I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie

Aeaaeai?y ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e

I??ioiee Iaoae?y Na?a??aia

OAeE 726.71/74

I?aaineaai? iiianoe?nuee? eiiieaene Oe?a?ie

/ I?eioeeie ooieoe?iiaeueii? ? anoaoe/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? /

18.00.01. — oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Ee?a 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia: a Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e
I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?

I?ea?aa Eaii?ae Aieiaeeie?iae/,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe Aeaaeai??

ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?

Oeiio??iei Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?o ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa
aoiieia?? ?i. I.O. ?eeuenueeiai

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e E?eanni Na?a?e Einoyioeiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo oai???, ?noi???
a?o?oaeoo?e ? i?noiaoaeoaaiiy Aea?aeaoaeo Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa
oa a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «3» a?oaeiy 1999?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.103.01 a Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai
ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, 252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. Nie?iiaa-Eanoi/e?ia,
20.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeaaeai??
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «2» eenoiiaaea 1999
?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani? _____________
Aae?/ei TH.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

A?o?oaeoo?a iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ye a?o?oaeoo?ieo ainaiae?a
aeineoue iiaii a?aeaeaa? oai?/o nai???aei?noue a?o?oaeoo?ieo oe?e, ui
neeaeenue o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, oi?ie aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ia?iaeiei
oa i?ioan?eiei ciae/anoaii, i?eeiaoe naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e.

Ca nai?th noooth iiianoe?? — oea iniiaia oi?ia i?aai?caoe?? /a?iaoeoaa,
/a?ia/? a?iiaaee, ye? aieiae?thoue iiaooiaeie i?ei?uaiiyie oa ?ioith
aeani?noth ? ea?othoueny ?aeeieie i?aaeeaie (noaoooii), ui
i?iaieioothoue aneaoe/iee niin?a aeeooy. O o?enoeyinoa? aiie aeieeee a
III-IVno. i.a. O Ee?anuee?e ?on? iiianoe?? (i?aaineaai?) c’yaeeenue
iae?aco i?ney o?auaiiy — o 988-989 ??.

Ci?ie noee?a ? iai?yie?a a a?o?oaeoo?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ia
eiaeiiio c aoai?a aaiethoe?? iaee aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia
?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee ?icaeoie eoeueoiaiai, aeeoeiaiai oa ?ioeo aeae?a
aoae?aieoeoaa, /ei iiynith?oueny ?nioaaiiy ia??iae?a eiai ?icea?oo ?
caiaiaaeo, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? i?aeianaiiy, a oaeiae a?aeiiiai ?icia?ooy
ieaioaaeueieo noai, eiiiiceoe?eieo cania?a oa iiioiaioaeueieo ae??oaiue
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.

Aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ?noi?eei-a?o?oaeoo?ii? iaoee ? ianoaaeaiiy
oa?eoi??? aea?aeaae c iaoith aeyaeaiiy an?o a?o?oaeoo?ieo iai’yoie oa
?noi?e/ieo i?noiaoae?aieo ooai?aiue, ca?? iaoa??ae?a aeey oi?ioaaiiy
iiaiai aaieo aeaieo i?i ao?a/ai? e iaaienii cieuai? iai’yoee ?
a?aeoai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia? iiaii? ea?oeie a?o?oaeoo?iiai e
i?noiaoae?aiiai ?icaeoeo ie?aieo iaeanoae, a i?ney oeueiai – ia?ao?ae
aei ?anoaa?aoe?? oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue ?noi?e/io ? ooaeiaeith oe?ii?noue.

Ianaiia?aae iaiao?aeii aeooae?coaaoe ?noi?eei-a?o?oaeoo?ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a, aea ? iiianoe?nuee? eiiieaene, eio??
aiane?aeie iecee ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei aeyaeeenue iaeiaio
aea/aieie.

Ia nueiaiaei? noai aaaaoueio iiianoe??a aeeeeea? na?eicia caiaiiei?iiy.
?o aeaaiono??e ? ?aeiino?oeoe?y i?iaaaeyoueny, ye i?aaeei, iai?ioan?eii,
o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao — naieie iaoeaioeyie iiianoe??a. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a. Ieiua iiianoe?nueeeo i?ei?uaiue aanue /an
ciaioo?oueny /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy ?o o ainiiaea?nueeeo oa
oi?aiaaeueii-eiia?oe?eieo oe?eyo, ui noia?a/eoue ?o ni?aaaeiueiio
i?ecia/aiith. O ca’yceo c oeei a?eueo?noue iiianoe??a iio?aao?
a?aeiia?aeieo a?aeiiaethaaeueieo oa ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ?ia?o.

 Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iiianoe? ye ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy eeoeany iica
oaaaith oe?a?inueei? ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaoee. Aaiacen, ?noi??y ?icaeoeo oa
oi?ioaaiiy noee?a iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e aei oeueiai /ano ia
aea/ai?. Aein? ia cae?eniaia iaa?oue eaoaeia?caoe?y oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y
aaaaoiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo.

Ia ae??oothoueny i?iaeaie a?oioiaii? ?anoaa?aoe?? iiianoe??a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue iniaeeao a?o?oaeoo?ii-ienoaoeueeo oe?ii?noue, iiiiaeaiiy,
?anoaa?aoe?? oa caa?aaeaiiy o nenoai? iiianoe??a ie?aieo nii?oae
aeeoeiaiai oa ainiiaea?/iai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? ?oeiothoueny a?ae /ano aai
aacaeoiii, iaaei?aaaeaii ia?aaoaeiaothoueny.

A?aenooi?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/iiai ianeao iiianoe?nueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e, yea ?acii c? neoeueioo?ith, ?icienaie, o?aneaie, iaoaeaaeie
?ao?oeaie, ea?ai?eith noaiiaeoue a?o?oaeoo?ii-ienoaoeueeee neioac, ui,
c?icoi?ei, iicia/a?oueny ia ooaeiaeiueiio iaee//? aoaeue-yeiai i?noa /e
iinaeaiiy, caaaeii oiaiiaeeeaeea aena?oeaiiy oe?a?inueei? a?o?oaeoo?e ye
oe?e?niiai yaeua a eiioaeno? ?a?iiaenueeiai ienoaoeoaa.

Oiio aea/aiiy ?noi??? aeieeiaiiy iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e, ??
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a eiioaeno? caaaeueii? aaiethoe?? ienoaoeoaa
neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a No?aeii? ? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, ?aeiino?othaaiiy
aieiaieo nii?oae iiianoe??a c aeio?eiaiiyi i?e oeueiio iniiaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a aoae?aieoeoaa naia aeaieo nii?oae,
ienoaoeoaiciaa/ee aiae?c ?icieno, ?eiiinoan?a oa ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a,
aeyaeaiiy ienoaoeueei-noeeueiaeo iniaeeainoae eiie?aoieo aeae?a ? a?oi
caaoaeiae o nenoai? iiianoe?y, a oaeiae aieea a?o?oaeoo?e iiianoe??a ia
iinaeaiiy – ana oea ? iaa?aeeeaaeiei ? aino?iaeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi.

 Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie ia nueiaiaei?
iacaaeia?eueiee — a?o?oaeoo?a i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a Oe?a?ie aein? ia
aoea ie?aiei i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy. Nii?aaee/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ??
?nioaaiiy ia iaaieo aoaiao aaiethoe?? a?o?oaeoo?ieo noee?a iiaeia ciaeoe
eeoa o aaaaoioiiieo aeaeaiiyo ocaaaeueithth/iai oa?aeoa?o c ?noi???
a?o/eciyii? a?o?oaeoo?e.

C iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae, o yeeo iaaiith i??ith aena?oeaii ie?ai? ieoaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, iaiao?aeii ia?o ca ana caa?iooe oaaao ia
i?aoe? A.Aaiaeaey, ?. A?aaa?y, ?.Iaeiaaoeueeiai, ?.Ieoaeeianueeiai,
I.Iiieiaieeiaa, N.Iiae’yiieuenueeiai, I.Uaieiaa oa ?i.

Aea/aiiy oeeo aeaea?ae aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeeeaaeai?
caaaeuei? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie oa iaoiaeeea ?anoaa?aoe?? e
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a noiniaii iai’yoie iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a Oe?a?ie, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny oeiieia?/ieie,
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?ie oa eiino?oeoeaieie iniaeeainoyie, iio?aaothoue
nooo?aeo ooi/iaiue oa aeiiiaiaiue, a oaeiae eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy
iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? e ca aeiiiiiaith
aaeeei? e?eueeino? ??cieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

Ia?o? caaaeee i?i iiianoe?? i?noyoueny o e?oiienao. Naia c e?oiien?a
ae?cia?iiny, eei ? eiee aoa caeeaaeaiee oie /e ?ioee iiianoe? (XI-XII
no.).

Aeaui aeaoaeuei?oee iien iiaeathoue ie?ai? «Iaoa?eee» oa «AEeo?y
nayoeo». O ieo a ia?aci?e, iiaoe/i?e oi?i? iiaeoueny i?i nii?oaeaeaiiy
iiianoe?nueeeo niai??a, oea?eia oa ?ioeo caaoaeia (XII-XIV no.).

?niothoue oaeiae niiaaaee iaiae??aiee?a, ye? a ??ci? /ane ciaeiieeeny c
aeeooyi iiianoe??a oa ?o iaoeaioe?a ? cao?enoaaee nai? a?aaeaiiy
(XIV-XVI no.). E??i neiaanii? iiia?ae? iaiae??aiee?a i?i iiianoe??,
?niothoue iaethiee, ca yeeie iiaeia anoaiiaeoe aeaeyae iai’yoie o ??ci?
?noi?e/i? ia??iaee (iai?eeeaae, iaethiee A. Aai Aanoa?oaeueaea, XVII
no.).

Ai?iaeiaae XVII-XX no. aeaeaii /eiaei ??cieo ioo?aiee?a ii iaea?eueo
a?aeiieo iiianoe?yo i?no aai acaaae? oe?eiai ?aa?iio. Oaeei ?,
iai?eeeaae, «Iooaaiaeeoaeue ii Eeaai-Ia/a?neie eaa?a», neeaaeaiee
I?ioi???a?i O.Oeoiaei (1810 ?.). Ioo?aiee ai?uo? aeineoue ia’?eoeaio
?ioi?iaoe?th, yea ia noia?a/eoue a?o?aiei aeieoiaioai uiaei e?eueeino?
eai’yieo aoaeeie?a, caaoaeiae eiiieaeno oa iaeaecia/i?oeo iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e. ?niothoue oaeiae i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? ie?aiei iiianoe?yi. ?o
aaoi?e (A.Ai?/aeia, N. Eoeueaeaiei, I.Iaeneiiae/ oa ?io?) ?icoe?ththoue
oa cia/iith i??ith aeiiiaiththoue oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, cao?eniaaiee aei
ieo.

?noioii iiaeaaaeth?oueny i?ioean aea/aiiy iiianoe??a iai?ee?ioe? XIX-
ii/aoeo XX no. Cia/io ?ieue o aea/aii? iai’yoie iiianoe?nueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e a?ae?a?aaaee oae? aeine?aeieee, ye A.Cae?aanueeee,
I.Caoa?/aiei, I.Iaeaaeaiianueeee, N.Ii?iaa, I.Naiaioianueeee,
A.Oi?nueeee oa ?i. Iaaia cia/aiiy aeey iie?ioaiiy ni?aae ioi?iie
iai’yoie iaee ioae?eaoe?? A.Eoeiinueeiai, A.Iaaeooeueeiai. Oaeiae o oeae
/an aoee aeaeai? e iioae?eiaai? ca??ieee iaoa??ae?a ?noi?e/ii?
oiiia?ao?? iaea?eueo a?aeiieo i?no Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? iiianoe??a,
ye? aoee ?icoaoiaai? ia ?o oa?eoi???.

Oioia?ao?? iiianoe??a ciaoiaeeii a aaia?ao?/ieo neiaieeao, a oaeiae o
i?aoeyo c aaia?ao?/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa XVIII-XX no., cie?aia o aeaeaii?
«AEeaiieniay ?inney (Aaia?aoe/aneia iienaiea ?inneeneie eiia?ee ii
aoaa?ieyi e iaeanoyi)». Ooo aia?oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa ao?eaooe??
iiianoe?nueeeo nii?oae oa ?icaeyae ?o o caaaeueiiio eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? a?o?oaeoo?e.

O iiai?ii? ?iee aaaeooueny ?iaioe ia?aaaaeii ii a?aeiiaeaiith
c?oeiiaaieo ?ae?ea?e, ?icoe?th?oueny ianya iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iai’yoie. Aea/aiiyi ? ?anoaa?aoe??th ia’?eo?a a?o?oaeoo?e o oeae ia??iae
caeiathoueny, cie?aia, I.Aa?aiianueeee, ?.?aiaoe?i, I. Ea?aa?, A.Eiaaei,
TH.Iaeueaianueeee, A.?eaaeia, I.Oieinoaiei oa ?i. ?o i?aoe? iathoue
aaaeeeaa iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeiiiaiththoue
oaeoe/i? ciaiiy c ?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?e iiianoe??a.

Iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eii? aace a Oe?a?i? caaacia/eei cae?eniaiiy
?anoaa?aoe?? cia/ii? e?eueeino? iai’yoie, a oiio /ene? ie?aieo ia’?eo?a
o Nayoiai?nueeiio iiianoe??, a Ceiiiio, Niani-I?aia?aaeainueeiio, o
Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueeiio oa ?ioeo. A?ae/ooiee aianie a ioi?iio
a?o?oaeoo?ieo iai’yoie ? oa?eoi??e iiianoe??a c?iaeee a?aeii?
a?o?oaeoi?e-?anoia?aoi?e ?.Aeeiaa, I.Aiaaeaiei, I.Aiaeiaaithe,
I.A?aoaeen, A.Aeyaethoaiei, A.Einueyiaiei, E.E?iuaiei, A.Eiiooeinueea,
A.Eoe’yi/aiei, ?.Iiaeoe/, ?.Inaae/ee, A.Io/aiaoei, A.Ieaiaieoeueea,
I.?iiai/aiei, ?.Oa?oo?iiaa, A.Oioeuenii, N.TH?/aiei oa ?i.

Iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaiith
iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e Oe?a?ie, aein? ia noai?aii. Oei /anii, ?nio?
aino?a iio?aaa a oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Naia oeei, aaeeeith i??ith,
coiiaeaiee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??.

 Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oi?iiooai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe?? ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?icieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a
(iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e), ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?oiueiai no/aniiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?o
?icaeoeo o na?aaeiaeu?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aeinue aeeiiaiiy oaeeo
caaaeaiue:

— aiae?c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo, a?o?aieo ? oiiaeiaeo
iaoa??ae?a;

— aeyaeaiiy ia?aaeoiia, ui ni?eyee iiya? iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e a
no?aeieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, cie?aia i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a;

— aena?oeaiiy noaae?eiino? ?icaeoeo iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e;

— cae?eniaiiy iaoeiaiai aiae?co, eaoaeia?caoe?? oa nenoaiaoecaoe??
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia’?eo?a ? neeaaeaiiy ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai
eeaneo?eaoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a;

— aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo oei?a, a?oi ? aeae?a iiianoe?nueeeo nii?oae oa
ii?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oaaeeoeue uiaei iiianoe?nueei? caaoaeiae;

— aea/aiiy niaoeeo?ee aca?iiae?? ie?aieo a?oi iiianoe?nueei? caaoaeiae
oa a?o?oaeoo?iiai eiiieaeno iiianoe?y a oe?eiio c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai ? aiae?c ?o ienoaoeueei-noeeueiaeo iniaeeainoae;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue no/aniiai noaio a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?eii? oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?icieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a;

— ?ic?iaea, c o?aooaaiiyi a?iiaaenueei? aaaiiino? iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a, i?e/ei ? oa?aeoa?o ?oeiaoe?e ia’?eo?a iiianoe?nueeiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, ci?ie ?o a?o?oaeoo?iiai aeaeyaeo, iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e ii a?ae?iaeaeaiith a?o?oaeoo?ii? oi?ie
iai’yoee ia oa?eoi??? iiianoe?y;

— aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/iiai na?aaeiaeua iiianoe??a
Oe?a?ie, eiai cia/aiiy o ni?eeiyoo? aeaeyaeo iai’yoie;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? i?eioeeie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiianoe??a oa a?aeiia?aeii
ia?aaeyiooe iaoiaee ?o ioi?iie.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — iiianoe?nuee? eiiieaene, ui caa?aaeeny
(iiai?noth aai /anoeiai) ye aee?i/ai? a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?ei?
nenoaie, ye? aieeaathoue ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua iinaeaiue
oa ?aa?ii?a, a oaeiae iiianoe??, cia?aaeaiiy yeeo ? a ?eiiia?ao?/ieo
iaoa??aeao.

 *ania? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue XVII no. — ia?oo iieiaeio XX
no. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoaii oaeiae iaiao?aei? a?aeiiino? i?i iiianoe??,
ii/eiath/e c XII ? ianooiieo noie?oue. Caaaeii o aeine?aeaeaii?
?icaeyaea?oueny ia??iae aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e ia
Oe?a?i?, i?i yeee caa?aaeiny iaea?eueoa oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo, a
oaeiae /an caiaiaaeo /e o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e.

 Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy — aiae?c oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae; ea?oia?ao?/ieo, a?o?aieo, i?iaeoii-ieaioaaeueieo ?
noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a; cae?eniaiiy iaoo?iiai ianoaaeaiiy ?
oeiieia?caoe?? a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a; aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy.

 Aeaea?aeueiith aacith neoaoaaee a?o?ai? iaoa??aee aea?aeaaieo noiaeu,
ioae?eaoe?? oa ?ethno?aoeai? iaoa??aee a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aeaeaiue, i?iaeoe iiianoe??a oa oioiaeieoiaioe c oiiae?a Iocath ?noi???
Ee?aa oa i?eaaoieo eieaeoe?e, a oaeiae iienai? ? caoioia?aoiaai? iaie
i?ae /an ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ianoaaeaiue aoae?ae? iiianoe??a Ee?aa,
*a?i?aiaa, Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueeiai oa ?i.

 Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?oith ni?iaith a?aeoai?eoe
aaiethoe?eio ea?oeio ?icaeoeo iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e Oe?a?ie,
inieneeoe oa?aeoa? ie?aieo yaeu ? oaiaeaioe?e o iiianoe?nueeiio
aoae?aieoeoa?, iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiai
ienoaoeoaa, ?icoe?eoe oyaeaiiy i?i eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee eiioaeno
oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?? iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e. Coi?ioeueiaaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy, ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeo
iiianoe??a c o?aooaaiiyi ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo. Aena?oeaiii
iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/iiai na?aaeiaeua oa aecia/aii iaea?eueo i?eeiyoi?
iaoiaee ioi?iie e aeei?enoaiiy iai’yoie iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e,
aeiiae uiaei caa?aaeaiiy ioi/aiiy, yea neeaeiny ?noi?e/ii.

 I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? ii?aeiai?
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?ic?iaee ie?aieo ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue,
a?o?oaeoo?iee aiae?c oai??a oa iaoiaeieia?y a?aeiiaeaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a. C?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
eiina?aaoe?? oa ?anoaa?aoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, noaoe iniiaith
aeey ianooiieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeo
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aeinue io?eiaoe iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe, ae? a ni?eyee iiaeaeueoiio aeine?aeaeaiith iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a, cie?aia aeyaeaiith ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ?o ieaioaaiiy oa
eiiiiceoe?eii? i?aai?caoe??, aeei?enoaiith ?o a oiiaao no/aniiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy, ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo iiianoe??a,
iaa?oiooaaiith ?o oeiieia?? oa eeaneo?eaoe?? noiniaii oe?eae no/aniiai
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy ? eaiaeoaooii? a?o?oaeoo?e, ?ic?iaoe? eiiiiceoe?eieo
i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa i?inoi?iaiai na?aaeiaeua
iiianoe?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ii?iaoea?a eiai ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia iao iiaeyae, iaoeia ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe,
ianaiia?aae a ieoaii? a?aeiiaeaiiy oa no/aniiai aeei?enoaiiy
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaee aa??aio?a ia?niaeoeaii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa iiaeaeae iiianoe??a, i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy eiiiiceoe??
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.

