*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 167

Ea?iaiei Iaoae?y Aanee?aia

Iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy

a no/ani?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 09.00.09 — o?einio?y iaoee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Neaei?aiei I. I.,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith ?ae?a??ciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ae/ei A.E.,

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa ?i.
?.Ea?iaiea-Ea?iai, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith noni?eueieo iaoe

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,

E?ena/aiei A.N.,

?inoeooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

Eaoaae?a o?einio?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?.O?aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «24» aa?aniy 1999 ?., i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a. ?aaea ciaoiaeeoueny ca aae?anith:
i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a
(i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe.E.Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «21» na?iiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
A.E.Ea?ii

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?iaioe. Niaoeeo?eith iei?oiuei? neooaoe?? a iaooe? ?
oaeaeeee ?icaeoie ?aeae, aaaaoia?aii?noue oa “iica?/i?noue” o?einio?? oa
iaoiaeieia?? iaoee, a ?aieao yeeo ieth?ae?noe/ii, aeaiie?aoe/ii
?icaeaathoueny ??ci?, /anii i?ioeeaaei?, iaoeia? eiioeaioe??, iiooe
?noeie a?aeaoaa?oueny, ia a?aei?io a?ae eeane/ii? iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie,
ia aeciaiiyi ?aeeii a??iith iaei??? c oi/ie ci?o, a ?iaeoueny iaaiein ia
aaaaoia?aiiino? na?oo oa a?aeiiniino? noa’?eoeaieo iiaeyae?a ia iueiai.
??ciiiai?oi? ?aea? o ?aieao o?einio?? iaoee ?ic?iaeythoueny aaaaoueia
a/aieie — ye i?aaenoaaieeaie o?einio??, oae ? — i?e?iaeie/iai oa
aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy. Cacae/ae i?i aeciaiiy iaoeiaei ni?aoiaa?enoaii
oaei? iiceoe?? aiai?eoueny i?ney ?ic?iaee caaaeueii? oai??? a?aeiiniino?
A.Aeiooaeiii, oa i?eioeeio iaaecia/aiino?, noi?ioeueiaaiiai
A.Aaecaiaa?aii. Oe? ?aea?, aeania, e noi?ioaaee oie i?ino?? aeoiee, yeee
nueiaiaei? iaceaathoue iaeeane/iei. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeoie
ieth?ae?noe/ii? iaoiaeieia??, aeciaiiy niaoeeo?ee eiaeii? iaoeiai?
aeenoeeie?ie, “??aiii?aai?noue” iaoiae?a i?e?iaeie/eo oa aoiai?oa?ieo
iaoe, nenoaii?noue oa i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?i?noue aeine?aeaeaiue caaeey
aeinyaiaiiy oe?e?niiai ciaiiy i?i na?o. O ia?aeiii? iiiaioe iiaoaeiae
ea?oeie na?oo iaoeia? i?ioeaaeo?e iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy, ?o niene,
no?oeoo?a oa ?ieue o iaooe? aeoeaii aeenioooaaeeny. Ia?ao?ae a?ae
eeane/ii? ia?aaeeaie aei iaeeaneee, a caiaeii — aei iinoiaeeaneee
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny iiooeaie ocaiaeaeaiiy ia eeoa iaoeiaiai oa iaiaoeiaiai
ciaiiy, a e aca?iiae?? oa neioaco aoiai?oa?ieo ? i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe.

C oeueiai iiaeyaeo aeeoioii?y iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy naia o oae?e
neooaoe?? iino?eieo ?aaiethoe?eieo ci?i o o?einionuee?e aeoioe? iiaea
aooe ?aaeeeaeueii ?ica’ycaia i?e oi?ioaaii? iaoiaeieia?? iiaiai oeio,
iaoa yei? iieyaaoeia o oe?e?niiio noiieaii? i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?aeiino? iaoiae?a oa ooieoe?e aoiai?oa?iiai oa i?e?iaeie/iai i?ciaiiy, a
oaeiae aeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iniaeno?niiai aeina?aeo (oae caaiiai
iaiaoeiaiai ciaiiy).

I?eeiaoiei ? oa, ui oe?e?niee iiaeyae ia na?o ? oa?aeoa?iei ia eeoa aeey
neie?aoe/iiai ieneaiiy aeaai?o ia?iae?a, a e aeey oe?a?inueei? o?einio??
(a ia?oo /a?ao, o?einio?? A.Neiai?iaee oa I.TH?eaae/a). Oiio aeey iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeai oe?iiei ? oa, ui iao i?aeo?ae a?aeiia?aea? ia
eeoa iaeiia?oei oaiaeaioe?yi ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oai?aoe/ii? aeoiee, a e
o?aaeeoe?yi oe?a?inueei? o?einio??.

