IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO ?NOI??? OE?A?IE

Oo? A?eoi? A?eai?iae/

OAeE 947.083(477.75)

I?AAINEAAI? IIIANOE?? E?EIO

O O?O — IA II*AOEO OO NO.

07.00.1 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a E?einuee?e o?e?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii

na?aaeiueia?/ii? a?oaieia?? E?einueei? o?e??

?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Aa?aiia ?ai? Aaai??iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

?aae?i Ae?a TH??eiae/

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aea?aeaaiee aenia?o ?aaee

iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie

Ia/a?aiei Iao?i Aeieo?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a aeaaiuei? oa iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 n?/iy 2000 ?. i 14-00 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 26.235.01 a ?inoeooo? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i.Ee?a,
aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 26 » a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I.?.Ao?ae?e

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O?enoeyinueei oea?eiaii iinoeoooe c aiioe
?aiiueiai na?aaeiueiai//y, aiaeia?aaaee nooo?ao ?ieue o oi?ioaaiii
eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy, aieeaaee ia nioeiaeueii e iieioe/ii i?ioeane o
?a?iii. Iniaeeaa ?ieue o inoi?i? oea?eae iaeaaeeoue iiianoe?yi, aea
iiiee, a neeo ii/aoeiai? iaea?, iaeaieueo ?aaiinii aiaeiineeeny aei
niiaiaeoaaiiy o?enoeyinueeeo aeiaiaoia, neiaeoaaiiy noaoooia, ui ia ieo
aacoaaeeny. Oaa?eea ia aoea aeeeth/aiiyi. I?iieeioaoe ia iiaino?ia ia
?aiioa eiioey III no. c Iaei? Aci?, o?enoeyinoai ia?aaaaeaei o
na?aaeiaeui inieeo iaoeaioeia na?aaeiueiai/iiai E?eio aeecueei iiaoi?e
oeny/i ?ieia. Ia aecia/aiiio aoaii inoi?i? Oaa?eea noaea ca’ycoth/ith
eaieith iiae i?aaineaaiei o?enoeyinueeei naioii I?e/i?iiii?’y i
Ee?anueeith ?onnth, aea aieueoa oeny/ieiooy a/aiiy O?enoa aoei
aeiiiioth/ith ?aeiai?th iaee?oiiioi? noiaeiineia’yinueei? aea?aeaae.
I?ioa, ia naiiio iiaino?iai, o XVII – ia ii/. XVIII no. i?aaineaa’y aoei
i?aeoe/ii iiaiinoth aeoeniooi ineaiii. Oieueee /a?ac noi?i//y, oea?eaa
ciiao iiaa?ioea ao?a/aii iiceoei? o Oaa?eaei, yea aaieoea aei neeaaeo
?inienueei? Iiia?i?.

sseui inoi?i? na?aaeiueiai/iiai iii/anoaa a iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i
i?eaeieyeany iaaia oaaaa, oi aeeooy E?einueeeo i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia
XVIII — ii/. XX no., ca iaaaeeeei aeiyoeii, iaaeeaey/enue ia ?o aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey ?icoiiiiy i ioeiiee eoeueoo?ieo, aoii/ieo, nioeiaeueieo i
iieioe/ieo i?ioeania, caeeoa?oueny aieith ieyiith o iaooei.

Caoeieaaeaiinoue inoi?i?th o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae o E?eio ae?inea ca
inoaiii ?iee. Oea iia’ycaii, ii-ia?oa, c aiaeiiaith aiae aeoeaii?
aoa?noe/ii? i?iiaaaiaee, ii-ae?oaa, c iaaeeaeaiiyi nayoeoaaiiy
ai?oth/eie 2000-?i//y ia?iaeaeaiiy Inona O?enoa, ii-o?ao?, c
aiaeiiaeaiiyi i?aaineaaieo oea?eia i iiianoe?ia. Iioi?iaoeieiee aaeooi o
oeie noa?i /anoeiai caiiaith?oueny ioaeieaoei?th a?ioo?, ia?aae?oeiaaieo
c ia?aae?aaiethoeieieo aeaeaiue oa ie?aieie noaooyie o ia?iiaee/ieo
aeaeaiiyo. Ua ai?oith aeyaey?oueny ni?aaa c inoi?i?th i?aaineaaiiai
/a?iaoeoaa. Iaaioue i?e aea/aiii na?aaeiueiai/iiai ia?iiaeo
iaaieiooaaeiny ia aeineiaeaeaiiyo o noa?i a?oaieiai? i a?oioaeoo?e.
Ioeiiea ?iei /a?iaoeoaa, ye iiniy eoeueoo?e, aieeaiaiai iinoeoooo o
noa?i iieioeee e nioeiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo caeeoa?oueny o caoiieo.
E?einueeee iiaino?ia o neeo naiai aaia?aoi/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy, c aeaaiio
/ania ia? aaaeeeaa iieioe/ia cia/aiiy. Oiio, aaaaoi a /iio, nie?ath/enue
ia inoi?ith o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae, i, cie?aia, i?aaineaaiiai iiioeoaa,
ie iiaeaii i?iaiaeicoaaoe e ioeiieoe iieioe/ii iiaei?, yei iathoue
aaciina?aaei? aiaeiioaiiy aei inoi?i? iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie i ?ini?.
Oeiiiinoue aea/aiiy inoi?i? i?aaineaaii? oea?ae i iiianoe?ia ia?o ca ana
neeaaea?oueny c oiai, ui, ye o Aicaioi?, oae i o Ee?anueeie ?oni, a
aeaei o ?inienueeie Iiia?i?, o?enoeyinoai aoei aea?aeaaiith ?aeiai?th, a
oiio eiioeaio?oaaei o niai e aea?aeaaio iaeaieiaith, ui i?iyaeyeany ye o
aioo?ioiie, oae i o ciaiioiie aeiyeueiinoi. E?ii oiai, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aiaeia?a? ioeiiea ?iei /a?iaoeoaa i iiianoe?ia o noa?ao aeiiiiiee e
i?aaa.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaeai? O?O —
ii/aoeii OO noie?ooue. Aea, a?aoiaoth/e, ui ?in?enueea i?aaineaaia
oea?eaa n?iiaeaeueiiai ia??iaeo i?aee?anethaaea niaaeeia?noue
?in?enueeiai ?iioeoaa o E?eio a?ae A?caio??, a ?iaio? aeei?enoai?
iaoa??aee ?aiiueiai ia??iaeo, ui aeiiiiaaathoue iaa?oiooaaoe iniaeeaino?
i?iaaaeaiiy oea?eiaii? iie?oeee ia i?aino?ia?.

Iaoiaeii aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ? e?eoe/iee aiaeic
a?oaieiai/iio aeaea?ae i a?oiaieo iaoa?iaeia. O ?iaioi aeei?enoaii i
i?iaiaeiciaaii ?iciiiaiioii ioaeieaoei?, ui noinothoueny oaie.
Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith ? nenoaiii-inoi?e/iee i ii?iaiyeueiee iiaeoiae
aei iiaeie, ui neeaaeathoue iniiao aeena?oaoei?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o ?aieao ieaiiai? oaie E?einueei? Oiei? Iinoeoooo a?oaieiai? IAI Oe?a?ie
«Inoi?iy i a?oaieiaiy E?eio c iaeaeaaiioeo /ania aei XIX no.»

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy ? aiaeic i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy iiioeoaa o Oaa?eoei, eiai
iiaeaeueoiai caanaiiy iiae oeneii ineaio o iiciueina?aaeiueiai/iee /an i
aiaeiiaeaiiy o na?aaeeii XIX no., a oaeiae aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo i
ooieoeiiioaaiiy i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?ia E?eio XIX- ii/. XX no.
Aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe iiaeeeaa i?e ae?ioaiii oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— aeineiaeaeaiiy i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy i iioe?aiiy aieeao i?aaineaaieo
iiianoe?ia o E?eio a na?aaeiueia?/io aeiao, a oaeiae ?o caanaiiy o OVI —
ii/aoeo O?O no.;

— aeineiaeaeaiiy nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo ia?aaeoiia aiae?iaeaeaiiy
iiianoe?ia c na?aaeeie XIX no. i iiaeaeueoiai ?o ooieoeiiioaaiiy aei
AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoei?;

— ia i?eeeaaei iiianoe?ia E?eio, ?icaeyae iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
oea?eiaiiai i?aaa a /anoeii, ui noino?oueny i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia i ?o
i?noey o i?aaiaiio i?inoi?i ?inienueei? Iiia?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

— c?iaeaii ni?iao o aeeiaiioei ?icaeyiooe inoi?ith i?aaineaaiiai
/a?iaoeaa E?eio, eiai ?ieue o oi?ioaaiii eoeueoo?e, nioeiaeueieo i
iieioe/ieo aiaeiinei ia iiaino?iai;

— cai?iiiiiaaii o?iiieiaith i aiaeie?aieaii iniiaii aoaie inoi?i?
iiianoe?ia E?eio o ca`yceo c iiaeia?iaeieie i aioo?ioiueiiieioe/ieie
iiaeiyie;

— ?icaeyiooi i?ioean aiae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?ia E?eio o
neiiaeaeueiee ia?iiae, ye iieioe/iee i iaeaieiai/iee e?ie, ui
iai?aaeaiee ia cae?iieaiiy ?inienueeith Iiia?i?th E?einueeiai
iiaino?iaa;

— ?ice?eoi i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo i caiaiaaeo ie?aieo eiiiaie;

— ?icaeyiooi iinoea iiianoe?ia o aea?aeaaiie i oea?eiaiie no?oeoo?i
?inienueei? Iiia?i?;

— i?iaiaeiciaaii ?ieue, nooiiiue aieeao i aeei?enoaiiy i?aaineaaiiai
/a?iaoeoaa o i?iaaaeaiii aioo?ioiuei? iieioeee oea?aoo;