 Ia caoeno  aeiinyoueny:

— iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-anoaoe/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iai’yoie iiianoe?nueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e.

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ioi?iie ?noi?e/iiai
na?aaeiaeua iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao iai’yoie
iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e, c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai
cia/aiiy.

 Ai?iaaoe?y. Ii oai? aeenna?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Ie?ai? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeai? ia 3 eiioa?aioe?yo.
?ic?iaeaii eiii’thoa?io i?ia?aio ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a
i?iaeoiaaieo aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoae?aaeue, ye? aoee ?icoaoiaai?
iiaeeco aieiaiiai iiianoe?nueeiai niai?o.

 Ia’?i oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ia? a?ae?ia?ao?th ii oai?
(126 iiceoe?e). ?ethno?aoeaiee iaoa??ae aeeeaaeaiee ia 30 ieaioaoao ?
ia?aoiao? aeecueei 80 oaaeeoeue, oioia?ao?e, e?aneaiue, iaethie?a. Aei
?iaioe aeiaea?oueny neiaiee oa?i?i?a.

 Ci?no ?iaioe. O «Anooi?» iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie oa ??
iaoeiaa iiaecia. Iiaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, ui noino?oueny
?noi??? iiianoe?nueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. I?iaaaeaii iaiao?aeiee
aiae?c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo iiianoe??a o e?a?iao ?a?iie, ye? iaaeothoue c
iaoith aea?aeaaith, o?ae ?noi?e/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo ? ienoaoeueeeo iiae?e,
ui iaa aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ia?aa?a aiaeia?/ieo
i?ioean?a o no?aeieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie. Noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? aieiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie aena?oeaiiy
oaie.

 O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano ca?iaeaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a» i?iaiae?ciaaii, o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a ia i?eeeaae? aaea ?nioth/eo aeine?aeaeaiue, aieiai? aeaee
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a Oe?a?ie, ?o oiiieia?/i?,
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei? oa eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino?.

3 iiceoe?? ioi?iie oa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiianoe??a aeine?aeaeothoueny
iniiai? oeie aoae?aaeue ia iiianoe?nuee?e oa?eoi??? oa ?oi? ?icoaooaaiiy
noiniaii aieiaiiai niai?o.

?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a: eaa?a —
noaa?ii?a?aeuei? iiianoe?? — ionoeiue — neeo – iiianoe?? i?eieni? –
iaueie. Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoiiaeaia ianooaai?noth, ?ici??aie,
e?euee?noth ? ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi aoae?aaeue, oa?aeoa?ii
a?o?oaeoo?iiai ae??oaiiy nii?oae. Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??i?noue
?icoaooaaiiy nii?oae o nenoai? aoaeue-yeiai iiianoe?y. I?iaiae?ciaaii
aeecueei 30 ia’?eo?a, ui aeaei ciiao aeae?eeoe oae? iniiai? /eiieee
iiianoe?nueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa: ?aeaieia?/iee, i?aeoe/iee,
ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ainiiaea?nueeee oiui. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? oaeiae
aiae?co?oueny ?ici?uaiiy nii?oae oa aoae?aaeue iiianoe?y ye ia ie?aieo
ae?eyieao, oae ? ia oa?eoi??? eiiieaeno a oe?eiio, anoaiiaeth?oueny
caeiiii??i?noue i?noeue ?icoaooaaiiy eiaeii? aoae?ae? ? iniaeeai
eiiiiceoe?eiiai yae?a iiianoe?y (niai?, aeca?ieoey, o?aiacia), aeyaeaii
?io? caeiiii??iino? aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua iiianoe?y – i???ioaoe?y
nii?oae o i?inoi??, aeei?enoaiiy ianaaeaeaiue, i?aee?aneaiiy cia/eiino?
o??? /e ?ioi? nii?oaee.

Aecia/aii aeaee ainiiaea?/i? ae?yeueiino? eiaeiiai iiianoe?y. I?e
oeueiio a?aeenue oaeiae aei oaaae iei? c?oeiiaai? /e iai?ac?oeiiaai?
iiianoe??.

Ia iniia? aiae?co nii?oae ? aoae?aaeue eiaeiiai iiianoe?y aecia/aii
eeaneo?eaoe?th ?o ?ici?uaiiy o nenoai? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a:

a) ca i?inoi?iaei ae??oaiiyi;

a) ca eiiiiceoe??th;

a) ca noeeueiaeie iniaeeainoyie;

a) ca ianooaai?noth.

I?e oeueiio oaeiae i?iaaaeaii oeiieia?caoe?th eiaeii? nii?oaee oa
aeyaeaii noeeueia? oa eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? nii?oae a oe?a?inueeeo
oa ?in?enueeeo iiianoe?yo (i?aaineaaieo), ?icaeyiooi ?o ni?euei? ?ene.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o?oaeoo?e
i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a Oe?a?ie anoaiiaeaii iniiai? oeie iai’yoie ia ?o
oa?eoi???, aeyaeaii ieceo iniaeeainoae, ye? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
?ic?iaoe? i?eioeei?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.

 O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a Oe?a?ie
c iaoith ?o ?anoaa?aoe?? oa ?aaa?e?oaoe??» ?icaeyaea?oueny
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia cia/aiiy iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, i?e/eie
?oeiaoe?? oa niioai?aiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiai aeaeyaeo ?
eiino?oeoeaii? no?oeoo?e eiaeii? iai’yoee o eiiieaen?. Aecia/athoueny
iaea?eueo i?eeiyoi? iaoiaee a?aeiiaeaiiy oa ioi?iie, ?ic?iaeythoueny
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iai’yoie.

A?eueo aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaii noai iiianoe??a Oe?a?ie a
20-30-?, 30-40-?, 40-60-? ?iee OO noie?ooy ? aei iaoiai /ano.

Aecia/aii iniiai? i?e/eie ?oeiaoe?e iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a,
i?iaiae?ciaai? ioi?iii? caoiaee, ye? iaee i?noea, ii/eiath/e c 20-o
?ie?a ? aei iaoiai /ano.

Anoaiiaeaii aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo eiaeiiai iiianoe?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa
/eiieee, ye? ni?eyee oeueiio ?icaeoeo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ioi?iiieo ae?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae no/aniiai
noaio eiaeiiai iiianoe?y, a?aoiaoth/e oaeiae no/aniee noai ioi/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua iiianoe??a, yea oaae ci?ithaaeiny ia i?ioyc? noie?oue
aeae?eueea ?ac?a. Oaeiae ?icaeyiooi noai i?aecaiieo iiianoe??a oa ia/a?,
noa?iaeiieo ooiaeaiaio?a.

