10

?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A. I. Ei?aoeueeiaiIaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

O?oaa Ay/aneaa ?aaiiae/

OAeE 347.21(477)

I?AAIAA ?AAOETHAAIIss Oe?IIEO IAIA??A A OE?A?I?

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 12.00.03. — oeea?eueia i?aai ? oeea?eueiee i?ioean;
n?iaeia i?aai; i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?. ?.
Ia/ieeiaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie *a?aiiee TH??e
Naiaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? iaoe aeui? oeiee
Aeca?a Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
?i. O. A. Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?aaa;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, Aaiaoeueea Ia?eia A?oae??aia, ?inoeooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai? A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo oeea?eueiiai ?
o?oaeiaiai i?aaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

I?eea?iaonueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? i?ioeano, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
?aaii-O?aie?anuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “12” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.50.24.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe
i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i. Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa ?i. A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252001, i. Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “6” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eo/a?aiei ?. I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
aea?aeaa? o ca’yceo c ia?aoiaeii Oe?a?ie a?ae ieaiiai? aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, ci?iththoue oa?aeoa? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa: a?aeiineie
aeaniino?, no?oeoo?o ? iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?thth/eo
noa’?eo?a, oi?ie o?iainiaeo ca’yce?a i?ae ieie, nooi?iue caoe?eaaeaiino?
an?o aa?noa ianaeaiiy a ?acoeueoaoao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Iei?oi? ia?aoai?aiiy ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, ye? ?niothoue a on?o ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?oo, ? aeiaaee
naith aeeoo?caeaoi?noue, aeiiii?/io oa nioe?aeueio aoaeoeai?noue.
I?ioyaii a?eueo 70-oe ?ie?a aea?aeaaa cayaeyea i?i iai?? i?aeei?eoe
?icaeoie iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei iio?aaai
noni?euenoaa. Iaeiae nenoaia ieaiiaiai ea??aieoeoaa, ui aaco?oueny ia
“anaia?iaei?e”, oaeoe/ii ciainiaeai?e oi?i? aeaniino?, ia c??aiyeueiiio
?iciiae?e? ? iaaeinoaoiueiio aeiiii?/iiio ?ioa?an?, oe?eeii aeeeth/aea
iiaeeea?noue ??oaiiy oaeiai caaaeaiiy. O?aaa nii/aoeo e?ea?aeoaaoe noa?o
nenoaio, uia ca?eueieoeny a?ae aaioaaeo ?? iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a.

Iiaa nenoaia a Oe?a?i? ii/aea oi?ioaaoeny iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a, eiee
aoea aeciaia iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aeiiii?/ia
i?aeoeea ianooiieo ?ie?a i?aeoaa?aeeea oo iaii?ooio ?noeio, ui iaeiei ?c
cania?a ?nioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? oe?ii?
iaia?e.

Nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoeaiee i?ioean ?icaeoeo ?eieo
oe?iieo iaia??a. Aeey oni?oiiai eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, e??i noaa?eueieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ?icaeiaii? ii?iaoeaii? aace ? eaae?o?eiaaieo
oao?aoe?a, iaiao?aeii aeeaiea oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eiai iaoai?ci?a ?
?ino?oiaio?a.

Iniiaiei ?ino?oiaioii oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ? oe?ii? iaia?e. Aiie iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? aeey e?aaeeooaaiiy ? ieaoaaeo, iia?e?caoe?? a?eueieo
eioo?a, o/ano? oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy o i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino?.

C /an?a IAIo ? aeiiaaeaaia ?nioaaa i?aaiaee ? iaoeiaee aaeooi ?c ieoaiue
oe?iieo iaia??a. Iaoeiaa ? iaa/aeueia e?oa?aoo?a i?eae?eyea oeueiio
aaaeeeaiio ? neeaaeiiio ieoaiith, aoeaaeueii, aeae?eueea ne?a o ?icae?e?
“Ia’?eoe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa”.

Ca aanue ia??iae ?nioaaiiy eieeoiueiai N?N? ?aeeiei iiiia?ao?/iei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi, i?iaaaeaiei o aeai?e aaeoc?, aoea i?aoey I.I.Aaa?eiaa
“A/aiiy i?i oe?ii? iaia?e” (1927).

A inoaii? aeae?eueea ?ie?a i?iaeaie oe?iieo iaia??a ?icaeyaeaeeny ia
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio ??ai? eeoa ?in?enueeeie a/aieie-aeiiii?noaie,
i?aaiaee aea aniaeo oe?iieo iaia??a ciaeoia na?e a?aeaeoie a iniiaiiio a
ie?aieo iaoeiaeo noaooyo ye oe?a?inueeeo, oae ? ?in?enueeeo oao?aoe?a.

Ana aeuaneacaia iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai
oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe?iieo
iaia??a a Oe?a?i? ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?a caoaa?aeaeaia A/aiith ?aaeith
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith caaaeueii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? i?ia?aie eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? i?ioeano, a
iio?i eaoaae?e aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i ioae?/iiai ? i?eaaoiiai
i?aaa Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ia oaio “Ia’?eoe
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai oe?iieo iaia??a, ye
ia’?eo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, ? iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iiiceoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?oiueiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe
aecia/ai? ianooii? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— noi?ioethaaoe iiiyooy oe?iieo iaia??a ? aeaoe ?o oeea?eueii-i?aaiao
oa?aeoa?enoeeo;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c ?oi?o i?aaiaeo iciae;

— aeaoe ?icai?iooo eeaneo?eaoe?th oe?iieo iaia??a, aeae?eeaoe th?eaee/ii
cia/ei? e?eoa???;

— aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo ie?aieo aeae?a oe?iieo iaia??a;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c oe?iieie iaia?aie a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/io aaco aeey
aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, neeaaeathoue
iaoeia? i?aoe? a?aeiieo o/aieo-th?eno?a c ieoaiue oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ?
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai oe?iieo iaia??a: I. I. Aaa?eiaa,
A. A. Aeoiaanueeiai, I. A. Aeca?e, A. A. Aeie?inei?, E. A. ?o?iiai?,
I. N. Eiooa, O. A. Eaoai?ii?, I. N. Eoci?oeiai?, I. A. E?anaa/?eiaa,
A. O. Ianeiaa, A. A. Iooe?ia, A. A. ?ynaioeaaa, I. I. Naae?eiaa,
A. ?. Nai/eea, A. I .Na?a??aa, A. A. Oa?oiaa, TH. E. Oienoiai, TH. N.
*a?aiiiai, ss. I. Oaa/aiei, A. O. Oa?oaiaae/a oa ?i.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ieoaiue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe?iieo iaia??a
aea/aia ia o?eueee th?eaee/ia, a e aeiiii?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, cie?aia i?aoe?
I.TH.Aeaen??aa, A.A.Ea?aoo?aa, A.A.Eieanieea, ss.I.I??e?ia,
A.N.Oi?eaiianueeiai, A.A.Oaeueaeiaia oa ?i.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee,
ii??aiyeueiee, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee, nenoaiiee iaoiaee.
Aeniiaee aaoi?a a?oioothoueny ia aiae?c?: a) Eiinoeoooe?? ? /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie; a) i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a; a)
caeiiiaeaanoaa ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? ? ?yaeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i;
a) ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a eieeoiueiai N?N?; ae) no/anii? ? aei?aaiethoe?eii?
iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? eiiieaeniei iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oe?iieo iaia??a, ye
ia’?eo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. Aia?oa ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai? aecia/aia
iiiyooy oe?iieo iaia??a, yea aiaeia?aaea? o? ?noioi? iciaee, ui aeanoea?
?i ye iniaeeaiio ??ciiaeaeo ?a/ae; ?ice?eoa i?aaiaa i?e?iaea
aacaeieoiaioa?ieo oe?iieo iaia??a; aeaia ?icai?iooa eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a
oe?iieo iaia??a; iaa?oioiao?oueny iaaeioe?euei?noue aeae?eaiiy ye
naiino?eiiai aeaeo oaeeo oe?iieo iaia??a, ye eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy
aea?aeaae, oiio ui ii nai?e noo? aiie ? ??ciiaeaeii iae?aaoe?e.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii?
iieiaeaiiy:

1. Noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy, ui oe?iiee iai?? — oea /?oei oi?iaeueiee,
i?eanaethaeii aeinoia??iee aeieoiaio, a?aeoai?aiee o iaia?ia?e, ?io?e
iaoa??ae?ciaai?e aai iaiaoa?iaeiciaaiie oi?i?, ui cana?ae/o? iaaia
iaeiiaa aai ?ioa i?aai, ?aae?coaaoe yea iiaeeeai eeoa oeyoii
a?aeiia?aeiiai aeei?enoaiiy naiiai aeieoiaioa.

