Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

OAeE 347.73:336.5.01(477)

ssEEI*OE IAOAE?ss ssE?AIA

I?AAIAA ?AAOETHAAIIss AEAeAOE?A IA IAOEO A OE?A?I?.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.07. — Oai??y oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai ?
i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai; aaie?anueea i?aai.

Aaoi?aoa?ao

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiai?

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe.

Ee?a — 1999?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

Aeena?oaoe?th aeiiaii ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?
o?iainiaiai i?aaa *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?iiiaa E?ae?y
Einoyioei?aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eo/a?yaaiei Ieeiea Iao?iae/, i?ioani?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai;

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Onoeiiaa ??eia Iao??aia, aeioeaio
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo I?aeia?iaeiiai Nieiiii?aa oi?aa?neoaoo i.Ee?aa.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai?
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
naoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.04 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?nooo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea,
64).

A/aiee naeo?aoa? Aia?iaiee N.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aaeeeaeuei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
ia?aoai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy oa
cae??ieaiiy iiaeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o noa?? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Nenoaia ca’yce?a i?ae noa’?eoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e
?aae?ciaoaaeanue /a?ac aea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e. Iaeaea cian?i aoee
a?aenooi?ie iiaeeeaino? niiino?eii? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino?. Aee?aeoeaii ea?iaai?e aeiiii?oe? a?aeiia?aeaa iaeaea
oioae?oa?iee aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue ca ?ano?naie, ni?yiiaaieie ia
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? oa aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nuee? ?iaioe (IAeAeE?), ca
?o canoinoaaiiyi, ca aeei?enoaiiyi a aeiiii?oe? io?eiaieo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a. Iaeaea iiai?noth iaiaaeoaaeenue iiaeeeaino? naiino?eii?
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii ?ano?n?a,
ui iio?aieyee aei noa?e iaoee, aoee iaoa??aeuei? oa o?iainia? oiiaee
aea?aeaae, ui aecia/aeenue aee?aeoeaieie ??oaiiyie ? ia caaaeaee
aeoiaeeee ?c noni?eueieo iio?aa.

O 90-o? ?iee a Oe?a?i? neeaeanue aaaeea e?eciaa neooaoe?y o aaeoc?
iaoee. Aiia aoea aeeeeeaia ?yaeii i?e/ei, o oiio /ene? iiieeeaie,
aeiiouaieie o?yaeii i?e i?iaaaeaii? ?aaeeeaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i.
I?e ia?aoiae? e?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia aoei noai?aii ae?th/iai
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai? noa?e. Aac
aoaeoeaii? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee caeeoeeenue ia o?eueee aaeocaaa, aea e
aeaaeai?/ia oa aoc?anueea iaoea, ui i?ecaaei aei nooo?aeo ao?ao Oe?a?ie
o ?yae? aaaeeeaeo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo na?oiai? iaoee ? oaoi?ee.

A ?acoeueoao? ?aaeeeaeueieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ci?i a Oe?a?i?
a?aeaoeinue cae??ieaiiy iiaeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o noa?? iaoee,
i?aeaeuo?oueny aeooaeuei?noue eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeaie
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?. Aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue o
aecia/aii? iiceoe?e c ieoaiue: i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ?icaeoeo
iaoee, oe?eae oa iaoai?cio noni?eueieo ia?aoai?aiue o noa?? iaoee,
caaaeaiiy ?? caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy ? ?icaeoeo. Ae?yeuei?noue
iaoeiaeo onoaiia o ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oe?
caaaeueii? e?ece, ??ceiai nei?i/aiiy iiieoo ia ?ioaeaeooaeueio
i?iaeoeoe?th iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? noa?e. Oaeee ia?aa?a iiae?e iineeth?
i???ioiaai?noue ia oeaio?ae?ciaaio i?aeo?eieo aea?aeaae, ui aiineoue
iaaio noaa?euei?noue o ooieoe?iioaaiiy an??? noa?e iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
oa aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o (IAeAeE?), ine?eueee ia nueiaiaei?
niinoa??aa?oueny yne?aai ae?aaeaia oaiaeaioe?y aei nei?i/aiiy
o?iainoaaiiy IAeAeE? c aieo caiiaiee?a.

Aeieeea oe?iea aeeneon?y ye o iaoeiaeo eieaeoeaao, oae ? o caniaao
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea aeyaeea ??ci? i?aeoiaee ? aa/aiiy i?iaeaie.
A?ae caeeee?a caa?aaoe ana, ye aoei, ?noioii ca?eueoeaoe eeoa
o?iainoaaiiy, aei i?iiiceoe??e ceaiaoe ? ?aaeeeaeueii ?aoi?ioaaoe
onoaeaio nenoaio ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoee.

Ci?noii no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie ? ia?ao?ae aei ?eieo, a i?ioean?
yeiai ?iaeoueny ciiaa a??aiiaaaeeoe ia’?i ?ano?n?a, ui aeae?ey?oueny ia
iaoeo c aea?aeaaieo oa eiia?oe?eieo aeaea?ae; iaiaaaiiy iaeiei c
iniiaieo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy iaoee c?iaeoe eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue
oa aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?ici??o aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, ye? iiaeii?
aeae?eyoeny aea?aeaaith eeoa ia iaoeiao ae?yeuei?noue iia’ycaio c
iaoe?iiaeueieie i??i?eoaoaie oa ia oaeo, ui ia iineoue eiia?oe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aea ? no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeaith aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy ye
aea?aeaaiino?, oae ? onueiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai eiiieaeno.

Na?oiaee aeina?ae aeiaiaeeoue, ui aac nai?/aniiai ia?aaeyaeo iie?oeee
aea?aeaae o noa?? iaoee ? iia?e?caoe?? ia ?? ?aeacaoe?th cia/ieo
eioo?a, iaiiaeeeaei noa? i?i?ea e?a?ie aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
I?aai?caoe?ei? oa aeiiii?/i? i?eioeeie, ia yeeo a?oioo?oueny
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia iie?oeea aea?aeaae, cae??ieai? a Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i
iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a noa?? iaoee ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?”. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai Caeiio aea?aeaaa caaacia/o?
o?iainoaaiiy ? i??i?eoaoia iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeiaaino?ieiaeo aea?aeaaieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai.

Noa?a iaoee a?aeiineoueny aei aenieii?aai?ciaaieo nenoai. Aiia
o?aaeeoe?eii eiina?aaoeaia, a oiio, i?e?iaeiuei, iaa??aa? naaa a?ae
aoi?aiaiue, ui caaaeathoueny ciai?, iaa?oue aeueie no?oeoo?aie
oi?aae?iiy. Aiia ye ? ?io? neeaaei? nenoaie aeeaa ca nai?ie caeiiaie. A
oiiaao, eiee aeiiii?ea noeeueia aei aieeao ?ioeyoe??, ?nio? iaaiee
o?iainiaee ?ecee aeey iioaioe?eieo ?iaanoi??a uiaei aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a o
aeiaaino?ieia? aeine?aeieoeuee? ?iaioe. Oiio iaa?oue ?c noaa?eueiith
aeiiii?/iith nenoaiith aea?aeaaa aa?a ia naaa aei 50% o?iainiaeo aeo?ao
ia iaoeo, ui ?iaeoueny i?e aeio?eiaii? iaaieo iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i??i??oao?a.

Eeoa aeoaieee oa anaa?/iee aiae?c aecia/aieo i?iaeai c?iaeoue aeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?eueiei oa caaa?oaiei. Oiio i?iaeaie, ui noiyoue ia?aae
iaoeith ? ieoaiiy aeoiaeo ?? ?c e?ece, ia?aaeoiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??. Ii/eiath/e c 60-o ii/aea
oi?ioaaoenue nenoaia caeiiiaeaanoaa, ii?ie yei? a?aaoeueiaoaaee
iaoai?ci athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy iaoee, ine?eueee iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
yeiai ia 80 a?aenioe?a aenooiaa Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao. O 70-80-o ?ieao,
o ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aacia?aaiei c?inoaiiyi
?ie? iaoee o an?o eiai noa?ao, ?ioe?aiiyi oa oneeaaeiaiiyi oi?i ca’yce?a
iaoee c ae?iaieoeoaii, i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e iaoee, aeieeea
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aae th?eaee/iith iaoeith aea/aiiy i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiaith ae?yeuei?noth.

O ?aaeyinuee?e iaooe? o?iainiaiai i?aaa ie?ai? ieoaiiy i?aaiaeo i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo c aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie ia iaoeo aoee i?aeiyo? o 80-o? ?iee
o ?iaioao Noiaoa?ai? I.A. “I?aaiaua i?iaeaiu oeiaine?iaaiey
enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe” (Iineaa, 1976) oa
Aon?ai? A.A. “I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo”
(Iineaa, 1976).

