2

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa

Iaooo?i Aaaeei Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 340.1

I?aaiaa i?e?iaea ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iia??aiee ?ai? Ieo?ioaiiae/,

canooiiee ia/aeueieea eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi???

aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eii?e/eeia Aieiaeeie? Aieiaeeie?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iao?eoei Ieaenaiae? A?oae?eiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y,

eaoaae?a oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” ethoiai 1999 ?ieo i 10-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.64.700.03 i?e Oi?aa?neoao?
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, i. Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, i Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo 50-??//y N?N?,
27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 19 ” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.?. Ee?e/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny noaiii i?iaeaie i?aaiai?
aecia/aiino? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a oa ?? cia/ou?noth aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o no/ani?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?. ?icoe?aiiy
noa?e oaeiai ?aaoethaaiiy, oaeaeea ia?ai?ia nioe?aeueieo oiia,
iaiao?aei?noue nei??oiai aeinyaiaiiy noaio no?eeiai aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, iaiaaeaiiy /aniaeo, iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ?iaeyoue
aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiy aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai eiiieaeno
?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
oeueiai eiiieaeno ? i?aaia? aeoe a onueiio ?o ?icia?oo?. Aeey iaea?eueo
iia?aoeaiiai oa aoaeoeaiiai ?o i?aeai?o, ??oaiiy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue
oi?aae?iiy noni?euenoaii ae?ae iaiao?aeia aecia/ai?noue yeinoae,
iiaeeeainoae eiaeiiai aeaeo i?aaiaeo aeo?a. A?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ii?iaoeaieo aeiia aei aeaeaiiy oeeo aeo?a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ?o iaaoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii?.

TH?eaee/i? aeoe, ye iaeia c iniiaieo i?aaiaeo yaeu, aoee ? ? ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiue ye a oai??? i?aaa, oae ? aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo iaoeao. I?e
oeueiio aeinoaoiuei aeeaiei aeine?aeaeai? ie?ai? ?o aeaee:
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? oa i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe. I??i?eoao oaeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiynith?oueny cia/ou?noth oeeo aeo?a o iaoai?ci?
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ?o ?iciianthaeaeai?noth –
aiie neeaaeathoue a?eueoo /anoeio on?o th?eaee/ieo aeo?a. Iaoeia? iiooee
aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe ?acoeueoaoe, ye? iathoue aaeeea oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, i?aaioai?/i?
oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueii? i?aeoeee, i?ioa, aiie ia iiaeooue ae/a?iaoe
onueiai ?icia?ooy th?eaee/ieo aeo?a, iaoiiaeaiiai ?o i?ecia/aiiyi.
Ni?yiiaai?noue aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee i?aaiaeo
aeo?a, ui neeaeanue ia oaia??oi?e /an aeyaey?, ye i?i?ioi, aea?
aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie, ye? iio?aaothoue ae??oaiiy iaoeiaoeyie. Ia iaeio c
ieo caa?ioa oaaao N.N. Ieaen??a. A?i oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeeai noaa?aeaeo?,
ui ii?iaoeai? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeoe ?icaeyaeathoueny ?ic’?aeiaii,
a?aenooi?e eiiieaeniee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
ia i?iaiaeyoueny /?oe? a?aei?ie i?ae aeoaie o ??cieo cia/aiiyo oeueiai
oa?i?ia, a aeoe o eiaeiiio ?c cia/aiue, ye? aaeeaathoueny, ia
io?eiothoue ocaaaeueiaii? oai?aoe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee Aeaenaaa N.N.
Iauay oai?ey i?aaa. – I, 1982. – O.2. – N.193.

Ae?oaa aeooaeueia i?iaeaia, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, iieyaa? a oiio, ui
iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee oa ooi/iaiiy iciae
aeine?aeaeaieo aeae?a i?aaiaeo aeo?a iieaco?, ui a?aeii? aeaee ia
ioiieththoue onueiai ?o ?icia?ooy. Aeyaeythoueny cia/ou? aeoe oa
i?eiene, ye? caeeoathoueny ca iaaeaie aeoeaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Na?aae oeacaieo iaaea/aieo aeo?a ie?aieie aaoi?aie a?aecia/athoueny
oae?, ui anoaiiaeththoue iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a, i?aai?caoe?e,
aecia/athoue ?acoeueoaoe, yeeo iaiao?aeii aeinyaiooe, i???ioothoue ?o ia
iineeaiiy oaaae aei iaaieo noa? ae?yeueiino?.

I?iiiceoe?y iacaaoe oe? niaoeeo?/i? i?eiene oa aeoe, ui ?o i?noyoue,
?icii?yae/eie c’yaeeanue ia ii/aoeo 1960 – o ?ie?a. A?aoonue N.I.,
Naiiuaiei E.N. Oai?aoe/aneea aii?inu nenoaiaoecaoeee niaaoneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. – I, 1962. – N. 63–64. Caa?iaiiy
aaoi?a aei ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaii iioe?ai?noth oaeeo aeo?a o
oaia??oi?e /an: aiie i?noyoueny a ?yae? iinoaiia Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie, oeac?a oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, a aeoao, ui
aeaeathoueny i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. ?icii?yae/? i?eiene iathoue
i?noea a i?aecaeiiieo aeoao, aeaeaieo i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa –
i?i?noa?noaii, oi?aae?iiyie iaeaniiai oa i?nueeiai ??aiy, cia/ia /anoeia
oaeeo i?eien?a i?noeoueny a ie?aieo aeaeao ieai?a ae?yeueiino? IAN.

Iacaaaeath/e ia o?eaaea aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, aiie aei oeueiai
/ano ia i?aeeyaaee aeaoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith, ia aea/aeanue ?o
th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea, i?ioa iaoeiaoe?, ye? caa?oaee ia ieo oaaao o nai?o
?iaioao, aoee iaeaea iaeiinoaei? o aeneiaeaii? aeoiee i?i iaiao?aei?noue
?o aeeaieiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

C’ynoaaiiy i?aaiai? i?e?iaee ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a caeaoii ni?eyoe
ae??oaiith aeaio aecia/aieo i?iaeai. I?aaiaa aecia/ai?noue ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a aeicaiey? oaeiae ie?aneeoe ?o i?noea o nenoai? th?eaee/ieo aeo?a,
caiiaieoe i?iaaeeio o eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaiaio?a oe??? nenoaie, ui a naith
/a?ao ni?ey? a?eueo /?oeiio aecia/aiith iaae iiiyoue ii?iaoeaiiai oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiai aeo?a, ?iaeoue aaci?aenoaaieie ni?iae i?e?aooaaoe
?icaeyaeoaai? aeoe aei iaeiiai c oeeo aeae?a.

?ic?iaea i?aaiai? i?e?iaee ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a ia? aeooaeuei?noue ia
o?eueee aeey oai??? i?aaa, aea e aeey ?ioeo th?eaee/ieo iaoe, ui
aea/athoue i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ieoaiiy ?iciaaeoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue, aecia/aiiy
eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee caeeoathoueny aeinoaoiuei
neeaaeieie ? o?nii iia’ycai? c ?aaeaiaioaoe??th ae?yeueiino? oeeo
i?aai?a ii aeaeaiith ??ciiiai?oieo i?aaiaeo aeo?a, na?aae yeeo /eiaea
i?noea caeiathoue ?icii?yae/?.