Aeyaeaii iiaeeeaino? aieeao eiiiiceoe?eii-ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe??
nii?oae ia i???ioaoe?th iiianoe?y. Ooo ?icaeyioo? neeoao, iaii?aii?
iiaeeeaino?.

?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia oe?ii?noue iai’yoie iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oa?oo?e
?ice?eaa?oueny c aeae?eueeio noi??i: ye ia’?eo?a, ui noaiiaeyoue
anoaoe/io, ?noi?e/io, iaoeiao oa nae?aeueio oe?ii?noue, ?i i?eoaiaii?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei? aeanoeaino?, ye? aieeaathoue ia ethaeeio ? i?e
oeueiio ? ia’?eoaie ?noi?eei-iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeoiaey/e c ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? oe?iiino? ? c o?aooaaiiyi ?oeiaoe?? o
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaenao, aaaaea?ii ca iaiao?aeia i?e ?anoaa?aoe??
iaeneiaeueii aeyaeoe a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei? aeanoeaino? o??? /e ?ioi?
iai’yoee ia oa?eoi??? eiiieaeno ? iaeii/anii caaacia/eoe ?? caa?aaeaiiy
o na?aaeiaeu?, ui ?noi?e/ii neeaeiny.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oaoi?/iiai noaio oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? cia/ouino?
aeyaeaii aea? iniiai? eaoaai??? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a. Ia?oo
eaoaai??th noaiiaeyoue eiiieaene, ui iaeaea ia caciaee ?oeiaoe?e ?
caa?aaeeny aei iaoiai /ano o ia?a?niiio noai?. Aei ae?oai? eaoaai???
a?aeiinyoueny iaiaeii?aciai ia?aaoaeiaai? eiiieaene, ye? iathoue o nai?e
no?oeoo?? ??cii/ania? iaoa?oaaiiy.

?icaeyiooi caniae, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia ia no/aniiio aoai?
aeyaeoe neeoaoi? aeanoeaino? iiianoe??a o nenoai? i?noiaoae?aieo
ooai?aiue, caoiaee iie?auaiiy eiioi?oo iaoeaioe?a iiianoe??a,
iiaeeea?noue aenieoaoaoe?? iiianoe??a.

Oaeei /eiii, o ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aecia/aii aieea iiianoe??a ia
na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae na?aaeiaeua ia eiaeiee eiie?aoiee iiianoe?, oiaoi
nenoaio aca?iiaieeao iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ? aeiae?eey.
Cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ca i?noeai
?icoaooaaiiy a nenoai? iinaeaiiy oa eaiaeoaooiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aecia/aii
aca?iica’ycie eiiiiceoe?? eiaeiiai iiianoe?y, eiai aioo??oiueiai oa
ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo c oa?aeoa?ii ?aeue?oo oa iniaeeainoyie
iaaeieeoiuei? caaoaeiae.

 O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a a no/anieo oiiaao» ia iniia? aeeeaaeaieo o ae?oa?e aeaa?
ioi?iiieo caoiae?a aecia/athoueny ?anoaa?aoe?ei? ae?? a eiaeiiio
eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo, a?aoiaoth/e an? iniaeeaino?, ?noi?e/i? iniiae oa
oaoi?/iee noai.

?icaeyaeathoueny ?anoaa?aoe?ei? ae?? uiaei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiianoe??a ye
i?noiaoae?aieo ooai?aiue.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?anoaa?aoe?? oa ?aiiaaoe?? eiaeii? nii?oaee a
eiiieaen?, a?aoiaoth/e oae? iieacieee, ye eieuei?iaa ae??oaiiy anueiai
eiiieaeno, eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? eiaeii? aoae?ae?, oaoi?/iee noai,
ae?aaiinoeea iane?aee?a ?oeiaoe??, iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? a
aoae?aieoeoa? iiianoe??a. ?icaeyaeathoueny aeiaaeee, eiee, ia iaoo
aeoieo, o?aaa i?iaiaeeoe ?aeiino?oeoe?th, eiina?aaoe?th ?o?i, a oaeiae,
a yeeo aeiaaeeao iiaeeeaa nii?oaeaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? iiianoe?y iiaeo
ia’?eo?a ? ca yeeie i?eioeeiaie oea ne?ae ?iaeoe.

Iniiai? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii:

1. Iiianoe?nueeei eiiieaenii ? iniiaia oi?ia i?aai?caoe?? /a?iaoeoaa,
/a?ia/? a?iiaaee, ye? aieiae?thoue iiaooiaeie ? eoeueoiaeie nii?oaeaie
oa ?ioith aeani?noth ? ea?othoueny ?aeeieie i?aaeeaie (noaoooii), ui
i?iaieioothoue aneaoe/iee niin?a aeeooy. Ia?oueny ia oaac? aanue
eiiieaen iiianoe?nueeeo nii?oae caaaeii, yeee iiaoaeiaaiee ia iniia?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-aoae?aaeueieo oa ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e naiai /ano a
ii?aeiaii? c ?nioth/ei i?e?iaeii-eaiaeoaooiei na?aaeiaeuai ? yaey?
niaith ?noi?e/io, iaoeiao, anoaoe/io oa nae?aeueio oe?ii?noue.

2. Onth ?noi??th ?nioaaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a a Oe?a?i?
aeioe?eueii iiae?eeoe ia aoaie. Oe? aoaie ?icaeoeo iiianoe?nueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e caeaaeaoue a?ae ??ciiiai?oieo /eiiee?a, oaeeo ye: aea?aeaai?
oa aaei?i?no?aoeai? caoiaee, iai?ai? anoaoe/i? eiioeaioe?? oiai /e
?ioiai a?ae??ceo /ano, a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/i? i??eoaaiiy,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeuei?e noaoon, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee noai
iiianoe?y oiui.

I. Ii/aoeiaee aoai (na?.XV — e?iaoeue XVIIno.).

Ia oeueiio aoai? caeeaaeaii iniiae oi?ioaaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo
ainaiae?a, neeaeeny iniiai? oeie o?ai?a, o?aiacieo oa ?ioeo oei?a
nii?oae ua ia?aaaaeii c aeei?enoaiiyi aea?aaa.

II. Ae?oaee aoai (e?iaoeue XVI no.- ii/.XVIIno.).

Ia oeueiio aoai? noi?ioaaeeny aaea a io?iaaieo eiino?oeoe?yo an? oeie
o?ai?a, o?aiacieo, e?ea?aiue, ae?oea?aiue. Iinooiiai c’yaeythoueny
aenie? aeca?ieoe? — oaaeaa?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai ciae/anoaa.

III. Aoai (a?ae ii/. XVIIno. aei na?aaeeie XVIIIno.).

Ia oeueiio aoai? i?noaoae?aaeueii noi?ioaaeeny an? oeie iiianoe?nueeeo
ainaiae?a, aaeineiiaethaaeeny ia’?iii-i?inoi?ia? ??oaiiy ??cieo oei?a
nii?oae.