Iniaeea?noue i?iaeaiaoeee ia?aii? oaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? iiaeia
ae??oeoe ia no/aniiio aoai? e?eueeiia oeyoaie. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie c ieo ?
aeaa i?aeoiaee:

· Ia?ainieneaiiy i?e?iaee ye ia’?eoa i?e?iaeiciaanoaa oeyoii aeciaiiy
?? eoeueoo?ii? oa aeeoo?aeaeii? oe?iiino?, a c oeueiai iiaeyaeo cieuaiiy
aeeoioii?? i?ae iiyniaiiyi oa ?icoi?iiyi (ye aieiaieo ooieoe?e
iaoiaeieia?e i?e?iaeie/eo oa aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, a?aeiia?aeii), ?o
ni?eueia canoinoaaiiy aeey oeoia/aiiy ? neiaie?a eoeueoo?e, ? neiaie?a
i?e?iaee. Oaeee oeyo, ia iaoo aeoieo, iaeiaoaeoeaiee, ine?eueee
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeyaeo i?e?iaee aeeeth/ii ye oaenoo, aei aeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoaoi? “Eieae I?e?iaee”, “Eieae Anana?oo” oiui. A?i
aeeeeea? ni?aaaaeeeao iacaiaeo c aieo a/aieo-i?e?iaeiciaaoe?a, ine?eueee
iaaeoi caoaeo? iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy. E??i oiai, ia iaoo aeoieo,
oeoia/aiiy i?e?iaee ca?aeii iaoaoi?e “Eieae Anana?oo” i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ii??aiyiiy “oaenoo” i?e?iaee c? cae/aeiei eieaeeiaei oaenoii. A
inoaiiueiio iiaeia ciaeoe /?oei ae?aaeaio no?oeoo?io iaeeieoeth — aoeao,
a ?iciiaiiio iiaeaii? — caoe. Ia?aianaiiy oaeiai, oe?eeii aei?aaaeaiiai
a iaoiaeieia?? iiaiciaanoaa, no?oeoo?ae?nonueeiai i?aeoiaeo ia
aeaiaeeoue iaoiaeieia?th i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe ca iaae? iiooeo i?inoi?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? iniiae neeaaeiiai, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey eeane/ii?
iaoiaeieia??. E??i oiai, o iaoeao, ye? aea/athoue aeeaee na?o, iiae?aiee
i?aeo?ae i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeaoae?caoe?? (iiae??aeaiiy) i?aaeiaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a ia oe?e?niiai aea/aiiy. I?e oeueiio ia caa?oa?oueny
iaeaaeii? oaaae ia oa, ui aeaiaio ia iiaea ?nioaaoe iica oe?e?ni?noth
anueiai i?aai?cio ? aieiaia eiai ?ieue caiaeeoueny aei iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaiai caa?aaeaiiy ia naaa, a ?aeeii? naiii?aai?ciaaii? nenoaie.

· Ni?iaa canoinoaaoe aei iaoiaeieia?? i?e?iaeiciaanoaa ?icoi?iiy ye
oe?e?nia noiieaiiy i?aaeiaoa, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny ca caeiiaie
aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea, oa?aeoa?ia aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a no/aniiai
aioenoee?ioecio, a ?icaeyae ?icoi?iiy ye ia?aaeoiiae ? iaoe iiyniaiiy, ?
a?eueo ie?aeiei, aea e a?i ia aaaea aei inoaoi/iiai ae??oaiiy aieiaii?
iaoiaeieia?/ii? aeeeaie no/anii? iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie.

Iiceoeaieie ?enaie oaeiai i?aeoiaeo, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, a
ia?oo /a?ao, oa, ui iiyniaiiy ia?anoa? aooe iaacee/aiei, aeaiiino?aoeaii
ia’?eoeaiei, a iiaeiii a?aoiaoaaoe iayai?noue «niiaeeaa/a», ?aoeei??ioa,
ioaea, iaoeia a?eueo oi/ii oa ei?aeoii aecia/aio iaoo, ai?ae i?inoi
eia?/iee aeniiaie ?c i?aeaaaeaiiy iaaiiai oaeoo i?ae caeii. Oa iaoa, yea
nueiaiaei? i?eieno?oueny iiyniaiith iiaea ? iiaeiia aooe aeiiiaiaia ye
ni?iaa aeinyaiaiiy ?icoi?iiy o ?aoeei??ioa. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ?iaeoue
iai?eionoeiei o?aeooaaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ye ae?iaieoeoaa,
oe?ii?nio iacaaiaaaeiaai?noue ? aaoi?a, ? ni?eeia/a, caeeaeo? iaoeiao oa
?io? aeaee oai?/ino? oa aea? iiaeeea?noue aeey ?o aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiy.