?icii?yae/? aeoe i?eaa?ioee aei naaa oaaao oaeiae o aeine?aeaeaii?
i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. O aeayeeo ?iaioao i?yii
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia iiaeia iaaeiioe?ithaaoe cia/aiiy oaeeo aeo?a,
ine?eueee aiie aieeaathoue ia ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a,
iinaaeiaeo in?a, ?iiae? – ia ci?io a nenoai? i?aaiaeo ii?i, ? i?e/eiith
aeaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a. Iiiiaa A.E. TH?eaee/aneea naienoaa aeoia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. //Aeou oi?aaeaiey. – Eaaiiai. – 1987. –
N.74. ?acii c oei, cia/aiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iiaea aooe aecia/aii eeoa
ia i?aenoaa? ?o aeanoeainoae, ye? iio?aaothoue aea/aiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue oaie iieyaa? o iaiao?aeiino? aecia/aiiy
i?aaiai? i?e?iaee aeo?a, ye? oaeoe/ii aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?aaiaiio
?aaoethaaii? oa c’ynoaaiiy ?o i?noey o i?aaia?e nenoai? c iaoith
nei??oiai caaacia/aiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino? oa caeiiiino?, a oiio /ene?, a
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

I?aeoe/ia iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a
coiiaeth?oueny oei, ui a th?eaee/i?e i?aeoeoe? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aeaeaiiy
oaeeo aeo?a aac oi?ioethaaiiy aeiia aei ?o caeiiiino?, aac /?oeiai
?icoi?iiy ?o iiaeeeainoae o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c ie?aieie “I??i?eoaoieie
iai?yieaie ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia IAN Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae 1995 –
2000 ??.”, caoaa?aeaeaieie ??oaiiyi eieaa?? IAN Oe?a?ie a?ae 28 ethoiai
1995 ?. ? 4 ei/2. Ia i?aenoaa? aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe??, a?aeiia?aeii aei
i. 1.3. “I??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a” aiinyoueny i?iiiceoe?? aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? IAN. ?icaeyiooa
i?aeoeea aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa ?ioeie
i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee iiaea neoaeeoe aeey ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ia?aaeaa/aieo i. 1.4. – “I?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa o nenoai? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aaiioi?iie Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae”.
Oi?aae?inueeee oa?aeoa? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iaoiiaeth? ca’ycie
aeine?aeaeaiiy c iai?yieii ca i.2.4. “I?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee? oa
i?ioan?ei? i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa”. Oaeei /eiii,
oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny a ?one? a?aeii/i?
i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaia c iai?yieaie, ye? ?ic?iaeythoueny ca
??oaiiyi eieaa?? IAN a Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o ni?aa, aea aeeiiaia
aeena?oaoe?y.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio aiae?c? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a,
iaa?oiooaaii? ?o iaaiiai cia/aiiy ye ie?aiiai aeaeo i?aaiaeo aeo?a,
aecia/aii? ?o iciae, oi?ioethaaii? iiiyooy ?icii?yae/iai aeoo, i?e
oeueiio aieiaia iaoa – c’ynoaaiiy ?o i?aaiai? i?e?iaee.

Iiiyooy th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee aeo?a ioiieth? niaith th?eaee/i?
aeanoeaino?, ?o th?eaee/io neeo, oi?io aai aeaee aeo?a, iaae? ?o ae?? o
i?inoi?? oa o eie? noa’?eo?a noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ui ?aaoeththoueny
oeeie aeoaie.

Oaea iaoa noi?ioeueiaaia ia ia?aaeoiiaao aeieeiaiiy i?iaeai o
eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?a, aeyaeaiiy oaeeo, ui ca nai?ie iciaeaie ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue aaea a?aeiiei – ii?iaoeaiei oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueiei.
E??i oiai, oey iaoa aeoiaeeoue ?c i?yii? aeac?aee ?yaeo aaoi??a ia
iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiiaeo i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye?
cai?iiiiiaaii iaceaaoe ?icii?yae/eie. Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aaco?oueny ia
aea/aii? oa iaa?oiooaaii? aeinoia??iino? cai?iiiiiaaii? aeayeeie
aeine?aeieeaie (?.N. Naiiuaiei, ?.O. Aaneeue?a, A.I. Ea?oaoia) a?iioace
i?i aeaeiao a?aeie?aieai?noue oa cia/ou?noue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai o aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? oae? caaea/?:

— ye aeo?aeiee ioieo aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiae?coaaoe no/aniee noai ?
?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie eeaneo?eaoe?? th?eaee/ieo aeo?a ca ?o ci?noii;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ci?no ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, aeyaeoe nooo?a? oa oi?iaeuei?
iciaee, ye? a?ae??ciythoue ?o a?ae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, iaa?oiooaaoe ?o naiino?ei?noue, ye aeaeo
th?eaee/ieo aeo?a;

— aeine?aeeoe ooieoe?? aeo?a, ui aea/athoueny, aeae?eeoe o?, ui
aeacothoue ia naiino?eia cia/aiiy oeeo aeo?a, ia iniia? ooieoe?e
aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?ieue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? oa
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?o nioe?aeueio oe?ii?noue;

— aecia/eoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a c ?icii?yae/ith
ae?yeuei?noth, ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa
caeiiiino? ? ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai noi?ioethaaoe aa?aio?? caeiiiino?
oe??? ae?yeueiino?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe iaeiaioaaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ye? neeaeenue o
i?aeoeoe?, aecia/eoe caeaaei?noue oeeo iaeiaioaaiue a?ae ci?noo aeo?a;

— i?iaanoe eeaneo?eaoe?th ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ui aeaeathoueny
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie, a oiio /ene? i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa, aecia/eoe
?o th?eaee/io neeo, ie?aneeoe iniaeeaino? eiaeiiai aeaeo;

— aecia/eoe oa noi?ioethaaoe aeiiae aei ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeaeaiiy, iaa?oiooaaoe ?o
cia/ou?noue aeey caaacia/aiiy caeiiiino? oeeo aeo?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeoe i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, a oiio /ene?
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Niaoeeo?ea i?iaeaie, yea iieyaa? o aeecueeino?
?icaeyaeoaaieo aeo?a ca nai?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aei ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo, coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ye
aeiiii?aeiiai ia’?eoa ? aeaio inoaii?o aeae?a aeo?a ? ia aii??e/iiio, ?
ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee a?aeiinii
oa?aeoa?enoee ??cieo i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye? aeeeaaeai? o i?aoeyo
niaoe?ae?no?a o aaeoc? oai??? i?aaa. Oae? iaoa??aee i?noyoueny o
iiiia?ao?/ieo ?iaioao, iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao, noaooyo, aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.A. Eii?e/eeiaa, I.I. ?aa?iiae/a,
I.A. No??eiaa, I.?. Iaaeaaeea, A.A. Eaca?aaa, I.N. No?iaiae/a, ?.ss.
Aeth?ya?ia, I.A. I?oeeaae/a, Ae.A. Ea?eiiaa, A.N. I?aiee?ia, A.I.
Eoae?yaoeaaa, E.I. Eiya?i?ia, A.I. Neitheiai?, TH.N. ?aoaoiaa, N.I.
Eiia?iaa, ?.I. Aiieaiea, I.O. Oaaaiiaa, I.?.
Iaoociaa, A.I. Ai?oaiueiaa, A.E. Aaaa?aa, E.N. ssae/a,
?.N. Naiiuaiea, A.I.Eiothea, A.I.Ea?oaoiaa oa ?i. Oaeiae aeei?enoai?
ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, ye? aeeeaaeai? o ?iaioao c
aea?aeaaiiai i?aaa A.A. Oaaeiniai?, Ae.A. Aaeaeoeiaa, I.A. Noa?iaieoiaa,
?.I. Ia?ooeeea, E.I. Oiaeeiai?.
Oi?aae?inueeee aniaeo ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iaoiiaea oaaaeia aea/aiiy
iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa oa oi?aae?iiy oaeeo
aaoi??a: I.?. ??iie?ia, A.A. THnoiiaa A.I. Eethoie/aiea, ?.N.
Iaaeianueeiai, I.I. Ei?ai?aa, I.O. Aaneeaieiaa, E.A. Eiaaey, Ae.I.
Ianyiea, I.I. Aaiaeo?ee, A.?. Iiainaeiaa, Ae.I. Aao?aoa, A.Ae. Iaeeiaa,
A.I. Iia?iaa, ?.O. Aaneeue?aa, I.?. Eoiueiaa, I.A. ssiiieuenueei?, A.I.
Eaca?aaa, A.I. Eo?aoa?e?, A.A. Ae?aeoaaa, A.?.
?aiiueiaa, A.A. Ooiaiiaa oa ?i.