2. C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aoaeue-yeee oe?iiee iai?? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a
aeaio aniaeoao: ii-ia?oa, ye niin?a ioi?ieaiiy yeeo-iaaoaeue
ciaia’ycaeueieo a?aeiinei; ii-ae?oaa, ye ia’?eo ?a/iaiai i?aaa.

3. C iaoith oaeineiiaethaaiiy ii?yaeeo niaaeeoaaiiy oe?iieo iaia??a
aeioe?eueii ia?aaeaa/eoe iiaeeea?noue ia?aaea/? oe?iieo iaia??a o
aeia??/a oi?aae?iiy ia oa?i?i aei i?eeiyooy niaaeueie, aai ae??oaiiy
nii??a i?i niaaeueio ? o.i.

4. C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui o caeiiiaeaanoa? aa?oi ?iciaaeoaaoe ?iaii?,
i?aea?i? ? i?aae’yaieoeuee? oe?ii? iaia?e, oa ui ia?ae?e oe?iieo
iaia??a, cae??ieaieo o caeii? ia iiaeiai aooe ae/a?iiei. E??i oiai,
iaaeioe?eueii aeae?eaiiy ye naiino?eiiai aeaeo oaeeo oe?iieo iaia??a, ye
eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy aea?aeaae, ine?eueee aiie ii nai?e noo? ?
??ciiaeaeii iae?aaoe?e. ?acii c oeei ? aeioe?eueiei a caeii?
?iciaaeoaaoe iuaaei? ? aeaiiceoi? na?oeo?eaoe, oiio ui aiie iathoue
?noioi? ?icoiaeaeaiiy a iniiaieo oe?eyo ai?n??.

5. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iayaiino? i?aaa aeoe?iia?a ia
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe cae??ieaiee a caeii?
iaia’ycie eiie?aoieo iinaaeiaeo in?a aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa
a?aeiia?aeaoe, ye ca naiee oaeo iaaeaiiy iaaeinoia??ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, oae
? ca caiiae?yi? oaeith ?ioi?iaoe??th caeoee.

6. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie, ui ia?aeaciee aaenaeue i?noeoue i?iiiceoe?th,
a ia iaeac i?i nieaoo a?ioiai? noie. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ianaiia?aae
aano?aeoiith i?e?iaeith aaenaey, ine?eueee, yeae o?aooa oeeaaeaea a nia?
iaeac, ?? ae?eni?noue iiaeiia aoea a noaaeoeny a caeaaei?noue a?ae
iayaiino? ? ae?eniino? i?aenoaae aeaea/? oeueiai iaeaco, a oaeiae, ui
?iaeinaiaio iaoeia i?aaiaa cia/aiiy o?eueee oiae?, eiee ianooiiee
iaea?aeoaa/ aaenaey aeneiaeoue caiaeo iaea?aeaoe oaeee aaenaeue c
?iaeinaiaioii. ?iaeinaiaio ? aieaaeyaeaiiyi ?iaeinaioa, iaeiae a?i
iiaeiai aooe caniiaaiee ia oaiae?, oiaoi aeainoi?iii?e oaiae? ?iaeinaioa
c ianooiiei aaenaeao?eia/ai.

7. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei ii?i Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
noa’?eoaie aaenaeueieo i?aaia?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, e??i th?eaee/ieo
in?a-noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, iiaeooue aooe ? o?ce/i?
iniae.

8. Noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy /ae?a
a Oe?a?i? iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai? c o?aooaaiiyi
iaeneiaeueii? a?aeiia?aeiino? ii?i iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ii?iai
Iaeiaeiaiai caeiio i?i /aee (1931 ?.), ui o iiaiio Oeea?eueiiio
eiaeaen?, a oaeiae o iia?e ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e
? oiiaeiao a??aeo” iaiao?aeii aeaoe iiiyooy iio?aeieo oe?iieo iaia??a ?
?aaeaiaiooaaoe iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai aeioneo e ia?ao.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii ni?yiiaaia ia
e?ea?aeaoe?th i?iaaeei, ui ? a iaooe? oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie c
ieoaiue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe?iieo iaia??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? /?oeo i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue. E??i oai?aoe/ieo
aeniiae?a ? ocaaaeueiaiue, aiii i?noeoue eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, ?aaoethth/iai a?aeiineie, iia’ycai? c
oe?iieie iaia?aie. Ie?ai? eiai oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
iieeaaeai? a iniiao iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo i?aaiai? aace ?aaoethaaiiy
aeioneo oe?iieo iaia??a, a oaeiae aeei?enoai? a o/aiaiio i?ioean? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
nooaeaio?a oa o/aniee?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, aoei ii?eethaeiaii ia 51-e (ea?oaiue 1997
?.), 52-e (ea?oaiue 1998 ?.), 53-e (eenoiiaae 1998 ?.) iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? iaoeiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa.
Aeena?oaoe?y aoea iaaiai?aia ia eaoaae?? aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i
ioae?/iiai ? i?eaaoiiai i?aaa Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?.?.Ia/ieeiaa. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?ae /an /eoaiiy eo?n?a “I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy
ia?ao oe?iieo iaia??a”; “I?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei
aeaniino?”; “Oeea?eueia i?aai”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a /ioe?ueio iaoeiaeo noaooyo ? a iaei?e a?ioo??.

No?oeoo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Ia?oee ?icae?e
i?noeoue aeaa i?ae?icae?ee, ae?oaee ?icae?e i?noeoue o?e i?ae?icae?ee, o
/aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee. Caaaeueiee ianya i?aoe? 198
noi??iie, ?c ieo nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 16 noi??iie (259
iaeiaioaaiue).

Iniiaiee ci?no iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny nooue ? noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, ?? cia/ei?noue,
iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, ?ice?eaa?oueny ca’ycie
ia?aiiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiiy c ieaiaie aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai
oaeoeueoaoo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa,
aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?iieo iaia??a”, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, iaaiaeeoueny oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?iieo
iaia??a, ye ia’?eo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. “Iiiyooy e iciaee oe?iieo iaia??a” iieacaii
noaiiaeaiiy aeaiiai ?inoeoooo a ?aaeyinuee?e ? no/ani?e th?eaee/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? ? ii?iaoeaieo aeoao, i?eaiaeyoueny ??ci? iiiyooy oe?iieo
iaia??a, aiae?cothoueny ?o iciaee, ?ice?eaa?oueny i?aaiaa i?e?iaea
aacaeieoiaioa?ieo oe?iieo iaia??a, iieacaia a?aei?ii?noue oe?iieo
iaia??a a?ae eaa?oeiaoeieieo ciae?a.