IV. Aoai (e?iaoeue XVIIIno.- na?aaeeia XXno.).

Aoai caiaiaaeo oa cieuaiiy a?o?oaeoo?e iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.
Aeei?enoaiiy nii?oae ia ca ?o aaciina?aaei?i i?ecia/aiiyi.

3. Iiianoe?nuee? eiiieaene aoaeoaaeeny ca iaaieie i?eioeeiaie.

I i?eioeei — eiioeaio?e/i?noue iiyn?a caaoaeiae (niai? o oeaio??, eae??
iaae?oae iueiai, iai?iaea iaae?oae eae?e).

II i?eioeei — a?oioaaiiy caaoaeiae ca ooieoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith oa
noi?ae?yaei?noth ?? ona?aaeei? a?oi oa iii?ae ieie (aieiaia ieiua,
ainiiaea?/a /anoeia, e?ea?nueea oea?eaa c e?ea?iath, aeeoeiaa /anoeia ?
o.i.).

III i?eioeei — aieiai? ai?ioa iiianoe?y, a?eia eae?e caaaeaee
i???ioiaai? ia niai?.

4. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ia’?iii-i?inoi?ia? oa ieaioaaeuei? no?oeoo?e
iiianoe??a a Oe?a?i?, aeneiaeth?ii aeoieo i?i ?nioaaiiy aeaio aieiaieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo a?oi c a?aeiinii no?eeith caaoaeiaith oeaio?aeueii?
/anoeie.

I a?oia — c oeaio?e/iith oi?iith caaoaeiae (an? aoae?ae? i???ioiaai? ia
niai? aai aieiaio ieiuo).

II a?oia — c e?i?eiith oi?iith (o?iioaeueiith):

a) oea iiianoe??, a yeeo o?iio aoae?aaeue ?icai?iooee o a?e aieiaieo
ai??o;

a) iiianoe?? c ?ici?uaiiyi o?iioo aoae?aaeue i?ae i?yiei eooii aei
aieiaieo ai??o.

5. Aeey a?eueoino? i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a Oe?a?ie i?eoaiaii? oae?
iciaee:

— a?aenooi?noue neiao??? o ieaioaaeuei?e no?oeoo??;

— an? aoae?ae? ?icoaoiaai? ca i?eioeeiii eiio?anoo aenieeo oa iecueeeo
ia’?i?a c? no?oieeie, ie?aii ?icoaoiaaieie aeca?ieoeyie;

aieiai? niai?e oa oea?eae iathoue i??ai?aeaeueia caaa?oaiiy;

aeioe?eueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua;

/?oea ooieoe?iiaeueia ciioaaiiy oa?eoi???;

— ainaiaeaa?noue caaoaeiae;

— i???ioaoe?y aoae?aaeue ia aieiaiee niai?.

6. ?anoaa?aoe?eii-ioi?iii? caoiaee iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ne?ae
i?iaiaeeoe c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? oe?iiino?, cia/ouino? o
i?e?iaeii-eaiaeoaooiiio oa eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiio na?aaeiaeu?.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a Oe?a?ie, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o nae?aeueii? oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? oe?iiino?,
oaoi?/iiai noaio, iiaea cae?enithaaoeny oaeeie ?anoaa?aoe?eieie
iaoiaeaie:

— oe?e?nii? ?anoaa?aoe??;

— o?aaiaioa?ii? ?anoaa?aoe??;

— eiina?aaoe??;

— ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ?aeiino?oeoe??.

7. Ioi?iio iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue ?aeeia oe?ea c
oa?aeoa?iei aeey ieo ioi/aiiyi, ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye eiiieaen caaaeaiue,
yeeie ia?aaeaa/a?oueny:

— caa?aaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae eiaeiiai iiianoe?y;

— caa?aaeaiiy noeeueiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee anueiai eiiieaeno oa eiaeii?
nii?oaee;

— caa?aaeaiiy oaoi?/iiai noaio eiaeii? nii?oaee o iiianoe??;

— caa?aaeaiiy iaii?aiiino? eiiieaeno;

— iaaeaiiy iaeaaeiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

— caa?aaeaiiy ii iiaeeeaino? iaaeieeoi?o eaiaeoaoo?a.

8. ?ic?iaea i?iaeoo ?anoaa?aoe?? iiianoe?nueeiai eiiieaeno a no/anieo
oiiaao iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaii? oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue:

— iaoeiaee ?noi?eei-a?o?oaeoo?iee aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy ainaiae?a oa
aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo i?eioeei?a eiai eiiiiceoe?? o ?o ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo
(ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueia eiiiiceoe?y, i?aai?caoe?y neeoaoo, eieuei?iaa
??oaiiy, aeaaiono??e oa ?i.);

— aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo o a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiio
a?aeiioaii? aoai?a aai ia??iae?a a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo ainaiaeth,
iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeiai aeai?o;

— aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy eiaeii? iai’yoee, yea aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo
ainaiaeth, ?aeiinooeoe?y ?? ? ia iniia? oeueiai ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e
uiaei ?anoaa?aoe??, a?aoiaoth/e i?noea oa cia/ou?noue iai’yoee a nenoai?
ainaiaeth;

— aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy iai’yoie o nenoai? eiiieaeco
(caaaeath/e ia ?noi?e/io ooieoe?th aeaii? nii?oaee);

— aiae?c iniiaieo iai?yie?a aca?iica’yceo ainaiaeth c ioi/aiiyi
(i?e?iaeia ?noi?e/ia na?aaeiaeua, i?eoaiaiia ?ineeii?noue, ?aeue?o,
ioi/oth/a caaoaeiaa, i?nueeee eaiaeoaoo) o ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?;

— aeiaea?aeaiiy, ii iiaeeeaino?, ?noi?e/ii? ooieoe?? iiianoe??a
(i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue, ae?oeoaaiiy eiea, ainiiaea?/a
ae?yeuei?noue);

— aiae?c iiaeeeainoae caaacia/aiiy oiia iaaiiai eiioi?oo i?iaeeaaiiy
/aioe?a a?aeiia?aeii aei no/anieo oiia, aea i?e oeueiio caa?aaeaiiy
oe?e?niino? iai’yoie o neeaae? ainaiaeth.

9. I?e aoae?aieoeoa? iiaeo nii?oae ia oa?eoi??? ?noi?e/iiai
iiianoe?nueeiai eiiieaeno iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oae? iniaeeaino?:

— aeio?eiaiiy iaeaaeii? a?aenoai? i?ae nii?oaeaie, yea aecia/a?oueny
?aae?onii aenioe niai?o uiaei o?anoa, o?aiacii? oa aeca?ieoe?; ia iniia?
oeueiai i?eioeeio aoaeo?oueny ana yae?i iiianoe?y;

— ?icoaooaaiiy aieiaieo nii?oae ii in? no?ae — cao?ae, ui iaoiiaeaii
nae?aeueieie aeiiaaie;

— iiae?ai?noue aeao?a, a?eii, aeaa?ae, aa?o?aie oea?eia, niai??a aai
ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oeeo nii?oae, ui iaoiiaeaii oea?eiaieie eaiiiaie,
i?noeaaeie o?aaeeoe?yie, ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie, /anii aoae?aieoeoaa;

— ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy eiaeii? nii?oaee ? anueiai
eiiieaeno caaaeii.