I?iaiae?ciaaii th?eaee/i? aeoe, ui aeaeathoueny Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie,
Aeiiaoeueeith, Eoaainueeith, Caii??cueeith aea?aeaaieie
aaei?i?no?aoe?yie. ?icaeyaeaeenue oaeiae aeoe i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.
I?iaiae?ciaai? c oi/ee ci?o ?o th?eaee/iiai ci?noo iaeace,
?icii?yaeaeaiiy oa aeac?aee, ui aeaeai? ia/aeueieeaie Aeiiaoeueeiai,
Eoaainueeiai oa Caii??cueeiai iaeanieo ? i?nueeeo oi?aae?iue IAN Oe?a?ie
o 1996, 1997 ?ieao, iaeace, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy oa aeac?aee aeayeeo
?aea?aeae?e?a Aeiiaoeueeiai i?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy aioo??oi?o ni?aa OIAN
Oe?a?ie o Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny iaoith oa
caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? aia?oa a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??
aeeiiaiee caaaeueiioai?aoe/iee eiiieaeniee aiae?c ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a,
aecia/aia ?o i?aaiaa i?e?iaea. I?iaiae?ciaaii aeaea?aea, a yeeo
iinoaaeaia i?iaeaia ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, no/aniee noai ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
eeaneo?eaoe?? th?eaee/ieo aeo?a o oai??? i?aaa. Aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaii
iiiyooy ?icii?yae/iai aeoa. A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny eiai aeaeiaa
naiino?ei?noue, aeyaey?oueny caaaeueia e iniaeeaa a ?icii?yae/iio oa
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiio e i?aaicanoinoaaeueiiio aeoao.

Aia?oa i?eeiyoa ni?iaa iao?aaeeoe?eiiai ae??oaiiy aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue
i?i th?eaee/io neeo oa ii?iaoeai?noue aeo?a oeio “aeiaaaeaiiy aei
a?aeiia”, “ia?aeeaaeath/eo ci?no ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a ea??aieo i?aai?a”.
Iaa?oioiaai aeniiaie i?i i?eiaeaaei?noue oaeeo aeo?a aei ?icii?yae/eo.

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeai? ooieoe?? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, aecia/aii ?o i?noea
a iaoai?ci? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, iieacaia ?o nioe?aeueia oe?ii?noue.

Ae?noaea iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oi/ea ci?o oeo aaoi??a,
ye? iaiieyaathoue ia naiino?eiiio cia/aii? ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino?, ye
aeaeo th?eaee/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia ?icii?yae/?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, yea ?ai?oa ia aea/aeanue.
?ic?iaeai? aeiiae aei ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ye? aeaeathoueny i?aaiaie
aioo??oi?o ni?aa. C?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a ca ??cieie
i?aenoaaaie, aia?oa noi?ioeueiaai? aeiiae aei ieo, aecia/ai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei ?o aeaeaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e iaoeiao cia/ei?noue, iiaecio ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia
caoeno aeiineoueny oae? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee:

— ?icii?yae/? aeoe ? ie?aiei aeaeii th?eaee/ieo aeo?a ? ca nai?ie
iciaeaie a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a;

— ?icii?yae/? aeoe aeeiiothoue iaai? ooieoe?? o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii?
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ? ? oaeoeueoaoeaiei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy;

— ?icii?yae/? aeoe iathoue aeiiii?aeiee oa?aeoa? ? cae?eniththoue nai?
i?ecia/aiiy a eiiieaen? c i?aaiaeie ii?iaie, ia ?aae?caoe?th yeeo oe?
aeoe ni?yiiaai?;

— aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a aeaoa?i?io?oueny iaaoaeoeaiith ae??th
th?eaee/ieo ii?i o iaaieo nioe?aeueieo oiiaao;

— ?icii?yae/? aeoe iathoue nioe?aeueio oe?ii?noue ye iaeei ?c cania?a
caaacia/aiiy aacia?a?aiino? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei;

— ?icii?yae/? aeoe iathoue aa?aiooth/ee aieea ia ?aaeei caeiiiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa ? iio?aaothoue aa?aio?e caeiiiino?
?o aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae,
aea/aiiy i?e?iaee ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iiaoaeiaaii ia ?o ca’yceo c
ae?yeuei?noth ii aeaeaiith oeeo aeo?a, aca?iica’yceo c ?ioeie aeaeaie
th?eaee/ieo aeo?a. Aea/athoueny oaeoi?e, ye? aeaoa?i?iothoue aeaeaiiy
?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a, aeacothoue ia ?o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee ca’ycie c
?ioeie noni?eueieie yaeuaie.