Ie?ai? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, aea/aeenue, ii??aiyiii, aeineoue
iaaaeeeei eieii i?ia?aeieo i?aaiciaaoe?a. O ??ciee /an na?e aeeaae o
?ic?iaeo oe??? i?iaeaie aianee N.?.Aeaacyi, Ae.A.Aaea?nueea, A.Aaiaa?ia,
E.ss.Aa?a?oe, A.A.Aeici?oeaa, I.?.?aaiiaa, N.A.Ea?a-Io?ca, A.Eoe?on,
A.?.I?ioe, A.A.I?aeii?eai?a, I.I.?eia, A.A.?inoaeianueeee, A.A.Nia?ia?i.
Aea ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui i?aaia? aniaeoe i?iaeaie o?iainoaaiiy iaoee
caeeoeeenue iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeai?, ine?eueee caaaeai? iaoeiaoe?
?icaeyaeaee eeoa ie?ai? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ieaioaaiiyi, o?iainoaaiiy
aai aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy iaoee ?, ui aieiaia, a iaaeao eieeoiueiai
i?aaiaiai iiey.

I?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c aoaeoeaiith i?aai?caoe??th aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a
ia iaoeo, ?, cie?aia, aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a, c yeeo aiie
cae?eniththoueny, iinyoue eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? ? aea/athoueny ia eeoa
i?aaiciaaoeyie, a e a/aieie ??cieo aaeocae iaoee, na?aae yeeo
aeiiii?noe, niaoe?ae?noe o aaeoc? iaoeiciaanoaa. Iniaeeaa oaaaa aei
i?aaeiaoo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eae?eyeanue a aeiiii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ine?eueee aeiiii?/i? ??oaiiy ia iiaeooue aooe
?aae?ciaai? iica i?aaiaeo cania?a. Naia i?aai iaaea? aeiiii?/iei
??oaiiyi iaia’yceiao neeo, oi?iae?co? oa caaacia/o? ?o aeeiiaiiy
caniaaie aea?aeaaiiai aieeao. Oiio ne?ae caaaeaoe ?yae i?ia?aeieo
aeiiii?no?a, ye? c?iaeee cia/iee aianie o ae??oaiiy i?iaeai aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, na?aae ieo: A.A.Aieneiia, I.E.Aaoei, E.I.E?ae?iaa,
?.I.Eaca??a, A.A.E?a?ae?aa, A.Eeooaiooaei, E.?.Iaeeiaa, N.A.I?e?o?i,
I.A.?iiaiianueeee, A.A.Oaea?a. ?o i?aoe? iathoue i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee
oa?aeoa? ? oaeiae ni?yiiaai? ia ae??oaiiy ie?aieo ieoaiue iaoai?cio
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo oa ca/?iathoue i?aaia? i?iaeaie, ye?
aeiaaathoue eiiieaeniiai ae??oaiiy ia?aeaeueii c aeiiii?/ieie.

O cia/i?e i??? ia aea?? aeaii? oaie i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeioea oa ianoaaeia, ui c? caeiaoooyi Oe?a?iith
iacaeaaeiino? oa noaa?ai?oaoo, i?eeiyooyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ?
ni?yiiaaii?noth aea?aeaae aei oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oa
iaaoooyi aaeeeith e?eueeinoth i?aaiaeo aeo?a th?eaee/ii? neee, ui
ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieei o?iainiai-i?aaia? a?aeiineie i?ae aea?aeaaith oa
noa’?eoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeieeea iio?aaa o
eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei ui
aeieeathoue a i?ioean? ?iciiae?eo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo ?
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a, ui ? iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie
o?iainoaaiiy aeaieo aeaeaoe?a.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aeiineie, a?aaoeueiaai?
i?aaiaeie ii?iaie, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ieaioaaiiy, o?iainoaaiiy c
aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a aeaeaoe?a ia cae?eniaiiy iaoeiai? oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? ?? eii?aeeiaoe??.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea noeoii?noue
caaaeueii-iaoeiaeo oa niaoe?aeueii-aaeocaaeo iaoiae?a oa i?eioeei?a,
canoinoaaiiy yeeo aeicaieeei anaa?/ii aeine?aeeoe ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy
o aca?iica’yceo, aca?iicaeaaeiino? oa oe?e?niino?, ca-aeey ae??oaiiy
caaaeaiue, iieeaaeaieo ia?aae aeena?oaioii. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oeeo oe?eae
aaoi?ii o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii ?yae oaeeo caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye ae?aeaeoe/iee, ia?ao?ae a?ae caaaeueiiai aei
iniaeeaiai oa eiie?aoiiai, ?, iaaiaee, nioe?aeia?/iee iaoiae, a oaeiae
nenoaiaoe/iee, ?noi?e/iee, eia?/iee oa ii??aiyeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaoiaeieia?y aoaeue-yeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?yae ?c caaaeueieie
i?eioeeiaie oa i?eeiiaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo
niaoe?aeueieo th?eaee/ii-aaeocaaeo iaoiae?a oa i?eioeei?a, i?aaeeueiee
aea?? yeeo aeicaiey? nenoaiaoecoaaoe oa i?iaanoe ioe?ieo aeaiieo,
caeo/aieo aei iaienaiiy ?iaioe. Cie?aia, iaoiae ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai
aiae?co, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e aea/aii? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, iaoa??ae?a
th?eaee/ii? i?aeoeee Oe?a?ie oa no/anieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i a?aee?eaa?
cia/i? iiaeeeaino? aeey iiaeeaeaiiai aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aea?aeaaiiai
o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? oa ?ic?iaee oeyo?a eiai iiaeaeueoiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy. ?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaee i?eioeei aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe
aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ia iaoeo, iaoiaee ?o ?iciiae?eo oa oi?ie iaaeaiiy a
?o ?noi?e/iiio aca?iica’yceo, aecia/eoe iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo
?inoeoooo oa, ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeaoe iaoeiao ioe?ieo
no/aniiio noaio ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy
caaaeueii-iaoeiaeo oa th?eaee/ii-aaeocaaeo iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a iaaeaei
iiaeeea?noue iiaiiai oa ia’?eoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? i?aaeiaoii
?iaioe i?iaeaie o?iainiaiai i?aaa.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/aiiy noo? ? iniaeeainoae
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a oa iaoeo c ??cieo oiiae?a eioo?a oa
i?noey na?aae ieo eioo?a Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aeyaeoe i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaoiae?a ?o
?iciiae?eo, iaea?eueoo oaaao, i?e oeueiio, i?eae?eyth/e o?iainoaaiith,
ye iniiaiiio c ieo.

I?iaiae?coaaoe aieea niaoeeo?ee iaoeiai? ae?eueiino?, ye iniaeeaiai
aeaeo noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainiaiai
caaacia/aiiy iaoee, a oiio, ia?aae cae?eniaiiyi aiae?co ?nioth/i?
nenoaie o?iainoaaiiy, aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? naieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ? ia’?eoii o?iainoaaiiy. Aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i a?aeiinei, ui
aeieeathoue o noa?? aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea?aeaaieo
oiiae?a eioo?a, oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a ?o cae?eniaiiy oa oi?i
?aae?caoe??.

Aeine?aeeoe o? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeenue o i?aeoeoe? o?iainiaiai
caaacia/aiiy iaoee, ye? aeieeee aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo o?iainiai? nenoaie
N?N? oa noaiiaeaiiy o?iain?a Oe?a?ie ye noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae.
Ocaaaeueieoe i?aeoeeo o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia, o?iainiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai oa aea?aeaaiiai
caiiaeaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?o, ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy o?iainiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o aaeoc? aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo,
c iaoith e?ea?aeaoe?? iaocaiaeaeaiino? i?ae ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie,
i?eaaaeaiiy ?o ci?noo o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei ii?i Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie
oa caeiiiaeaanoaa, o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae aea?aeaae oa iio?aa
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aaia? ii?ie /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye? a?aaoeueiaothoue o?iainia? i?aaia?aeiineie o noa??
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, ui i?noyoueny o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, caeiiao
Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o noa?? iaoee ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino?”, “I?i athaeaeaoio nenoaio Oe?a?ie”, “I?i
i?aei?e?iieoeoai”, “I?i i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy, “I?i iinoaaee
i?iaeoeoe?? aeey aea?aeaaieo iio?aa”, “I?i nenoaio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy”,
ui??/ieo Caeiiao Oe?a?ie “I?i aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao”, aaaaoueio ?ioeo;
iinoaiiaao Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, oeacao oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiyo
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, iinoaiiaao Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, iaeacao,
?iciiaeyaeaiiyo oa eenoao I?i?noa?noaa o ni?aaao iaoee ? oaoiieia?e,
I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee, Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa
oa aeayeeo ?ioeo.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ii??aiyiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa oa
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ?yaeo ?icaeiaieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, cie?aia, NOA,
O?I, ssiii??, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, Aaeuea??, Aieaiae??, ?ioeo c
ieoaiue aeaeaoe?a aea?aeaae ia iaoeo.

Aii??e/io aaco i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee:

I?aeoeea ae?yeueiino? o?iainiaeo i?aai?a oa i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ?
ei?aeeiaoe?? iaoee – I?i?noa?noaa ? ni?aaao iaoee ? oaoiieia?e, I?io?io,
I?iaeiiii?ee, Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
Aea?aeaaiiai ?iiiaaoe?eiai oiiaeo oa *a?i?aaoeueeiai iaeaniiai
a?aeae?eaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo.

Aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo Aea?aeeiinoaoo, I?iiaoee, Aea?aeaaiiai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo oa Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?i o?iainoaaiiy iaoee a Oe?a?i? ca 1994-1997 ?iee.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai iniaenoiai aea/aiiy i?aeoeee o?iainoaaiiy c
aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aa?iiaeueieo onoaiia
Iaoe?iiaeuei?i? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie oa *a?i?aaoeueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui oea
ia?oa eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo.
O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aea/ai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy,
iia’ycai? c aeei?enoaiiyi ? iiaeaeueoei oaeineiiaeaiiyi iieiaeaiue
no/aniiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a?aeii/eo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a. I?iaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy a iaai?e i???, ia iaoo aeoieo, eiiiaino? ie?ai? iayai?
i?iaaeeie a oai??? iniaeeai? /anoeie o?iainiaiai i?aaa, cie?aia, a
oai??? aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo. O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy,
i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui a?aecia/athoueny nooo?aith
iiaeciith ? o nai?e noeoiiino? neeaaeathoue ?? iaoeiao iiaecio.

Aeaiaioe iiaecie iieyaathoue o:

aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiaeo iniia aecia/aiiy ia’?i?a aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a
ia iaoeo, i?iaeaie ?o i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy, aecia/aii? iioeiaeueiiai ?o
?ici??o ye acaaae?, oae ? ii ie?aieo noaae?yo;

eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?nioth/iai i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio, /a?ac yeee
aea?aeaaa a?aaoeueiao? aeaeaoee ia iaoeo;

aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiai? aace o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei o iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
noa??;

aeine?aeaeaii? oa oai?aoe/iiio aecia/aii? iaoiae?a ?iciiae?eo
aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a eioo?a ? i?noey na?aae ieo iaoiaeo
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo;

aianaii? i?iiiceoe?e aeiiiaieoe ?nioth/? iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo aea?aeaaieo
oiiae?a eioo?a: o?iainoaaiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy oa iiaeaoeiaa noeioethaaiiy
noaneaeoaaiiyi oa o aianaii? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noai?eoe a?aeiia?aeio
i?aaiao aaco, yea a cae??iethaaea oae? iieiaeaiiy, eiia??i? iii?i?
iiiaioe yei? iaaaaeaii o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?;

eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?aaeei?a o?iainoaaiiy oa oi?i ?o iaaeaiiy;

aeine?aeaeaii? oaeeo ?aaeei?a o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, ye aaciaee athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniee oa i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee
ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo;

aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeae?a athaeaeaoii-eiooi?enii? oa
aeiaia??ii? oi?i o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo a no/anieo oiiaao;

aeine?aeaeaii? eiea noa’?eo?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e, ye? aenooiathoue
noa’?eoaie o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo, oa. cie?aia, athaeaeaoii-i?aaiaeo
a?aeiinei oa iiaeeeaeo aeaea?ae ?o o?iainoaaiiy, i?e/iio aia?oa
aeine?aeaeaii oa aecia/aii iiaeeea?noue noaiiaeaiiy o yeino? noa’?eoa
oeeo a?aeiinei o?ce/ii? iniae;

aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy nenoaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia
iaoeo, ui cae?enith?oueny ca aea?aeaaiee ?aooiie;

aia?oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa nenoaiaoecaoe?? no/anii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai?
aace c ieoaiue aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
cae?enith?oueny c ??cieo aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a eioo?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

iaoea ? iniaeeaei ia’?eoii, ?icaeoie yeiai iio?aao? aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee oeyoii aeae?eaiiy ia ?? ?icaeoie aecia/aii? /anoee eioo?
a?ae AII, yea a iie?eaaea o? aeaeeoee, ye? ia io?eiothoue ?eieiai?
i?aeo?eiee;

ii?yae c o?iainoaaiiyi, ye iniiaiei iaoiaeii ?iciiae?eo iia?e?ciaaieo
a?ioiaeo eioo?a o aea?aeaaieo oiiaeao, iaiao?aeia i?aaiaa cae??ieaiiy oa
?icaeoie oaeeo iaoiae?a, ye iiaeaoeiaa noeioethaaiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy oa
noaneaeoaaiiy;

o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/io ae?yeuei?noue cae?enith?oueny
oeyoii canoinoaaiiy ?aaeei?a: athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai (ye aeaeaoe?a
iaoeiai? onoaiiae, oae ? aeaeaoe?a onoaiiae ia aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
caiiaeaiiy); i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai (aea?aeaaiee eiio?aeo oa aea?aeaaia
i?ia?aia oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aeiaia??ii? oi?ie o?iainoaaiiy);

i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa o?iainoaaiiy cae?enith?oueny oeyoii canoinoaaiiy
iaoiae?a: o?iainoaaiiy i?ia?ai oa eiio?aeo?a;

noa’?eoaie athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai o?iainoaaiiy aenooiathoue eeoa
aea?aeaai? iaoeia? onoaiiae;

noa’?eoaie aeiaia??iiai o?iainoaaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii aei iniia
caeiiiaeaanoaa aenooiathoue: iaoeiai-aeine?aei? onoaiiae on?o oi?i
aeaniino?; ie?ai? a/ai? oa aeine?aeieoeuee? a?oie;

aei aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo a?aeiinyoueny:
Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao, i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe oa athaeaeao Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei, oeaio?ae?ciaai? iicaathaeaeaoi? niaoe?aeuei? oiiaee
o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie oa aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai?
iicaathaeaeaoi? oiiaee iaoeiaeo onoaiia.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o
oiio. Ui aaoi? i?ia?a oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ieoaiue i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei o noa?? aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
naia ii nia? ia? aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Aeena?oaioii
i?iiiio?oueny ?yae iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?ic?iaee ?
aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ye? iathoue e?ioeaaith iaoith
iie?auaiiy o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy iaoee ?c a?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae
aea?aeaae o aeae?eaii? iaaieo ?ano?n?a aeey caaacia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui cae?eniththoueny o iaaeao aecia/aieo
aea?aeaaith iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i??i?eoao?a.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeeeaaeaii?
eo?no O?iainiaiai i?aaa, cie?aia, eiai iainaeai? /anoeie, i?e iaienaii?
i?ae?o/iee?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue neoaoaaoe ye iniiaith aeey
iiaeaeueoeo aei?ne?aeaeaiue o aeai?e aaeoc?, oae ? aacith aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy iniia i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue
i?e cae?eniaii? aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y, ioae?eaoe?y oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ? iaaiai?aia ia eaoaae??
eiinoeoooe?eiiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oa o?iainiaiai i?aaa
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?noeoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a. Ie?ai?
ieoaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeioiae?a oa aeaeaoe?a”,
ui a?aeaoeanue i?ae aa?aeith Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie 24-26
aa?aniy 1998 ?ieo o Iieoaa?.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 3 noaoo? caaaeueiei ianyaii 25
noi??iie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
oa ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a (255 iaeiaioaaiiy), aeiaeaoeo, caaaeueiee ianya
i?aoe? – 186 noi??iie.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy a oiiaao
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a ?eieiaeo a?aeiineiao; aecia/aii i?aaeiao ?
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoa ? iniiai? eiai caaaeaiiy, iieacaii iaoeiao
iiaecio io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, i?aeoe/ia oa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe,
aeacaii nooi?iue ?ic?iaee aeaii? i?iaeaie oa iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno.

?ICAe?E IA?OEE “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. A oeueiio
?icae?e? aaoi? iaiaaaany aeine?aeeoe iaoeo ye niaoeeo?/iee ia’?eo
o?iainoaaiiy, aieea ?? iniaeeainoae ia ?aaeei oa oi?io o?iainoaaiiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiii i?aaia? aniaeoea oi?aae?iiy, i?aai?caoe? oa o?iainoaaiiy
iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?, iaoith yeiai ? aecia/aiiy iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueieo oiia ?iciiae?eo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a aea?aeaae ia i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie.

O I?ae?icae?e? 1.1 iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?nioaaiiy iaoee ye
ia’?eoa o?iainoaaiiy oa ieoaiiy iioeiaeueiiai i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy
?ici??o iaiao?ieo aeaeaoe?a, ui ni?yiiaothoueny c aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a
eioo?a ia ?? ?icaeoie oa ?o aoaeoeai?noue.

Iaiao?aei?noue cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaith aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo iiynith?oueny
oei, ui aiia ? oei ia’?eoii, ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo yeiai ca aeiiiiiaith
?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a iaaeinoaoi?, a o aeiaaeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue – acaaae? a?aenooi? c iaeyaeo ia aeiaaio?eaaeee oa?aeoa?
i/?eoaaiiy, iaaecia/aii?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? iaiao?aei?noue aenieeo
aeo?ao ia i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. ??no aeo?ao aea?aeaae ia’?eoeaii
iaiaaeaiee ?ici??ii /anoee AII, ui eieeaa?oueny o ??cieo e?a?iao, c
iaeyaeo ia ?o iaoeiai-oaoi?/io iie?oeeo, a?ae 0,5 aei 3,5 a?aenioe?a.
Oe?a?ia a?aeiineoueny aei oeo, ye? aieiae?thoue aeineoue aaeeeei
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei iioaioe?aeii, a oiio iiaeiia ca-aeey eiai caa?aaeaiiy,
?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?thaaiiy ni?yiiaoaaoe, ye ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, oae ? ia aeoieo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ?aaee Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, a?eueoa 2-o a?aenioe?a a?ae
AII, a ia 0,8, ye o 1998 ?ioe?.