Iiiyooy oe?iieo iaia??a, noi?ioeueiaaia a no.1 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”, ca?aeii c yeith oe?ii? iaia?e — oea
a?ioia? aeieoiaioe, ui cana?ae/othoue i?aai aieiae?iiy aai a?aeiineie
iiceee, aecia/athoue aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae iniaith, yea ?o aeionoeea, oa
?o aeanieeii ? ia?aaeaa/athoue, ye i?aaeei, aeieaoo aeioiaeo o aeaeyae?
aeea?aeaiae?a aai i?ioeaio?a, a oaeiae iiaeeea?noue ia?aaea/? a?ioiaeo
oa ?ioeo i?aa, ui aeieeaathoue ?c oeeo aeieoiaio?a, ?ioei iniaai, ?
iaaaeaeei, a neeo oiai, ui o iueiio c?iaeaia ni?iaa on? ??ciiaeaee
oe?iieo iaia??a i?aeaanoe i?ae iiiyooy aeoe?? aai iae?aaoe??, e??i oiai
aiii ia a?aeaeaa? iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy oiaa?ieo oe?iieo iaia??a, oei
naiei ?noioii iaiaaeo? noa?o canoinoaaiiy Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii?
iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”.

A?aeiii, ui i?aaeiaoii oaiae ia oiaa?ieo a??aeao ? neeaaenuee?
na?aeionoaa (aa?aioe) — aeieoiaioe, ui cana?ae/othoue i?eeiyooy iaaiiai
aeaeo oiaa?o a noiaeua a??ae? aai ?ioa noiaeua ? ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey ia?aaea/? i?aaa aeaniino? ia oeae oiaa? a?ae i?iaeaaoey aei
iieoioey. Oe?iiei iaia?ii ? ? eiiinaiaio-oiaa?i?icii?yaeiee aeieoiaio,
ui iaaea? eiai aeanieeo i?aai ?icii?yaeaeaoeny aaioaaeai i?e oeeaaeaii?
aeiaiai??a ii?nueeiai ia?aaacaiiy.

Ia aa?oi aeacoaaoe o iiiyoo? oe?iiiai iaia?o ? ia iiaeeea?noue aeieaoe
a?aenioe?a aai aeea?aeaiae?a, oiio ui oea oa?aeoa?ii eeoa aeey aeayeeo
oe?iieo iaia??a (aeoe?e, iae?aaoe?e, iuaaeieo na?oeo?eao?a). Ui aei
oaeeo iaia??a ye aaenaeue, /aee, eiiinaiaioe, i?eaaoecaoe?ei? iaia?e, oi
iaea?aeaiiy ca ieie i?eaooe?a ae?th/ei caeiiiaeaanoaii ia ia?aaeaa/aii.

Aaaaeaaii, ui a?eueo aaeaea iiiyooy oe?iiiai iaia?o aoei iaaaaeaii o
no.31 Iniia oeea?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Nithco ?N? ? ?anioae?e (1991
?.), aea oe?iiei iaia?ii aeciaaaany aeieoiaio, ui cana?ae/o? iaeiiaa
i?aai, yea iiaea aooe cae?eniaii eeoa i?e i?aae’yaeaii? i?ea?iaeo
oeueiai aeieoiaioa. I?aai, cana?ae/aia oe?iiei iaia?ii, iiaea aooe
ia?aonooieaii ?io?e inia? eeoa oeyoii ia?aaea/? oe?iiiai iaia?o.

Aeieoiaio aecia?oueny oe?iiei iaia?ii ia a neeo i?eoaiaiieo eiio
i?e?iaeieo aeanoeainoae , a oiio, ui a?i i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aaa eiai
aeanieea ia iaai? iaoa??aeuei? aai iaiaoa??aeuei? aeaaa, ?a/?, a?io?,
ae?? 3-io in?a, ?io? oe?ii? iaia?e. Na?aae ia’?eo?a oeea?eueieo
i?aaia?aeiinei oe?ii? iaia?e caeiathoue iniaeeaa i?noea, ui
iiynith?oueny ?oiueith aeoae?noe/iith i?e?iaeith. Aoaeue-yeee oe?iiee
iai?? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o aeaio aniaeoao. Ii-ia?oa, ye niin?a
ioi?ieaiiy aoaeue-yeeo ciaia’ycaeueieo a?aeiinei. O aeaiiiio ?ac? iiaeia
aiai?eoe i?i i?aaa, cana?ae/ai? oe?iiei iaia?ii, aai i?i “i?aaa c
iaia?o”. E??i oeueiai oe?iiee iai?? aaaaea?oueny iaeiii, ia yea iiaeooue
aeieeaoe i?aai aeaniino? aai ?io? ?a/ia? i?aaa (iiaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai
a?aeaiiy, iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy), a?i iiaea aooe ia’?eoii ??cieo
oaiae. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i “i?aai ia iai??”.

Aoaeue-yeee oe?iiee iai?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o?niei ? ia?ic?eaiei
ca’yceii i?ae i?aaii “ia” oe?iiee iai?? ? i?aaii “?c” oeueiai iaia?o.
Oeae ca’ycie, yeee anoaiiaeth? iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy i?aa “?c”
oe?iiiai iaia?o a caeaaei?noue a?ae aieiae?iiy i?aaaie “ia” oe?iiee
iai??, aeicaiey? a?aeiaaeoaaoe oe?ii? iaia?e a?ae eaa?o?iaoeieieo
ciae?a.

Iiaeia aeae?eeoe ianooii? iniiai? iciaee oe?iieo iaia??a: 1. Aoaeue-yeee
oe?iiee iai?? — oea aeieoiaio, ui cana?ae/o? iaaia iaeiiaa i?aai aai
noeoii?noue i?aa. 2. Oe?iiee iai?? — oea aeieoiaio, ia?ic?eaii ca’ycaiee
?c ao?eaiei o iueiio iaeiiaei i?aaii, oiio ui ?aae?coaaoe oea i?aai aai
ia?aaeaoe eiai ?io?e inia? iiaeeeai eeoa oeyoii a?aeiia?aeiiai
aeei?enoaiiy naiiai aeieoiaioa. 3. Oe?iiee iai?? ? /?oei oi?iaeueiei
aeieoiaioii, oiio ui a?i iaia’yceiai iiaeiai i?noeoe ?aea?ceoe,
onoaiiaeai? caeiiii. 4. Oe?iiee iai?? caeaoiee aei oeea?eueiiai ia?ao,
ine?eueee a?i ? ia’?eoii iaeiiaeo oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo oaiae. 5. Oe?iiei
iaia?ai aeanoeaa iciaea ioae?/ii? aeinoia??iino??.

Oe?ii? iaia?e, ia?a yeeo aeicaieaii ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ? oe?ii?
iaia?e, ia ye? iioe?th?oueny ae?y caeii?a Oe?a?ie, iiaeooue aeioneaoeny
a aeieoiaioa?iie ? aacaeieoiaioa?iie oi?iao. I?e ia?aoiae? aei
aacaeieoiaioa?ieo oe?iieo iaia??a oaeoe/i? aeieoiaioe cai?iythoueny
caienaie, c?iaeaieie c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioeaaeo?e aaoiiaoe/iiai
ii?aoethaaiiy aeaieo. TH?eaee/ia cia/aiiy aieiae?iiy aeieoiaioii
cai?iaii th?eaee/iei cia/aiiyi ?a?no?aoe?? i?aaa aeaniino? ia iueiai.
Oaeei /eiii, o nenoai? aacaeieoiaioa?ieo oe?iieo iaia??a iiaeaiiy
oaeoe/ieo aeieoiaio?a cai?iaii ?a?no?aoe??th ia?aaea/? i?aaa aeaniino?
ia oe?iiee iai?? ?c ?aooieo i?iaeaaoey ia ?aooiie iieoioey. TH?eaee/ia
cia/aiiy aieiae?iiy iaia?ii cai?iaii th?eaee/iei cia/aiiyi caieno ia
?aooieo. Oiio aaaaea?ii, ui aacaeieoiaioa?iee oe?iiee iai?? — oea
noeoii?noue i?aa, cao?eniaaieo o aacaeieoiaioa?iie oi?i?.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe iiiyooy oe?iieo iaia??a, iayai? a e?oa?aoo?? ?
ii?iaoeaieo aeoao, ?ice?eaoe ci?no iciae oe?iieo iaia??a, iiaeia aeaoe
oaea aecia/aiiy oe?iiiai iaia?o. Oe?iiee iai?? — oea /?oei oi?iaeueiee,
i?eanaethaeii aeinoia??iee aeieoiaio, ae?aaeaiee o iaia?ia?e aai ?io?e
iaoa??ae?ciaai?e aai iaiaoa??ae?ciaaiie oi?i?, ui cana?ae/o? iaaia
iaeiiaa aai ?ioa i?aai, ?aae?coaaoe yea iiaeeeai eeoa oeyoii
a?aeiia?aeiiai aeei?enoaiiy naiiai aeieoiaioa.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. “Aeaee oe?iieo iaia??a” aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
??cieo aeae?a oe?iieo iaia??a. Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiith ?
caaaeueiiaeciaiith a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ? eeaneo?eaoe?y oe?iieo
iaia??a ia: ?iaii?, i?aae’yaieoeuee? e i?aea?i?. ?iciiae?e oe?iieo
iaia??a ia ?iaii?, i?aae’yaieoeuee? e i?aea?i? ia? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee a caeaaeiino? a?ae niiniao aecia/aiiy oi?aaiii/ii? ia iai??
iniae aecia/a?oueny ii?yaeie ia?aaea/? cae??ieaieo o i?e i?aa: iaia?e ia
i?aae’yaieea ia?aoiaeyoue oeyoii cae/aeii? ia?aaea/? naiiai aeieoiaioa;
i?aea?i? — oeyoii ?iaeinaiaioo; ?iaii? — oeyoii iinooiee a?aeiia?aeii?
aeiiae (oeani?).