— c?iaeaii ni?iao ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iieiaeaiiy i aeeooy iiioeoaa c oi/ee
ci?o oea?eiaiiai i?aaa i ?inienueeeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoia, ui
noinothoueny niaoeeoi/iiai iieiaeaiiy iiianoe?ia o aea?aeaai.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca. Aieueoinoue iaoa?iaeia, i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
iia’ycaieo c inoi?i?th e?einueeeo i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeae, cia?aii o
oiiaeao Aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao Aaoiiiiii? ?anioaeiee E?ei. Ia?o ca ana oea
aeieoiaioe Oaa?ienueei? aeooiaii? eiinenoi?i?, aeaai/eiieo iiianoe?ia
Oaa?ienueei? ?ia?oi?, Aaeaeeaanueeiai, Aao/ena?aenueeiai,
Eicueii-Aeiiiaiianueeiai e Oa?niianueeiai iiianoe?ia. Ie?aii aeieoiaioe,
ui noinothoueny i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia ? o ni?aaao Oaa?ienueeiai
?ia?oiaeueiiai ?aaicieiiai eiiioaoo, oeacao Oaa?ienueei? aeooiaii?
eiinenoi?i?, Niioa?iiieuenueeiai oi?aaeiiiy oa ?yaeo iioeo. Aaeeea
cia/aiiy, iniaeeai aeey aea/aiiy ?aiiuei? inoi?i? /a?iaoeoaa, iathoue
iioaeieiaaii ia?aae ?aaiethoei?th /e ia?aae?oeiaaii a inoaiii ?iee
noa?iaeaaii iiioeueei noaoooe, caiene na?aaeiueiai/ieo iaiae?iaieeia,
a?oiaii aeieoiaioe, a oaeiae aea?aeaaii i oea?eiaii th?eaee/ii aeoe.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue ioaeieaoei? nayuaiieeia oa inoi?eeia
?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae XIX — ii/. OO no. Aei ?o neeaaeo aoiaeyoue
aaeeei i?aoei ?iineiia Aa?iiaaia, i?ioii??a?a A.Eaaaaeeioeaaa i
A.?oaei?aa. O ?yaei ia?aae?aaiethoeieieo oea?eiaieo ioaeieaoeie oa
a?ioo?, ii?o/ c /enoi oea?eiaieie eaaaiaeaie, ? aaeeeee aiaenioie
ia’?eoeaii? inoi?e/ii? iioi?iaoei?.

Caionueei aeaea?aea ia?aae?aaiethoeieiiai ia?iiaeo i?aaenoaaeaii
oo?enoe/ieie aeiaiaeieeaie i iaoeiaeie i?aoeyie. Aieueoinoue oo?enoe/ieo
aeiaiaeieeia oyaeiea aei ia?aeaco aiaeiiinoae, ui aoee acyoi c
oea?eiaii? eioa?aoo?e, aeiiiaiaieo iienii a?oioaeoo?e oa aeayeeo iiaeie
iioi/iiai aeeooy iaeoaeia. Iniaeeaee iioa?an noaiiaeyoue i?aoei
I.Eaiiaia, A.O. Eiiaea?aei, A.E. Ia?eiaa, O.Oa?oaoay, Ae.I.No?oeiaa, i
noaoai iaoeiai aeineiaeaeaiiy A.A.Aaneeue?anueeiai, TH.Eoeaeianueeiai,
A.E.Aa?oue?-Aeaeaaa?aea.

O ?aaeyinueeee ia?iiae aeineiaeaeaiiy noinoaaeeny iai’yoie
na?aaeiueiai/iiai ia?iiaeo. ?i i?eaeieyeany oaaaa o i?aoeyo
A.A.Aaeia?ia, A.E.sseianiia, I.I.Aeiia?ianueeiai, A.E.Ieoea oiui.

O iino?aaeyinueeee ia?iiae, i?iaeiaaeoth/e aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeai
inoi?i? Oaa?eee, i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii i?enay/aii na?aaeiueiai/iei
iiianoe?yi i?aoei A.I. Aeaieeaiea, A.A. Aa?oeaia, A.O. Oeeeiaiea i
TH.I.Iiaa?i/aaa. Aeeeth/aiiy noaiiaeoue i?aoey a?oie aeineiaeieeia
Oa?niianueeiai iocath «E?ui o?enoeaineee», o yeie caeieniaii ni?iao
inaioeoe o aeeiaiioei inoi?ith o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae o E?eio,
aeeth/ath/e i iiianoe?i. Aei inoi?i? Oaa?ienueei? ?ia?oi?, a ?acii i aei
inoi?i? iiianoe?ia XIX — ii/. OO no., caa?oa?oueny o nai?e iiiia?aoi?
TH.A. Eaooiii. I?ioa o oeeo iaoeiaeo ioaeieaoeiyo, iiianoe?yi
aiaeaiaeeoueny iaaaeeea iinoea, ui, cie?aia, aei?aaaeaii oe?ioith
oaiaoeee, ui ioiieth? inoi?ith o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae ia iiaino?iai o
oeieiio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai ?acoeueoaoe i
aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii o aocianueeiio iaa/aeueiiio i?ioeani
i?e aeeeaaeaiii eo?no «Inoi?i? Aicaioi?», «Inoi?i? Oe?a?ie», «Inoi?i?
aea?aeaae i i?aaa Oe?a?ie», «?aeiai?ciaanoai», a oaeiae i?e iaienaiii
iaa/aeueieo iiniaieeia c oeeo i?aaeiaoia i aeneo?nieieo aeiaiaeieeia aei
inoi?i? E?eio. Ie?aii iieiaeaiiy, o /anoeii inoi?e/ieo o?aaeeoeie,
aiaeico ?inienueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa oea?eiaiiai i?aaa, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaii i?e iiaeaioiaoei caeiiii?iaeoia, ui cae?iieththoue no/anii
aiaeiineie iiae oea?eaith i aea?aeaaith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe
aeeeaaeaii ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo E?einueei? Oieii Iinoeoooo
a?oaieiaii IAI Oe?a?ie «A?oaieia?/i? oa ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy 1995
?.» (Niioa?iiieue, 1995 ?.), «A?oaieia?/i? oa ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
1998 ?.» (N?ioa?iiieue, 1998), Iinoeoooo inoi?i? IAI Oe?a?ie i
E?einueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai iiaeono?iaeueii-iaaeaaiai/iiai Iinoeoooo
«I?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? E?eio» (Niioa?iiieue, 1996 ?.),
Niioa?iiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo «I?iaeaie a?aoeueei?
eoeueoo?e» (Aaeaeeaaa, 1997 ?.), Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
«350-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ieioea ? no/ania»
(N?ioa?iiieue, 1998 ?.), a oaeiae aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoei iaa/aeueiiai
iiniaieea, eaeoeie oa /eoaiiy eo?nia aeey eo?naioia E?einueeiai
Oaeoeueoaoo Oiiaa?neoaoo aioo?ioiio ni?aa i E?einueei? oiei? Iaeanueeiai
Iinoeoooo aioo?ioiio ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaiiyo a/aii? ?aaee E?einueei?
o?e?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ? a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie 20-o
— 30-o ?ie?a OO no. ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaii aeniiaee aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
aiaeia?aaeaii o iiiia?aoiyo «E?uineea i?aaineaaiua iiianou?e XIX –
ia/aea OO aa. Enoi?ey. I?aaiaia iieiaeaiea» (Neioa?iiieue: Ecae-ai
«Oaa?ey-Iethn», 1998. — 154 n.), «I/a?ee enoi?ee ?aeeaee» (Neioa?iiieue:
Ecae-ai «Oaa?ey». — 1997. — 288 n.), oa oanoe noaooyo i oacao
aeiiiaiaeae aeuacaaaeaieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e i aeaea?ae, ui
iaei/o? 300 iaca.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue i iaoeiaa cia/eiinoue
cai?iiaiiaaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, aeai? eiai i?aaeiaoo, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeaea?aeueia aaca i caeieniaii iaeyae inoi?iia?aoi? i?iaeaiaoeee
aea/aiiy inoi?i? i?aaineaaiiai iiioeoaa. Aeaii caaaeueio ioeiieo nooiaiy
aea/aiinoi oei?? oaie, cai?iiaiiaaii ia?iiaeecaoeith inoi?i?
i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?ia E?eio i iaa?oioiaaii no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoei?.

?icae?e 1 — «Na?aaeiueiai/ii iiianoe?i Oaa?eee» i?enay/aiee aiaeico
inoi?e/ieo iiaeie i aeaea?ae, iia’ycaieo c aeieeiaiiyi iinoeoooo
iiioeoaa o o?enoeyinueeie oea?eai, iioe?aiith e inoi?i?
na?aaeiueiai/iiai /a?iaoeoaa ia oa?eoi?i? E?eio. A?aoiaoth/e, ui
i?aaineaaia ?inienueea oea?eaa ?icaeyaeaea aeieeiaiiy iaeoaeia XIX no.
ye aiae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y o Oaa?eaei, iiaee?anethaaea nayoinoue
ia?aieo iinoeue i i?iaeiaaeaiiy o?aaeeoeie a?aei-aicaioienueeiai
/a?iaoeoaa, iia’ycoaaei inoi?ith ?inienueeeo i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia c
na?aaeiueiai/iei ia?iiaeii, o ia?oee ?icaeie aeeth/aii aeaa ia?aa?aoe:
«Aicaioienueeee ia?iiae iiioeoaa» i «A?aei-i?aaineaaiee ia?iiae
iiioeoaa».

Ia?oi iiianoe?i aeieeathoue o IV no. o aa?oiueiio ?aeioi, Ne?i? oa
Iaeanoeii. Aiaeie?aieeiny aeaa iniiaii oeie iiioeoaa: naiioieoeueea i
ao?oiaeeoeueea (eiiiaioia). Inoaiiie o oi?ii iiaoaeiae iauei, ui
ea?othoueny aieiaith, yeiai iae?athoue i aeeooy a yeeo ?aaeaiaioo?oueny
noaoooaie, aoa iioe?aiee o o?enoeyinueeie Aicaioii i i?iaiioeiyo. C
?icaeoeii iinoeoooo iiioeoaa, iiianoe?i aoei aeeth/aii aei no?oeoo?e
oea?eae i iiaeii?yaeeiaaii ?ieneiiai. Caaithaaiiy a?aaaie ?aeioo e
Iaeanoeie, aiia?aoeiy o?enoeyi ia iiaeeaaei Aicaioi? caiei, oe?iei
i?eaiea? i iieueae iaeoaeyi, i?ecaaee aei aeoaea cia/iiai iioe?aiiy
/enea iiioeueeeo iauei iiia?i?, ?inoo ?o aieeao ia iieioeeo e aeiiiiieo
aea?aeaae. Oea oi?eaeiny iioa?ania iiia?aoi?nueeiai aeai?o.
Nioeiaeueii-iieioe/iee eiioeieo iiae iiia?aoi?nueeith aeaaeith i
oea?eiaieie iinoeoooaie aeinya aiiaath o VIII no., ui i?iyaeeiny o oi?ii
ieiiiai?nueei? iieioeee iiia?aoi?ia Eueaa III i Einoyioeia V.

