaooy 56 ( 61
) aecia/a? iniiae o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a,
onoaiia nenoaie ina?oe. *anoeia ia?oa oe??? noaoo? cae??ieth? noaio
athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy aeey aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a , i?aei?e?inoa
ina?oe. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui iniiaiei iaaeie?eii oe??? noaoo? ?
aeoeaiooaaiiy caeiiiaeaaoeai oaaae eeoa ia aea?aeaaieo caeeaaeao ina?oe.
A 1991 ?ioe? oaeee i?aeo?ae ua iiaeia aoei ni?eeiaoe ye eiino?oeoeaiee,
aea 1996 ?ieo, eiee i?eeiaeany ae?oaa ?aaeaeoe?y caeiio, neooaoe?y
ci?ieeany aeiei??iiei /eiii ? ia iaoo aeoieo caeii iiaeiai i?noeoe
iieiaeaiiy uiaei aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo ? iaaea?aeaaieo
caeeaae?a ? onoaiia nenoaie ina?oe.

Caeii cae??ieth? ciaia‘ycaiiy aea?aeaae aeae?eyoe athaeaeaoi?
aneaioaaiiy ia ina?oo a ?ici??? ia iaioa ye 10 % iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeioiaeo. Aea?aeaaa aeiaeiiai ?aco c iiiaioo i?eeiyooy ia?oi? ?aaeaeoe??
caeiio e aei iei?oiueiai /ano ia caaacia/eea athaeaeaoieo aneaioaaiue ia
ina?oo a ?ici??? aiaeae 8% iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo; i?e oeueiio ?ici??
aneaioaaiue ia? eeoa iaeio (? aeineoue no?eeo) oaiaeaioe?th —
oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy.

Aaoi?ii oaeiae ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe,
yea ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe a yeino? iai?yiiai o?iainoaaiiy oeyoii iaaeeo/aiiy
eioo?a io?eiaieo aeuei caeeaaeii ina?oe. Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia ?nioaaiiy
aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?ioe??/ i?ae caeiiii “ I?i ina?oo ” oa i?aecaeiiieie
? a?aeii/eie aeoaie.

O?ao?e ii?ae?icae?e ?icae?eo 2 i?enay/aii ii??aiyeueiiio aiae?co caeii?a
i?i ina?oo Oe?a?ie ? ?in??.

Iaei??th c i?e/ei e?ece ina?oe ? a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaiiai i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy o?iainoaaiiy oe??? aaeoc?. Oiio aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ?
iiaoaeiaa oaei? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace, yea a aeicaieyea iaeneiaeueii
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiooe, aeae?eai? aea?aeaaith ? naiino?eii
caeo/ai? caeeaaeaie ina?oe. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy
aeaea?oueny aei?a/iei i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c caeii?a i?i ina?oo
Oe?a?ie oa ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (?O). E?a?ie iathoue aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai a eoeueoo??, aeiiii?oe?, iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo, iaeiae, ?ai?oa
?icii/aaoe ?eieia? ia?aoai?aiiy, ?O aeia?aaeaea? Oe?a?io a ieai?
?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa i?eiaeii? ia aeaa ?iee. Aiae?coth/e aaiethoe?th
?in?enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc? ina?oe, ie iiaeaii aeei?enoaoe
iiceoeaiee aeina?ae e iieiooe “i?aeaiaei? eaiai?”, ui aeyaeeenue a
?acoeueoao? ae?? caeii?a a ?in?enuee?e Oaaea?aoe??.

Caeiiiaeaanoai ?O ie?aii ?aaoeth? ?aaeei iaaeaiiy aea?aeaaieie
caeeaaeaie ina?oe ieaoieo aeiaeaoeiaeo ina?oi?o iineoa, ia ia?aaeaa/aieo
“niioaaonoaothueie ia?aciaaoaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie e ainoaea?noaaiiuie
ia?aciaaoaeueiuie noaiaea?oaie” [28]. Aeioiae a?ae oe??? ae?yeueiino?
ia? ?a?iaanooaaoeny a caeeaae ina?oe, i?e oeueiio oaea ae?yeuei?noue ia
?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?aei?e?iieoeueea.