Ca ci?noii ao?eaieo o ieo i?aa, oe?ii? iaia?e i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia
a?ioia?, oiaa?i? ? oe?ii? iaia?e, ui aeathoue i?aai ia o/anoue a
oi?aae?ii? aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii. A?ioia? oe?ii? iaia?e aeathoue
?oi?i aeanieeai i?aai ia iaea?aeaiiy aecia/aii? a?ioiai? noie.
Iai?eeeaae, iae?aaoe??, /aee, aaenaey, aeaiiceoi? e iuaaei? na?oeo?eaoe
oa ?i. Oiaa?i? oe?ii? iaia?e ao?eththoue o nia? i?aaa ia oiaa?e ?
iineoae. Aei oaeiai ?iaeo oe?iieo iaia??a a?aeiinyoueny, iai?eeeaae,
oe?eueia? oiaa?i? iae?aaoe??, eiiinaiaioe, aa?aioe. Oe?ii? iaia?e, ye?
aeathoue, e??i ?ioiai, i?aai ia o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? aeoe?iia?iei
oiaa?enoaii, ? i?ino? aeoe??, ui aeioneathoueny aeoe?iia?iei
oiaa?enoaii.

Noaooy 3 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”
cae??ieth?, ui a Oe?a?i? iiaeooue aeioneaoeny ? iaoe ia?a ianooii? aeaee
oe?iieo iaia??a: aeoe??; iae?aaoe?? aioo??oi?o ?anioae?eainueeeo ?
i?noeaaeo iicee; iae?aaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa; eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy
?anioae?ee; iuaaei? na?oeo?eaoe; aaenaey; i?eaaoecaoe?ei? iaia?e. Oey
ii?ia i?noeoue ae/a?iiee ia?ae?e oe?iieo iaia??a. Iaeiae ?yae
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a Oe?a?ie aeaco? e ia ?io? aeaee oe?iieo iaia??a. Oae,
Caeii Oe?a?ie a?ae 16 ea?oiy 1991 ?. “I?i ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io
ae?yeuei?noue” ia?aaeaa/a?, ui oe?iieie iaia?aie ? aeoe??, iae?aaoe??,
eoiiie aei ieo, aiie, aaenaey oa ?i. a ?iicaii?e aaetho?. Caeii Oe?a?ie
a?ae 28 a?oaeiy 1994 ?. a ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 22 o?aaiy
1997 ?. “I?i iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiy i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoa” aaiaeeoue iiiyooy
o’th/a?nieo eiio?aeo?a ? iioe?ii?a, aeey eio?eo oaeiae oa?aeoa?i? iciaee
oe?iieo iaia??a, ? ye? a na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? aeciathoueny oaeeie. Eiaeaen
oi?aiaaeueiiai ii?aieaanoaa Oe?a?ie cae??ieth? i?aaiaa iieiaeaiiy
eiiinaiaioo, caaaeueiiaeciaiiai oe?iiiai iaia?o. A?aeiia?aeii aei
Iieiaeaiiy “I?i ?iaanoeoe?ei? oiiaee oa ?iaanoeoe?ei? eiiiai??”,
caoaa?aeaeaiiio Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 ethoiai 1994 ?.
oe?iieie iaia?aie ? e ?iaanoeoe?ei? na?oeo?eaoe.

Aaaaea?ii, ui a?eueo aaeaeith, aoea a aeac?aea caeiio ia iaae/a?iiee
ia?ae?e oe?iieo iaia??a, oea aeaei a iiaeeea?noue aaiaeeoe iia? aeaee
oe?iieo iaia??a i?ae eiio?ieai aea?aeaae, o ca’yceo c oeei o /eiiee
oe?a?inueeee Caeii “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo” ?aeiiaiaeiaaii
aianoe a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie, ye? iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe oaeiae i?e i?eeiyoo?
iiaiai OeE Oe?a?ie. E??i oiai a Caeii? aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui a?aeianaiiy
aeieoiaio?a aei /enea oe?iieo iaia??a iiaea cae?enithaaoeny eeoa ia
i?aenoaa? i?yii? aeac?aee caeiio.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?iaanoeoe?ei? oe?ii? iaia?e”, o yeiio i?noyoueny
o?e i?ae?icae?ee, aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeoe?e, iae?aaoe?e, iuaaeieo ?
aeaiiceoieo na?oeo?eao?a.

I?ae?icae?e 2.1. “Iiiyooy ? aeaee aeoe?e” i?enay/aiee iaea?eueo
iioe?aiiio aeaeo oe?iieo iaia??a — aeoe?yi.

Aeoeiy — ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?iiee iaia? aac onoaiiaeaiiai oa?i?io
iaiao, ui cana?ae/o? /anoeiao o/anoue o noaoooiiio oiiae? aeoe?iia?iiai
oiaa?enoaa, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? /eainoai a aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa? oa i?aai
ia o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? iei, aea? i?aai eiai aeanieeia? ia iaea?aeaiiy
/anoeie i?eaooeo o aeaeyae? aeea?aeaiaeo, a oaeiae ia o/anoue o
?iciiae?e? iaeia i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa (No.4 Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”).

Ia iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny c iiiyooyi aeoe??, ui i?noeoueny a Iieiaeaii? i?i
aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, caoaa?aeaeaiiio iinoaiiaith ?aaee I?i?no??a
??ON? a?ae 25 a?oaeiy 1990 ?. ?601, o yeiio aeoe?y aecia/a?oueny ye
oe?iiee iai??, ui aeionea?oueny aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii ? canaiae/o?
i?aai aeaniino? ia /anoeo a noaoooiiio eai?oae? oiaa?enoaa. Oea oeaia
aecia/aiiy ciaeoei nai? i?noea e a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??. Aiaeia?/i?
iiiyooy aeoe?e i?iiiio? Ii?eii I.ss., Eieaniee A.A..