Aicaioienueei aieiaeiiiy o Oaa?eoei ia caeeoaeeny inoi?iiue. O VI — VII
no. o?enoeyinoai iaaeieii cae?iieeiny, a o VIII no. aeiiiioaaei o
i?iaiioei?. Aei O no. o E?eio aeieeei i’youe ?ia?oie
Einoyioeiiiieuenueeiai iao?ia?oaoo. Aiaenooiinoue naiaeioeoa i?i
/a?iaoeoai o E?eio ia ?aiiueiio aoaii, ia oiii ?inoo /enaeueiinoi
o?enoeyinueeeo iauei, ia icia/a? eiai aiaenooiinoi acaaaei. Iiioeoai
iaei ciiao io?eiaoe ?icaeoie o aneaoe/ieo oi?iao oeio eaeiioeoaa aai
aiaoi?aoeoaa, ui aei?aaaeiao? iaeo /enaeueiinoue iaoa?iaeueieo
naiaeioeoa. Eeth/iaith iiaei?th a inoi?i? o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae i
iiianoe?ia Oaa?eee noaea aiia?aoeiy ia iiaino?ia a?aeiiiaiiai ianaeaiiy
a ieiiiai?nueeee ia?iiae, ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?oaieiai/ieie
aeineiaeaeaiiyie. Aiiioace, ui ia iiaiaeaeothoueny c oe?ieei iioe?aiiyi
iaeoaeia o VIII- X no. (A.A. Aa?oeai, TH.I.Iiaa?e/aa), i aacothoueny ia
aicoaeueiiio aeineiaeaeaiii ia/a?ieo iiianoe?ia, caeeoathoueny nii?ieie.
Nie?ath/enue ia na?aaeiueiai/ii aeaea?aea i aeineiaeaeaiiy A.A.
Aaneeue?anueeiai, TH.A. Eoeaeianueeiai, A.A. Aaneeue?aa, A.E. sseianiia,
I.I.Aeiia?ianueeiai, A.I. Aeaieeaiea, A.O. Oieiiaiea oa ?yaeo iioeo, o
?iaioi iaaea?oueny ia?aaaaa oi/oei ci?o i?i ieiiiai?nueeee /an
iioiaeaeaiiy aieueoinoi na?aaeiueiai/ieo iaeoaeia E?eio.

Iiianoe?i, na?aae yeeo aoee iioe?aii iaaaeeei eiiiai?, a iniiaiiio
eiioeaio?oaaeeny iaae?oae iaeaieueoeo oeaio?ia o o?ueio ?ia?oiyo:
Oa?niinueeie, Aionueeie oa Noaaeaenueeie i aiaeia?aaaee aaaeeeao ?ieue o
aeiiiii/iiio ?icaeoeo i iieioe/ieo iiaeiyo na?aaeiueiai/ii? Oaa?eee.
Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui nii/aoeo iiianoe?i aeieeathoue ia aeayeiio
aiaeaeaeaiii aiae ioioeieiiai oeaio?o aicaioienueeeo i?iaiioeie —
Oa?niio, aea aieea ieiiiai?oeia aoa iaio aiae/ooiei. AEeooy ia ?oaaaei c
yceoeueeei naioii aeiaaaei ?aeiaieiiai iiaeaeao i ia aiaeiiio aiae
oeaio?aeueieo ?aeiiia iiia?i?, a?aoiy aeiaaee /an aeio?eioaaeany ii?i
aeaai/anoy, oo?eiaiiy i aneaoecio.

Iieioe/ia ianoaaieueiinoue i ?aiiueioaiaeaeueia ?icae?iaeaiinoue
oi?ioaaee oea?eao, aeeth/ath/e e iiianoe?i, ca’ycoth/eie oeaio?aie
iieioe/iiai, iaeaieiai/iiai, nioeiaeueiiai i ainiiaea?/iai aeeooy
ianaeaiiy. Iaeii/anii, iiianoe?i caeeoaeeny ca/eiaieie, aeiiiii/ii
iacaeaaeieie ainiiaea?noaaie. O i?ioeani ?icaeoeo oaiaeaeueieo
aiaeiinei, iaeoaei, ii/eiath/e c X-XI no., ?iaeyoueny «eieaeoeaieie»
oaiaeaeaie. Aoi?aiaiiy /eneaiieo ei/iaeo ieaiai, iieioe/ia i aeiiiii/ia
ianoaaieueiinoue, iiai?e caaieiaieeia, ye ia ia?aaeienaeueii, ni?eyee
?inoo aieeao iaeoaeia, eiioeaio?aoei? eiei ieo o?enoeyinueeiai
iinoeaaiai ianaeaiiy iaeaea aei XV no. O naith /a?ao, iiianoe?i aeieeaee
o ?aaiiiao eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy o?enoeyi, ui caaacia/oaaei ?o
ainiiaea?/ee ?icaeoie i aaciaeo. C iaaeiiiyi Aicaioienueei? iiia?i?
caaa?oeany i ia?oee inoi?e/iee aoai iiiaoanoaa.

Oo?aoeueea aa?aniy i?ioe Eiinoaioeiiiiey, i?aaineaaiiai eiycianoaa
Oaiaei?i i aaioacueeeo oi?aiaaeueieo eieiiie, iaoene ineaio, aea?aeaaii?
?aeiai? Iniainueei? Iiia?i? i aanaeueii caeaaeiiai aiae ia? E?einueeiai
oainoaa, iieeaee e?ae aeiiiioth/ie ?iei i?oiaeienaeueiiai o?enoeyinoaa o
E?eio. Oea i?ecaaei aei ?iceiai nei?i/aiiy iiianoe?ia. Oo?aoeueeee aieea
o E?einueeiio oainoai, iinoieia ai?ioueaa c noniaeiiie o?enoeyinueeeie
aea?aeaaaie, aeieuaiiy ia aoaii aienueeiaeo aoi?aiaiue i ianooiia
aneiieyoeiy /anoeie iinoeaaiai ianaeaiiy, ciioaii oethae i aeiiiii/iee
oene ia «iaai?ieo» i?ecaaee aei iaaiaeoai?iiai i?ioeano. O eiioei XVIII
no. ia iiaino?iai caaaeo?oueny anueiai /ioe?e i?aaineaaii iiianoe?i.
Ia?iiae aeoeaii? o?enoeyiicaoei? Oaa?eee, ui ?icii/aany o IV-VIII no. i
aeinyaioa naiai aiiaath o XII-XV no. caaa?oeany i?aeoe/ii iiaiei
aeei?iiaiiyi o?enoeyinoaa i caoaa?aeaeaiiyi ineaio o XVII-XVIII no.
Ianiaa ia?anaeaiiy o?enoeyi o 1778 ?. ca iiaeo?eiee ?inienueeiai o?yaeo,
ia?aoiae e?einueeeo nayuaiiineoaeeoaeia iiae th?enaeeeoeith Iineianueei?
iao?ia?oi?, caiaiaae iiianoe?ia, ui caeeoeeeny, caaa?oeee ae?oaee —
a?aei-i?aaineaaiee ia?iiae ?o inoi?i?.

?icae?e ?? «?inienueeee (neiiaeaeueiee) ia?iiae iiioeoaa» — aieiaiee.
I?enay/aiee i?iaeaiai i?aaineaa’y o E?eio eiioey XVIII — ii/aoeo XIX
no., aiaeico i?e/ei i ianoaaei iineeaiiy aieeao oea?eae i aiae?iaeaeaiiy
iiianoe?ia c na?aaeeie XIX no.. Aaciaeie aeaea?aeaie ? a?oiaii
aeieoiaioe i ioaeieaoei? ia?aae?aaiethoeieiiai ia?iiaeo. ?icaeie
neeaaeanoueny c 9 ia?aa?aoia. Ia?oee «Aiae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaaieo
iaeoaeia», aeeth/a? inoi?e/iee aiaeic ia?aaeoiia i iniiaieo iiaeie
iia’ycaieo c aiae?iaeaeaiiyi i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia o E?eio, ia?aiiy
oi?ie iiioeoaa i no?oeoo?e eiiiaie, iaeaieiai/ieo i iieioe/ieo
caaaeaiue, ui iinoaee ia?aae iiaeaeaeieeaie oea?eae. A iioeo ainueie
ia?aa?aoao ?ice?eaa?oueny i?ioean aiae?iaeaeaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy i ?icaeoeo
eiaeiiai c ainueie e?einueeeo i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?ia, ui ia? ye
niieueii, oae i aiaeiiiii ?ene. Iaaiaeyoueny aeaii i?i /enaeueiinoue
a?aoi?, ainiiaea?thaaiiy i i?eaooee iaeoaeia. Oa?aeoa?enoeea inoi?i?
eiaeiiai c iiianoe?ia ni?yiiaaia ia aeiaaaeaiiy ?yaeo aiiioac, ui aoee
aeneiaeaii o ia?oiio ia?aa?aoi i o?aoueiio ?icaeiei.