Niaoe?aeueii ?aaoethaaiith ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? o?oaeiai? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? i?enay/aii no. 50 Caeiio ?O, yeith oaea ae?yeuei?noue
aecia?oueny i?aei?e?iieoeueeith e i?aeeyaa? a?aeiia?aei?e ?a?no?aoe??
ca?aeii caeiiiaeaanoaa ?O. Oaea ae?yeuei?noue, ia a?aei?io a?ae
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ia e?oeaico?oueny ? aeiaaa? eeoa caaaeueieo
aeieoiaio?a. Caeiiiaeaanoai caai?iiy? iaca?a?no?iaaio ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
o?oaeiao iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue ? ea?a? ca oea noyaiaiiyi an?o
ca?iaeaieo eioo?a aei i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo o anoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo.
Oe?a?inueea caeiiiaeaanoai i?i ina?oo oaeei iiiyooyi ye
“?iaeea?aeoaeueia o?oaeiaa iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue” acaaae? ia
iia?o?, caeeoath/e eiai ae??oaiiy ii?iai caaaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

?icae?e 3 “I?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae a aaeoc? aeaeaoe?a ia
ina?oo” i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith eiooi?enii-athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a ina?oe, ?icaeyaea?oueny cia/aiiy noooooo ACI,
ieoaiiy e?aaeeooaaiiy ina?oe.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icae?eo 3 aeine?aeaeothoueny i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy
aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo ia ??ai? eiie?aoiiai ACI ? aenoaathoueny i?iiiceoe??
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

A?aoiaoth/e inoaii? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo na?oiai? ina?oe noa?
c?icoi?eei, ui no/aniee ina?oyinueeee caeeaae iiaeiai o?ainoi?ioaaoeny o
aaaaoii?io?eueia ooai?aiiy, yea ciiaea aeoeaii e ia ei?enoue nia?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe an? iaaeai? aea?aeaaith iiaeeeaino? aeey io?eiaiiy
aeioiae?a a?ae nai?? ae?yeueiino?, uia iio?i iinooiiai caaacia/oaaoe ana
a?eueoee nooi?iue iacaeaaeiino? a?ae aea?aeaaiiai aai aoaeue-yeiai
?ioiai aieeao.

Iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeieoiaioe I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe ? Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a aaeoc? ae?aaeeoaoe?? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeey aecia/aiiy o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Ieoaiiy cae??ieaiiy aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ii-??ciiio ae??oo?oueny a
Noaoooao ??cieo ACI. Aea?aeaai? caeeaaee , ca iaaaeeeei aeeeth/aiiyi, ia
iaaeathoue aaeeeiai cia/aiiy oe?e i?iaeai?, ?ic?aoiaoth/e ia eiooe
athaeaeaoo, a i?eaaoi? ACI iaiaaathoueny aeeth/eoe aei Noaoooo
iaeneiaeueio e?euee?noue aeaea?ae.

I?ae?icae?e ae?oaee ?icae?eo 3 i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ieaoe ca
iaa/aiiy, yea aenooia? aieiaiei aeaea?aeii aeioiae?a aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue : aeaeaei ia a on?o e?a?iao, i?iiiiiaaieo
iai ye c?acie aeey iane?aeoaaiiy, cai?iaaaeaeaia ieaoia ina?oa.
Iai?eeeaae, O?aioe?y oa I?ia//eia acaaae? ia aa?ooue ieaoe ca iaa/aiiy
ai? ?c nai?o a?iiaaeyi, ai? c ?iicaioe?a, a NOA oa Aaeeeia?eoai?y oi/a e
aa?ooue ieaoo ca iaa/aiiy, i?ioa ?acii c oeei iaaeathoue oe?ieee
ae?aiacii iiaeeeainoae uia ciaioeoe oeth ieaoo, acaaae? iicaaaeoeny ??,
aai ?icoyaiooe aeieaoe ia aaaeaiee no?ie. Aeiiaa ae iieaoe i?ney anooio
anueiai oa?i?io iaa/aiiy, ui i?aeoeeo?oueny a iao?e e?a?i?,
cono??/a?oueny aeoaea ??aeei.

A ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ieaoia iaa/aiiy iieeeeaia ae??oeoe aeae?eueea
caaaeaiue.

— io?eiaiiy eioo?a aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoco;

— aoaeoeaiee ?iciiae?e aeei?enoiaoaaieo eioo?a iii?ae ??cieie aa?noaaie
ianaeaiiy;

— aeiione aei io?eiaiiy ina?oe eeoa oeo in?a, ye? ni?aaae? oeueiai
aaaeathoue.

A iao?e aea e?a?i? ieaoa ca iaa/aiiy iieeeeaia ae??ooaaoe eeoa ia?oa c
oeeo caaaeaiue, ui i?ecaaei aei iia??oaiiy noaiiaeua a noa?? ina?oe.