Aaoi? aeio?eio?oueny oi/ee ci?o, ui aeneiaeaia a e?oa?aoo?? Oaa/aiei ss.
I., Aioiiieueneith I. A., Eaoaiiiith O. A. i?i oa, ui iaeaaaeeea?oei
iaeiiaei i?aaii aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa ? i?aai aeaniino? ia iaeii,
iaaeaia noaoooiei eai?oaeii ia iiiaio aeieeiaiiy oiaa?enoaa. A?ioia?
noie e ?io? iaeiia? oe?iiino?, ye? aianai? ye aianie ca i?eaeaaiiy
aeoe?e, oe?eeii ia?aoiaeyoue o aieiae?iiy, ei?enooaaiiy ?
?icii?yaeaeaiiy aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa ye th?eaee/ii? iniae, oiaoi
aeanieeii iaeia aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa ? naia AO. Oea icia/a?, ui
aeoe?iia?ai ia iiaea iaeii/anii iaeaaeaoe i?aai aeaniino? ia oea ae naia
iaeii, ine?eueee i?aai aeaniino? aeae?eueeio in?a ia iaeia ? oaae iaeii
ia iiaea ?nioaaoe iaeii/anii e a iaeiaeiaiio ianyc?. Aeoe?iia? ia ia?
?a/iaiai i?aaa aieiae?oe, ei?enooaaoeny ? ?icii?yaeaeaoeny iaeiii
aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa aai eiai /anoeith. I?aaa aeoe?iia?a iinyoue
/enoi ciaia’ycaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Aeoe?iia? ia? i?aai ia aeea?aeaiaee ?
i?aai aeiaaaoe o aeiaaeeo e?ea?aeaoe?? AO /anoeo iaeia oiaa?enoaa, ui
caeeoeeiny i?ney caaeiaieaiiy i?aoaic?e e?aaeeoi??a, i?iii?oe?eio
aa?oino? aeoe?e, ye? iaeaaeaoue aeoe?iia?o. Oea a?aeiini?, a ia
aaniethoi? i?aaa, ine?eueee ciaia’ycaiei o oeeo i?aaia?aeiineiao ? eeoa
eiie?aoia AO. Ioaea, i?aaiii/iino? aeoe?iia?a iathoue ciaia’ycaeueio, a
ia ?a/iao i?aaiao i?e?iaeo.

Aeae? aiae?cothoueny iaeiia? i?aaa aeanieea aeoe??, i?aai ia iaea?aeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe??, i?aai ia o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? AO. I?e oeueiio
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a Oe?a?i? ?nio? /anoeiaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
aeoe?iia??a ii ciaia’ycaiiyo AO. O ?in?? ae onoaiiaeaia nie?aea?ia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ii ciaia’ycaiiyo AO o iaaeao iaiiea/aii? /anoeie
aa?oino? aeoe?e, ui iaeaaeaoue aeoe?iia?ai. E??i oiai ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui iayaiino? i?aaa aeoe?iia?a ia iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??
iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe iaia’ycie, o oiio /ene? ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
eiie?aoieo iinaaeiaeo in?a AO ye ca naiee oaeo iaaeaiiy iaaeinoia??ii?
?ioi?iaoe??, oae ? ca caiiae?yi? oaeith ?ioi?iaoe??th caeoee.

Oe?a?inueea caeiiiaeaanoai eeaneo?eaoe?th aeoe?e ?iaeoue ii aeaio
iniiaao. O caeaaeiino? a?ae niiniao aeac?aee caeiiiiai aeanieea aeoe??
ae?eyoueny ia ?iaii? ? i?aae’yaieoeuee?. E??i oiai, a caeaaeiino? a?ae
i?aa, iaaeaieo aeoe??th, aiie iiaeooue aooe i?inoeie ? i?ea?eaeiaaieie.
O aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaiaeeoueny aeineoue aeieeaaeiee aiae?c oeeo aeae?a
aeoe?e.

I?ae?icae?e 2.2. “Iiiyooy ? aeaee iae?aaoe?e” i?enay/aiee aiae?co oaeeo
oe?iieo iaia??a, ye iae?aaoe??.

Iae?aaoe?y — oe?iiee iai??, ui cana?ae/o? aianaiiy ?? aeanieeii eioo?a ?
iiaeoaa?aeaeo? ciaia’ycaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaoe eiio iii?iaeueio aa?o?noue
oeueiai oe?iiiai iaia?o o ia?aaeaa/aiee a iaia?? oa?i?i ?c aeieaoith
o?eniaaiiai i?ioeaioo (yeui ?ioa ia ia?aaeaa/aii oiiaaie aeioneo). (no.
10 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”).

C aecia/aiiy iae?aaoe?? aeieeaa?, ui iae?aaoe?y — oea ai?aiaa
iina?ae/aiiy, ui iaiaei?iii aeeth/a? aeaa iniiaieo aeaiaioe: 1)
ciaia’ycaiiy ai?oaioa iiaa?iooe aeanieeo iae?aaoe?? i?ney cae?i/aiiy
oiiaeaiiai oa?i?ia noio, cacia/aio a iae?aaoe??; 2) ciaia’ycaiiy
ai?oaioa aeiea/oaaoe aeanieeo iae?aaoe?? o?eniaaiee i?eaooie o
a?aenioeao a?ae iii?iaeueii? aa?oino? aai ?ioiai iaeiiaiai aea?aaeaioa.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? oae? caaaeuei? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene
iae?aaoe?e: 1) iae?aaoe?? ? a?ioiaeie aeieoiaioaie, ui cana?ae/othoue
a?aeiineie iiceee; 2) ia??iae ia?ao ?o iaiaaeaiee aecia/aiei oa?i?iii;
3) i?eaooie aeiea/o?oueny ia eoiiie o i?ioeaioieo ieaoaaeao aei
iii?iaeo; 4) iii?iaeueia aa?o?noue iae?aaoe?? a?aeoeiaeiao?oueny i?ney
cae?i/aiiy oa?i?io ia?ao.

I?eaeaaiiy iae?aaoe?? anoaiiaeth? aecia/ai? aca?ii? i?aaa e iaia’ycee
aeey ai?oaioa ? aeanieea iae?aaoe??. O caaaeueiiio ? a oeieiio, oae?
aca?ii? i?aaa oa iaia’ycee ? oeiiaeie aeey ai?aiaeo a?aeiinei, ui
?niothoue i?ae e?aaeeoi?aie ? ai?aeieeaie. Aei /enea i?aa ai?oaioa,
iai?eeeaae, a?aeiinyoueny: i?aai ia ?icii?yaeaeaiiy iiceeiaeie caniaaie
ca nai?i ?icnoaeii aeey aeinyaiaiiy iicia/aii? iaoe; i?aai ia
aeei?enoaiiy cacia/aieo cania?a i?ioyaii aecia/aiiai oa?i?io; i?aai ia
aeino?ieiaa iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? ii iae?aaoe?yo, yeui oe? iae?aaoe??
? a?aeeee/ieie; i?aai ia aeieaoo aeiaai?iaee ii iae?aaoe?yo o oe?iieo
iaia?ao, yeui oe? iae?aaoe?? ? eiiaa?oiaaieie ? ?yae ?ioeo. Iniiaieie
iaia’yceaie ai?oaioa ? ianooii?: iaia’ycie iiaa?iooe aeanieeo iae?aaoe??
iiceeiao noio a?ioae oe?eeii; iaia’ycie aeieaoeoe ia?oeyio aeiaai?iaeo
ca ei?enooaaiiy iiceeiaeie caniaaie; iaia’ycie iiaaneoe caai?aiaai?noue
o anoaiiaeai? oa?i?ie ? aeaye? ?io?. I?e oeueiio i?aaa ai?oaioa iinyoue
aaniethoiee oa?aeoa?, a iaia’ycie ui aei iiaa?iaiiy a?ioiaeo eiooia —
a?aeiiniee.

I?eaeaaiiy iae?aaoe?e noai?th? ?yae i?aa oa iaia’yce?a oaeiae ? aeey
aeanieea iae?aaoe??. Iniiaieie i?aaaie o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ? i?aai
iiaa?iaiiy iiaii? noie a?ioae, ui a?i aeaa o ai?a ai?oaioo; i?aai ia
iaea?aeaiiy ia?oeyii? ai?oaioii aeiaai?iaee ca aeei?enoaiiy iiceeiaeo
eioo?a; i?aai aeiiae nai?/aniiai iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino?; i?aai
aeaniino? ia aeai? oe?ii? iaia?e. C ?ioiai aieo, aeaniee iae?aaoe??
ciaia’ycaiee: oe?eeii iieaoeoe aa?o?noue iae?aaoe??, oiaoi ia?aaeaoe
eiooe a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ai?oaioa ia iaoiiaeaiee oa?i?i, oiaoi oo?eiaoeny
a?ae aeiiae aeino?ieiaiai iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino?; aeaoe iiceeia? eiooe
aacoiiaii, oiaoi ia aeniaoth/e i?e oeueiio aoaeue-yeeo oiia.