O ae?oaie iieiaeii XVIII no. o?enoeyinoai inoaoi/ii ao?aoeei nai?
iiceoei? a E?eio. ?inienueeee o?yae i Neiiae aiey 70 ?ieia ia i?eaeieyee
oaaae eiai aiae?iaeaeaiith. Ia?o ca ana, a?aoiaoth/e no?aoaai/ii ieaie
?ini? o aiaeiioaiii aei Aaeeainueeeo aea?aeaa, aoaeoaaeany iethciy
ai?ioa?ieiinoi, ui caaacia/oaaea iiaeo?eieo ia?iaeia, ye? niiaiaeoaaee
iioi ?aeiai?. Iaeii/aniai, aiaaiaii nie?ath/enue ia
aienueeiai-iieioeaenueeee aia?ao, aaniethoenueeee o?yae ia
aeei?enoiaoaaa iinoeoooe i?aaineaaii? oea?eae aeey iaeaieiai/iiai
aeiaaaeaiiy i?aaa aieiaeiiiy iiaino?iaii. Aaaeeeao ?ieue aiaeia?aee e
oeace Iao?a I, Aiie Iiaiiaie, Eaoa?eie II, ui ciaiooaaee iieioe/iee i
aeiiiii/iee aieea oea?eae o aea?aeaai. Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao,
aiaeia?aceeiny ia nei?i/aiii /enaeueiinoi iiianoe?ia.

Ciiia aioo?ioiuei? i ciaiioiuei? iieioe/ii? neooaoei? o ia?oie iieiaeii
XIX no., ii/aoie /a?aiai? ?inienueei-oo?aoeueei? aieie, canaeaiiy
iiaino?iaa aeoiaeoeyie c ?ini?, Oe?a?ie, A?aoei? i Aieaa?i?, nioeiaeueii
— aeiiiii/ia e?eca na?aaeeie ieioeiai noieiooy, i ye ianeiaeie, iaaeiiiy
iiaooiinoi aienueeiaeo nee, aiaeiiaa aiae aa?aneaii? ciaiioiuei?
iieioeee, caa?ica caeeoeoeny aac iiaaeaiieo oa?eoi?ie i ao?aoa aieeao o
Na?aaecaiiiii?nueei-*i?iiii?nueeiio aanaeii, iaoiiaeei iiia?aoi?nueeo
aeaaeo caa?iooeny aei iaeaieiai/iiai /eiieea cae?iieaiiy i?e?aeiaiiy
E?eio aei ?ini?. Aeiaanoe aoii/io niieueiinoue c ei?iiieie ia?iaeaie
aoei i?iaeaiaoe/ii, oiio ?aeeiei ?ioaiiyi iiaea aooe iaeay i?aaa
i?aaineaaii? aea?aeaae ia eieeneo o?enoeyinoaa o Iiaii/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’?.

C na?aaeeie XIX no. ca iiioeiaoeaith i i?e aeoeaiie o/anoi a?oi?ieneiia
Oa?niinueeiai i Oaa?ienueeiai Iiieaioiy, ia?aeaeueii iioe?aiith
i?eoiaeia, o E?eio aoaeo?oueny ia?aaea i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?ia. I?e
oeueiio ia?aneiaeoaaeany oaea iaoa: iiniiia?nueea aeiyeueiinoue na?aae
iiiai?oeia, iiaoaeiaa aeey aiaiiieueoeia iinoeue iieeiiiiiy, iia’ycaieo
c oea?eiaiith inoi?i?th i aeeoi?i nayoeo, aeiaaaeaiiy nayoinoi i
oeiiiinoi Oaa?eaee aeey anueiai i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy ?ini?, ui
io?eiaea o?auaiiy o Oa?niiani caaaeyee eiycth Aieiaeeie?o. E?einueeee
iiaino?ia iaiaaaeeny ia?aoai?eoe o «Iiaee Aoii» — oeaio? iaeiiieoeoaa
aei noa?iaeaaiio nayoeiue, oa?eoi?ith nayuaiio a, oiio, iaeiicia/ii,
iaaiaeaeieueio aiae i?aaineaaii? aea?aeaae.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eaeieyeany ia?aiith iinoey aeey iaeoaeia, ui
caaacia/oaaei a ?o aeeoo?ainoue. Oiio ani iiianoe?i caniiaoaaeeny ia
iinoeyo noa?iaeaaiio iai’yoie o?enoeyinoaa aai aeaea?aeao, yei c aeaaiio
/ania oaioaaeeny iinoeaaei ianaeaiiyi. Oaeei /eiii, iiaee?anethaaeany
niaaeeiainoue aiae noa?iaeaaiuei? aicaioienueei? oea?eae i niaaeeiaa
i?aai i?aaineaaii? aea?aeaae ia aieiaeiiiy iiaino?iaii. Aiaee?eooy
eiaeii? iaeoaei iia’ycoaaeiny c eaaaiaeaie c aeeooy nayoeo i?aaineaaii?
oea?eae, i?i «coeiethth/i aeaea?aea», «aeeaioai?ii ieiie», a oai aea ?o
ia aoei, eaaaiaee noai?thaaeeny. Aeei?enoiaoaaany ai?iaiaaiee ia ?oni c
XV no. iaoiae noai?aiiy i?aieo «nayoinoi». I?e canioaaiii iiianoe?ia
iiaee?anethaaany i?eioeei eiiiaioiiai ao?oiaeeoeo, naiicaaacia/aiiy,
aneaoe/iiai niiniao aeeooy, iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaiee aei oiia i aeiia
noaoooia noa?iaeaaiio o?enoeyinueeeo iaeoaeia. Ia caeeoa? noiiiaia o
i?e/eiao aeoeaiiai iioe?aiiy ai?e O?enoiai? i oi/ea ci?o a?oi?ieneiia
Iiieaioiy, ui ?icoeiithaaa oea?eao ye «iaeii oeaeia n ainoaea?noaii» i
aa/ea o aiae?iaeaeaiii iiianoe?ia «aeaei ia?aie aaaeiinoe ia oieueei a
ioiioaiee e oea?eae, ii e e ainoaea?noao».

Ia iea/i ia?oeo iiieia i ianoiyoaeia eyaee oni oyaioe oo?aio o
canioaaiii i?aaineaaieo iiianoe?ia. Iaaioue aeey Oa?niianueeiai i
Aai?ai?anueeiai iiianoe?ia, ui iaee aea?aeaaio iiaeo?eieo, ia?oi ?iee
inioaaiiy aeyaeeeny aeineoue aaaeeeie. Iioi iicaooaoii eiiiai?, acaaaei
aoaeoaaeeny ia aeanii eiooe i iiaea?oae aeaaiaeieieeia. Ai?ia ia?aiiy
«nayoeo iinoeue», ui i?eiaithaaee iaeiiieeia, ainiiaea?/i i
i?aaiicaoeieii caeiaiinoi, aaoi?eoao iiaeaeaeieeia na?aae iinoeaaiai
ianaeaiiy ni?eyee oiio, ui aieueoinoue iaeoaeia ca eieueea aeanyoeeioue
ia?aoai?eeeny o eaioo/i ainiiaea?noaa. sseui nia?oo eieueeinoue a?aoi?
ia ia?aaeuoaaea 2-3 /aioeia i iineooieeia, oi ia ii/aoie OO no. o
aieueoinoi iiianoe?ia aiia aeinyaaea nioii i aieueoa. Iiianoe?i
iaeiie/oaaee ?ooiia i ia?ooiia iaeii. Aieiaiei aeaea?aeii i?eaooeia aoee
iiaea?oae iaoeaiaoia, aiaenioee c aaieianueeeo aeeaaeia, ?ic?aooiee ca
o?aae i a?ioi, io?eiaii ca ?aaeicaoeith oea?eiaieo oiaa?ia,
nieueaini?iaeoeoei?, ?aiinie/eo ae?iaia, i?aiaee. I?ioa, c ?inoii
iaoa?iaeueiiai aeaaiiieo//y, ii/aoeiaa aeaai/anoy caniiaieeia aiaeieoei
a inoi?ith. O ?yaei iiianoe?ia eiioey XIX no. noathoue iinoieieie
ii?ooaiiy noaoooia, aacainiiaea?iinoue. Aaaeeeao ?ieue aiaeia?aea i
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ia e?eca ia ?oaaaei OO no. I?aaineaaii iaeoaei, ui
aoiaeeee ?acii c oea?eaith o aea?aeaaio no?oeoo?o, iieieeeny nooo?ai
caeaaeieie aiae naionueeeo i?iaeai. Ia ?oaaaei noieioue
Eicueii-Aeaiiaiianueea i Eaoa?eacueea /ieiai/i eiiiai? iiaiinoth
caiaiaee i aoee neaniaaii. Ia ?o iinoei caniiaothoueny aeiii/i
iiianoe?i.

I?ioa, a oeieiio, e?einueea /a?iaoeoai aeiiaieei nai? caaaeaiiy. Ii?o/
c iioeie caniaaie, iiaino?ia oaeoe/ii c ionoeueiainueeiai ia?aoai?eany
ia o?enoeyinueeee. Oaea a eiioei XIX no. ooo inoaoi/ii caoaa?aeeeany i
aeiiiioaaea aea?aeaaia i?aaineaaia oea?eaa.

Ia?oa naioiaa aieia, ?aaiethoeieii iiaei? 1917 ?., a iioii i
a?iiaaeyinueea aieia aoee ii/aoeii eiioey e?einueeeo iaeoaeia. Ia
ii/aoeo o?eaeoeyoeo ?ieia OO no. iiianoe?i aoee eieaiaeiaaii. Caaa?oeany
o?aoie ia?iiae iiioeoaa o E?eio.

?icae?e ??? «Aioo?ioi? aeaoooaaiiy i i?aaiaa noaiiaeua iiianoe?ia XIX —
ii/. OO no.» i?enay/aiee iniaenoino? nenoaie iiianoe?nueeiai
ao?oiaeeoeo, oi?aae?iiy ? eiio?ieth c aieo ?ia?oiaeueieo aiaeiinoa.
Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ie?aii iieiaeaiiy oea?eiaiiai i?aaa i ?inienueeiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui noinothoueny /a?iaoeoaa. ?icaeie – ? iniiaith aeey
iiaeaeueoeo aeineiaeaeaiue o oeie iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiie aaeoci.