Ii?yae ?c oeei aeei?enoai? oaeiae i?eaaoii-iaoeia? iaoiaee: iaoiae
nenoaiiiai aiae?co i?e aea/aii? i?noey ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a o nenoai?
th?eaee/ieo aeo?a, iaoiae ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co i?e aeyaeaii? iciae
oeeo aeo?a, ye? a?ae??ciythoue ?o aeae a?ae ?ioeo, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee
i?e eeaneo?eaoe?? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a oa aeiia aei ieo,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c i?e aecia/aii? i?noey ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a o iaoai?ci? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, i?e
aea/aii? ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?c caeiii?noth.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa ia? iaoeiao ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue. Aiia iaaiith i??ith
iai?/a? iiaee iai?yiie ?icaeoeo oai??? i?aaiaeo aeo?a, yeee ia?aaeaa/a?
iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ?o iiaeeeainoae o
i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yieo o?nii
iia’ycaii c iiooeii oa iaa?oiooaaiiyi iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo i?aaiaeo oi?i
oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa aeey cae?eniaiiy ?o
caaaeaiue ? ooieoe?e, aeey oe??ieaiiy caeiiiino? a ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie
aeey a?eueo iiaeeaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.
Ie?ai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeaeaiith ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iiaeooue aooe
a?aoiaai? i?e aaeineiiaeaii? ae?eiaiaenoaa a i?aaiao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
i?e ?ic?iaoe? caoiae?a ii caaacia/aiith caeiiiino? aioo??oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino? IAN.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? oaeiae o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? th?eaee/ieo aoc?a oa oaeoeueoao?a, o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao IAN Oe?a?ie. Aiie iathoue iaaio oe?ii?noue ye aeey
oai??? i?aaa, oae ? aeey aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa, aea o?aaeeoe?eii
i?enooiy oaia aea/aiiy aeo?a i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? aei
i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a,
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia eaoaae?? caaaeueii-i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i, a/ai?e
?aae? Aeiiaoeueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa
?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Aaoi?
iaiaeii?aciai aenooiaa c eaeoe?yie ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aae
i?aeoe/ieie i?aoe?aieeaie i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa Aeiiaoeueei?,
Eoaainueei?, Caii??cueei?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?, Iieoaanueei? iaeanoae.
Iaoa??aee oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/ai? ye
ie?aia oaia aei iaa/aeueiiai eo?no “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie oai??? aea?aeaae
oa i?aaa”, ui aeeeaaea?oueny a Aeiiaoeueeiio ?inoeooo? aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, ye? ii?aeiothoue
i’youe i?ae?icae?e?a, o?noue ioieo?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoeo. Iiaiee ianya ?oeiieno – 193 noi??iee. Nienie aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e oa ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a caeia? 14 noi??iie ? noaiiaeoue 243
iaeiaioaaiiy. O aeiaeaoeo ia o?ueio noi??ieao ai?uaii i?iiiceoe?? aei
i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe” oa aeia?aeea i?i ?o
aeei?enoaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa oa
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?? ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa IAN Oe?a?ie, iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa, iaoeiaa iiaecia
oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «I?aaiaee aiae?c ci?noo oa oi?ie ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a»
i?enay/aiee iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, ui noino?oueny oe??? i?iaeaie,
aecia/aiith iciae ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, aeine?aeaeaiith ooieoe?e inoaii?o
o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aaoi? ?iaeoue aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, i?enay/aii?
ieoaiiyi th?eaee/ieo aeo?a, ?o eeaneo?eaoe??, ie?aneth? iniiai? iiiaioe
uiaei iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a o aeine?aeaeaiiyo a/aieo. A
aiae?oe/iiio ieai? ?icaeyaea?oueny noai ?ic?iaee iiiyooy i?aaiaiai aeoa
oa iniiaieo eiai aeae?a, aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui iaea?aeaea
aeciaiiy aeaiaeaeiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaiaeo aeo?a. C iaeiiai aieo, oea
i?eaaei aei aeineoue aeeaieiai aea/aiiy th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee ii?iaoeaieo
oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, c ?ioiai – aei iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy i?i
?nioaaiiy aeo?a, ye? ia iaeaaeaoue aei icia/aieo aeae?a. I?e oeueiio
aeena?oaio noa? ia oi/eo ci?o oeo aaoi??a, ye? iaiieyaathoue ia
naiino?ei?e cia/ouino? oaeeo aeo?a oa ia iaiao?aeiino? ?o ie?aiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaiaa i?e?iaea ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iio?aao? c’ynoaaiiy,
a ia?oo /a?ao, c o??? i?e/eie, ui oae? aeoe aeaeathoueny ??cieie
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oa iinaaeiaeie iniaaie. A?aeiia?aeii noa’?eoe
aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue aeeiiaiiy oeeie aeoaie iaaii? ?ie? o iaoai?ci?
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, cae?eniaiiy ieie ?yaeo ooieoe?e. A?aoiaoth/e oa,
ui oae? aeoe aeaeathoueny i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa, aaoi? aaa/a?
iio?aao a aeine?aeaeaii? ?o ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeyaeaiith iciae ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a. Ca
i?aenoaao aa?aoueny aeeacaia a e?oa?aoo?? a?iioaca i?i oa, ui aiie
caeiathoue i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy i?ae ii?iaoeaieie oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieie. Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ?nioth/? i?aeoiaee aei
oi?ioethaaiiy iciae ii?iaoeaieo oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a, aecia/a?
oae? ?o aeao?i?oe??, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o aeine?aeaeaii?. I?e
oeueiio aeyaeythoueny ?iaeia? iciaee, ui ia’?aeiothoue ?o o eaoaai??th
“i?aaiaee aeo”, oa iciaee, ui ? aeeoa?aioe?thth/eie ? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co c ?icii?yae/eie aeoaie. Na?aae
oaeeo iciae aecia/athoueny ianooii?: ii-ia?oa, ii?iaoeai? oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? aeoe ae?aaeathoue ??ci? iaoiaee i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, a?aeiia?aeii iaoiae aano?aeoiiai oa
iaoiae eacoaeueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy; ii-ae?oaa, ii?iaoeai? aeoe i?noyoue
ii?ie i?aaa, i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? – ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aecia/ai? i?aaia?
i?eiene; ii-o?ao?, aiie iathoue ??ci? i?aaeiaoe ?aaoethaaiiy –
ii?iaoeai? aeoe ?aaoeththoue oeiia? a?aeiineie, i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? –
ni?yiiaai? ia ?aaoethaaiiy eiie?aoieo, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aecia/aieo
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei; ii-/aoaa?oa, aiie a?ae??ciythoueny ca nooiaiai
aecia/aiino? aae?anao?a – ii?iaoeai? aeoe caa?iai? aei ia?niiaeueii
iaaecia/aiiai eiea in?a, a i?aaicanoinoaaeuei? – aei ia?niiaeueii
aeacaieo a ieo noa’?eo?a; inoaiiy a?aeciaea iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino?
aaaaoi?aciai? ?aae?caoe?? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a oa iaeiie?aoi?e ae?? aeo?a
canoinoaaiiy.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ci?noo ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, oi?ioethaaiiy ?o iciae
oa ii??aiyiiy inoaii?o c iciaeaie a?aeiieo aeae?a i?aaiaeo aeo?a aaoi?
i?eoiaeeoue aei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a?iioace i?i ?o ianoiae?noue c
ii?iaoeaieie oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieie aeoaie, aeae?ey? oae? oi?iaeuei?
iciaee, ui ia ca?aathoueny c iciaeaie aeaio inoaii?o aeae?a: ?o
aae?anaoe aecia/ai? a ocaaaeueiai?e oi?i?; i?eienothoue cae?eniaiiy
iaaiiai aeaeo ae?e aai ae?e o iaaiiio iai?yieo; ia anoaiiaeththoue
naieoe?e, ye? caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy aeacaieo i?eien?a. Aaoi?
i?aee?aneth? a?aei?io ?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a a?ae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eieo, yea
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aae?anao inoaii?o iaea?aeo? aeac?aeo i?i aaaeaiee
?icaeoie iiae?e ? naiino?eii ae??oo? ieoaiiy i?i ?aae?caoe?th oeeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, a aae?anao ?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a oaei? naiino?eiino? ia
ia? ? iiaeiai ?aae?coaaoe ?o. Iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy ci?noo ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe ? oae? ?o iciaee, ye i?aeii?iaoeai?noue
oa noai?aeeiaoe?eiee oa?aeoa? i?eien?a, ui i?noyoueny a ieo.

Aeyaeaiith nooo?aeo iciae ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a i?enay/aii aea/aiiy
aeaoa?i?iaoe?? ae?yeueiino? ii ?o aeaeaiith. Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie
aecia/eeenue eacoaeueia oa oiiaia oi?ia aeaoa?i?ioth/eo oaeoi??a.
Eacoaeueia aeaoa?i?iaoe?y caiaeeoueny aei oiai, ui aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a ni?e/eiy?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith aoaeoeai?noth ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a.
Oiiaia aeaoa?i?iaoe?y iieyaa? a eiiieaen? oiia, ui ia?aoeiaeaeothoue
?aae?caoe?? ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a. Iiae?aia noaiiaeua aeeeeeaii oei, ui
ia’?eoeaii iaiiaeeeai i?e ii?iioai?/ino? ia?aaeaa/eoe an? oiiae
?aae?caoe?? noai?thaaieo ii?iaoea?a. C oeueiai aeoiaeeoue, ui oiiaia
aeaoa?i?iaoe?y ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? ia? ia’?eoeaiee oa?aeoa?, a
aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a ? ia’?eoeaiith iio?aaith i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Aeaoa?i?ioth/? oaeoi?e
aena?oeththoue nooo?aee a?e ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a. Aiie ? iniaeeaei aeaeii
th?eaee/ieo aeo?a, ye? ae?aaeathoue ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa
iinaaeiaeo in?a o i?aeii?iaoeaiiio ?aaoethaaii? oa ni?yiiaai? ia
iineeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a, caaacia/othoue
aacia?a?ai?noue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.
Ae?yeuei?noue ii ?o aeaeaiith iieyaa? o oai?/iio, aeaaeiiio aecia/aii?
iai?yieo ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa iinaaeiaeo in?a aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aae?caoe?? ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ooieoe?? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ui
aeiiiiaaa? c’ynoaaoe ?o nooi?noue. I?e/iio, i?ae ooieoe?yie ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a aaoi? ?icoi?? iai?yiee ?o aieeao ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie. Ieoaiiy
i?i ooieoe?? noaaeoueny oaeiae o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth aecia/aiiy
?ie? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeo?a o iaoai?ci? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