Ca oiia, ui neeaaeathoueny, ia aeeeth/aia neooaoe?y, eiee aeua ina?oa
ni?aaae? noaia i?a?iaaoeaith caiiaeieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, yea neeaaea?
aei 10 a?aenioe?a caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, a oie aea /an
ia/aaoi i?eeiyoa iaie nenoaia ina?oe cao?aeieo e?a?i aea? iiaeeea?noue
caeiaoaaoe aeuo ina?oo aeo?aeoeyi c ??cieo i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy,
i???iooth/enue aieiaiei /eiii ia ?o ciaiiy ? cae?aiino?.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icae?eo 3 ?icaeyaea?oueny aaniethoii iiaa aeey
Oe?a?ie ieoaiiy e?aaeeooaaiiy io?eiaiiy ina?oe, ui i?aeoeeo?oueny a
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? e?a?i na?oo.

A iao?e aea?aeaa? aeeiio?oueny eeoa ia?oa /anoeia i?aeo?eiee ina?oe
aea?aeaaith. I?ae oei no/ani? aeiiii?/i? ?aae?? aeicaieythoue aiai?eoe
i?i e?eoe/ia noaiiaeua a aaeoc? ina?oe, ine?eueee iaaea?iaai? iniae
?ieiee ia iathoue iiaeeeaino? io?eiaoe iaeaaeiiai ??aiy ina?oo /a?ac
aeaiaioa?iee a?ae eioo?a. Neooaoe?y, eiee iieiaea ethaeeia ia ni?iiiaeia
iieaoeoe ina?oi? iineoae ? oeiiaith iaa?oue aeey ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, ui
iiaeia eacaoe i?i e?a?io c aeai?aneaiith aeiiii?eith ? c?inoath/ith
e?euee?noth aac?ia?oieo. Oiio ieoaiiy e?aaeeooaaiiy noa? iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai no/anii? nenoaie ina?oe.

A Oe?a?ie ne?ae i?eae?eyoe iaeaaeio oaaao iaaeaiith aeiiiiiae o?ce/iei
iniaai ca aeiiiiiaith iaaeaiiy noeiaiae?e oa iice/ie nooaeaioai, ye?
iathoue iiaaia o?iainiaa noaiiaeua, oa caioi/aiiy a?aei?iiee?a iaa/aiiy.

O aeniiaeao ai?uai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy; a?aecia/a?oueny, ui an? aiae?oe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee oa ae?iaeai? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aacothoueny ia aea/aii? ia o?eueee i?aaiaeo iniia ina?oe
a Oe?a?i?, aea e ia aiae?c? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aiaeia?/ieo ieoaiue a
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao.

Oi?ioaaiiy iiai? nenoaie ina?oe ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe (aeoiaey/e ?c
na?oiaiai aeina?aeo) ye iaaeaaeeeee aeiaaino?ieiaee ?iiiaaoe?eiee
i?iaeo, iniiaiei e?aaeeoi?ii yeiai ia? aenooiaoe aea?aeaaa. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui nenoaia ina?oe ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiaai ?eieo,
ne?ae iai`yoaoe – ina?oa ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy aoiino oa eiai
i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo. I?ia?aeia ?ieue aea?aeaae iaoiiaeth?oueny oaeeie
oaeoi?aie:

— aeii?ioth/ei ianyaii aea?aeaaii? oa ci?oaii? oi?i aeaniino? ia caniae
ae?iaieoeoaa;

— aaeeeei aia?aoii aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

— aea?aeaaieie ciaia`ycaiiyie ii caaacia/aiith iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
(a?enueeiai?, iie?oe/ii?, aeaiia?ao?/ii?, aeiiii?/ii?, aeieia?/ii?);

— aeiaaino?ieiaei oa?aeoa?ii ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo (a?eueoa 10 ?ie?a).

Ie i?iiiio?ii ?icaeyaeaoe aeaeaoee ia ina?oo ye ieaiii??iee i?ioean
aeei?enoaiiy aeae?eaieo ( iia?e?ciaaieo ) eioo?a aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo, o?ce/ieo in?a, th?eaee/ieo in?a ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ia
iio?aae nenoaie ina?oe.

Iii?e anth ??ciiiai?oi?noue iiaeyae?a caeiiiaeaanoai ia? aeaye?
caaaeuei? ?ene. sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c, i?aea o na?o? aea?aeaaa ia iaaea?
aaniethoii aacieaoii? ina?oe; i?aea i?eaaoia ina?oa ia iieeaaea?oueny
aeiyoeiai ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aaouee?a. Iaeaea? noi?iie
ni?yiiaothoue eiooe aei ci?oaieo athaeaeao?a, a e?euee?noue
??ciiiai?oieo aeiiiiia oa a?aio?a ci?ith?oueny a?ae iaei??? e?a?ie aei
?ioi?.