Ia i?eeeaaei E?einueeeo iaeoaeia iiaeathoueny oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeiiiioth/i? o ?ini? ao?oiaeeoieii? oi?ie ionoeiiiiaoeainoaa, ?icieoei
iiae ooaoieie i iicaooaoieie iiianoe?yie, iioa?i?aoaoeiy aeaaiio
aecia/aiue: «eiiiaiy» i «neeo», ui ia caaaeaee aiaeiiaiaeaee ia?ainiiio
cia/aiith, oa?aeoa?enoeea oeieeia i oea?eiaieo aeoia, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue
aeeooy iiieia i iieiaeaiiy iiianoe?ia o ?inienueeie oea?eiaiie i??a?oi?.
I?ineiaeeiao?oueny i?aeoeea aiaeoeeaiiy o XIX no. aiae i?eienaiiy
«Aeooiaiiai ooaoa» 1764 ?., ui ?aaeaiaioo? /enaeueiinoue a?aoi?. C
eieaiaeaoei?th iao?ia?oiai i?anoieo o ?ini? i canioaaiiyi Neiiaeo,
aiaeiiaiaeii c «Aeooiaiei ?aaeaiaioii» 1721 ?. iiianoe?i, o neeaaei
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, oaeoe/ii aeeth/aeeny o no?oeoo?o aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo. Iiianoe?nueea a?aoiy, ye i aea?aeaaii neoaeaiaoei, i?eeiaea
i?enyao iiia?aoi?o i eiai niaaeei?ioeth. «I?eaaaeaieai e ?aaeaiaioo i
i?aaeeao i?e/oa oea?eiaiiai i /eia /a?ia/aneiai» 1722 ?. i?aai
canioaaiiy iaeoaeia iaaeaaaeiny Na. Neiiaeo i aaciina?aaeiuei
iiia?aoi?o. Naionueei caeiie ?aaeaiaiooaaee aeayei iniaeeainoi
iiianoe?nueeiai aeeooy i ii?yaeie i?eeiyooy iino?eao, ui iaaeaaaei
iiaeeeainoue eiio?iethaaoe aeiyeueiinoue iiieia, aeeeth/aei i?eoie o
iiianoe?i iieiaei (na?aaeiie aie a?aoi? o E?eio neeaaeaa 50-56 ?ieia)
aea ii?oooaaee ?yae noa?iaeaaiio oea?eiaieo i?aaee, aeeth/ath/e i
?ioaiiy O?oeuenueeiai Niai?o. Neeaaeia i?ioeaaeo?a, ui ia?aaeoaaea
iino?eao, aeaaaea iiaeeeainoue aiaenithaaoe aeiaaeeiai iniae,
caaacia/oaaea ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iaaaeeei? eieueeinoi iineooieeia, yea,
iae/anoioa, ia ia?aaeuoaaei 25-30 aiaenioeia.

Oieueee o 1881 ?. aei ?inienueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa aiineoueny ?yae ciii,
ui ?icoe?ththoue iiaiiaaaeaiiy a?oi??a?a, ciiith?oueny ii?yaeie
iacia/aiiy a?oeiaiae?eoia i ianoiyoaeia iaeoaeia. Ia aiaeiiio aiae
i?aaee caniiaaieo ua Aaneeai Aaeeeei, ia?aii iaioieiith a?aoi?th
ianoiyoaei, caoaa?aeaeoaaeeny Neiiaeii, a o ooaoii iiianoe?i —
iai?aaeyeeny. C 1860 ?. aaiaeeoueny iiaa nenoaia eiio?ieth ca iaeoaeyie.
I?iiiaeiith eaieith iiae ?ia?oiaeueiei ea?iaieoeoaii i ianoiyoaeyie
noathoue aeaai/eiii, ui iacia/athoueny a?oi??a?i, i yei aeeiiothoue
ooieoei? eiio?ieth ca aeeiiaiiyi noaoooo i ainiiaea?nueeith
aeiyeueiinoth. Naia ia ieo iieeaaeaeeny ooieoei? ia?aai?ee nea?a,
?icneiaeoaaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue i oaeoia iaaeeiiaiiy iaaoia, ui i?eeiaee
iiiee i?e iino?eao.

I?aaineaaii iiianoe?i a E?eio ia iaieioea e?eca eiioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX
no. ?ino /enaeueiinoi aaaeath/eo i?eeiyoe iino?ea, noiaaoeny aiae
nioeiaeueieo i aeiiiii/ieo i?iaeai ca io?aie iaeoaeia, i?ecaia aei oiai,
ui /enaeueiinoue iineooieeia cia/ii ia?aaeueea eieueeinoue /aioeia,
nyaath/e aiae 50 aei 95 aiaenioeia. Oea aiaeaeeiny ia aeaai/eiii. O
?icaeiei iaaaaeaii iaoa?iaee ni?aa ?ia?oiaeueiiai ea?iaieoeoaa e
aeaai/eiieo c i?eaiaeo ii?ooaiiy noaoooia. Iaaaoeaii aiaeaeeiny ia
ii?aeueiie iiaaaeiioei iiieia aeei?enoaiiy iiianoe?ia ye iinoeue
iiea?aiiy nayuaiiineoaeeoaeia. O ?iaioi i?iaiaeiciaaii ?yae iaoa?iaeia
i?i ii?ooaiiy, yei ia?aaeaa/athoue, aiaeiiaiaeii c oea?eiaiei i?aaii,
iaeeaaeaiiy ?iioiii? /e aieueo noai?eo iiea?aiue.

Inoaiiy /anoeia ?icaeieo i?enay/aia aiaeico oea?eiaiiai i?aaa i
?inienueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c ieoaiue aeaniinoi i aeiiiii/ieo iieuea, ui
iaaeaaaeeny iiianoe?yi o eiioei XIX — ii/aoeo OO co. Aiaeiiaiaeii c
oea?eiaiei i?aaii «Oea?eiaue — aiaio/?aaeaeaiiue einoeooo,
i?ienoiaeaeaiea aa iaioie?ii; ii a naiae caiiie /anoe Oea?eiaue
iinoaaeaia a iaueiiaaiiua oneiaey aeecie e eiaao ioaeaeo a caiiuo
aauanoaaiiuo n?aaenoaao». Ona iiianoe?nueea iaeii iiaeieyeiny ia aeai
eaoaai?i?: ?a/i nayuaiii i ?a/i oea?eiaii. Iaeii iaee ciiao i?eaeaaoe
oeyoii io?eiaiiy aiae aea?aeaae, aiae i?eaaoieo inia aai ca aeanii
eiooe. Aiaeiiaiaeii c Noaoooii Aaneey Aaeeeiai i oinoei i?aaeeii
Aeaie?aoiiai Niai?o, ona iaeii /a?iaoeoaa iaeaaeaei iiianoe?th. Iaoe
iniaenoi ?a/i iaaeaaaeiny oieueee ianoiyoaeyi ooaoieo iiianoe?ia, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi ?a/ae ?ecieoei. Caiaeii c ?inienueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii aei
iino?eao iineooieee aoee caaia’ycaii aeaoe ?aaeo aeaniiio iaeio. Ca
iiieaie ia aeciaaaeiny i?aai ia caiiaio /e niaaeei?inoai ca caiiaioii.
Caiaeii c oea?eiaieie i?aaeeaie, ca iacia/iei aeeeth/aiiyi, nayuaiia
iaeii iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe oieueee ca i?ecia/aiiyi. Aei inia, ui
cieueee /e aee?aee oea?eiaia iaeii, ca caeiiaie ?inienueei? Iiia?i?
canoiniaoaaeeny noai?i iaoiaee iiea?aiiy, a aei? aiaeiineeeny aei ea?ieo
ii?ooaiue i?ioe ai?e.

Iiaeaoeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai eiioey XIX — ii/aoeo OO no. aa?aiooaaei
iiianoe?yi oe?iei iieueae. Aiae iiaeaoeia caieueiyeeny caiaeueii
aieiaeiiiy, ui iaaeaaaeeny o?yaeii, einiai aeieyiee, ia?ooiia iaeii, ui
ia i?eiineei aeioiaeo, a o Naaanoiiiei iaaioue aoaeeiee, ui aoee iaaeaii
a i?aiaeo. Na?aae e?einueeeo iiianoe?ia oaea ia?ooiiinoue neeaaeaea aei
90 %. Caieueiyeeny aiae iiaeaoeia aeioiaee iiianoe?ia aiae i?iaeaaeo
?a/ae eoeueoo i aeooiaii? eioa?aoo?e, aiae aeoeecieo cai?ia ia
aeaioiaeaiiy nie?oieo iaii?a i ieo c aoaeue-yeiai iaeia, ui aoei
ia?aaeaii iaeoaei. Ia iiiaeaoeiaoaaeiny i a?ioiaa oo?eiaiiy ooaoieo
iiianoe?ia. I?e oiieiio ea?iaieoeoai, caeiiiaeaanoai caaacia/oaaei
aacaiaeia inioaaiiy iiieia. Aeeeth/ath/e a?ioi, ui aiaeioneaea aea?aeaaa
ia oo?eiaiiy ooaoieo iiianoe?ia, na?aaeiuei?i/iee i?eaooie E?einueeeo
iaeoaeia o XIX no. neeaaeaa iiiaae 185 oeny/ ea?aiaaioeia.

Ia aiaeiiio aiae XVIII no., eiee ?inienueea caeiiiaeaanoai
i?i?iooaaeiny ia iiae?ea aeiiiii/ii? iiaooiinoi oea?eae, o na?aaeeii XIX
no., ye iiaeia oaa?aeeoe, aeineiaeaeoth/e a?oiaii iaoa?iaee e?einueeeo
iaeoaeia, eiee aaniethoia iiiao?iy ineaaea i anooieea o nioao
ao?aeoacieo ?aoi?i, oea?eaa, ui eiio?iethaaeany aea?aeaaith, ye
iaeaieiai/ii iiaeaaeeie naiiaea?aeaanoaa, ciiao io?eiaea oe?iei iieueae
i aeiiiii/ii iiaeeeainoi ?icaeoeo. Iioeiee oea?eiaiee
?aeiaieii-iaeaieiai/iee iinoeooo, ui nie?aany ia aeiiiii/io iiaooiinoue
iiianoe?ia, iaa ciiao nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia aeeaiei ?aeiaieia ianaeaiiy
iiia?i?.

O Aeniiaeao iiaeaiaeyoueny iiaenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy.
Aiaeic aeaea?ae aeaa iiaeeeainoue ?icaeyiooe aeeiaiieo ?icaeoeo
E?einueeeo iiianoe?ia o ca’yceo c inoi?e/ieie iiaeiyie i
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieie i?ioeanaie, aeaeieeoe o?e iniiaii ia?iiaee:
aicaioienueeee, a?aei-i?aaineaaiee i ?inienueeee (neiiaeaeueiee),
aiaeiiaeoe inoi?ith i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia na?aaeeie XIX — ii/. OO no.