— iaeaaeiee oaoi?/iee noai eiiieaeno.

10. Ii?iaoeai? aeiiae uiaei aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo nii?oae iathoue
aooe oaeeie:

— aenioa aei ieco yaeoea o?anoa iaae oeaio?aeueiith iaaith aei??aith?
aeiaaeei? oea?eae ii in? cao?ae-no?ae, aeey o?ai?a o oi?i?
??aii?aiaiiiai o?anoa, aeey ?ioeo — ia aeiaaeeio iniiaii? iaae iethn
a?aoa?;

— i?i?iaeueia ieiua ia iaeio ethaeeio 0,33i. ea. (3 /ie. ia 1 i.ea.),
e?aua (0,45-0,5i.ea.);

— aaaa?eoe eaaee aeey neae?iiy oai?eo oa i?enoa??eeo: caaaeueia aenioa
— 850ii, aenioa neae?iiy — 450-500ii; oe?eia – 350ii;

— aeey c?o/iino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?ioean??, i?e iaoiae? oea?eae,
oe?eio ao?aeieo aeaa?ae aaaeaii i?eeiyoe ia iaioa 3i;.

— noia?ia oe?eia aeaa?ae — 1i ia 70 in?a;

— yeui niai? aai oea?eaa aeaiy?oni?, aieco ?icoaoiao?oueny ceiiaa
oaiea oea?eaa, iaai?? — oieiaeia, e?oiy. Aenioa ieaeiuei? oea?eae —
aeecueei 5,5i;

— aeey caaacia/aiiy oiia aeonoe/iiai eiioi?oo, ye i?aaeei,
aeoiaeyoue c ia’? io iia?o?y ia iaeio ethaeeio; aeey o?ai?a
i?aaineaaiiai ia?yaeo oea ia iaioa 5 eoa.i;

— aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? eiino?oeoe?y neeai?iiy. Iaea?eueo
i?eaeaoieie ? eoiiee aai neeai?iiy c ?aae?onaie e?eaecie, ye?
aei??aiththoue aai iiaea?ei?e aenio?, aai iaio? iieiaeie aenioe
i?ei?uaiiy.

11. Oa?aeoa? ?icieno ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?ioa?’???a o?ai?a oa
o?aiacieo, oiio aei eiai ae??oaiiy iio??aii i?aeoiaeeoe, a?aoiaoth/e
oae? iieacieee:

— oi?ia o?aio;

— aaee/eia aioo??oiueiai i?inoi?o;

— oi?ia oa ?ici?uaiiy a?eii, aeaa?ae;

— oi?ia ?eiiinoano;

— nae?aeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy (oiaoi /iio i?enay/aiee o?ai, eaiii?/i?
aeiiae uiaei ?icieno).

A eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo ae??oaiiy ?icieno ia? aooe eiie?aoiei
aeey oe??? nii?oaee.

12. ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy ina?oeaiino? iiaeeeaa caaaeyee
canoinoaaiith a?eii ??cii? eiino?oeoe??, aaee/eie oa eiio?ao?aoe??.
Iai?yiii, oa?aeoa?ii oa ?ioaineai?noth na?oeiaiai iioieo iaiao?aeii
noai?eoe oaea ina?oeaiiy, yea a ni?eyei:

— oe?eueiino? ni?eeiyooy iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ?ioa?’??o;

— i?aaeeueiiio ni?eeiyooth i?iii?oe?e i?ei?uaiue;

— ianooaaiino? ie?aieo ia’?i?a ? iiaa?oiiue;

— iioeiaeueiiio ci?iaiio ni?eeiyooth eieuei??a.

Iniiai? aeniiaee oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. I??ioiee I.N. I?eioeeie caaoaeiae iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a (ia
i?eeeaae? O?i?oeueeiai iiianoe?y a *a?i?aia? oa Niani-I?aia?aaeainueeiai
o Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueeiio) || Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y ienoaoeoaa:
Aeine?aeieoeuee? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?aoe?. -E.:-1997 .-
Aei.4.-N.120-125.

2. I??ioiee I.N. Eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a
Oe?a?ie || Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y ienoaoeoaa: Aeine?aeieoeuee? oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?aoe?.- E.:-1998. -Aei.5.- N.131-138.

3. I??ioiee I.N. Aa/??i?e aeca?i (Aei ?noi??? aeieeiaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo
aeca?ieoeue) || Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e. No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy.-K.:-
1999.-Aei.4.-C.32-37.

4. I??ioiee I.N. I?iaeaie ioi?iie ia’?eo?a iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e a
ii?aeiaii? c ?noi?e/iei eaiaeoaooii. -E.: Oe?a?ia,1999.-16n.-a?ae?ia?.

5. I??ioiee I.N. ?ioa?’?? aieiaiiai niai?o iiianoe?y || Aoae?aieoeoai
Oe?a?ie. -E.:- 1999.-?5.- C.28-31.

6. I??ioiee I.N. Aieiaiee niai? iiianoe?y || Iaoa??aee IX
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai ia iaae?
oeny/ie?oue: aeina?ae, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae”.- ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie. Anaoe?a?inueea ni?eea e?a?ciaaoe?a.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
-1999.

Aiioaoe?y

I??ioiee I.N. I?aaineaai? iiianoe?nuee? eiiieaene Oe?a?ie. (I?eioeeie
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ? anoaoe/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.01. — oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y
iai»yoie a?o?oaeoo?e. Aeaaeai?y ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeooiai?e, a?o?oaeoo?ii-anoaoe/i?e oa
ooieoe?iiaeuei?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a a
Oe?a?i?.