E?eoa???i aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia
iaoeo ?, ie??i /anoee AII, aecia/aiiy /anoee aea?aeaaieo eioo?a na?aae
?ioeo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy iaoee. O a?eueoino? aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo
e?a?i aiia ia ia?aaeuo? 50-oe a?aenioe?a. Oaiaeaioe?y oaea: /ei neaaoa
aeiiii?ea e?a?ie ? aioo??oi?e iiieo ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, oei
aeua /anoea aea?aeaaieo eioo?a na?aae ?ioeo, ui ni?yiiaothoueny ia
o?iainoaaiiy iaoee.

A Oe?a?i? ca ?aooiie aea?aeaaieo aeaea?ae iie?eaa?oueny a?ey 60-oe
a?aenioe?a caaaeueieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo. Aeey caaeainoaaiiy ?ici???a
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo a Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeii aeeoe ia 45-50 a?aenioeiaa ??
o?iainoaaiiy ca ?aooiie aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a, ui iio?aao?
cae??ieaiiy i?aaiaeo canaae noeioethaaiiy caiiaiee?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? iaaea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino?; ca?eueoaiiy a?aenioeo eioo?a,
ui nea?iao?oueny ia iaoeo c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, ?onioae?eainueeiai
athaeaeaoo A?E oa i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a; cae??ieaiiy i?aaiaeo canaae
oi?ioaaiiy ca ?aooiie iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei Aea?aeaaiiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
oiiaeo oeaio?ae?ciaaieo aaeocaaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo niaoe?aeueieo oiiae?a
o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie. Iio?aao? oaeiae i?aaiaiai
cae??ieaiiy, na?aae oe??ieaieo noaooae Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, noaooy
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, c iaoith iai?aeiaaeaiiy ?? i?ae nei?i/aiiy.

O I?ae?icae?e? 1.2 cae?eniaii aiae?c caaaeueieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo oa ?o
?iciiae?e ca aeaeaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie aeaeaoe?a.

A iniiao eeaneo?eaoe?? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iieeaaeaii ??cio nooi?iue
oai?/ino?, nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? o oe?eyo oa ci?no? ?ia?o, a i?noeyo
i?aai?caoe?? ?o i?iaaaeaiiy, o oi?i? e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo aeeiiaieo
?ia?o ?, a?aeiia?aeii, o aeaea?aeao ?o o?iainoaaiiy. Ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo noaae?e aiae?co?oueny ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa
oi?aae?iiy iaoeiaith ae?yeuei?noth ia eiaei?e noaae??, o?iainoaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ?ia?o, oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai oa i?aaiaiai iaoai?ci?a
ca’yceo iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? c? noa?ith iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Ana oea coiiaeth? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy noaae?eii? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeyaeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ieoaiue o?iainoaaiiy
iaoee. Onth aaaaoiiai?oi?noue iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?o iiaeia iiae?eeoe
ia: ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy; i?eeeaaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy;
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ?ic?iaee.

Aeenoa?aio a?aecia/a? iac??eo iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee oa i?aaiaiai
cae??ieaiiy oeiiai? iaoiaeeee a?aeianaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ia?o aei oiai /e
?ioiai aeaeo, ui aeanoue ciiao a?eueo iaa?oioiaaii ieaioaaoe iio?aae
iaoee o o?iainiaeo ?ano?nao, aecia/eoe no?oeoo?o iaiao?aeieo aeaea?ae ??
o?iainoaaiiy oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeo?ao ia ??ci? aeaee aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aaoi?, aiae?coth/e ??ci? aeiiii?/i? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
ianyao aeeaaeaiue aea?aeaae o oie /e ?ioee aeae iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
oa aeina?ae aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i, ae?eoia aei aeniiaeo, ui
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noia?ieo aeaeaoe?a ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei?, i?eeeaaei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaee iiaeiia neeaaeaoe, a?aeiia?aeii, 14:12:64,
i?ioe ?nioth/eo o ian 10:30,2:59,8. Oiaoi iaiao?aeii a?eueoa o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a ni?yiiaoaaoe naia ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a ?acii
?c ca?eueoaiiyi a?aenioeo a?ae AII ia iaoeo cae??ieoe ?yae i?aaiaeo
ii?i, ye? a noeioethaaee i?eaaoiee eai?oae cae?enithaaoe aeaeaoee ia
?ic?iaee, oei naiei a??aiiaaaeeaoe onth nenoaio aeaea?ae ??
o?iainoaaiiy.

O I?ae?icae?e? 1.3. aeine?aeaeo?oueny noeoii?noue i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui
?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie o aaeoc? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeaee
oeeo a?aeiinei, oa i?aaeiao ?o ?aaoethaaiiy. Cae?eniaii oaeiae aiae?c
oi?aae?iiy iaoeiaith noa?ith ca aeiiiiiaith o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo cania?a.

Aiae?c iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iieaco?, ui nenoaiaoeciaai?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe ??cii??aei? ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii, ine?eueee o
noa?? iaoee neeaaeathoueny ??ci? ca nai?th i?e?iaeith a?aeiineeie:
iaeiia?, o?oaeia?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?, ainiiaea?nuee?, o?iainia?. Eiaeiiio
c yeeo a?aeiia?aea? aeanoeaee eiio iaoiae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.
A?aeiia?aeii a?aeiineie, ui neeaaeathoueny o noa?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? iiae?eythoue ia:

i?io?ethth/? (ui aeieeathoue i?ae aaciina?aaei?ie o/anieeaie iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o caiiaieeaie);

caaacia/oth/? (iaeiia?, o?oaeia?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?, o?iainia?).

Aeaia i?aoey i?enay/aia o?iainiai-i?aaiaei, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei
caaacia/oth/eo, a oiio aaoi?ii cina?aaeaeaii oaaao naia ia ?o i?aaiaiio
?acoethaaii?. Nenoaia o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei o aaeoc? iaoee
ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o caeiiiaeaanoa?, noi?iiaaiiio a inoaii?
?iee a Oe?a?i? i?ae oeneii ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i. Ci?no oeueiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
aecia/a?oueny oeiii aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ye? aiii iieeeeaia
ianeoaiaoaaoe oa iniaeeainoyie oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth. Iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii oa ?aaoethaaiiyi iaoee
?aae?co?oueny o ooieoe?yo: ieaioaaiiy, iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
eaae?ia?e, o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i?e oa eiio?ieth. Oi?aae?iiy ca aeiiiiiaith
o?iainiaeo aaaeae?a a oiiaao ?eieo noaaeoue ia?aae niaith ca iaoo
noai?aiiy iaeni?eyoeea?oeo oiia aeey iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
noeioethth/e o? noaae??, aea iaaeinoaoiuei ?eieiaeo noeioe?a, eiee
?ai?oa o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iee iaoiae oi?aae?iiy cae?enithaaany /a?ac
canoinoaaiiy aieueiaeo ??oaiue aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
/a?ac athaeaeaoia ieaioaaiiy ? o?iainoaaiiy. ?ieue aea?aeaae
ianueiaiaei? ia iaiaaeo?oueny, aea i??i?eoao iaaea?oueny ii?yae c
oi?aae?iiyi ooieoe?yi ?aaoethaaiiy, eii?aeeiaoe?? ? noeioethaaiiy.

Nenoaia i?aai?a, ui ea?othoue o?iainiaith ae?yeuei?noth o aaeoc? iaoee,
ia aeoieo aaoi?a, neeaaea?oueny c 5-oe ??ai?a, ia eiaeiiio c yeeo
aeei?enooao?oueny eiie?aoiee eiiieaen ooieoe?e, a oiio /ene?
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ia:

?-e ??aaiue: Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie (Eii?oao c ieoaiue iaoee oa ina?oe);

I-e ??aaiue: I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie (?aaea c ieoaiue iaoee oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee);

O-e ??aaiue: Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie (Eii?n?y c ieoaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo, Aea?aeacia/aenoai, I?io?i, I?iaeiiii?ee);

?Y-e ??aaiue: 1) I?i?noa?noai o ni?aaao iaoee ? oaoiieia?e;

2) I?i?noa?noaa, Aeaaeai??;

Y-e ??aaiue: ?aa?iiaeueiee (?aaea i?i?no??a A?E, i?noeaa? i?aaie
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee).

Ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy aenooia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia ae?yeuei?noue o oe?eiio, a
ia eiie?aoi? iaeeieoe?, ui cae?eniththoue iaoeiao ae?yeuei?noue.

?ICAe?E Ae?OAEE. O?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, ye i?aaiaee iaoiae
?iciiae?eo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a aea?aeaae neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a, o?ao?e c yeeo neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ia?aa?ao?a. O
?icae?e? aaoi? iaiaaaany aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy oaeiai
iaoiaeo ?iciiae?eo iia?e?ciaaieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a c aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a,
ye o?iainoaaiiy; eiai i?noea na?aae ?ioeo iaoiae?a; iaoiaee, ?aaeeie oa
oi?ie iaaeaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ia iaoeo.