I?eioeeiiaa ??cieoey i?ae aeoe?yie e iae?aaoe?yie iieyaa? a ianooiiiio.
Eoioth/e aeoe?th, iniaa noa? o/anieeii AO. Eoieaoe iae?aaoe?th eiiiai??
— ai?oaioa, aeaniee iae?aaoe?? noa? ?? e?aaeeoi?ii. E??i oiai, aeoe?? ia
iathoue oa?i?io iiaaoaiiy e ?niothoue, iiee ?nio? AO, iae?aaoe?? ae
iathoue iaiaaeaiee oa?i?i ia?ao, i?ney cae?i/aiiy yeiai aanyoueny.
Iae?aaoe?? iathoue ia?aaaao ia?aae aeoe?yie i?e ?aae?caoe?? iaeiiaeo
i?aa ?oi?o aeaniee?a: o ia?oo /a?ao aeiea/othoueny a?aenioee ii
iae?aaoe?yo ? eeoa iio?i aeea?aeaiaee; i?e ?iciiae?e? iaeia
eiiiai??-ai?oaioa o aeiaaeeo e?ea?aeaoe?? aeoe?iia?e iiaeooue
?ic?aoiaoaaoe eeoa ia oo /anoeio iaeia, ui caeeoeoueny i?ney aeieaoe
an?o ai?a?a, o oiio /ene? ? ii iae?aaoe?eieo iiceeao.

Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaee iae?aaoe?e. Aaoi? aeaoaeueii coieiy?oueny
ia aiae?c? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ui ?aaoeththoue aeione aea?aeaaieo
iae?aaoe?e: iae?aaoe?e aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? iiceee (IAAeC),
eiiaa?n?eieo iae?aaoe?e aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? iiceee,
na?aaeiueino?ieiaeo iae?aaoe?e aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? iiceee (NIAAeC),
iae?aaoe?e aioo??oiuei? iuaaeii? iiceee, aea?aeaaieo oi?aiaeo iae?aaoe?e
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a (AeOII?), iae?aaoe?e ciai?oiuei? aea?aeaaii?
iiceee.

Aeath/e iiiyooy eacia/aenueeiai ciaia’ycaiiy ? ?ice?eaath/e eiai
iniaeeaino?, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e o?eueee oei, ui
aeioneathoueny ia i?aae’yaieea. Aea iae?aaoe?? oaeiae iiaeooue aooe
i?aae’yaieoeueeeie. I?aaiaa i?e?iaea eacia/aenueeeo ciaia’ycaiue oaea
ae, ui ? aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e, oiio caea?oueny, aeae?eaiiy ie?aiiai
naiino?eiiai aeaeo oaeeo oe?iieo iaia??a, ye eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy
aea?aeaae, iaaeioe?eueii.

I?ae?icae?e 2.3. “Iuaaei? ? aeaiiceoi? na?oeo?eaoe” i?enay/aiee aiae?co
cacia/aieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

Iuaaei? ? aeaiiceoi? na?oeo?eaoe ? iina?ae/aiiyi aaieo-aiioaioo i?i
aeaiiioaaiiy eioo?a ia iaaiee no?ie, ui cana?ae/o? i?aai aeeaaeieea ia
iiaa?iaiiy noie aeaiiceoo ? a?aenioe?a ii iueiio, caeaoia aei ?eieiaiai
iaiao. Ioaea, iuaaei? ? aeaiiceoi? na?oeo?eaoe ? iaeii/anii no?ieiaei
aeeaaeii ? oe?iiei iaia?ii.

Oe?a?inueeee caeiiiaeaaaoeue ia ?ic??ciy? iiiyooy “iuaaeiee na?oeo?eao”
? “aeaiiceoiee na?oeo?eao”. Aaaaea?oueny, ui ae?enii c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee
ci?o ?iciaaeiaoaaoe iuaaei? ? aeaiiceoi? na?oeo?eaoe iaaeioe?eueii.
Iaeiae oaea ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeioe?eueii c i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o, oiio ui
oae? oe?ii? iaia?e iathoue ?noioi? ?ica?aeiino? a iniiai?e iao? ai?n??,
aeanieeao, o oa?i?iao iaa?oaiiy.

Ii oa?i?iao aeaiiceoi? e iuaaei? na?oeo?eaoe iiae?eythoueny ia oa?i?iia?
? aei caieoaiiy; o caeaaeiino? a?ae eaa?oeiaoe?? aeanieea ia ?iaii? ?
i?aae’yaieoeuee?. I?eionea?oueny, ui e a oe?a?inueeiio caeiiiaeaanoa?
iiaeiii aooe iieiaeaiiy, uia ai?oaioo aoei a iaaeaii i?aai aeae?aoe i?ae
na?oeo?eaoaie, ui iaa?oathoueny ? ia iaa?oathoueny iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai
? aiie ?iaiieie aai ia i?aae’yaieea.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Aaenaeue ye oe?iiee iai??”, i?enay/aiee aiae?co i?inoiai
? ia?aeaciiai aaenaey ye aeaeo oe?iiiai iaia?o.

Iaa?oioiaothoueny ??ci? iiiyooy aaenaey, iayai? a ii?iaoeaieo aeoao ?
th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iiiyooy aaenaey, cae??ieaia
a no. 21 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”, ?
iaaaeaeei, oiio ui ?ice?eaath/e nooue i?inoiai aaenaey i?/iai ia
aiai?eoueny i?i ia?aeaciee aaenaeue. A?eueo aaeaea iiiyooy aaenaey,
cae??ieaia o no. 815 OeE ?O, aea aaenaeai aecia?oueny oe?iiee iai??, ui
cana?ae/o? i?/ei ia iaoiiaeaia ciaia’ycaiiy aaenaeaaeaaoey (i?inoee
aaenaeue) aai ?ioiai cacia/aiiai o aaenae? ieaoieea (ia?aeaciee
aaenaeue) aeieaoeoe i?ney ianoaiiy ia?aaeaa/aiiai aaenaeai oa?i?io
aecia/aio noio aeanieeo aaenaey (aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth).

O aeine?aeaeaii? a?aecia/aii, ui aaenaeue — oea aano?aeoia,
iaeiinoi?iii?, a?ioiaa, /?oei oi?iaeueia ciaia’ycaiiy aai i?iiiceoe?y
nieaoeoe aecia/aio a?ioiao noio.

?icaeyaeathoueny ?aea?ceoe aaenaey, i?e oeueiio aeaco?oueny, ui
ia?aeaciee aaenaeue i?noeoue i?iiiceoe?th, a ia iaeac i?i nieaoo
a?ioiai? noie. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ianaiia?aae aano?aeoiith
i?e?iaeith aaenaey, ine?eueee yeae o?aooa ia?aaeaa/aea a nia? iaeac, ??
ae?eni?noue iiaeiia aoea a noaaeoeny a caeaaei?noue a?ae iayaiino? ?
ae?eniino? i?aenoaae aeaea/? oeueiai iaeaco.

Oae naii a?aecia/a?oueny e iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy, ui oi/a
iinoaiiaith EI ? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie a?ae 10 aa?aniy 1992 ?.
?528 “I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaee aeaioiaeaiiy aaenaeueieo aeaie?a”
anoaiiaeaii, ui aeei?enoiaoaaoe aaenaeue iiaeooue eeoa th?eaee/i?
iniae-noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, oey ii?ia noia?a/eoue
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. Oiio iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy, ui noa’?eoaie
aaenaeueiiai ciaia’ycaiiy a Oe?a?i? iiaeooue aooe ? o?ce/i? iniae.