Iei? ae?th/? i?aaia? ii?ie ia aeicaieythoue iaaanoe ?aeeio
eeaneo?eaoe?th eioo?a, io?eioaaieo aeueie caeeaaeaie ina?oe. A ia?oo
/a?ao oea iaoiiaeaii iaaeineiiaeith nenoaiith aeae?eaiiy eioo?a
aea?aeaaiei caeeaaeai ina?oe. Aaoi?ii aiineoueny i?iiiceoe?y – aaanoe
?aeeio no?oeoo?o aeioiae?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?ie
aeaniino?, yea ii?iae?co? ?iaioo nenoaie aeui? ina?oe ? aeicaieeoue
io?eiaoe ?aaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i noai eiie?aoieo ACI oa nenoaie
acaaae?.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaai? noaoo? :

1.A?euaiei E. I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo Oai?aoe/i? oa
i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?. /Iaoa??aee
aeiiia?aeae ? oace aenooi?a iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a,
ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a 29-30 ea?oiy 1994
?./—*a?i?aoe?, 1994.—80 n. N. 40-41.

2.A?euaiei E. Aiae?c i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainoaaiiy na?aaeiuei?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?. /Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ? oace aenooi?a iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a, ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a th?eaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a 1995 ?./ — Aeione 2. — *a?i?aoe?, 1995. — 85 n.

3.A?euaiei E. A. Aeaye? aniaeoe o?iainoaaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?? aeui? ina?oe
a Oe?a?i?.Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 4-5.
I?aaiciaanoai. Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. — 376 n.
N. 262-272

4.A?euaiei E. A. I?i aeaye? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ina?oe. O?einio?y ye
neeaaeiaa no/anii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae.
(Oeeaaea/? ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ca aeione Aieeiea A. ?., Oaae?a TH. I.) —
E., OAeIO ?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 1996, 94 n. N. 85-87

5.A?euaiei E. A. Caeiiiaeaa/a ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
oa ?in?enuee?e Oaaea?aoe??. Aeiiii?ea. O?iaine. I?aai / AO “Aiae?oee”. –
E.: AOCO “ Aeaeaaieoeoai “I?aai”, 1997. – Aei. 9 – 48 n. N. 21-29.

6.A?euaiei E. A. Iiiaeaoeoaaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oeIaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 55:
I?aaiciaanoai. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1999. N. 79-84.

7.A?euaiei E. A. I?aaia? iniiae o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe. Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 62: N. 78-81.

A?euaiei E.A.

I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo a Oe?a?i?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.07 – oai??y oi?aaeaiey; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai
? i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai. – Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee Oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy iiiyooy ? i?aaiai? i?e?iaee
aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo, ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?y a ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy
?eieiaeo ?aoi?i oa ?nioaaiiy iaaea?aeaaieo oi?i aeaniino?; ?ice?eo?
i?aaiaeo oi?i o?ianoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeuo ina?oo a oiiaao ?nioaaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii?, eiioiaeueii?,
eieaeoeaii? ? i?eaaoii? oi?i aeaniino?.

Aianaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei eiie?aoieo ci?i ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a Oe?a?ie, ye?
noinothoueny i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainoaaiiy aeui? ina?oe;
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy iiaeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ui
?aaoeththoue aeaeaoee ia aeuo ina?oo, ?ic?iaeaii no?oeoo?o ? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oeeo aeo?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeaoee ia aeuo ina?oo, eiooi?enii-athaeaeaoia
o?ianoaaiiy, iai?eaooeia? i?aai?caoe??, e?aaeeooaaiiy aeui? ina?oe.

A?euaiei E.A.

I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?anoiaeia ia aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a Oe?aeia.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.07 –oai?ey oi?aaeaiey; aaeieieno?aoeaiia
i?aai e i?ioeann; oeiainiaia i?aai. – Eeaaneee Iaoeeiiaeueiue
Oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu iiiyoey u i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu
?anoiaeia ia aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, eo o?ainoi?iaoeey a ia?eiae i?iaaaeaiey
?uii/iuo ?aoi?i e nouanoaiaaiey iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe;
?ane?uaathony i?aaiaua oi?iu oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoiaeia ia aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a oneiaeyo nouanoaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee e
i?aaiecaoeee iauaainoaea?noaaiiie, eiiioiaeueiie, eieeaeoeaiie e /anoiie
oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.