O I?ae?icae?e? 2.1. aiae?co?oueny iiiyooy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a oa
iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a aea?aeaae ia iaoeo. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?enay/aia ia?niaeoeaai noai?aiiy o?iainiaiai iaoai?cio iaoee, aei yeiai
a aoiaeeee e?aaeeooaaiiy, nenoaia i?eueaiaiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa
noaneaeoaaiiy.

Aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee – iiiyooy aoae/a ca iiiyooy “aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe”.
I?ae aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie ?icoi?thoue o?aaoeueiaai? i?aaiaeie ii?iaie
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, ye? neeaaeathoueny i?e ?iciiae?e? oa aeei?enoaii?
oeaio?ae?ciaaieo oa aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaieo oiiae?a a?ioiaeo eioo?a ?
caaacia/othoue eiai aacia?aa?eia ooieoe?thaaiiy.

Aeaeaoee aea?aeaae ia iaoeo cae?eniththoueny oeyoii ?iciiae?eo
iia?e?ciaaieo a?ioiaeo o?iainiaeo oiiae?a. A no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao
i?eioeei aaciiai?ioiino? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a aeaui aeaeici?iaii.
Iniiaiiieiaeiith noaea oiiaa iaea?eueo ?acoeueoaoeaiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, a
oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo ?ano?n?a, ui
aeae?eythoueny ia iaoeo, ine?eueee c eiaeiei ?ieii ?o ?ici??
ciaioo?oueny.

I?ae ?iciiae?eii ?icoi?thoue o? oiiae, ia yeeo a?io? iieeaeathoue na?e
oiiae oa iinooiathoue a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy oiai noa’?eoa, yeiio ?o
aeae?eeea aea?aeaaa. A?aeiia?aeii, iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a
aea?aeaae ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith noeoii?noth oeo i?eioeei?a, ia iniia?
yeeo aeae?eythoueny c aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a o?iainia? ?ano?ne.
Na?aae ieo: o?iainoaaiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy, iiaeaoeiaa noeioethaaiiy,
noaneaeoaaiiy.

Oiiae, ui neeaeenue, aeiaaathoue noai?aiiy ia iniia? ii?i caeii?a «I?i
iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o naa?? iaoee oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?», «I?i iinoaaee i?iaeoeoe?? aeey aea?aeaaieo iio?aa»,
?ioeo, ye? aeicaieythoue canoiniaoaaoe caaaeaieo iaoiae?a ?iciiae?eo
aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a, ?aaeueiiai ?o iaoai?cio oa aecia/aiiy
aeaea?ae o?iainiaeo ?ono?n?a, c yeeo ae aiie iaaeaaaeenue.

Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii oi?ie oa aeaee caaaeaieo iaoiae?a, ui ciaeoee nai?
canoinoaaiiy a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao ? iathoue ciaeoe nai?
i?aaiaa cae??ieaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?iainoaaiiy, ye iniiaiiai
c ieo, ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei c?iaeoe aaoi?ii oae? aeniiaee:

i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo cae?enith?oueny ii?iaie:

o?ianiaiai i?aaa, ui ?aaoeththoue eiooi?enii-athaeaeaoiee ?aaeei
o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo onoaiia ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, ui
cae?eniththoueny eieaeoeaii aaoi??a;

o?iainiaiai, oeea?eueiiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai i?aaa, ui ?aaoeththoue
?aaeei aeiaia??iiai o?iainoaaiiy.

o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo cae?enith?oueny oeyoii:

iiaiiai aai /anoeiaiai iie?eooy aeaeaoe?a ia’?eoo o?iainoaaiiy, yeei
aenooia? iaoeiaa athaeaeaoia onoaiiaa (aaciaiai athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai
o?iainoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo iaoeiaeo onoaiia);

iie?eooy eeoa oeo aeaeaoe?a onoaiiae, ye? iia’ycai? c? cae?eniaiiyi
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?o ia caiiaeaiiy aea?aeaae (i?yiiai
athaeaeoaii-eiooi?eniiai o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a aea?aeaaii? athaeaeaoii?
onoaiiae ia iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?iaioe oa ?aaeeio o?iainoaaiiy ia iniia?
aeiaiai??a);.

I?ae?icae?e 2.2. i?enay/aiee i?iaeaiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ii?yaeeo
athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai ?aaeeio o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a iaoeiaeo
athaeaeaoieo onoaiia. Nenoaia aeae?eaiiy iaoeiaei onoaiiaai aneaioaaiue
ia aac? athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai o?iainoaaiiy, oi/ ? aeaeyaea?
?aa?aneaiith, a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ia? nai? ia?aaaae ? i?aoaiaeo? ia ??
caa?aaeaiiy, ine?eueee oaeei oeyoii o?iainothoueny, a iniiaiiio,
caeeaaee, ui niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia i?iaaaeii? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeine?aeaeaiue c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo iaoee,
ui i?aeo?eiothoueny aea?aeaaith, aea ia iathoue ?eieiaeo noeioe?a,
aeine?aeaeaiiyo o ?yae? nioe?aeueieo aaeocae, aea ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? o?iainiaa aaca iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiio o?iainoaaii? ciaoiaeyoueny eeoa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? caeeaaee aea?aeaaii? oa eiioiaeueii? oi?ie aeaniino?,
aeu? caeeaaee ina?oe, ui io?eiaee 3-e oa 4-e ??aaiue ae?aaeeoaoe??.
Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaaeaii no?oeoo?o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo onoaiia,
iniiaiei e?eoa???i yei? aenooiathoue oiiae oa iaoiaee ?o o?iainoaaiiy:

1.Iaoeia? caeeaaee, ye? ? eacaiieie aai /anoeiaie eacaiieo i?aei?e?inoa;

2.Aeaaeai??;

3.Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaoeia? caeeaaee;

4.Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaoeia? oeaio?e;

5.Iaoeia? caeeaaee oa aoce, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o i?aeii?yaeeoaaii?
i?i?noa?noa, a?aeiinoa oa aeaaeai?e.

A Oe?a?i? ?nio? ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue ia o?eueee o ?aoi?ioaaii?
o?ianoaaiiy iaoeiai? noa?e, a e o ?aoi?ioaaii? naii? ?? no?oeoo?e ye
iniiaiiai aeaiaioa, aac yeiai aeiaeia ?aoi?ia ia ae??caeaoia, ine?eueee
no?oeoo?a iaoeiaeo onoaiia, io?eiaieo o niaaeie Oe?a?iith a?ae N?N? ua
ia a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai aea?aeaae ? iio?aao? iaaaeiiai ia?aaeyaeo. ?o
o?iainoaaiiy eaea, /anii, eeoa ia oeiaeo ? aea?aeaa?, ? iaooe?.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa o i?ae?icae?e? i?enay/aia i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaiith
iaoai?cio athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai o?iainoaaiiy, eiooi?eniiio i?ioeano
oa i?iaeaiai, ui eiai oneeaaeiththoue. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui iniiaiei
e?eoa???i o?iainoaaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? athaeaeaoii? iaoeiai? onoaiiae
iiaeiia aenooiaoe ia aaaeaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a, a ?o cae?oi?noue
oa aioiai?noue i?eeiyoe ia naaa aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue, ye? aaaaeathoueny
i??i?eoaoieie aeey ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oa ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae.

O I?ae?icae?e? 2.3. aeine?aeaeothoueny i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia aeeiiaiiy iaoeiaeo oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?o.

I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai iaoiaeo o?iainoaaiiy cia?
oae? oi?ie o?iainoaaiiy, ye:

1)?iia?aoeaia oi?ia i?yiiai athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai ?aaeeio
o?iainoaaiiy eieaeoeao aeeiiaaoe?a i?iaeoo /a?ac ?aooiee i?ia?aeii?
i?aai?caoe?? o neeaae? yei? i?aoeththoue aeeiiaaoe? i?iaeoo (ie?ai?
i?iaeoe aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai (AeIOI));

aeiaia??ia, yea ia? aeaee:

oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a ia noai?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?ae
?icii?yaeieeii athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ae?oaiai ??aiy, ?icii?yaeeeeii
oeaio?ae?ciaaieo iicaathaeaeaoieo eioo?a oa i?aai?caoe??th-aeeiiaaoeai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ea??aieeaie ie?aieo i?iaeo?a,
ie?aieie aeeiiaaoeyie (oe?eueia? a?aioe Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue (AeOOAe), ie?ai? i?iaeoe AeIOI, i?iaeoe
Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo, aea?aeaaiee eiio?aeo);

oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a i?ae ?icii?yaeieeii athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ae?oaiai
??aiy, ?icii?yaeeeeii oeaio?ae?ciaaieo iicaathaeaeaoieo eioo?a oa
oaoi?/iei caiiaieeii ?ia?o, yeee o oeueiio aeiaaeeo oeeaaea? aeiaiai?e c
aeeiiaaoeyie IAeAeE? oa iana a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ye?noue aeeiiaiiy
?ia?o.