C ?icaeyiooeo ooieoe?e a?eueo iiaii oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?e?iaeo
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a niaoe?aeueii-th?eaee/i? ooieoe??:
i?aaicaaacia/oaaeueia, oe?eaanoaiiaethth/a, i?aai?caoi?nueea. Iniaeeai
aeae?ey?oueny i?aaicaaacia/oaaeueia, yea ni?yiiaaia ia caaacia/aiiy
?aae?caoe?? th?eaee/ieo ii?i , i?e/iio iaoiaee oaeiai caaacia/aiiy
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oeo, ui i?eoaiaii? i?aaicanoinoaaiith. sseui
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy /a?ac aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aeo?a caaacia/o?
?aae?caoe?th i?aaiaeo i?eien?a ?o aeaaeiith ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??th, oi
?icii?yae/? aeoe caaacia/othoue oaeo ?aae?caoe?th oei, ui i?eienothoue
noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo oiia, cina?aaeaeaiiy coneeue eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a
ia iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo iai?yieao ae?yeueiino? aeey ao?eaiiy a aeeooy
th?eaee/ieo ii?i. Aei iniiaii? ne?ae a?aeianoe ooieoe?th
oe?eaanoaiiaeaiiy, a a?eueoino? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a aiia a?aeia?aaeaia a
?o oaeno?. Aeac?aea oe?eae o ?icii?yae/iio aeo? ia? cia/aiiy ia o?eueee
aeey i?aee?aneaiiy ni?yiiaaiino? ?icii?yae/iai aeoa, aea e aeaco? ia
nioe?aeueio iaoo iaoai?cio i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a iaaieo oiiaao eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. sse iniiaia, oaeiae aeyaeaia i?aai?caoi?nueea ooieoe?y,
yea a?eueo ae?acia i?ae a ?ioeo th?eaee/ieo aeoao, ine?eueee ca nai?th
noooth ?icii?yae/? aeoe ni?yiiaai? ia i?aai?caoe?th aeeiiaiiy
ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a, ia?aaeaa/athoue i?aai?caoe?ei? caoiaee uiaei
ao?eaiiy th?eaee/ieo ii?i o aeeooy. ?icii?yae/ei aeoai oaeiae i?eoaiaiia
oi?aae?inueea ooieoe?y, ui iia’ycaii c ?o yne?aai ae?aaeaiei
oi?aae?inueeei oa?aeoa?ii. Oe? aeoe iathoue aieea ia ae?yeuei?noue
i?aeeaaeeo i?aai?a aai iinaaeiaeo in?a c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aiiai
a ?icii?yae/iio aeo? ?acoeueoaoo ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Aea/aiiy ooieoe?e ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa,
ui a iaoai?ci? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe? aeoe a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue
oaeoeueoaoeaii? eaiee. Aiie aeeth/athoueny aei ?iaioe eeoa i?e iiya?
?ai?oa ?icaeyiooeo aeaoa?i?ioth/eo oaeoi??a, ? aeaiaioii, yeee i?aeaeuo?
iia?aoeai?noue, oaeaeeiae?th iaoai?cio. Nai? ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy
aiie aeeiiothoue o i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa, ca ?o aeiiiiiaith
cae?enith?oueny a?eueo aoaeoeaia ao?eaiiy a aeeooy th?eaee/ieo ii?i.
Oiaoi, oe? aeoe caeiathoue iaaia i?noea o iaoai?ci? i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy ? ia ni?aiaaeathoue c ?ioeie aeaeaie aeo?a, i?iyaeythoue
nai? naiino?eia cia/aiiy ye oaeoeueoaoeaiee aeaiaio oeueiai iaoai?cio.

Oaea ?ieue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a aeei?enoaia aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o
nioe?aeueii? oe?iiino?, ui iieyaa? a ?o iiceoeai?e cia/ouino?. I?ae
nioe?aeueiith oe?ii?noth th?eaee/iiai aeoa aaoi? ?icoi?? oaeo, ui
aecia/aia A.A. Eaca?aaei, ye ei?eni?noue aeoa, eiai ae?enia caeaoi?noue
neoaeeoe caaeiaieaiith a?aeiia?aeieo oe?eae oa ?ioa?an?a ca ia’?eoeaieie
iio?aaaie aoaeue-yeeo nioe?aeueieo a?oi. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a aiie i?iyaeythoue naith nioe?aeueio, a ia
?iaeea?aeoaeueio oe?ii?noue, ine?eueee ioiieththoue aeae noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei oa aae?aniaai? ia ie?ai?e inia?, a iaaiiio eieo noa’?eo?a.
I?e/iio, aiie i?iyaeythoue naith nioe?aeueio oe?ii?noue ia ye iaoa, a ye
can?a i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aea/aiiy oaeoi??a, aeaoa?i?ioth/eo aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a,
aeicaieeei aaoi?o c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ?ioi?iaoe?eio oe?ii?noue
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ine?eueee aiie c’yaeythoueny o ?ac? i?iaeai c
?aae?caoe??th ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a ? neaiae?cothoue i?aaioai?/ei i?aaiai
i?i ye?noue oa nioe?aeueio aoaeoeai?noue caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ca ci?noii oa
e?euee?noth ?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a iiaeia aecia/eoe ie?ai? iaaeie?ee
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? yeeo, oe? i?eiene
aeaeai?.

Aeoe ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? caaacia/othoue aacia?a?ai?noue i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy, aiie ci?iathoue i?ioe??//y i?ae caaaeuei?noth th?eaee/ii?
ii?ie oa aaaaoith ??ciiiai?oi?noth oiia ?aae?caoe?? ?? i?eien?a. Oe?
aeoe ? o??th eaieith, yea ni?yiiaaia ia i?aai?caoe?th oa cae?eniaiiy
caoiae?a aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiai? ii?ie a cacaeaeaa?aeue
iaia?aaeaa/aieo oiiaao, aiie ni?eythoue aoaeoeai?e ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, cina?aaeaeaiith coneeue ia iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo
iai?yieao ?iaioe.

?icaeyioo? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe ?o
iiiyooy.

?icii?yae/ee aeo — oea i?aeii?iaoeaiee io?oe?eiee ienueiiaee aeieoiaio
noai?aeeiaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, yeee aeaea?oueny aiiaiiaaaeaiei i?aaiii
aea?aeaae aai iinaaeiaith iniaith oa aecia/a? oe?e?, iai?yiee oa
oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? i?aeeaaeeo noa’?eo?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy
?aae?caoe?? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo i?eien?a o iaaieo nioe?aeueieo oiiaao.

Aecia/ath/e iiiyooy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a oa oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ae?yeuei?noue
aeey ?o aeae?iiy, aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui aiie a?ae??ciythoueny ca
ci?noii a?ae iiiyoue “?icii?yae/ee aeo” oa “?icii?yae/a ae?yeuei?noue” a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio i?aa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Cia/aiiy oa i?noea ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a o nenoai?
aa?aio?e caeiiiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa» ia i?aenoaa?
?ai?o aeyaeaieo aeanoeainoae oa ooieoe?e aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?noea
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a o nenoai? th?eaee/ieo aa?aio?e caeiiiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, /a?ac ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caeiiiino?
c ?icii?yae/ith ae?yeuei?noth oi?ioeththoueny aeiiae aei aeaeaiiy oeeie
i?aaiaie ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui aca?iiae?y caeiiiino? oa ci?noo ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a
cae?enith?oueny /a?ac ?icii?yae/o ae?yeuei?noue, aaoi? o ia?oiio
i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caeiiiino? oa ?icii?yae/i?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. I?e oeueiio i?ae caeiii?noth
?icoi??oueny ?aaeei ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa iinaaeiaeo in?a
ii aeaeaiith ?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai caeii?a oa
i?aecaeiiieo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a. Aecia/athoueny noaae?? ?icii?yae/i?
ae?yeueiino?, ye? iathoue iniaeeaino?, ui iia’ycai? c iaiao?aei?noth
aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? ae?? i?aaiaeo ii?i, aecia/aiiyi oe?eae aeaeaiiy
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a. Aeae? oi?ioeththoueny aeiiae, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia
caaacia/aiiy caeiiiino? ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino?. Na?aae oeeo aeiia
aeae?eythoueny oae?, ui iathoue cia/aiiy aeeeth/ii aeey ?icii?yae/i?
ae?yeueiino?. Iia?aoeai?noue ia?aaeaa/a? nai?/anio ?aaeoe?th aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, cie?aia i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ia i?iaeaie a ?aae?caoe??
th?eaee/ieo ii?i. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ye? aeaeaaaeenue
i?ioyaii aeaio ?ie?a oi?aae?iiyie aioo??oi?o ni?aa ie?aieo iaeanoae
Oe?a?ie, aeacothoue ia ia?aaeaiaioiaai?noue i?ioeano ?o aeaeaiiy. A
oaeeo oiiaao iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy aeoeai?noue oa ?i?oe?aoeaa
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa o noai?aii? oeeo aeo?a. O ca’yceo c oei, ui
aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a /anoi aeaoa?i?io?oueny i?noeaaeie oiiaaie,
ye? i?ioeae?thoue ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaeo ii?i, iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
aeiiaa ?aeiino? caeiiiino?. I?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa ciaia’ycai?
a?aoiaoaaoe oae? i?noeaa? oiiae, aea ia aeoiaey/e ca iaae? caeiio.