I?iieeiaiiy o?enoeyinoaa o Oaa?eeo a eiioei III — ii/aoeo IV no. aoei
iniiaith aeey aeieeiaiiy iiianoe?ia. I?ioa, canioaaiiy aieueoinoi
e?einueeeo iaeoaeia i?eiaaea? ia VIII-X no. Iiaeia aeaeieeoe oaei
i?e/eie: aiia?aoeiy o?enoeyinueeiai a?aeiiiaiiai ianaeaiiy ic
caaieiaaii? a?aaaie Iiaii/ii? Ao?eee i Iaei? Aci? — eieenee iiioeoaa;
ieiiiai?nueea iieioeea iiia?aoi?nueeiai aeai?o i ?ioaiiy niai?o 754 ?.,
ui aeeeeeaei iioie aiia?aioia o iiaii/ii i?iaiioei?. O Oaa?eoei aeieea?
i’youe ?ia?oie i caniiaaii ?yae iiianoe?ia. Nie?ath/enue ia a?oaieiai/ii
aeineiaeaeaiiy, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui nii/aoeo aieueoinoue iaeoaeia
caniiao?oueny o Iiaaeaiiiio i Iiaaeaiii-noiaeiiio E?eio.

O X-XV no. iiianoe?i aieiaeiee iaaaeeeeie caiaeueieie aeieyieaie, a
aeayei aoee oeaio?aie nieuenueeeo ie?oaia. O oeae ia?iiae ia iiaaeaiiiio
noiaei iiianoe?i eiioeaio?othoueny iaae?oae Noaaea? i aaioacueei? Eaoe.
Eiinoeuenueea eaoieeoeueea aaeiiiino?aoeiy ?icaeoeo i?aaineaaieo
iaeoaeia ia ni?eyea, aea caaacia/oaaea caoeno iaeiiaeo i?aa. O
iiaaeaiii-caoiaeiiio E?eio ?ino iiianoe?ia niiaiaaea? c iineeaiiyi
i?aaineaaiiai eiycianoaa Oaiaei?i, caaaeyee /iio o XIV-XV no. iaeoaei
ai?nueeiai i iiaaeaiiiaa?aaeiiai E?eio ia?aoai?eeeny o aeiiiii/ii iioeii
ainiiaea?noaa.

O oie aea /an, ethaenueei ao?aoe iiae /an ianeieia cieioii?aeeioeia,
ciioaii oethae, oeoeinoue iieioe/ieo aiaeiinei, iineaaeaiiy
o?enoeyinueeeo aea?aeaa o *i?iiii?nueeiio aanaeii ni?eyee nei?i/aiith
aieeao i?aaineaa’y. C aeniaini?th Iniainueei? iiia?i?, aieueoinoue
x?enoeyi iieieeinue iiae aeaaeith noeoaia ia oa?eoi?i? eaoiinueeiai
ayeaoo. Iiae iaoeneii ineaio i?aaineaa’y noa? ?aeiai?th aoii/ieo
iaioinoae. Nei?ioeeeny i?eoiaee, a aei na?aaeeie XVIII no. ooeieiei ia
aieueoa /ioe?ueio iiianoe?ia. O iiaenoieo aeoiaeo /anoeie o?enoeyi o
1778 ?., i?aaineaaii iiianoe?i, ui caeeoeeeny, caiaiaee. Caaa?oeeeny
ia?oi aeaa ia?iiaee inoi?i? i?aaineaaiiai /a?iaoeoaa o E?eio.

I?e?aeiaiiy E?eio aei ?ini? o 1783 ?. eieaiaeoaaei i?eoeniaiiy
o?enoeyi, aea aiey 70 ?ieia Na. Neiiae i ?inienueeee o?yae ia aaeeaaee
caoiaeia o o?enoeyiicaoei? e?ath. Aiaeicoth/e iieioe/ia noaiiaeua XVIII
— ii/. XIX no. iiceoeith ?ini? iiaeia iiynieoe ianooiiei: iiaooiie
aaniethoenueeee aienueeiai-iieioeaenueeee aia?ao ia nie?aany ia
oea?eiaii iinoeoooe; o?yae ?iaea iethcith ai?ioa?ieiinoi ia
iaoeiiiaeueieo ie?a?iao iiia?i?, ui a?aoiaoth/e no?aoaai/ii caiaoe ia
Aaeeaie, Eaaeac i Na?aaeith Acith, aeeeth/aei i?ioeaeith iiiai?oeia.
Aei? Iao?a I, i?i?ioiaaii ia iineaaeaiiy oea?eae, ye eiieo?aioa
aaniethoecio, caaa?oeeeny ca Eaoa?eie II, eiee aoei inoaoi/ii iiaei?aaii
aeiiiii/io aaco oea?eae i nei?i/aii ?ino iaeoaeia.

O na?aaeeii XIX no. ?iniy anooieea o nioao aeiiiii/ii? i iieioe/ii?
e?ece. Ii?acea o E?einueeie aieii caa?iaeoaaea oa?eoi?iaeueiie
oeieiniinoi ia iiaaeii. O oie aea /an, i?aaineaaia oea?eaa, ui
eiio?iethaaeany iiia?aoi?nueeith aeaaeith, ia?aoai?eeany o iaaeieiiai
iieioe/iiai niieueieea. Oieueee ia ?aeiaieieo iiaeaaeeiao iiaeia aoei
iaa?oiooaaoe i?aai i?aaineaaii? aea?aeaae ia aieiaeiiiy E?eiii –
eieeneith o?enoeyinoaa o Iiaii/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?.

Aiaeoai?aiiy i?aaineaa’y o E?eio iia’ycaii c ii’yi a?oe?ieneiia
Oa?niinueeiai i Oaa?ienueeiai Iiieaioiy, aecia/iiai oea?eiaiiai,
iieioe/iiai i a?iiaaenueeiai aeiy/a. C 1848 ?. iiaino?ia iieieany o
oeaio?i eiai iniaeeaiai iieeoaaiiy. Ii?yae c ?icoe?aiiyi i?eoiaeia, aii
aa/ea aieiaio iii?o a iiioeoai. O Oaa?eoei iaiaaaeeny c?iaeoe eiiieaen
eiiiaie ia c?acie i ca i?eeeaaeii Aoiio c oeaio?ii a Oniainueeiio neeoi.
Iniaeeai iiaee?anethaaeany niaaeeiainoue ?inienueeiai iiioeoaa aiae
Aicaioi?. Caiaeii c i?iaeoii, iaeoaei caniiaoaaeeny o iinoeyo yei c
aeaaiio-aeaaai oaioaaeeny iinoeaaei ianaeaiiyi, ui caaacia/oaaei ?o
aeeoo?aeieiinoue: ia noa?iaeaaiio ?o?iao, inay/aieo iiiaiaeaeth c aeeooy
nayoeo aai o iinoeyo c`yaeaiiy aeeaiaeieii? ieiie /e aeaea?aea, ioi/aieo
i?aieii nayoinoi. Oai aea eaaaiae ia aoei, aiie noai?thaaeeny.
Aieueoinoue iiiaiaeae c oea?eiaii? inoi?i? ia aiaeiiaiaeaei iaoeiaei
aeaiei aea nai oaeo aiaeaoaeiae iaeoaeia ia iinoeyo neai? aeaaieie,
ciiiaa aoaeue-yei noiiiae o ai?oth/eo, ?iaea iiianoe?i iinoeyie ianiaiai
iieeiiiiiy aiaiiieueoeia. E?ei iinooiiai ia?aoai?thaaany o iinoea
iaeiiieoeoaa i nayoeith aeey i?aaineaaieo o?enoeyi iiia?i?. Aiaeaoaeiaa
iaeoaeia ia iio?aaoaaea cia/ieo eaiioaeueieo aianeia aiae eacie. Aiie
aoaeoaaeeny ia iiaea?oae i ciaoiaeeeeny ia naiicaaacia/aiii. Ca iaea?th
Iiieaioiy aeeooy iiieia iiaeiii aoei aiaeiiaiaeaoe noa?iaeaaiueiio
iaeaaeo ionoeiiiiaoeainoaa.

Aiae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia o E?eio ii/aeiny c 1850 ?., aea
aoei ia?a?aaii E?einueeith aieiith. Nii/aoeo aeaeieeany Aaeaeeaanueeee
ia?oieeaniee iiianoe?, yeee noaa aacith i??iiiiaoia *i?iiii?nueeiai
oeioo. Noaoon ia?oieeaniiai iiianoe?y io?eiaea i Oa?niianueea iaeoaeue,
ui aoea ooai?aia ia iinoei eaaaiaea?iiai o?auaiiy eiycy Aieiaeeie?a, ui
iaei aaaeeeaa iaeaieiai/ia cia/aiiy. ?aooa /ieiai/eo eiiiaie:
Iiea?iainueea, Eeceeoaonueea, Eicueii-Aeaiiaiianueea i Eaoa?eacueea
noaee iacaeaaeieie aiae Oniainueeiai neeoo, aiae?iaeaeaiiai iiae
Aao/ena?a?i. E?eio oi?eioeany i caaaeueii-?a?iiaenueea oaiaeaioeiy aei
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aeiii/eo iaeoae?a o eiioei XIX no., iia’ycaia c
aeiiiii/iith ianoaaieueiinoth. Aeieea? aeiii/ee Oiieianueeee, a iiciioa,
ia iinoei neaniaaieo /ieiai/eo eiiiaie, Eaoa?eacueeee i
Eicueii-Aeaiiaiianueeee iiianoe?i.