O i?ioean? ?iaioe ae??ooaaeeny caaaeaiiy aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a
?noi?eei-nioe?aeueiiai ieaio, ye? coiiaeee aaiethoe?th oa?aeoa?o
aoae?aieoeoaa iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, i?noiaoae?aia cia/aiiy
ainaiae?a o oi?ioaaii? ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ianaeaieo ioieo?a,
eiiiiceoe?ei? caeiiii??iino? iiaoaeiae iiianoe??a, noee?noe/io
nai???aei?noue ?oi?o iniiaieo aeaiaio?a.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia ?noi?eei-a?o?oaeoo?iiio
aiae?c? ia?oiaeaea?ae, iaoo?iiio ianoaaeaii? caa?aaeaieo iai»yoie
iiianoe?nueei? a?o?oaeoo?e. I?e oeueiio canoiniaaii
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, oeiieia?/iee iaoiaee oa iaoiae a?ao?/ieo
?aeiino?oeoe?e.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — «Aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano ca?iaeaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a» — i?enay/aii ocaaaeueiaiith
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue c oaie aeena?oaoe??, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?noi?e/i?
iniiae oi?ioaaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a oa ?o ?ieue o noni?euenoa?.
Aeyaeaii iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? nenoaie
iiianoe??a a ?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno?. Ianoaaeaii iniiai? a?oie aoae?aaeue
ia oa?eoi??? eiiieaen?a. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?coaeueiiai ni?eeiyooy
ia»?iii-i?inoi?iai? oa ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e iiianoe??a. Ia iniia?
oeueiai ocaaaeueiaii a?o?oaeoo?ii-ienoaoeueeo ?ieue iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a a ?noi?e/iiio na?aaeiaeu?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?aOe?a?ie c iaoith ?o ?anoaa?aoe?? oa ?aaa?e?oaoe??» –
cae?eniaii aiae?c oaoi?/iiai noaio iiianoe??a, ii/eiath/e c 1917 ?ieo ?
aei iaoiai /ano. ?iaeyiooi /eiieee aeaoi?iaoe?e oa ?oeiaoe?e nii?oae.

Aeyaeaii ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?io cia/ou?noue a?o?oaeoo?ieo iai’yoie o
eiiieaen? oa aecia/aii ni?yiiaai?noue iai’yoeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a.
Aeine?aeaeaii oaeoi?e, ui ni?eythoue ?aaa?e?oaoe?? cia/ouino? iiianoe??a
o nenoai? iinaeaiue.

O?ao?e ?icae?e — «Iaoiaee/i? caoiaee ?aaa?e?oaoe??
iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a o no/anieo oiiaao» — i?enay/aii aeyaeaiith
iaoiaeeee ?aaa?e?oaoe??, ?aaaia?aoe?? oa ?anoaa?aoe?? iiianoe??a ? ?o
ie?aieo nii?oae c iaoith ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aeae?eai? iniiai? i?eioeeie
aeeth/aiiy no/anieo nii?oae o iiianoe?nueeee eiiieaen c iaoith
iaaeaiiy eiieaeno ao?a/aii? i?noiaoae?aii? cia/ouino?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa i?inoaaeaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iiianoe?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a Oe?a?ie ye i?inoi?iai-i?aeii?yaeeiaaii? nenoaie, ui aeieeea
aiane?aeie ae?? oaeoi??a noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?
anoaoeei-eoeueoo?iiai ieaio. Iiianoe?? aoee i?aai?caoe?eiei /eiieeii
«?noi?e/iiai eaiaeoaooo» oe?a?inueeeo i?no oa iinaeaiue, aeeiioaaee
?ieue nai???aeiiai eaoae?caoi?a i?inoi?iaiai ?icaeoeo o?aai?noe/ieo
ooai?aiue, iaaeath/e inoaii?i iaiiaoi?iiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai iaee//y.

Iniiai? aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy, c?iaeai? a ?iaio?, iaiaaia,
ciiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?iaeoi?e ae?yeueiino?, o ae?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee oaeineiiaeaiiy ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ? eiiiiceoe?eii?
neooaoe?? iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaen?a uiaei iaaeaiiy ?i ia?a?nii?
ooieoe?? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c no/anieie aeiiaaie. Oaeiae aiie iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ii ?anoaa?aoe??
ie?aieo iai»yoie a?o?oaeoo?e oa a eaeoe?eieo eo?nao aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiianoe?nuee? eiiieaene, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
?anoaa?aoe?y, a?o?oaeoo?a, aieiaiee niai?, ooieoe?iiaeueia
?aaa?e?oaoe?y, ?aiiaaoe?y, eiina?aaoe?y, ?anoaa?aoe?eia a?aeoai?aiiy.

Aiiioaoeey

Ie?ioiee I.N. I?aaineaaiua iiianou?neea eiiieaenu Oe?aeiu (I?eioeeiu
ooieoeeiiaeueiie e ynoaoe/aneie ?aaaeeeoaoeee). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.01. — oai?ey a?oeoaeoo?u, ?anoaa?aoeey iaiyoieeia
a?oeoaeoo?u. Aeaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u
Ieienoa?noaa eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth aaiacena e enoi?ee ?acaeoey
iiiaou?neeo einieaenia ia Oe?aeia, iniaaiiinoae acaeiiaeaenoaey
ioaeaeueieo iino?iae e nii?oaeaiee a nenoaia eiiieaena. Enneaaeiaaiu
nauoa o?eaeoeaoe i?aaineaaiuo iiianou?neeo eiieaenia ia Oe?aeia. Aia?aua
i?iaaaeaiu iao/iue aiaeec e nenoaiaoecaoeey enneaaeiaaiiuo ia’?eoia,
ia?eiaeecaoeey e eeanneoeeaoeey iiianou?neeo eiieaenia n oeaeueth
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeeee io?aiu e ?anoaa?aoeee iaiyoieeia
iiianou?neie a?oeoaeoo?u. Eco/aiu niaoeeoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey ioaeaeueiuo
iiianou?ae n enoi?e/aneie a?oeoaeoo?ii-i?ino?ainoaaiiie n?aaeie, eo
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-noeeaaua iniaaiiinoe, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
ii?aaeaeyao i?eioeeiu ?aaaeeeoaoeee iiianou?neeo eiiieania Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiianou?neea eiiieaenu, aic?iaeaeaiea, ?anoaa?aoeey,
a?oeoaeoo?a, aeaaiue niai?, ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?aaaeeeoaoeey, ?aiiaaoeey,
eiina?aaoeey, ?anoaa?aoeeiiiia aini?iecaaaeaiea.

ANNOTATION

Miroshnyk N.S. Orthodox monastery’s complexes of Ukraine (Principles of
functional and esthetic rehabilitation).

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
architecture on a specialty 18.00.01. — theory of architecture,
restoration of monuments of architecture. Academy of fine art and
architecture of the Ministry of culture and arts of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The features of interaction of separate constructions and structures in
the system of a complex are investigated genesis and history of
development monastery’s complexes of Ukraine. Are investigated over a
thirty Orthodox monastery’s complexes of Ukraine. For the first time are
conducted the scientific analysis and systematization of
investigated objects, periodization and classification monastery’s
complexes with the purpose of improvement of a technique of protection
and restoration of monuments monastery’s architecture. Their art — style
features are investigated specificity of interaction of separate
monasteries with historical architectural — spatially by environment,
that largely defines(determines) principles of rehabilitation
monastery’s complexes of Ukraine.

Key words: monastery’s complexes, revival, restoration, architecture,
main cathedral, functional rehabilitation, renovation, preservation and
restoration reproduction.

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