?aoi?ie?iaaiea einoeoooa nianoaaiiinoe aeaao iniiaaiey ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey ia oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiue
athaeaeao, ii e iaainoaea?noaaiiua oiiaeu n?aaenoa.

Iieacaia ?ieue nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey a nia?aiaiiii ie?a, ii?aaeaeythony
iieacaoaee ?anoiaeia ia ia?aciaaiea, e eioi?ui Oe?aeia aeieaeia
no?aieoueny, a caoai e i?eaea?aeeaaoueny. Ainoaea?noai ia iiaeao
iinoiyiii ia?aueaaoue iauai ?anoiaeia ia nenoaio ia?aciaaiey, ii
nouanoaotho iieacaoaee, iioneaoueny ieaea eioi?uo iaeuecy, eia/a
iineaaeoao ?ac?ooaiea anae nenoaiu.

Aiinyony i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii eiie?aoiuo eciaiaiee a ii?iaoeaiua
aeou Oe?aeiu, eioi?ua eanathony i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oeiaine?iaaiey
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey; iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoey iiauo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eioi?ua ?aaoee?otho ?anoiaeu ia aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea, ?ac?aaioaia no?oeoo?a e iniiaiua iieiaeaiey yoeo aeoia.

I?aaeeaaaaony eniieueciaaoue noaio “einoeoooeeiiiay ii?ia – aaciaue
caeii – niaoeeaeueiue caeii”. Oaeay eiino?oeoeey n oniaoii iniieuecoaony
ai iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao. Ioa/anoaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia
aeaiiii yoaia niiaeao aacaieaciaiii aini?eiyoue oaeea eciaiaiey

Aiaeece?oaony i?aaiaie noaoon aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, oi/iaa – aniaeo
iieo/aiey eie oiiaeia, n?aaenoa e aiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueiiai
i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa ec enoi/ieeia, aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ainoaea?noaaiiui.
I?iaiaeeony n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee e aeaeaaony auaiae
i iaaeinoaoi/iii aieiaiee, oaeaeyaiii i?iaeaiai iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/a?aaeaeaiee.

?anniao?eaaaony i?iaeaia i?aaeinoaaeaiey aunoei o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi
noaoona iai?eaueueiuo i?aaiecaoeee ia ii?aaeaeyaiue caeiiii n?ie n
oeaeueth oeo/oaiey oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey noa?u aunoaai ia?aciaaiey.

I?aaeeaaaaony inaiaiaeaeaiea aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee io oieaou iaeiaia
e eiuo iaycaoaeueiuo nai?ia a neo/aa eniieueciaaiey iieo/aiiuo n?aaenoa
ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea oneiaee iao/aiey. Aeaiiay ia?a iicaieeo
noeioee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue aaeieieno?aoeee aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee, a oii /enea e /anoiuo, a oaeaea iicaieeo ainoaea?noao
einaaiii oaaee/eoue ?anoiaeu ia ia?aciaaiea, ia i?eaaaay e oaaee/aieth
?anoiaeiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.

Enneaaeothony aii?inu e?aaeeoiaaiey aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, i?aaeeaaaaony
i?iaaaeaiea eiiieaeniuo ia?ii?eyoee ii nicaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
/anoiuo oiiaeia e?aaeeoiaaiey o/a?aaeaeaiee aunoaai ia?aciaaiey e
o/aueony. ?anniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey o/aueiny
noeiaiaeee ?acee/iiai oeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?anoiaeu ia aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, niaoii-athaeaeaoiia
oeiaine?iaaiea, iai?eaueueiua i?aaiecaoeee, e?aaeeoiaaiea aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey.

Gryshchnko K.G.

Legal regulation of expenses for higher education in Ukraine.-
Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of jurisprudence jn a specialiti 12.00.07 – the Theory of
Administration; Administrative Law and process ; Financial Law. – Kiev
National Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1999.

In the dissertation the following issues are considered : the question
of concept and legal nature of the expenses for higher tducation, ther
transformation during implementation of market reforms and the existence
of non-state property categories. There is an explanation given about
the legal forms of financing of the expenses for higher education when
the enterprises, establishment and organizations of nation-wide,
municipal, collective and private ownership has appeared.

The offers are made to amend concrete changes to the normative acts of
Ukraine, which concern legal regulation of higher education financing;
there is proved the necessity to adopt the new acts which regulate the
expenses for higher education, the structure and basic provisions of
these acts are developed.

Key words: the expences for higher education, budgetary financing,
non-profit organizations, higher education crediting.

Похожие записи