I?e aiaee?eooi eiiiaie aoea caa?aaeaia iaeay canioaaiiy ao?oiaeeoieieo
iicaooaoieo iiianoe?ia (aeeeth/ath/e ooaoii Aaeaeeaanueeee i
Oa?niianueeee). Iiaeaaeeiaie iiaoaeiae ?o aeiiiii/ii? aace aoee i?eaaoii
iiaea?oae i ia?aaea/a caiaeueieo aeieyiie c aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo. Ia
i?eeeaaei e?einueeeo iaeoaeia /ioei i?ineiaeeiao?oueny i?ioean
aiae?iaeaeaiiy aeiiiii/ii? aace oea?eae i iiianoe?ia iiney iaeaea
noieioiuei? ia?a?ae, iia’ycaii? c oeacaie Iao?a I e Eaoa?eie II. O
eiioei XIX no. caiaeueia aeaniinoue e?einueeeo iiianoe?ia neeaaeaea 6100
aeanyoei, a caaaeueiee i?eaooie ia?aaeuoaaa 185 oen. ea?aiaaioe?a ia
?ie. Oeueiio ni?eya iianye/aniee caoeno oea?eiaieo iinoeoooia
?inienueeei ea?iei caeiiiaeaanoaii i iieueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Ca
iianoieiooy, a aeayei i iaioa, i?aaineaaii iaeoaei noaee aeiiiii/ii
iioeieie ainiiaea?noaaie. *a?iaoeoai, ye i a oeieiio i?aaineaaia
oea?eaa, aeiiaieei naith iieioe/io iinith, aeoenioaoe iaeaea iiaiinoth
ineai c iiaino?iaa.

A iniiao iiianoe?nueeeo noaoooia, yei aiae?iciyeeny noai?inoth ii?i,
aoa iieeaaeaiee I??onaeeinueeee oeiee. Oaeoe/ii, ia?oi aeaa aeanyoeeiooy
inioaaiiy iaeoaeia iiaeia aaaaeaoe aiaeiiaiaeieie aeiiaai iiioeueeiai
ao?oiaeeoienoaa. A oie aea /an, o iiaeaeueoiio, iiianoe?i, ye i oea?eaa,
ui iieieeenue o no?oeoo?i aea?aeaae ia ciiaee iaieiooe ianeiaeeia e?ece,
ui ia?iuoaaeany ia ?oaaaei OO no. Ianiaee i?eoie aei iaeoaeia inia
aeiaaeeiaeo i?ecaia aei ii?ooaiiy ni?aaiaeiioaiiy /enaeueiinoi /aioeia i
iineooieeia, ui caaacia/oaaei aeeiiaiiy onoi?a. *enaeueiinoue
iineooieeia i oeo, ooi ia?aaoaaa ia inieoao, ia?aaeueea /enaeueiinoue
?ynioi?ieo i iaioieieo /aioeia o aeaa i aieueoa ?acia, ui aoei i?e/eiith
ii/anoioaiiy aeiaaeeia ii?ooaiiy noaoooia o eiioei XIX no. Ia ni?eyei
aeaai/eiith i aeei?enoiaoaaiiy iiianoe?ia aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?iioii’?
aieei aeooiaainoaii.

Iaaeiiiy ii?aei a iaeoaeyo, aiaeca?eaethaaei nioeiaeueio e?eco a
iiia?i?. ?inienueea /a?iaoeoai, ui aoei aeiiiii/ii, iaeaieiai/ii i
th?eaee/ii o «oaiee/ieo» oiiaao, aeyaeeiny iani?iiiaeiei, ia i?eeeaaei
iiaeaeaeieeia IV-V no., aiaei?aaoeny aiae ie?nueeeo i?iaeai i niieon.
Aaaeeeaith i?e/eiith oeueiai aoei aeeth/aiiy i?aaineaaii? oea?eae o
no?oeoo?o aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy, a oiio ii/aoeiaa i?eioeeiiaa iiieeea:
i?i?ioaoeiy a?aoi? ia oieueee ia neoaeiiiy aiaiai, aea e iiia?aoi?ia?,
yeiio aiia aeaaaea i?enyao.

C iaaeiiiyi iiia?i?, ciiao aoei iiaei?aaii aeiiiii/io aaco iiianoe?ia.
Caeeoeaoenue aac ia?ooiiiai iaeia, o?aaeeoeieieo aeaea?ae i?eaooeia i
iieuea, ui /enaeueii c?inee ca inoaiii aeaa aeanyoeeiooy, iaeoaei
aeyaeeeny iani?iiiaeieie ia?aaoaeoaaoeny o iiaeo iieioe/ieo oiiaao.
Iiney ia?aiiae aieueoiaeeia, aiie aeayeee /an caa?iaaeeny o oi?ii
ae?iaie/eo a?oieae, a o eiioei 20-o — ii/aoeo 30-o ??. OO no., eiee
noaeiinueea ea?iaieoeoai caeiyei iiceoeith «aieiaie/iai aoa?cio»,
iiianoe?i iiae ?icieie i?eaiaeaie aoee eieaiaeiaaii. Caaa?oeany o?aoie
ia?iiae inoi?i? /a?iaoeoaa o E?eio.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo:

Iiiia?ao??

1. I/a?ee enoi?ee ?aeeaee. — Neioa?iiieue: Ecae-ai “Oaa?ey”. — 1997. —
288 n.

2.E?uineea i?aaineaaiua iiianou?e XIX- ia/aea XX aa. Enoi?ey. I?aaiaia
iieiaeaiea. — Neioa?iiieue: Ecae-ai “Oaa?ey-Iethn”, 1998. — 154 n.

Iaoeia? noaoo?

1. Aei ieoaiiy i?i i?aaiaa noaiiaeua i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a O?O no. o
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? (ca a?o?aieie iaoa??aeaie E?eio) // A?niee
Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. — Iaeana, 1998. — ? 4. — N.
136-144. (Ni?aaaoi? I.I.Noieaoiaiei). Aaoi?ii iaienai? 138-144 n.

2. Iiianou?ue ia ai?a Ia?/ai // A?oaieiaey E?uia / IAI Oe?aeiu.
E?uineee oeeeae Einoeoooa a?oaieiaee. – Neioa?iiieue: Ecae-ai
«THaeiiai?iaeneea aaaeiiinoe», 1997. N 1. — N. 117 — 128.

3. N?aaeiaaaeiaue iiianou?ue ia a.Ia?/ai // A?oaieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey a E?uio / IAI Oe?aeiu. E?uineee oeeeae Einoeoooa
a?oaieiaee. Ecae-ai NIIAO, 1997. — N.61-64. (Niiaaaoi? Aa?aiia I.A.).

Oace iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e

1. A?oeaieneii Eiiieaioee e aic?iaeaeaiea i?aaineaaey a E?uio //
Iaoa?iaee anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioei? «350-?i//y
aiae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoi: ieioea i no/ania». Ainiee
Oiiaa?neoaoo aioo?ioiio ni?aa. Aeiaeaoie aei N 3-4. — Niioa?iiieue,
1998. — N. 82-84.

2. ?aeeaeiciay iieeoeea oea?ecia a E?uio ( eiiaoe XVIII — ia/aei XIX
aa.) // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu
iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee E?uia: eoiae e ia?niaeoeau” / IAI Oe?aeiu. Einoeooo
enoi?ee Oe?aeiu; E?uineee ainoaea?noaaiiue
eiaeono?eaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneee einoeooo. — Neioa?iiieue, 1996.- N. 81 —
84.

3. E aii?ino i Noaaeaeneie aia?oee // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u” /
Neioa?iiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao; E?uineee oeaio?
aoiaieoa?iuo enneaaeiaaiee. – Neioa?iiieue, 1997. N.108-110.

AIIOAOeI?

Oo? A.A. I?aaineaaii iiianoe?i E?eio o XIX — ia ii/aoeo OO no. ?oeiien.
Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noueth 07.00.01 -?noi?iy Oe?a?ie. ?inoeooo ?noi??? IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ei?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoei? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue inoi?i? i?aaineaaieo
iaeoaeia, cai?iiiiiaaii ?? o?iiieiaith. Aieiaiith iaoith aeineiaeaeaiue
? aea/aiiy nioeiaeueii — iieioe/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo i aeiiiii/ieo
ia?aaeoiia, yei ni?eyee aiae?iaeaeaiith iiianoe?ia o ae?oa?e iieiaeii
XIX no., iniaeeainoae ?o ooieoeiiioaaiiy aei ii/aoeo 30-o ?ieia XX no.

O ?iaioi iaa?oioiao?oueny aiiioaca ieiiiai?nueeiai /ano
?iciianthaeaeaiiy /a?iaoeoaa a E?eio, ?ice?eoi i?e/eie eiai caanaiiy
iiae oeneii ineaio o XV-XVIII no. i iaeaea noieioiuei? ia?a?ae a aeeooi
iiioeoaa iiney i?e?aeiaiiy iiaino?iaa aei ?ini?. Ia iiaenoaai a?oiaieo
iaoa??ae?a i ioaeieaoeie aei?aaiethoeieiiai ia?iiaeo aiaeicothoueny
ia?aaeoiiae i ianoaaeie aiae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaaieo iaeoaeia o na?aaeeii
XIX no., ?ice?eaa?oueny i?ioean i niaoeeoiea aiaeiiaethaaiiy eiiiaie o
i?yiiio ca`yceo c iieioe/ieie iiaeiyie. O aeine?aeaeaii?
iiaee?aneth?oueny aeei?enoaiiy iinoeoooo /a?iaoeoaa iiia?aoi?nueeith
aeaaeith c iaoith iaeaieiai/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iaeaaeiinoi iiaino?iaa
aei i?aaineaaii? aea?aeaae, eiai i?i?ioaoeiy ia aeoeniaiiy ineaio,
oeieani?yiiaaia noai?thaaiiy oeaio?ia iaeiiieoeoaa aeey i?aaineaaieo
o?enoeyi. Ia iniiai aiaeico aeaea?ae c inoi?i? iiianoe?ia E?eio
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iinoea /i?iiai aeooiaainoaa o i?aaiaiio iiei
?inienueei? iiia?i?, iieioe/i?e i oea?eiai?e no?oeoo?? aea?aeaae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiianoe?, o?iiieia?y, i?aaineaay, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
iie?oeea.

Tur V.G. The Orthodox Monasteries of Crimea in the 19th – the beginning
of the 20th. – Manuscript. Thesis for a Master Degree of Sciences of
History in speciality 07.00.01 – History of Ukraine. The Institute of
History of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv , 1996.

In the thesis centuries the research work in the history of orthodox
cloisters are the history of orthodox cloisters are reprented and the
division into periods is offered. The main task of this research work is
the study of social political, cultural and economic pre-conditions and
conditions, which promoted the revival of

monasteries in the second half of the 19th century, the pecularities of
their functions before the 30th of the 20th century.