Aeae? ?icaeyaea?oueny ii?yaeie ia?aaea/? aaenaey oeyoii ?iaeinaiaioo,
iieacaia a?aei?ii?noue ?iaeinaiaioo a?ae oeani?, cacia/aii, ui
?iaeinaiaio iaoeia i?aaiaa cia/aiiy eeoa oiae?, eiee ianooiiee
iaea?aeoaa/ aaenaey aeneiaeoue caiaeo iaea?aeaoe oaeee aaenaeue c
?iaeinaiaioii. ?iaeinaiaio ? aieaaeyaeaiiyi ?iaeinaioa, iaeiae a?i ia?
aooe caniiaaiee ia aeainoi?iii?e oaiae? ?iaeinaioa c ianooiiei
aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeai.

?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy aaaey ? i?ioanoo aaenaey, a oaeiae
cae?enith?oueny aiae?c ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ui aecia/athoue ii?yaeie
aeei?enoaiiy aaenae?a o ainiiaea?nueeiio ia?ao Oe?a?ie.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee “I?eaaoecaoe?ei? oe?ii? iaia?e e ?io? oe?ii? iaia?e”
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1. “Iiiyooy, caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ? aeaee
i?eaaoecaoe?eieo iaia??a” aeaiaeeoueny iiiyooy i?eaaoecaoe?eieo iaia??a.
O Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i i?eaaoecaoe?ei? iaia?e”, a?aecia/a?oueny, ui
i?eaaoecaoe?ei? iaia?e ia?aaeathoueny o aeani?noue a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie,
iaeiae, ye ia’?eoe i?aaa aeaniino?, aiie i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/ai? c
oeea?eueiiai ia?ao. Aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeiyoeiai aeey
i?eaeaaiiy /anoee iaeia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ia’?eo?a aeeoeiaiai ?
caiaeueiiai oiiae?a, i?e/iio eeoa i?ioyaii oa?i?i?a, aecia/aieo
Aea?aeaaiith i?ia?aiith i?eaaoecaoe??; ia iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye
canoaaa aeey caaacia/aiiy ieaoaae?a aai ?ic?aooie?a ? cae?eniaiiy
?ic?aooie?a. Aoaeue-ye? oaiaee c i?eaaoecaoe?eieie iaia?aie, e??i
cacia/aiiai iai?io, aecia/athoueny iaae?enieie.

Aeei?enoaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eieo iaia??a cae?enith?oueny oeyoii ?oiueiai
iai?io ia ia?, aeoe??, ?io? aeieoiaioe, ui anoaiiaeththoue i?aai
aeaniino? ia /anoeo aea?aeaaiiai iaeia.

Aei i?eaaoecaoe?eieo iaia??a a?aeiinyoueny i?eaaoecaoe?ei? iaeiia?
na?oeo?eaoe ? aeeoeia? /aee. A?aecia/aii, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaiiae
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae 26 /a?aiy 1998 ?. “I?i oa?i?ie aeaea/? ?
aeei?enoaiiy iaeiiaeo i?eaaoecaoe?eieo na?oeo?eao?a ? eiiiainaoe?eieo
na?oeo?eao?a”, ciyoa iaiaaeaiiy o oa?i?iao aeaea/? ? aeei?enoaiiy
iaeiiaeo i?eaaoecaoe?eieo na?oeo?eao?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2. “?io? oe?ii? iaia?e, ia cae??ieai? a Caeii? Oe?a?ie
“I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao a??aeo”, ui neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio
ioieo?a, ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy i?i eiiinaiaio, ?iaanoeoe?eii
na?oeo?eaoe, /aee, aea?eaaoeae ye oe?iii iaia?e.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui eiiinaiaio — oea oiaa?i?icii?yaeiee aeieoiaio, ui
cana?ae/o? i?aai eiai aeanieea ?icii?yaeaeaoeny cacia/aiei o iueiio
aaioaaeai ? iaea?aeaoe aaioaae i?ney caaa?oaiiy ia?aaacaiiy. Eiiinaiaio,
ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo oe?iieo iaia??a cana?ae/o? i?aai eiai aeanieea ia
ia a?ioiao noio, a ia iaeii, iacaaia a iueiio. Oea i?aai iiaea aooe
?aae?ciaaii, ye ? i?aai, cana?ae/aia aoaeue-yeei oe?iiei iaia?ii, eeoa
i?e i?aae’yaeaii? eiiinaiaioo. Ine?eueee eiiinaiaio ? oe?iiei iaia?ii,
ui iieeaaea? ia ia?aa?cieea i?/ei ia iaoiiaeaiee iaia’ycie ii aeaea/?
aaioaaeo i?aae’yaieeo eiiinaiaioo, oi ia?aa?ciee ia ia? i?aaa iineeaoeny
ia iiieeee ? iaa?aeiia?aeiino?, aeiiouai? i?e oeeaaeaii? eiiinaiaioo, a
oaeiae ia oa, ui a?aeiiino?, cacia/ai? o iueiio, ia a?aeiia?aeaee
ae?eniino? a iiiaio eiai oii?yaeeoaaiiy, ? iiaeiai aeeiiaoe iaia’ycie o
oi/i?e a?aeiia?aeiino? c oei, ui caienaii a eiiinaiaioi. Eiiinaiaio
iiaea aooe ?iaiiei, i?aea?iei ? ia i?aae’yaieea.

?iaanoeoe?eiee na?oeo?eao — oea oe?iiee iai??, ui aeionea?oueny
aeiyoeiai ?iaanoeoe?eiei oiiaeii aai ?iaanoeoe?eiith eiiiai??th ? iaaea?
i?aai eiai aeanieeo ia iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo o aeaeyae? aeea?aeaiae?a.

Aeioneathoueny aiie c iaoith i?eoyaiaiiy eioo?a ?iaanoi??a aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ? ia aeathoue ?oi?i aeanieeai i?aaa
ia o/anoue o ea?oaaii? th?eaee/iith iniaith, ui aeionoeea ?o. I?aaiaee
noaoon ?iaanoeoe?eieo na?oeo?eao?a cae??ieaiee o Iieiaeaii? i?i
?iaanoeoe?ei? oiiaee e ?iaanoeoe?ei? eiiiai??, caoaa?aeaeaiiio Oeacii
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 ethoiai 1994 ?. ?55/94 “I?i ?iaanoeoe?ei?
oiiaee e ?iaanoeoe?ei? eiiiai??”. Aaaaea?oueny, ui i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy
ia?ao ?iaanoeoe?eieo na?oeo?eao?a ia ??ai? oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ?
Iieiaeaiiy, caoaa?aeaeaiiai ??oaiiyi Aea?aeaaii? eiieni? ii oe?iieo
iaia?ao ? oiiaeiaiio ?eieo ? iaaeinoaoi?i.

Ua iaeiei oe?iiei iaia?ii, yeee ia iaea?aeaa iaeaaeiiai i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, ? /ae.

*aeii aecia?oueny oe?iiee iai??, ui i?noeoue i?/ei ia iaoiiaeaia
ienueiiaa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy /aeiaeaaoey aaieo nieaoeoe aeanieeo /aea
cacia/aio o iueiio noio.

Iaia’yceiaith ia?aaeoiiaith aeaea/? /aea ? iayai?noue oaiaee i?ae
/aeiaeaaoeai ? ieaoieeii, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeeo inoaii?e ciaia’yco?oueny
iiea/oaaoe /aee /aeiaeaaoey ca ?aooiie eioo?a, ui caa??aathoueny ia eiai
?aooieo aai niaoe?aeueii aeaiiiiaaii? /aeiaeaaoeai noie. Ia a?aei?io
a?ae aaenaeueiiai i?aaia?aeiioaiiy, aeieeiaiiy e ?nioaaiiy /aeiaeo
i?aaia?aeiinei iaiiaeeeaa aac o/ano? aaie?a aai ?ioeo e?aaeeoieo onoaiia
oa ieaoiee?a o /aeiaeo i?aaia?aeiineiao.