Ii-ae?oaa, iiceoeaiith ?enith oaeiai i?aeoiaeo, ia iaoo aeoieo, aoaea
canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea (yea i?e a?aooaaii? aei???a
neeaaeiino? iinoa? ye eiino?oeoe?y ni??ae?, a ia eiea) aei i?e?iaeie/eo
iaoe: iniaeno?noue ia i?inoi aaaea ae?aeia c? na?oii, a aa?iii?eii
aeeth/aia a oeae na?o, iaeiae ia ona?aeiieth? naaa oeaio?ii nouiai, a
aecia? naaa /anoeieith eiai, yea ia iiaea ?nioaaoe aac oe?eiai (na?oo),
aea e oe?ea aac nai?? /anoee ia aoaea aa?iii?eii caaa?oaiei. Oeae
i?aeo?ae ie aaaaea?ii iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei ? a?i noaa
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeey iaoiai o?aeooaaiiy ?aeiino? ??cieo oei?a
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy, a ca?aene — ?aeiino? o?aeooaaiiy oa
aca?iiaeiiiaithaaiino? iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy.

Iaaaoeaieie ?enaie ia?aianaiiy i?eioeeio aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea ia
i?e?iaeie/? iaoee, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? a?aenooi?noue ?noi?e/iiai aei??o oa
aei??o aeeaeie ?icoi?iiy i?aaeiaoa. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo, ?icoi?iiy
o?aeoo?oueny aeeeth/ii ye ?ioo?oeaia noiieaiiy, yea ia ia? nooiai?a
iaiiaithaaiino?. Iaeiae, no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo,
oae ? ca?oa?aeieo, aeicaieythoue aeae?eeoe ??ai? ?icoi?iiy, ?o
caeaaei?noue a?ae no?oeoo? iayaiiai ciaiiy (?ioa?i?aoaoe?eieo noai).
Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? ?ic??ciyoe ia eeoa ?iaeea?aeoaeueia, a e
iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueia (nioe?ieia?ciaaia) ?icoi?iiy. C iiaeyaeo
inoaiiueiai, neiaiee, ye? i?aeaeathoueny ?icoi?iith, oneeaaeiththoueny a
i?ioean? aeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ioyaii ?noi?e/iiai /ano a eoeueoo??
oa iaooe?, aeoioeththoue iia? nienee oiui. Oaeei /eiii, ia iaoo aeoieo,
aeieea? caeaaei?noue ?icoi?iiy “inoaiiueiai ?aoeei??ioa” ia eeoa a?ae
eiai na?oiaeyaeo, nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ia?aaeoiia aiioe, a e a?ae
a?aeia?aaeaiiy nieneiaiai oa aiioe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
niene?a a ?noi?e/iiio /an?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. I?iaaaeaia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o ca’yceo ?c oaiith eaoaae?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
“O?einionueei-nioe?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueieo
iniaeeainoae iniae ? noni?euenoaa”, a oaeiae ?c ni?yiiaaii?noth no/anii?
na?oiai? iaoee ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaeieia?? iiaiai oeio. Aaaeeeaei ? oa,
ui oaea ci???ioiaai?noue iaoeiaiai ciaiiy coiiaeth? ? ?ic?iaeo
iaoiaeieia?? ina?oe iiaiai oeio, yea iieyaa? a iino?ei?e naiino?ei?e
i?aeaioiaoe?, aacia?a?aiino? oa aaaeeeaino? i?neyaeeieiiii? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a. ?aae?caoe?y aeiia “Aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
“Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia XXI noie?ooy”)» ia?aaeaa/a? iio?aao iia?e?caoe?? an?o
iayaieo ?aca?a?a ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iieie?iiy ethaeae, yea
ona?aeiieth? naith aa?iii?eio oe?e?ni?noue, a oaeiae iioe?th? ?icoi?iiy
oe??? oe?e?niino? ia nai? aoooy oa iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ? ye? aioia?
a?aoe aeoeaio o/anoue o ia?ainieneaii? naiai aoooy c oi/ee ci?o iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? oe?e?niino? na?oo oa aca?iicaeaaeiino? i?ae i?e?iaeith oa
ethaeeiith, i?ae aoiai?oa?iei oa i?e?iaeie/ei ciaiiyi oiui.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? inieneaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy no/anii?
iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a no/ani?e iaoeia?e
ia?aaeeai?.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaoaeiaa iiai? noaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiyniaiiy
oa ?icoi?iiy a no/ani?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o ?aeiino?,
ni?eueiiai canoinoaaiiy, a oaeiae aeya no?oeoo?e aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea, c
iiaeyaeo eiai oneeaaeiaiiy /aniaei aei??ii oa aei??ii aeeaeie (?ic?iaea
a?iioace aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae?).