The hypothesis of the time of iconoclasm of spreading the monkhood in
Crimea is grounded in this work and the reasons of its fading through
the force of Islam and almost a century long recess in the life of
monasticism after the annexation of peninsular to Russia are revealed.
On the basis of archives documents and pre-revolutionary publications
the reasons and circumstances of the revival of orthodox cleisters in
the middle of the 19 century are analyzed, the proeess and specific
character of restoring of monasteries in direct connection with
political events is revealed; the use of the institute of monasticism
the power of imperor for ideological basis of belonging of the
peninsular to the orthodox state is emphasized, its orientation to the
ousting of Islam, pilgrimage for Orthodox Christians. On the basis of
analysis of or the sources of history of monasteries of Crimea, the
situation of regular clergy in the legal field of Russia’s empire,
political, church structure is described.

Key words: monastery, chronology, orthodox, revival, politics.

Oo? A.A. I?aaineaaiua iiianou?e E?eia a XIX — ia/aea OO aa. —
?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu.
Einoeooo enoi?ee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee enoi?ee
i?aaineaaiuo iaeoaeae, i?aaeeiaeaia o?iiieiaey e auaeaeaiu iniiaiua
yoaiu enoi?ee e?uineeo iaeoaeae a i?yiie nayce n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie e
aioo?eiieeoe/aneeie niauoeyie. Iniiaiie oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiee yaeyaony
eco/aiea nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo, eoeueoo?iuo e yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aaeiinueie e oneiaee, niinianoaiaaaoeo aic?iaeaeaieth iiianou?ae ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a., iniaaiiinoae eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a ia/aea XX a.
A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaia ?ieue i?aaineaaiiai eii/anoaa a oi?ie?iaaiee
eoeueoo?u, nioeeaeueiuo e iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaiee ia iieoino?iaa.

?anniao?eaay ia?eiae ca?iaeaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiiaoanoaa a
Oaa?eea, iainiiauaaaony aeiioaca aai eeiiiai?/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.
Auaeaeythony iniiaiua i?e/eiu: yiea?aoeee o?enoeaineiai a?aeiycu/iiai
ianaeaiey ec Iaeie Acee, iieeoeea aecaioeeneiai eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a
VIII-X aa. e ?aoaiey niai?a 754 a., ieieiaeueiia aiaoaoaeuenoai naaoneeo
e oea?eiaiuo aeanoae a aeeciue iiaeaeaeieeia oea?eae naaa?iuo
i?iaeioeee. Iiae/a?eeaathony iniaaiiinoe ono?ienoaa i?aaineaaiuo
iaeoaeae aicieeoeo ia a?aieoea n ycu/aneei ie?ii eeai a n?aaea
eiiaa?oeaa, eo iieiaeaiea e noaiaiue aeeyiey a ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao e ia
?acee/iuo yoaiao enoi?ee. Inaauathony i?e/eiu e ianoiyoaeuenoaa
auoaniaiey o?enoeainoaa eneaiii a XV-XVII aa., eeeaeaeaoeee inoaaoeony
iiianou?ae a 1778 a.

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee a 1783 a., eiia?aoi?neay aeanoue e
Na.Neiiae ieiei 70 eao ia i?eieiaee eaeeo-eeai aeoeaiuo aeaenoaee ii
o?enoeaiecaoeee e?ay. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee XVIII –
ia/. XIX aa., a ?aaioa ?anniao?eaaaony ?yae i?e/ei ianneaiie ?aeeaeiciie
iieeoeee: iiuiue aaniethoenoneee aiaiii-iieeoeaeneee aiia?ao ia iie?aeny
ia oea?eiaiua einoeooou; i?aaeoaeuenoai nicaeaaaei eeethceth
aa?ioa?ieiinoe ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo ie?aeiao n o/aoii no?aoaae/aneeo
i?aoaicee ia Aaeeaiu, Eaaeac e N?aaeithth Aceth; ia?u i?eiyoua Iao?ii ?,
iai?aaeaiua ia ineaaeaia Oea?eae, eae eiieo?aioa aaniethoecia, iieo/eee
caaa?oaiea i?e Aeaoa?eia II, ieii/aoaeueii iiaei?aaee aa yeiiiie/aneoth
aaco e ia?aie/eee ?ino iaeoaeae.

E na?aaeeia XIX a. ?inneeneay eiia?ey anooieea a iieino yeiiiie/aneiai
e iieeoe/aneiai e?ecena. Ii?aaeaiea a E?uineie aieia, iaa?ioeinue
oa?icie oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe ia thaa. A oi aea a?aiy,
i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue, eiio?iee?oaiay eiia?aoi?neie aeanoueth,
i?aa?aoeeanue a iaaeaaeiiai eaeaieiae/aneiai nithcieea. Oieueei ia
?aeeaeiciie iniiaa iiaeii auei iainiiaaoue i?aai i?aaineaaiiai
ainoaea?noaa ia aeaaeaiea E?uiii — eieuaaeueth o?enoeainoaa a Naaa?iii
I?e/a?iiii?uea. Iiyoiio i?ioeann aic?iaeaeaiey i?aaineaaiuo iiianou?ae
E?uia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. ?anniao?eaaaony eae iieeoe/aneee e
eaeaieiae/aneee oaa, iai?aaeaiiue ia cae?aieaiea ?inneeneie eiia?eae
i?eniaaeeiaiiiai E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

Aic?iaeaeaiea i?aaineaaiuo iiianou?ae a E?uio ia/aeinue a 1850 a. e
naycaii n eiaiai a?oeaieneiia Oa?niineiai e Oaa?e/aneiai Eiiieaioey,
auaeathuaainy oea?eiaiiai, iieeoe/aneiai e iauanoaaiiiai aeayoaey.

A Oaa?eea i?aaeiieaaaeinue nicaeaoue eiiieaen eeiiaee ii ia?acoeo e
i?eia?o Aoiia n oeaio?ii a Oniaineii neeoa. Iniai iiae/a?eeaaeanue
i?eainoaaiiinoue ?inneeneiai eii/anoaa io Aecaioee. Niaeanii i?iaeoo,
iaeoaee iniiauaaeenue a ianoao ecaeaaia ii/eoaaiuo ianoiui ianaeaieai,
/oi iaania/eaaei eo aeeciaiiinoue: ia ae?aaieo ?acaaeeiao, inayuaiiuo
neacaieyie ec aeecie nayouo, eeai a ianoao «yaeaiey /oaeioai?iuo» eeii e
enoi/ieeia, caaaaeiii ie?oaeaiiuo i?aieii nayoinoe. Oai, aaea eaaaiae ia
ieacaeinue — eo nicaeaaaee. E?ui iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaeny a ianoi
iaeiiie/anoaa e nayouith aeey i?aaineaaiuo o?enoeai eiia?ee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii auaeaeeeny Aaeaeeaaneee ia?aieeanniue iiianou?ue,
noaaoee aacie ea?iiiiaoia *a?iiii?neiai oeioa. Noaoon ia?aieeanniiai
iiianou?y iieo/eea Oa?niianneay iaeoaeue, ono?iaiiay ia ianoa
eaaaiaea?iiai e?auaiey ei.Aeaaeeie?a, /oi eiaei aaaeiia eaeaieiae/aneia
cia/aiea. Eiea?iaineay, Eeceeoaoneay, Eicueii-Aeaieaiianeay e
Eaoa?eacneay ioaeneea eeiiaee ieacaeenue iacaaeneiu io aic?iaeaeaiiiai
iiae Aao/ena?aai Oniaineiai neeoa. A eiioea XIX — ia/.XX aa. E?ui
einioeanue e iaua?inneeneay oaiaeaioeey e ?inoo aeaineeo iaeoaeae.
Aicieeaao Oiieianeee O?ieoea-Ia?aneaaeaaneee aeaineee iiianou?ue, a ia
ianoa oi?acaeiaiiuo ioaeneeo eeiiaee — Eaoa?eacneay e
Eicueiiaeaieaiianeay aeaineea iaeoaee.

Ia iniiaa a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia e ioaeeeaoeee, a ?aaioa ?ane?uo i?ioeann
noaiiaeaiey, ?acaeoey eee oiaaeea ioaeaeueiuo eeiiaee. I?iaiaeeony
iauaeoeaiue aiaeec aeeyiey aiaoieo niauoee ia iieiaeaiea eii/anoaa. Ia
i?eia?a E?uia ii?aaeaeyaony ianoi iiianou?ae a ainoaea?noaaiiie e
oea?eiaiie no?oeoo?a ?inneeneie eiia?ee, ?ieue, noaiaiue aeeyiey e
eniieueciaaiey i?aaineaaiiai iiiaoanoaa a i?iaaaeaiee aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee oea?ecia. I?ineaaeeaaaony i?ioeann aic?iaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
aacu oea?eae e iiianou?ae iinea aaeiaiai i?iaaea, /aio niinianoaiaaea
anaia?iay caueoa eioa?ania oea?eiaiuo einoeoooia ?inneeneei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. A eoiaa, i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue a oeaeii e
iiianou?e a /anoiinoe auiieieee naith ienneth auoaniea eneai n
iieoino?iaa.

A ?aaioa naeaeaia iiiuoea ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iieiaeaiea, aioo?aiiee
?anii?yaeie e aeeciue eii/anoaa n oi/ee c?aiey oea?eiaiiai i?aaa,
i?iaanoe aiaeec ?inneeneeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eanathueony
niaoeeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey iiianou?ae. Iaeiia?aiaiii ?anniao?eaathony
i?e/eiu e iineaaenoaey o/anoeaoeony neo/aaa ia?ooaiee eii/aneeo onoaaia
ia ?oaaaea XIX-XX aa., iaoiaeu oe?aieaiey oea?eiaiuie i?aaiaie
oi?aaeaiey i?aanoaaiiinoe e caeiiiinoe a iaeoaeyo. I?eaiaeyony aeaiiua i
eeeaeaeaoeee iiianou?ae a 20-o aiaeao XX aa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiianou?ue, o?iiieiaey, i?aaineaaea, aic?iaeaeaiea,
iieeoeea.

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