I?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee iaoiae o?iainoaaiiy aeeiiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue cae?enith?oueny oeyoii:

o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai eiio?aeoo ia aeeiiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
?ia?o, yeee oi?io?oueny ia iniia? iio?aa aea?aeaae a i?iaeoeoe??,
aecia/a/aii? a I?ia?aiao aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo.;

o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai, yea cae?enith?oueny eeoa ia iniia?
aecia/aieo aea?aeaaith iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i??i?eoao?a ? ia? oae? aeaee,
ye:

oe?eueiaa – i?e yeiio eiooe aeae?eythoueny ia aeeiiaiiy ie?aieo
caaaeaiue (i?iaeoe Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue);

i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa – ia’?eoii yeiai aenooiathoue eiiieaeni?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie (AeIOI, aaeocaa? IOI, ?aa?iiaeuei? IOI).

Aea?aeaai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
aea?aeaaiiai ieaio ?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee, yaeyth/enue eiai ia?oith
/anoeiith. Aei nenoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai, ia ye?
cae?eniththoueny aeaeaoee c aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a, aoiaeyoue:
i?aeaea?aeaai?, iaoe?iiaeuei?, aaeocaa? (i?aeaaeocaa?), ?aa?iiaeuei?,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? /anoeie iaoe?iiaeueieo, ?iaanoeoe?eieo, nioe?aeueieo oa
?ioeo i?ia?ai).

Oi?iothoueny i?ia?aie ia eiieo?ni?e iniia?. On? i?iaeoe, ui aoiaeyoue
aei i?ia?aie iiaeii? aooe iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ?aeeiith iaoith ?
no?ieaie aeeiiaiiy, aea, aaoi? caoaaaeo?, ui aeiaie? /anoi
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie oi?iothoueny ia iayaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
aei?iaeao, /a?ac ui ia? i?noea iaaeinoaoi? ocaiaeaeaiiy ?o ci?noo c
iaeaaaeeea?oeie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie caaaeaiiyie, ye? iaeaea ia
aecia/athoueny i?e iaa?oiooaaii? aeioe?eueiino? aeeiiaiiy i?ia?ai.

O?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai caiiaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? cae?eniaiiy ?ia?o oa
io?eiaiiy ?acoeueoaoo a aei?noei anoaiiaeai? no?iee, aea eiai
canoinoaaiiy iaiaaeaia aeey o?iainoaaiiy oeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aea ?nio?
cia/ia iaaecia/aii?noue a?aeiinii aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo.
Ia?aaaaa eiai canoinoaaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy o oiio,
ui a?i aeicaiey? no?iiai eiie?aoecoaaoe ii?iaoeae ? ieaiia? i?eiene,
?aae?coaaoe nai? aini?ic?aooieia? ?ioa?ane, nooo?ai iineeeoe i?aaia?
aa?aio?? nai?/aniiai oa ye?niiai aeeiiaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
?ic?iaie.

O?iainiaee aeiaia?? ? th?eaee/iith oi?iith oeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei,
ye? ca nai?ie aeiiii?/eie yeinoyie ? o?iainiaeie. A?i iiina?aaeeiao?
o?iainia? a?aeiineie, ui iinyoue aea?aeaaii-aeaaeiee oa?aeoa?, aea a
yeeo th?eaee/ia ia??ai?noue ia ia? eaoaai?e/iiai ae?aco.

Iniiaia iniaeea?noue o?iainiaeo aeiaiai??a i?i aeeiiaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oa aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o o oiio, ui
i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?o ? ciaia’ycaiiy ae??, a ?iaioa oa ?? ?acoeueoao, ye
iane?aeie eiai oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy.

Noa’?eoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? – aeeiiaaoeyie aea?aeaaieo
caiiaeaiue ia aeeiiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii
aei caeiiiaeaanoaa aenooiathoue:

iaoeiai-aeine?aei? onoaiiae iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino? (AeIOI,
aea?aeeiio?aeo, oe?eueia? i?iaeoe AeOOAe, i?iaeoe Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo);

ie?ai? a/ai? oa aeine?aeieoeuee? a?oie (aea?aeeiio?aeo, AeIOI, oe?eueia?
i?iaeoe AeOOAe).

Aea ?aaeueii ?nioth/ee iaoai?ci o?iainoaaiiy ia ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eaiiy
aneaioaaiue ie?aiei a/aiei oa eieaeoeaai, a eeoa iaoeiaei onoaiiaai
acaaae? ia aecia/aio oaiaoeeo, aai ia aeeiiaiiy iaaieo oe?eueiaeo
i?iaeo?a, aac aeicaieo ?o iaoe?eueiaiai aeei?enoaiiy. Oi/ iaa?oue
nueiaiaei? iiaeia a aoei ia aac? ?nioth/eo i?aaiaeo ii?i cae?enithaaoe
aeaia o?iainoaaiiy, ye aeciaia oa aei?iaoaaia o ?yae?
aeiiii?/ii-?icaeiooeo e?a?i oa iaiao?aei?noue o yeiio aeieea? naia a
ia??iae ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo. Aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii eiia??iee
iaoai?i o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaaoeyie yeeo
aenooiathoue o?ce/i? iniae ia iniia? ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa
iaaaaeaii oeyoe eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy.

?ICAe?E O?AO?E I?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a,
i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy niaoe?aeueii?
nenoaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy oa aeiiii?/iiai noeioethaaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

O I?ae?icae?e? 3.1. aiae?co?oueny iiiyooy aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy iaoee,
nenoaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy, ?? iaaeie?ee oa ieoaiiy iaao?aeiino? ??
?nioaaiiy oa i?noea o aeai?e nenoai? Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie.
Aeaea?aeii aenooia? aea?aeaaiee oiiae eioo?a, c yeiai ia iniia?
eiooi?eno a?aeioneathoue eiooe ia cae?eniaiiy iaoeiai? oa ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy aenooiathoue, ye
caaaeueiiainiiaea?nuee? oiiaee, oae ? niaoe?aeuei? oiiaee, ui iieeeeai?
aei aeeooy aeey caaacia/aiiy iio?aa eeoa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aei nenoaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? a?aeiinyoueny:

A) Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie (oe?eueiaee athaeaeaoiee oiiae –
Aea?aeaaiee ?iiiaaoe?eiee oiiae; a?aeii/ee athaeaeaoiee oiiae –
Aea?aeaaiee oiiae ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue);

A) i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe oa athaeaeao A?E;

A) oeaio?ae?ciaai? iicaathaeaeaoi? oiiaee;

A) aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai? iicaathaeaeaoi? oiiaee aea?aeaaieo athaeaeaoieo
iaoeiaeo onoaiia.

Iaaeie?eii o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo c ??cieo
aeaea?ae, ? iaeii/anii i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai
o?iainoaaiiy, ? oa ianoaaeia, ui ?icae?eueia o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia aeicaiey? iia?aoeaii ia?a?iciiae?eyoe
eiooe i?ae ie?aieie noaae?yie, ooo/ii ?ic?eaa? noaae?? i?eeeaaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaie oa cao?eio? no?iee aeeiiaiiy, oi/ ? ?nioaaiiy
oaeeo oiiae?a iaiao?aeia, ine?eueee ieie cae?enith?oueny i?e?iaei?e
a?aea?? iaeia?niaeoeai?oeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeo?a.

Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao ? ae??oaeueiei ? aieiaiei aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ine?eueee a iueiio eiioeaio?o?oueny a?eueoa
iieiaeia AII, ui aeicaiey? noni?euenoao aacia?aa?eii ni?yiiaoaaoe
o?iainia? ?ano?ne ia ?icaeoie iaoee ? oaoi?ee. O Aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao?
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeae?eaiiy eioo?a ia i?iaaaeaiiy IAeAeE? ii aaaeo/eo
aaeocyo iaoee, ?ic?iaeo aaaeeea?oeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeai.

Aaciaa athaeaeaoii-eiooi?enia o?iainoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo onoaiia o 1998
?ioe? ia?aaeaa/aeinue noaooath 7 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee
athaeaeao ia 1998 ??e” ? cae?enithaaeinue ca eeaneo?eaoe?eiei eiaeii,
a?aeiia?aeii:

“ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy athaeaeaoieo onoaiia” – 40101,

“o?iainoaaiiy iiooeiaeo ? i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue athaeaeaoieo
onoaiia” – 40201.

Iaoai?ci o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai caiiaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiee o ?icae?e?
??-io, ia?aaeaa/aany eiaeaie:

“iaoeia? /anoeie aea?aeaaieo, i?aeaaeocaaeo oa aaeocaaeo i?ia?ai” –
40202;

“aea?aeaai? ? i?aeaea?aeaai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie” – 40204;

“aea?aeaaiee eiio?aeo” – 40203.

Iniaeeao oaaao aaoi?ii cina?aaeaeaii, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui iaoai?ci
cae?eniaiiy aeaeaoe?a c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, ye aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy ?icaeyiooi o ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia ieoaii?
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainoaaiiy naia c Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo oa
Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, eiooe aei yeeo
iaaeoiaeyoue naia c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo.