Aaaaea?oueny, ui i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy /ae?a a Oe?a?i? iiaeiii
cae?enithaaoeny a?aeiia?aeiei caeiiii aai ii?iaie Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie c a?aooaaiiy a?eueoiai iaaeeaeaiiy /aeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa aei
iieiaeaiue Iaeiaeiaiai caeiio i?i /aee (1931).

A?aeiia?aeii aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 28 a?oaeiy 1994 ?. a ?aaeaeoe??
Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 22 o?aaiy 1997 ?. “I?i iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiy i?eaooeo
i?aei?e?inoa”, aea?eaaoea — oea noaiaea?oiee aeieoiaio, ui cana?ae/o?
i?aai ?/aai ciaia’ycaiiy i?eaeaaoe aai i?iaeaoe oe?ii? iaia?e,
iaoa??aeuei? aai iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae, a oaeiae eiooe ia aecia/aieo iei
oiiaao o iaeaooiueiio.

?ioeie neiaaie, aea?eaaoea — oea eiio?aeo (aeiaia??,oaiaea) /?oei
onoaiiaeaii? oi?ie, i?e oeueiio cacia/aia o iueiio i?aai (iaia’ycie)
i?eaeaaoe (i?iaeaoe) ia aecia/aieo oiiaao iiaea aooe i?iaeaii ?ioei
iniaai. Aei aea?eaaoeaia a?aeiinyoueny: oi?aa?aeiee eiio?aeo,
o’th/a?niee eiio?aeo ? iioe?ii. O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? oae? oe?ii? iaia?e
a?aeiinyoueny aei iio?aeieo oe?iieo iaia??a. Caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ui
?aaoeththoue ia?a oe?iieo iaia??a a Oe?a?i? iei? ia ia?aaeaa/athoue
oaeiai aaaeeeaiai ?ino?oiaioo oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, ye iio?aei? oe?ii?
iaia?e. A cae??ieaiiy iio?aeieo oe?iieo iaia??a o no.1 Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiy i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoa”, ui aecia/a? oa?i?ie,
aeei?enoai? o oeueiio caeii? ? ?aaoethaaiiy ?oiueiai ia?ao i?aecaeiiiei
ii?iaoeaiei aeoii, ? iai?eionoeiei. Ieoaiiy iio?aeieo oe?iieo iaia??a
aeiaaathoue iia?aoeaiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai aecia/aiiy. Cie?aia,
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aianoe aei caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e ? oiiaeiao
a??aeo” aeiiiaiaiiy, o yeiio noi?ioaaoe iiiyooy iio?aeieo oiiaeiaeo
?ino?oiaio?a ? ?aaeaiaiooaaoe iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai aeioneo e ia?ao.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy (oe?iiee iai?? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a aeaio aniaeoao: ye
niin?a ioi?ieaiiy ciaia’ycaeueieo a?aeiinei ? ye ia’?eo ?a/iaiai i?aaa;
o caeiiiaeaanoa? aa?oi ?iciaaeiaoaaoe ?iaii?, i?aea?i? ?
i?aae’yaieoeuee? oe?ii? iaia?e; ia?ae?e oe?iieo iaia??a, cae??ieaiieo o
caeii? ia iiaeiai aooe ae/a?iiei; ia?aeaciee aaenaeue i?noeoue
i?iiiceoe?th, a ia iaeac i?i nieaoo a?ioiaie noie; a caeii? aeioe?eueii
?iciaaeoaaoe iuaaei? ? aeaiiceoi? na?oeo?eaoe, oiio ui aiie iathoue
?noioi? ?icoiaeaeaiiy a iniiaieo oe?eyo ai?n?? oa ?io?), iaea?eueo
cia/i? c yeeo aeeeaaeai? o oaeno? aaoi?aoa?aoo, a oaeiae ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c
?ioeie oe?iieie iaia?aie a Oe?a?i?.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? oae? i?aoe?:

1. Ei?/aaiay E. A., O?oaa A. E., Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. Aiciauaiea
ii?aeueiiai a?aaea e eiua aeooaeueiua aii?inu nia?aiaiiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. — Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — 44 n.

2. O?oaa A. E. Iiiyoea e aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa ii a?aaeaeaineiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao Oe?aeiu // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa:
Na. iao/. o?. IAO. — Iaeanna, 1994. — Auione 1. — N. 115-121;

3. O?oaa A. E. Iiiyoea e i?eciaee oeaiiuo aoiaa // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: Na. iao/. o?. IAO. — Iaeanna, 1997. — Auione 4. —
N. 183-190;

4. O?oaa A. E. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee a
Oe?aeia // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: Na. iao/. o?. IAO.
— Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — N. 111-126.

5. O?oaa A. E. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, ia cae?aieaiiuo a
Caeiia Oe?aeiu “I oeaiiuo aoiaaao e oiiaeiaie ae?aea” // Aeooaeueiua
i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: Na. iao/. o?. IAO. — Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio,
1998. — N. 127-137.

O?oaa A.?. I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy oe?iieo iaia??a a Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 12.00.03. oeea?eueia i?aai ? oeea?eueiee i?ioean; n?iaeia
i?aai; i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai. — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai?
A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei,
iia’ycaiieo c oe?iieie iaia?aie, ye? ? ia’?eoaie oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.
Noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy oe?iieo iaia??a, aecia/ai? iciaee ? aeaee oe?iieo
iaia??a. ?ice?eoi i?aaiao i?e?iaeo aeoe?e, iae?aaoe?e, iuaaeieo ?
aeaiiceoieo na?oeo?eao?a, aaenae?a, i?eaaoecaoe?eieo iaia??a oa ?ioeo
oe?iieo iaia??a. Aianai? eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
/eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, ui ?aaoeth? ia?a oe?iieo iaia??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?iiee iai??, ia’?eoe oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, aeoe?y,
iae?aaoe?y, iuaaeiee ? aeaiiceoiee na?oeo?eao, aaenaeue, i?eaaoecaoe?ei?
iaia?e, /ae, ?iaeinaiaio, aeaniee aeoe?e.

O?oaa A. E. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a Oe?aeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.03. — a?aaeaeaineia i?aai e a?aaeaeaineee
i?ioeann; naiaeiia i?aai; iaaeaeoia?iaeiia /anoiia i?aai. — Einoeooo
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa eiaie A. I. Ei?aoeeiai Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee
iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee,
naycaiiuo n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie eae iauaeoaie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa.
Noi?ioee?iaaii iiiyoea oeaiiuo aoiaa, ii?aaeaeaiu i?eciaee e aeaeu
oeaiiuo aoiaa. ?ane?uoa i?aaiaay i?e?iaea aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee,
naa?aaaoaeueiuo e aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia, aaenaeae, i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo
aoiaa e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aianaiu eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu,
?aaoee?othuaai ia?auaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeaiiay aoiaaa, iauaeou a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, aeoeey,
iaeeaaoeey, naa?aaaoaeueiue e aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao, aaenaeue,
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua aoiaae, /ae, eiaeinnaiaio, aea?aeaoaeue aeoeee.

Truba V. I. Legal regulation of valuable papers in Ukraine. —
Manuscript.

The dissertation confiring the scientific degree candidate of Law
Sciences on speciality 12.00.03 — Civil Law and Civil Procedure; Famaly
Law; International Private Law. — Institute of State and Law after V. M.
Koretsky Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kiyv, 1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to the problems of legal regulation of
relations, conntced with valuable papers as subjects of Civil Law. The
concept of valuable papers is formulated, features and kinds of valuable
papers are defined. Legal nature of stocks, bonds, saving and depositive
certificates, paper-credits, prevatisative and other valuable papers are
revealed. Concrete proposals on perfection of acting legislation
regulating the circulation of valuable papers of Ukraine are brought in.

Key words: valuable papers, subjects of Civil Law, stock, bond, saving
and depositive certificate, paper-credit, prevatisative papers, cheque,
endorsement, property of stocks.

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