C iaaaaeaieo ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa oa iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeieeaathoue
caaea/? oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie c ieo, ia iaoo
aeoieo, ? e?eueea:

— ca?aeii eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaeeeoiaaii? oaiith oa iaoith, aiae?c
?aeiino? iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy ie ?icii/aee a?ae noi?ioeaiiai —
iinoaaeee ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy aeyao iiceoeaieo ?en oa iaiaaeaiino?
nieneiai? oa no?oeoo?ii? aeeoioii?? iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a eeane/i?e
iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?, yea, a naith /a?ao, aaco?oueny ia aeeoioii??
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa iaiiaoi?thaaiiai ? caaaeueiiai oa iiaoi?thaaiiai a
/an?, ye iniiae iiae?eo aoiai?oa?ieo oa i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, a?aeiia?aeii.
Aeiaaaeaiiy a?ae noi?ioeaiiai aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe ia?aaeiene aeeoioii??,
i?iaeaii? ciie no?oeoo?e, iaoi/i?noue oa iaaeinoaoi?noue ?aea?
aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea aeey no/aniiai ae??oaiiy aeaieo i?iaeai oiui.

— ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaieo oa aeayeeo ?ioeo i?ioe??/ aeeoioii?? iiyniaiiy ?
?icoi?iiy a eeane/i?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai? oa iaaeiionoei?noue oaeiai
/?oeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy a no/ani?e iaooe? i?eioneei ia eeoa eiino?oeoeaii
e?eoeeoaaoe aeie caaaeaieo i?iaeai, a e ooeaoe iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
iiceoeaiiai iaaeaaiiy, oeyoe ae??oaiiy, iiaiaeaeaiiy iiyniaiiy ?
?icoi?iiy ?c no/anieie na?oiaeyaeiith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith onoaiiaeaie
aiioe;

— a?aeiaoiaeaeaiiy ia?niaeoea oe?e?niino? iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a
aoiai?oa?ieo oa i?e?iaeie/eo iaoeao;

— canoinoaaiiy a?iioace aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae?, yea, ia a?aei?io a?ae
aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea, aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe oeie ?icoi?iiy
(?iaeea?aeoaeueia oa nioe?ieia?ciaaia) oa iiaea aooe no?oeoo?ii
iiaoaeiaaia iiae?aii aei iiaeae? AeIE;

— ?ic?iaea no?oeoo?e aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae? ye c iiaeyaeo
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icoi?iiy (aei?? aeeaeie), oae ? c iiaeyaeo
nioe?ieia?ciaaiiai (aei?? /ano);

— aiae?c nieneo oa no?oeoo?e aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae? c iiaeyaeo no/anii?
i???ioaoe?? ?icaeoeo iaoeiaiai ciaiiy.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae, c iaeiiai aieo, aeicaiey? iiaiaeaeoaaoe oa ei?aethaaoe
iaeiia?o? aeinyaiaiiy i?e?iaeie/eo ? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, caaaaoeoe ia?o?
aeciaiiyi na?oiaeyaeieo oe?iiinoae o/aniee?a iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ye
oai?/iai i?ioeano, a uiaei ae?oaeo, oi eia?/iee aiae?c iiiyoue
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe i?ecaiaeeoue aei ae/eaioaaiiy oi?iae?ciaaieo oa
iaoi?iae?ciaaieo aeaiaio?a, ui aeicaiey? ?acii c oei ooi/ieoe ?ieue
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai o iaooe? oa ienoaoeoa?, i?iaeiaaeeoe iiooe ia?aaea/?
o?aaeeoe?eieo ciaiue oa oaeaeeiai inai?iiy ? canoinoaaiiy iiaiai ciaiiy
ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
aeeoioii?? iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy c ye?nii iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ii? oa
na?oiaeyaeii? iiceoe?e, ui aeicaiey? /?oei ie?aneeoe iaiaaeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaieo eeane/iith iaoeiaith ia?aaeeaiith i?aeoiae?a, a oaeiae
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iai?aoeueiaai? o ?ic?iaoe? oe??? i?iaeaie eiioeaioe?e,
aecia/eoe iiceoeai? caeiaooee.