Iaaeie?eii iaoai?cio oe?eueiaiai o?ianoaaiiy a?aio?a c Aea?aeaaiiai
oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? oa, ui i?e o?iainoaaii?
aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?iaeo?a ia eiaeai c ieo aeae?ey?oueny iacia/ia noia,
ui iio?aao? ia?aoiaeo aei iie?oeee a?eueo aei?noeiai eiieo?no, cia/ii
nei?ioeaoe e?euee?noue a?aio?a, yea ca?eueoeaeoe ca ?aooiie oeueiai ?o
?ici??. C on??? noie eioo?a, ui aeae?ey?oueny ia iaoeo aei AeOOAe
ni?yiiaothoueny eeoa 1,8 a?aenioe?a, eiee aeey ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaiao?aeii a?ey 14 a?aenioe?a, a iaaea?oueny aea?aeaaith
10 a?aenioe?a; 8,2 a?aenioea eaea ia o?iainoaaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o athaeaeaoi?e noa??, oeyoii athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai
o?iainoaaiiy. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a aeioe?eueii a aoei ca?eueoeoe /anoeo
eioo?a, ui ni?yiiao?oueny aei AeOOAe oi/a a aei 5-oe oa aeeth/eoe aei
iaoai?cio o?iainoaaiiy a?aio?a, aeciaaoe noa’?eoii iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
noa?e, a/aiiai, oeyoii i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy iaoai?cio ia?a?aooaaiiy
eiio eioo?a aeey aeeiiaiiy a?aioo.

?iiiaaoe?ei? i?iaeoe Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo – oe?eueiaiai athaeaeaoiiai
oiiaeo, yeee ? th?eaee/iith iniaith, ia?aaeaa/athoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o yeeo caoe?eaaeai?
i?ae?e?inoaa, oa inai?iiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeo, ui iaaeoiaeyoue aei
Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo a?ae I?iiaoee a ?acoeueoao? caaa?oaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie, ui aeeiiai? a?aeiia?aeii aei aea?aeaaieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai.

O I?ae?icae?e? 3.2. aiae?cothoueny o yeino? aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy iaoee
athaeaeao Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei oa i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe. Aiie
iiaeii? a?aeiineoenue aei nenoaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai? noa?e,
ine?eueee, yeui a o?e /e ?io?e i?iaeaiaoeoe? caoe?eaaeaiee ?aa?ii, oi
a?i naiino?eii ia? aeooeoaaoe e eiooe ia i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
?ia?o, ui iie?aueoue aeiiaeea?noue oa ia’?eoeai?noue a ioe?ioe? oaiaoeee
oa ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

Caaaeaiiy nenoaie ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeith iie?aa? ia?aon?i a
i?aai?caoe?? aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie a ?ioa?anao aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeieo ?aa?ii?a, a i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy;
noai?aii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia oa iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii?
noa?oeoo?e aeey i?iaaaeaiiy IAeAeE?, eiia?oe?ae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
aeinyaiaiue. Iniiaiith oa iaeia?niaeoeaiith oi?iith i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o ?aa?ii? ? ?aa?iiaeuei?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie (?IOI), ui ?ic?iaeythoueny ia’?aeiaiei
iaoeiaei eiiieaenii ?aa?iio.

Aaaeeeai ia?ai???iooaaoe iacaae?yio /anoeio iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo
Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi iio?aa o iaoeiaiio caaacia/aii? ?aa?iio. Aeey
i?aeoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy aa/eii aeaa oeyoe: iaoeiaa
caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?aa?iio ia aac? i?eioeei?a
aea?aecaiiaeaiiy ? oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeo?a o?eaaei? ae??, noai?aiiy o
eiaei?e iaeano? iino?eiiae?th/eo eii?n?e ii ?ic?iaoe? ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?ia?ai ? ae?iaeaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
iaeano? aai i?noa.

O I?ae?icae?e? 3.3. aiae?co?oueny i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a oa
i?aaia? iniiae ?nioaaiiy oaeiai oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai iicaathaeaeaoiiai
aeaea?aea, ye niaoe?aeuei? aaeocaa? oiiaee o?iainoaaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie. ?o iniiaia iaoa – o?iainoaaiiy aaeocaaeo oa
i?aeaaeocaaeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ic?iaie, a oaeiae caoiae?a, uiaei
inai?iiy iaoeiaeo oaoiieia?e ? ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeo aeae?a i?iaeoeoe??.
Aeaea?aeaie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a aei aeaieo oiiae?a aoee: 70-oe
a?aenioeiaa /anoea eioo?a, ui iaaeoiaeeee ca cai?ii aei Aea?aeaaiiai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo; i?eaooie i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ui
caeeoaany i?ney nieaoe iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie, aeia?ia?euei? aianee. Aea
eiooe ca cai?ii aei Aea?ae?iiioiiaeo ii/eiath/e c 1998 ?ieo aoiaeyoue
aei aeioiae?a Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo. Oey ianoaaeia, aea-oaeoi,
i?ecaaea aei ?o cieuaiiy. A ?o ooioe?thaaiiy iaiao?aeia c oeo i?e/ei,
ui, ii-ia?oa, aiie – iniiaia aeaea?aei o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
?ic?iaie, ui cae?eniththoueny aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa aaeocae ?
aeiiiiaaathoue oa’ycaoe o?iainoaaiiy iaoiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie c
e?ioeaaeie ?acoeueoaoaie ae?yeueiino? aaeoc?; ii-ae?oaa, cieuaiiy
aaeocaaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a cieceei a?aenioie a?ae AII, ui
ni?yiiao?oueny ia iaoeo c 1,8 o 1996 ?ioe? aei 0,8 o 1998 ?ioe?, ui
iae?aco ae a?aeaeeinue ia noai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e, acaaae?, ia
noai? iaoeiaeo onoaiia aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo onoaiia, cie?aia.

Aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aaeocaaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo oiiae?a ca
?aooiie iaia’yceiaeo cai??a aei ieo ? iiaeieaiiy ?nioth/eo noia?a/iinoae
caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a iaiao?aeia: i?eeiyooy i?eioeeiiai ??oaiiy
ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai? i?i noai?aiiy aaeocaaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo oiiae?a ca
?aooiie a?ae?aooaaiue aaeocaaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ui aoiaeyoue aei noa?e
oi?aae?iiy oeeo i?aai?a; aianaiiy ?aaeaeoe?eiiai aeiiiaiaiiy aei noaoo?
14 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i nenoaio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy”, yeei a?aeianoe ca?? aei
aaeocaaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo oiiae?a aei caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iiaeaoe?a ?
cai??a; aeeth/aiiy eioo?a aaeocaaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo oiiae?a aei neeaaeo
aeioiae?a Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo oa eiai aeaeaoe?a (ca ?icae?eii
o?iainoaaiiy iaoee); caoaa?aeaeaiiy Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a ii?y?yaeeo
aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a aaeocaaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo oiiae?a.

O I?ae?icae?e? 3.4. aeine?aeaeothoueny i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
oaeiai aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye
iicaathaeaeaoi? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai? eiooe athaeaeaoieo iaoeiaeo onoaiia,
ye? oi?iothoueny oa ciaoiaeyoueny o ?o ?icii?yaeaeaii? ? iaeiei c
eiia??ieo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo.

Naiio?iainoaaiiy ye iaeei c i?aeaeae?a o?iainoaaiiy ye iaoiaeo ?iiiae?eo
aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a iiaea noaoe a iaeaooiueiio, i?e iaeaaei?e
i?aeo?eioe? aea?aeaae, cia/iei aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy iaoee. Aea, c
a?aeiieo i?e/ei iiieo ia ?iaioe oaoiieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeoaea
iacia/iee, c ?yaeo i?e/ei, iaeieie, c yeeo ? aeniea aa?o?noue ?ia?o,
aeeiiaieo iaoeie ?inoeoooaie, i?ae aiaeia?/ieo ?ia?o ca ei?aeiiii;
aaaeea aeiiii?/ia e?eca aea?aeaae, aoe?eiio, oa ?? aaeocae, cie?aia.
Ie??i oiai, cai?noue i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaaa noeeueia ?icaea?aeaaethaaoe
nai? /ooeea? o aeai?e neooaoe?? noa’?eoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e –
?inoeoooe oaoiieia?/ii? noa?e. Ia aeaeue, iei? iaia? eiioeaioe??
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo ?inoeooo?a o no?oeoo?e, caeaoi? aeaeeoe o
?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Caeiiiaeaanoai iaaea? ?yae i?euea, ye? noeioeththoue aeeaaeaiiy
iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie, ui ciaoiaeyoueny o aea?aeaai?e aeaniino?, eioo?a o
iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea oeueiai ia aeinoaoiuei. Eiooe, ye?
ni?yiiaothoueny ia o?iainoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?o iiaeii?
ca?eueiyoenue a?ae aoaeue-yeiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Oeae i?aeo?ae aea?aeiee
? aea?aeaa? a oe?eiio, ine?eueee /ei a?eueoa eioo?a eoeia ia
o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ia?o a?ae eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo? oa a?ae
ainiaeiaia??ii? ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo onoaiia, oei iaioa aoaea
aeaeaoe?a, ye? ca ?ioeo oiia aeae?eythoueny ia oe? oe?e? c ?ioeo
aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? caaaeuei? i?aenoiee ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui noaiiaeyoue ci?no aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith ?nioth/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
ui ?aaoeth? o?iainiai-i?aaia? a?aeiineie i?ae noa’?eoaie
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? o noa?? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. sseei/oe I.ss. Iaoea ye ia’?eo o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaith // Iaoeiaee
a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei. 18.
I?aaiciaanoai.- *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. — N. 173-183.