Oi?ioethaaiiy oe?eae aeaeaiiy a ?icii?yae/eo aeoao iaoiiaeth?
iniaeeaino? aeiiae aeioe?eueiino? oeeo aeo?a. Oey aeiiaa, ia iiaeyae
aaoi?a, i?noeoue a nia? oae? oiiae: a?aeiia?aei?noue noi?ioeueiaaieo o
?icii?yae/eo aeoao oe?eae ?o aeaeaiiy oe?eyi ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a, ia
aeeiiaiiy yeeo ni?yiiaai? oe? aeoe; a?aeiia?aei?noue ni?yiiaaiino?
i?eien?a ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a IAN oe?eyi, ye? a ieo noi?ioeueiaai?;
aeioe?euei?noue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a iiaeiia ciaoiaeeoenue o iaaeao
caeiio.

?icaeyae aa?aio?e caeiiiino? ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? iaaiaeeoue aaoi?a
ia aeniiaie, ui ii?iaoeaii cae??ieai? aa?aio?? iathoue caaaeueia
cia/aiiy, ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ia ?io? aeaee th?eaee/ii? ae?yeueiino?.
A oie aea /an c’yniaothoueny ?yae niaoe?aeueieo aa?aio?e caeiiiino?
?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Oaea iieiaeaiiy
aaoi? iiynith? oaeoe/iei cae?eniaiiyi ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? IAN i?e
a?aenooiino? ia nueiaiaei? ?? i?aaiai? aecia/aiino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ae?yeuei?noue aeey aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a ia? aaaaoianiaeoia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c caeiii?noth. Aeuacaaaeai?
aeiiae aei ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? aoiaeyoue aei ci?noo ?? caeiiiino?.
E??i oiai, oey ae?yeuei?noue ? iaeiei ?c cania?a caaacia/aiiy caeiiiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Ca ?? aeiiiiiaith
aeinyaa?oueny caeiii?noue aioo??oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? IAN, ui
iina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia caeiii?noue oi?aae?iiy a ciai?oi?e noa??.
Iniaeeaa ?ieue ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? a caaacia/aii? caeiiiino?
aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe ?? ye a?aeiinii aaoiiiiiee aeaiaio i?aaiai?
nenoaie, yeee ia? naiino?eia cia/aiiy.

sse can?a caaacia/aiiy caeiiiino? ae?yeueiino? IAN, ?icii?yae/a
ae?yeuei?noue naia caaacia/o?oueny th?eaee/ieie aa?aio?yie, ye?, iaeiae,
ia iathoue oaei? neeueii? aa?aiooth/i? ae??, ye o i?aaioai?/ino? oa
i?aaicanoinoaaii?. Oaea iieiaeaiiy ae?aaea? i?iaeaio iaiao?aeiino?
ii?iaoeaiiai cae??ieaiiy aeiia aei ae?yeueiino? aeey aeaeaiiy
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaeaiith aeiia aei ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. I?e oeueiio a?aoiao?oueny, ui
?icii?yae/? aeoe ne?ae ?icoi?oe ye oi?io ae?aco ? iaeii/anii ye
?acoeueoao ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino?.

Aiane?aeie aiae?co iaeiaioaaiue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ye? neeaeeny ia
i?aeoeoe?, anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icii?yae/? aeoe ia iathoue noai?i o?eniaaii?
iacae ? iicia/athoueny ye iaeac, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, aeac?aea, aee?aeoeaa,
ieai oa ?io?, oiaoi ?o th?eaee/iee ci?no ia i?ea’ycaiee u?eueii aei
iacae aeo?a. I?e aea/aii? ieaiiaeo aeo?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa
anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie i?noyoue aei 40% ?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a. Aeoiaey/e c
oeueiai, aeena?oaio i?iiiio? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee
ieaiiaeo aeo?a /a?ac aeciaiiy ca ieie ?icii?yae/iai oa?aeoa?o,
a?aoiaoth/e ?acii c oei e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa? iaaii? /anoeie
i?eien?a, ye? i?noyoueny o ieaiiaeo aeoao IAN. Aeae? aeena?oaio noa? ia
oi/eo ci?o aaoi??a, ye? aenooiathoue i?ioe iaeiicia/iiai cae??ieaiiy
iacae th?eaee/iiai aeoo ca eiai th?eaee/iei ci?noii o ca’yceo c oei, ui
aeoe c aeeeth/ii ?icii?yae/eie i?eienaie aeaeathoueny aeineoue ??aeei.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue aea/aieo ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa
aeicaieeea cae?enieoe ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th ca ??cieie i?aenoaaaie:
iaeiaioaaiiyie; noa’?eoaie, ui ?o aeaeathoue; oa?aeoa?ii a?aeiinei, ui
?aaoeththoueny; niiniaii i?eeiyooy; nooiaiai neeaaeiino? aeoa;
o?eaae?noth ae??; oa?aeoa?ii i?eien?a, ia aeeiiaiiy yeeo ni?yiiaai?
aeoe; oi?iaie ae?aco aeo?a. Ca aeiiiiiaith oaei? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeyaeai?
aeoe – iaeace IAN oa oi?aae?iue IAN Oe?a?ie, ui iaieioothoue caeiie
Oe?a?ie, oeace I?aceaeaioa oa ?io? ii?iaoeai? aeoe. Iinoaaeaia a
e?oa?aoo?? aeeneon?eia ieoaiiy i?i ii?iaoeai?noue iiae?aieo aeo?a, ia
iiaeyae aaoi?a, ae??oo?oueny a?aeianaiiyi ?o aei ?icii?yae/eo. Aeoiaey/e
c ?nioth/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a?i aena?oeth? i?iaeaio ?o th?eaee/ii?
neee, ui aecia/a?oueny, a ia?oo /a?ao, th?eaee/iith neeith ii?i, ia
?aae?caoe?th yeeo oeae aeo ni?yiiaaiee, a a ae?oao – ???a?o?/iei
iieiaeaiiyi noa’?eoa, ui aeaeaa ?icii?yae/ee aeo. Aeena?oaio noaaeoue
i?iaeaio uiaei caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? oaeno?a ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a,
ye? iaieioothoueny, ?o io?oe?eiei ioae?eaoe?yi oa i?iiiio? ii?iaoeaii
aecia/eoe ii?yaeie i?aeaioiaee oeeo iaeac?a, yeee caaacia/oaaa ae ?o
aeaeaiiy o i?i?iaeueiee oa?i?i i?ney aaaaeaiiy a ae?th ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, ui iaieioothoueny oaeeie iaeacaie.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oi?ioeththoueny aeiiae aei
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ui aeaeathoueny i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Oae?
aeiiae iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio: aeaeaaaoe ?icii?yae/? aeoe iiaeooue
i?aaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?nueeiai, iaeaniiai oa a?eueo aeuiai ??aiy, ui
iaoiiaeth?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oa?aeoa?o ?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a oa
nooiaiy ocaaaeueiaiino? caaaeaiue aeacaieo i?aai?a; ?icii?yae/ee aeo
iiaeiai i?noeoe iaoo eiai aeaeaiiy, yea ia? aooe ?aoaeueii ocaiaeaeaia c
iaoith caeiio aai ?ioiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa, ia ?aae?caoe?th yeiai
ni?yiiaaiee ?icii?yae/ee aeo; iaia’yceiaith aeiiaith ? a?aooaaiiy
eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a aai in?a, aei yeeo caa?iooee ?icii?yae/ee aeo.

Aaoi? aeae?ey? oaeee aeae ?icii?yae/iai aeoa, ye ?icii?yae/a
?aciethoe?y oa i?iiiio? ii?iaoeaii cae??ieoe oaeo aeiiao aei ieo ye
iaia’yceiaa cacia/aiiy a ieo caoiae?a eiio?ieth ca aeeiiaiiyi.

Oaeei /eiii ?icii?yae/? aeoe ii?yae c ?ioeie th?eaee/ieie aeoaie ?
iaaiith aa?aio??th caeiiiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa o
?ac? a?aeiia?aeiino? ?o aeiiaai ui i?iiiiothoueny a ?iaio?.

AENIIAEE.

Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio ?ic?iaee i?iaeai eeaneo?eaoe?? th?eaee/ieo aeo?a
aeaco? ia iayai?noue oaeeo, ui ia a?aeiia?aeathoue iciaeai aaea a?aeiieo
– ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo oa i?aaicanoinoaaeueieo aeo?a. Anoaiiaeai?
iniaeea? iciaee aeo?a, ui iaea?aeaee iacao ?icii?yae/eo: aae?anaoe a ieo
aecia/ai? a ocaaaeueiai?e oi?i?, aiie i?eienothoue cae?eniaiiy iaaiiai
aeaeo ae?e aai ae?e o iaaiiio iai?yieo, anoaiiaeththoue oe?e? oaeeo
ae?e, ia i?noyoue naieoe?e, ui caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy ?icii?yae/eo
i?eien?a. E??i oiai, oae? aeoe iathoue noai?aeeiaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, ?
i?aeii?iaoeaieie ?, a oie aea /an, ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie, ni?yiiaai? ia
caaacia/aiiy oiia ?aae?caoe?? ii?iaoeaieo i?eien?a.

?icii?yae/? aeoe aeeiiothoue iaai? niaoe?aeuei? ooieoe?? ? a?ae?a?athoue
?ieue oaeoeueoaoeaiiai aeaiaioo iaoai?cio i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacothoue ia aeiiii?aeio ?ieue ?icii?yae/eo
aeo?a o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii?. Aiie cae?eniththoue naith aa?aiooth/o
ae?th ia caeiii?noue ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa eeoa a
eiiieaen? c th?eaee/ieie ii?iaie. ?acii c oei, oaeo aa?aiooth/o ae?th
?icii?yae/? aeoe iathoue o oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue
?icaeyiooei aeiiaai caeiiiino?: /?oea aecia/aiiy a ?o oaeno? oe?eae
aeaeaiiy, ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? oe?eyi i?aaiaeo ii?i ia ?aae?caoe?th yeeo
ni?yiiaai? ?icii?yae/? aeoe; a?aooaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? aae?anao?a
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a. Nooi?iue ocaaaeueiaiino? caaaeaiue ??cieo
no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue nenoaie IAN oa ocaaaeueiaiee oa?aeoa?
?icii?yae/eo i?eien?a aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue
aeaeaiiy ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a i?aaiaie ia ieae/a oa?eoi??aeueieo oa
aaeocaaeo oi?aae?iue IAN.

Iayai?noue oaeeo niaoe?aeueieo aeiia aei ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a oaeiae
aeaco? ia i?aaii??i?noue a?aeie?aieaiiy ?o a ie?aiee aeae th?eaee/ieo
aeo?a.

Oaeei /eiii, noi?ioeueiaai? iciaee oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?eiouaiiy i?i ?o iaaia cia/aiiy.
Aiie ? ie?aiei aeaeii i?aaiaeo aeo?a ii?yae c ii?iaoeaieie oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieie. ?o th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea ae?aaea?oueny a ?o
nooiino? ye ?ino?oiaioa caaacia/aiiy oiia ?aae?caoe?? ii?iaoeaieo
i?eien?a, a nioe?aeueia oe?ii?noue iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ? caniaii
caaacia/aiiy aacia?a?aiino? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Ia aeaeiao
naiino?ei?noue oeeo aeo?a aeaco? oaeiae ?o ooieoe?iiaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea oa ?o iniaeeaino? ye th?eaee/ii? aa?aio?? caeiiiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ie?aia ?o i?noea o iaoai?ci?
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

Iaea?aeai? a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeai? oa c?iaeai? aeniiaee i?i
?ioi?iaoe?eio oe?ii?noue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, th?eaee/io i?e?iaeo aeo?a,
ui iaieioothoue caeiie oa ?io? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ci?noo
th?eaee/ieo aeo?a oa ?o iaca aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe i?iiiceoe?? aei
i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe”, ui iieyaathoue o
a?eueo /?oeiio aecia/aii? iaae iiiyooy ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a oa cae??ieaii?
?o ca’yceo c ?icii?yae/eie.

?acoeueoaoe oa c?iaeai? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?noyoue iia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? iaaiith i??ith ?icaeaathoue oai??th
i?aaiaeo aeo?a. E??i oiai, aiie iiaeooue ciaeoe i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a
ae?yeueiino? IAN oa a caeiiioai?/ino?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.?icii?yae/? aeoe oa ?o nioe?aeueia oe?ii?noue// I?iaeaie i?aaiciaanoaa
oa i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?: Ca. iaoe. noaoae. – Aeiiaoeuee, 1998. –
? 1. – N. 58 – 62.

2. Aeaye? i?iaeaie caeiiiino? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a // I?iaeaie
i?aaiciaanoaa oa i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?: Ca. iaoe. noaoae. –
Aeiiaoeuee, 1998. – ? 2. – N. 18 – 22.

3. Ooieoe?? ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo: Ca. iaoe i?. – Oa?e?a, 1997. – Aei. 3
? 4. – N. 181 – 186.

4. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caeiiiino? oa ?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? //A?niee
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – Oa?e?a, 1998 – Aei.3 – 4. – N. 78 – 84.

5. ?icii?yae/? aeoe oa ?o iniaeeaino? //A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa. – Oa?e?a, 1998. – Aei. 3 – 4. – N. 84 – 90 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
Iia??aiei ?.I.).

6. ?anii?yaeeoaeueiua aeou eae aeae i?aaiauo aeoia //A?niee
Aeiiaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Na??y A (aeiiii?ea ? i?aai). – ?2. – 1998. –
N. 212–218.

AIIOAOe??

Iaooo?i A.A. I?aaiaa i?e?iaea ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue. – Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaiith oa c’ynoaaiith
i?aaiai? i?e?iaee oaeeo th?eaee/ieo aeo?a, ui i?noyoue ocaaaeueiai?
i?eiene ? a oai??? i?aaa iaea?aeaee iacao ?icii?yae/eo. Noi?ioeueiaai?
iciaee, aecia/ai? niaoe?aeuei? ooieoe?? oa nooi?noue ?icii?yae/eo aeo?a.
Aea/ai? i?e/eie oa oiiae aeaeaiiy oaeeo aeo?a, aeiaaaeaii, ui aiie ?
ie?aiei aeaeii i?aaiaeo aeo?a ii?yae c ii?iaoeaieie oa
i?aaicanoinoaaeueieie, aeyaeaia ?o ?ieue a ?aaoethaaii? noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei. Aeeiiaia eeaneo?eaoe?y oa ae?iaeai? aeiiae aei aeaeaiiy
?icii?yae/eo aeo?a, ?icaeyiooi ?o cia/aiiy o caaacia/aii? caeiiiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?icii?yae/ee aeo, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeo,
i?aaicanoinoaaeueiee aeo, i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy, caeiii?noue,
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Iaoooei A.A. I?aaiaay i?e?iaea ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa;
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. – Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae,
Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio enneaaeiaaieth e ii?aaeaeaieth
i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu oaeeo th?eaee/aneeo aeoia, eioi?ua niaea?aeao
iaiauaiiua i?aaeienaiey e a oai?ee i?aaa iieo/eee iacaaiea
?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo.