2. sseei/oe I.ss. O?iainoaaiiy ye iaeia c ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy iaoeith //
Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Aei. 33. I?aaiciaanoai.- *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1998. — N. 185-194.

3. sseei/oe I.ss. I?aaia? ieoaiiy ae?yeueiino? Aea?aeaaiiai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei. 45. I?aaiciaanoai.- *a?i?aoe?: *AeO,
1999. — N.136-144.

sseei/oe I.ss. I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo a Oe?a?i?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.07.- oai??y oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai
? i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai; aaie?anueea i?aai.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aiae?c iniaeeainoae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo c ??cieo oiiae?a eioo?a oa i?noea na?aae ieo
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;
aeine?aeaeai? i?aaia? iniiae aecia/aiiy ia’?io aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia
iaoeo, i?iaeaie eiai i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy; i?iaiae?ciaai? oa oai?aoe/ii
aecia/ai? iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a eioo?a ?
i?noea na?aae ieo iaoiaeo o?iainoaaiiy; i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiae i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy iaoai?cio o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia iaoeo, ?aaeeie
o?iainoaaiiy oa oi?ie ?o iaaeaiiy; aeine?aeaeai? aeaee
athaeaeaoii-eiooi?eniiai oa aeiaia??iiai o?iainoaaiiy iaoee; i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c nenoaie aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;
i?iaiae?ciaaii /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai, ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? ii eiai
oaeineiiaeaiith, cie?aia, iie?auaiith i?aaiaiai noaoono oa eiea
noa’?eo?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e, aeiiiaiaiith ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a
?iciiae?eo aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a eioo?a ia iaoeo oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiae?a oa oi?i ?o o?iainoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ia iaoeo; iaoiaee ?ic-iiae?eo
aea?aeaaieo a?ioiaeo oiiae?a eioo?a; athaeaeaoii-eiooi?enia
o?iainoaaiiy; aea?aeaaiee eiio?aeo; i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa o?iainoaaiiy;
?aaeeie o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; noa’?eoe
o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei o iaoeia?e noa??.

sseei/oe I.ss. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo a Oe?aeia.-
?oeiienue.

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.07.- oai?ey oi?aaeaiey; aaeieieno?aoeaiia i?aai
e i?ioeann; oeiainiaia i?aai; aaieianeia i?aai.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo aiaeec iaoee eae niaoeeoe/aneiai iaueaeoa
oeiaine?iaaiey, aeeyiea aa iniaaiiinoae ia ?aaeei e oi?io
oeiaine?iaaiey; iniaaiiinoae i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia ia iaoeo ec ?aciuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ianoi n?aaee
ieo Ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea; enneaaeiaaiu i?aaiaua iniiau ii?aaeaeaiey iauaia ?anoiaeia ia
iaoeo, i?iaeaiu aai i?aaiaiai cae?aieaiey; i?iaaaeai aiaeec iaueo
?anoiaeia ia iaoeo, ianoa n?aaee ieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo
e eo ?anni?aaeaeaiea ii aeaeai iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee niioaaonoaaiii eo
eeaeaneoeeaoeee e niioiioaiea ?anoiaeia iaaeaeo ieie; niaea?aeeo aiaeec
niaieoiiinoe i?aaiauo ii?i, eioi?ua ?aaoee?otho ioiioaiey a noa?a
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiine, aeaeu yoeo ioiioaiee, i?aaeiao eo
?aaoee?iaaiey e aiaeec i?aaiauo iniia oi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee e
oeiaine?iaaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oeaeueth eioi?iai
aunooiaao ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiuo oneiaee ?anni?aaeaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia i?iaaaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee; aiaeece?oaony iiiyoea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia
iaoeo; aiaeece?othony e oai?aoe/anee ii?aaeaeythony iaoiaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa:
oeiaine?iaaiea, e?aaeeoiaaiea, noaneaee?iaaiea e nenoaia iaeiaiaiai
noeioee?iaaiey; ianoi n?aaee ieo iaoiaea oeiaine?iaaiey;
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiau i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaoaiecia oeiaine?iaaiey
?anoiaeia ia iaoeo, ?aaeeiu oeiaine?iaaiey: niaoii-athaeaeaoiue e
aeiaiai?iie, e oi?iu i?aaeinoaaeaiey aneaiiaaiee: aaciaia e i?yiia
niaoii-athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea, i?aaeinoaaeaiea a?aioia,
i?ia?aiii-oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea e oeiaine?iaaiea ainoaea?noaiiuo
eiio?aeoia, i?iaeaiu eo i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey; ?aniio?aiu aeaeu
niaoii-athaeaeaoiiai e aeiaiai?iiai oeiaine?iaaiey iaoee; aeaaony
iiiyoea enoi/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey iaoee; i?iaaaeai aiaeec nenoaiu
enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aa
iaaeinoaoee e aii?inu iaiaoiaeeiinoe aa nouanoaiaaiey; ioaeaeueii
i?iaiaeece?iaaii i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?anoiaeia eaaeaeiai ec
enoi/ieeia, e eioi?ui aaoi? ioiineo: Ainnoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao,
ianoiua athaeaeaou e athaeaeao A?E, oeaio?aeece?iaaiua aiaathaeaeaoiua
oiiaeu e aeaoeaio?aeece?iaaiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iao/iuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, i?iaeaiu eo nouanoaiaaiey, aeayoaeueiinoe e i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey ?anoiaeia eioi?ua inouanoaeythony ec ieo ia i?iaaaeaiea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ic?aaioie; i?iaaaeai aiaeec oaeiai
enoe/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia iaoee, eae
Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao, eio?ue aunooiaao iniiaiui n?aaee ae?oaeo,
iineieueeo iie?uaaao aieueooth iieiaeio noia?iuo ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo a
Oe?aeia, e oaeeo athaeaeaoiuo oeaio?aeece?iaaieo oiiaeia, eae oeaeaaie –
Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiiiaaoeeiiiue oiiae e aaaeiinoaaiiue –
Ainnoaea?noaaiiue oiiae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee;
i?iaiaeece?iaaii aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ii?iu eioi?iai
?aaoee?otho oeiainiai-i?aaiaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noaueaeoaie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia
iaoeo, ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii aai
niaa?oainoaiaaieth, oeo/oaieth i?aaiaiai noaoona e e?oaa noauaeoia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?u, aeiiieiaieth nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia
?ani?aaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia iaoeo e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia e oi?i eo oeiaine?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu ia iaoeo; iaoiaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa;
niaoii-athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea; ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?aeo;
i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea; ?aaeeiu oeiaine?iaaiey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe; noauaeou oeiainiai-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee
a iao/iie noa?a.

Yakymchuk N. Y. The legal regulation of expenditures on science in
Ukraine.- Manuscript.

The thesis for the scientific degree of the candidate of juridical
sciences in the speciality 12.00.07. is the theory of administration;
administrative law and process; financial law; banking regulation.

The dissertation contains the analysis of peculiarities of the legal
regulation of science expenditures from the various monetary funds and
the place of the State budget among of them during the transition to
free-market economy; the legal baselines of determination of volume of
the science expenditures, the problems of its legal fixation are
explored; the methods of distribution of the state monetary funds and
the place of the financing method among of them are analyzed and
theoretically determined; the bases of legal regulation of the mechanism
of the financing of science expenditures, the regimens of financing and
the forms of granting allocations are analyzed; the types of
estimate-budgetary and treaty financing of science are considered; the
analysis of the system of sources of the financing of scientific and
technical activity is carried out; the legislation currently in force is
analyzed, it was elaborated the suggestions on its development, on
improvement of legal status and the circle of the entities of scientific
and technical sphere, on the supplement of the the existing methods of
the distribution of the state monetary funds on science and the
development of methods and the forms of their financing.

Key words: state expenditures on science; the methods of the
distribution of state monetary funds; estimate-budgetary financing;
state contract; programly-target financing; the regimens of the
financing of scientific and technical activity; the entities of
financially-legal relations in scientific sphere.

Aanai?a ?., ?ai?ia ?. O anueiio na?o? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoee ? oo?aioith
aea?aeaae ? ai?ae?noth iaoe?? // A?niee IAIO. — 1996. — ?11-12. — N.
56-60.

Eaaiiaa I.E. I?aaiecaoeey e oeiaine?iaaiea enneaaeiaaiee a oneiaeyo
?uii/iie yeiiiieee // Aanoiee AI NNN?. — 1991. — ?9. — N. 28-40; Eiiei
I.I., Iaiioei A.I., Caeanneee A.A. I?aaiaia i?ino?ainoai iaoee //
I?aaiaaaeaiea. — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1993. — ?1. — N. 90-93.

Noiaoaaaa I.A. I?aaiaua i?iaeaiu oeiaine?iaaiey enneaaeiaaiee e
?ac?aaioie aeey i?iiuoeaiinoe: Aeen. eaiae. th?. iaoe: Iineaa, 1976. –
214 n.

Aonaaa A.A. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo:
Aeen.eaiae. th?. iaoe: Iineaa, 1976. – 212 n.

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