Auiieiai aiaeec nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey eeanneoeeaoeee th?eaee/aneeo
aeoia e iaicia/aiu i?iaeaiu aeaeiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ioaeaeueiuo a?oii
aeoia: niaea?aeaueo iaiau?iiua iaeiie?aoece?iaaiiua i?aaeienaiey; aeoia
ieaie?iaaiey; aeoia, ia?aeaaathueo niaea?aeaiea caeiiia e eiuo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia aunoeo i?aaiia aeanoe. Iaiauaiu eceiaeaiiua a
eeoa?aoo?a i?aaeiieiaeaiey i nouiinoe ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia. Ia
iniiaa aeiioacu ia eo aeaeiaie iainiaeaiiinoe auaeaeaiu i?eciaee,
ioee/athuea ?anii?yaeeoaeueiua aeou io ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo e
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo. Io ii?iaoeaiuo iie ioee/athony iaeiie?aoiinoueth
aeaenoaey e ionoonoaeai ii?i, a io i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo – oai, /oi iie
ia ia?niieoeoee?iaaiu, ia eiatho eacoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, ia yaeythony
?acoeueoaoaie th?eaee/aneiai aeaea.

?anniio?aiu e eeanneoeoee?iaaiu oaeoi?u, aeaoa?ieie?othuea ecaeaiea
?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia, onoaiiaeaii, /oi iio?aaiinoue a yoeo aeoao
eiaao iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa? e iaoneiaeaia iniaaiiinoyie i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Ia yoie iniiaa noi?ioee?iaaia
nouiinoue ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia eae i?aaiaiai n?aaenoaa,
iai?aaeaiiiai ia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaey ii?iaoeaiuo
i?aaeienaiee.

N oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey ?iee ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia a iaoaiecia
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e eco/aiey nouiinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eo ooieoeee. N?aaee niaoeeaeueii-th?eaee/aneeo
auaeaeaiu oaeea ooieoeee eae i?aaiiaania/eoaeueiay,
oeaeaonoaiaaeeaathuay, i?aaiecaoi?neay, oi?aaeai/aneay. Naeaeai auaiae i
oii, /oi a iaoaiecia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yoe aeou ea?atho ?ieue
oaeoeueoaoeaiiai caaia, eioi?ia aeeth/aaony a ?aaioo i?e aicieeiiaaiee
ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaoa?ieie?othueo oaeoi?ia.

Nioeeaeueiay oeaiiinoue ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia ninoieo a oii, /oi iie
i?iyaeytho naay eae n?aaenoai iaania/aiey iai?a?uaiinoe i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, nieiatho i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
iauiinoueth th?eaee/aneeo ii?i e ?aciiia?aceai oneiaee eo ?aaeecaoeee.
Yoe aeou yaeythony i?aaiaui n?aaenoaii, iai?aaeaiiui ia i?aaiecaoeeth e
inouanoaeaiea ia? ii ?aaeecaoeee i?aaiauo ii?i a ca?aiaa
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, niinianoaotho nin?aaeioi/aieth oneeee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ia iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
iai?aaeaieyo ?aaiou.

Noi?ioee?iaaii iiiyoea ?anii?yaeeoaeueiiai aeoa. Yoi – iiaeii?iaoeaiue
ioeoeeaeueiue ienueiaiiue aeieoiaio noai?aeeiaoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a,
eioi?ue ecaeaaony oiieiiii/aiiui i?aaiii ainoaea?noaa eee aeieaeiinoiui
eeoeii, ii?aaeaeyao oeaee, iai?aaeaiey, oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe
iiae/ei?iiuo noauaeoia ii iaania/aieth ?aaeecaoeee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo
aeoia a ii?aaeae?iiuo nioeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo. I?e yoii ia?auaaony
aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ii?aaeaeyaiia a aeaiiie ?aaioa iiiyoea ioee/aaony io
iiiyoey “?anii?yaeeoaeueiue aeo” a aaeieieno?aoeaiii i?aaa.

Ia iniiaaiee eco/aiiuo iniaaiiinoae e ooieoeee enneaaeiaaii ianoi
?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia a nenoaia aa?aioee caeiiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae, noi?ioee?iaaiu o?aaiaaiey caeiiiinoe oaeie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iia yaeyaony iaeiei ec n?aaenoa iaania/aiey caeiiiinoe e
naia iaania/eaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiuie th?eaee/aneeie aa?aioeyie, eioi?ua,
iaeiaei, ia eiatho oaeiai neeueiiai aa?aioe?othuaai aicaeaenoaey, eae a
i?aaioai?/anoaa e i?aaii?eiaiaiee.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iaeiaiiaaiey ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia, eioi?ua
neiaeeeenue a i?aeoeea eo ecaeaiey.

Auyaeaiu i?eciaee ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia a iaeioi?uo ieaiao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae, enoiaey ec /aai i?aaeeiaeaii
?aoeoue i?iaeaio eo th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaeu /a?ac i?eciaiea ca ieie
?anii?yaeeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Ia iniiaa niaiaaeaiey i?eciaeia naeaeai
auaiae i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eco/aaiui aeoai i?eeacia, iauyaeythueo
niaea?aeaiea caeiiia e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia aunoeo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Auiieiaia eeanneoeeaoeey ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia. Noi?ioee?iaaiu
o?aaiaaiey e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiui aeoai, ecaeaaaaiui i?aaiaie aioo?aiieo
aeae: yoe aeou iiaoo ecaeaaaoueny i?aaiaie ia ieaea io?aneaauo e
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oi?aaeaiee; iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii eo niaea?aeaiey
yaeyaony oeaeue ecaeaiey, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue ouaoaeueii niaeaniaaia
n oeaeueth caeiia eee eiiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa, ia ?aaeecaoeeth eioi?iai
iai?aaeai ecaeaaaaiue ?anii?yaeeoaeueiue aeo; iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia
auoue o/oaia eiiiaoaioeey oao noauaeoia, eioi?ui oaeie aeo aae?aniaai.

Auiieiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iicaieeee naeaeaoue auaiae i aeaeiaie
iainiaeaiiinoe ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeoia. Iie auiieiytho
aniiiiaaoaeueioth ?ieue a iaoaiecia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, o/anoaotho a iaania/aiee caeiiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?anii?yaeeoaeueiue aeo, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aeo,
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiue aeo, i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea, caeiiiinoue,
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae.

Pashutin V.V. The Law Nature of Directive Acts. — Manuskript.

The dissertation for obtaining a scientific degree of the candidate of
law sciences on the speciality 12.00.01 — theory and history of state
and law; history of political and law teachings. — University of
Internal Affairs, Kharkov, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the complex investigation and definition
of law nature of such legal acts that contain generalized directions and
they are called «directive» in the theory of law. The essence and
special functions of them, and it’s signs are formulated in the
scientific paper. It observes the reasons and conditions of promulgation
of such acts. It is proved the following in dissertation: these acts can
be treated as special kind of legal acts together with normative and
law-applicable acts; their role in the regulating of public relations.
The classification is proposed here too, as well as the requirements for
their publication are worked out. The author is investigating the
significance of these acts in insuring legality in the activity of law
enforcement agencies.

Key words: directive act, normative act, law-applicable act, legal
regulation, legality, law enforcement agencies’ activity.

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