Io?eiaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?aeay i?i iio?aao ni?eueiiai ?icaeyaeo
i?ioeaaeo? iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy ye iane?aeie ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy o
aoiai?oa?ieo oa i?e?iaeie/eo iaoeao, a?aeiia?aeii.

Oaeineiiaeaii o?aeooaaiiy ?aea? ni?eueiiai canoinoaaiiy iiyniaiiy ?
?icoi?iiy ye oi?aa?naeueieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?ioeaaeo? c iiaeyaeo
io?eiaiiy iiaiai iaoeiaiai ciaiiy ia eeoa ye ?acoeueoaoo ae?yeueiino?, a
ye oai?/iai i?ioeano.

Aia?oa iaa?oioiao?oueny ?icaeyae iiyniaiiy ia eeoa aai ye ?acoeueoaoo
?icoi?iiy, aai ye ia?aaeoiiae ?icoi?iiy (eiioi?eaoeaia ooieoe?y
iiyniaiiy), a ye no?oeoo?o ?icoi?iiy-iiyniaiiy-?icoi?iiy (oe?e?niino?
iiyniaiiy-?icoi?iiy), ui icia/a? ia?ainieneaiiy iiyniaiiy ye i?ioeano
aa?aae?caoe?? aaoi?nueeiai ?icoi?iiy; oaeee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a?
oneeaaeiaiiy no?oeoo?e iiyniaiiy na?oiaeyaeieie oa ii?aeueii-ioe?ii/ieie
aeaiaioaie, a ?icaeyae no?oeoo?e ?icoi?iiy aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe c
iiceoe??, oae caaii?, eia?/ii? noaie iiyniaiiy.

Oea aeiiiiiaei iai oaeineiiaeeoe no?oeoo?o aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea c
iiaeyaeo no/anii? iaoiaeieia??, aa?aoe aeaa ia?aiao?e neeaaeiino?: aei??
aeeaeie oa aei?? /ano.

Aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa nieneiai oa no?oeoo?ii iaa?oiooaaoe a?iioaco
aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae?, yea a neio?ii?/iiio c??c? i?e iaa?aooaaii?
ia?aiao?o aeeaeie aeaaaea a aa?iaiaaoe/ia eiei. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaia ni?iaa
aiae?co c iiaeyaeo aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa
nioe?ieia?ciaaiiai ?icoi?iiy, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaii ?icaeyae
oneeaaeiaiiy niene?a c iiaeyaeo ?noi?e/ii? ia?niaeoeae.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
sse oaea aeacoaaeinue, no?oeoo?a oe?e?niino? iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee, a
oaeiae ?ioeo ieoaiue aiinaieia?/iiai, iaoiaeieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaoee oa
aca?iiae?? iaoee c ?ioeie noa?aie caaaeueiiethaenueei? eoeueoo?e. O
?iaio? ?iaeoueny ni?iaa a?oioiaiiai ii??aiyeueii-iaoiaeieia?/iiai
aiae?co na?oiaiai aeina?aeo ?c ?ic?iaee aeaii? i?iaeaie, a oaeiae
aeei?enoaii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeieo a?o/eciyieo oao?aoe?a, ui
aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe aeaio ?iaioo a eiioaeno? o?einionueei? aeoiee a
Oe?a?i? c iiaeyaeo a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo o?aaeeoe?e.

?yae iieiaeaiue aeaii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aiae?co iiiyo?eii-eaoaai??aeueiiai aia?aoo
no/anii? o?einio?? iaoee, a oaeiae ?c i?iaeai noi?aeieo aeenoeeie?i:
o?einio?? iiae oa eiioi?eaoeaii? o?einio??, nioe?ieia?? eiioi?eaoe??,
ineoieia?? iaoeiai? oai?/ino?, no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co iaoeiaeo oaeno?a
oiui.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iathoue aeo?ae o i?aeoeeo ia eeoa /a?ac
iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee ia ?o iniia? iaoiaeieia?? oa iaoiaeeee eiie?aoiiai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (? a aaeoc? i?e?iaeie/eo, ? a aaeoc?
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe). I?iaaaeaiiy o?einionueeiai ? iaoiaeieia?/iiai
aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue caaaeaee iaei iaia?an?/ia cia/aiiy, nueiaiaei? ae
aiii iaae?a? iniaeeai? aaae, eiee aieiaiith canaaeith iaoee noa?
oe?e?niee iiaeyae ia na?o, caa?aaeaiiy aeeaiai. Ii-iiaiio oi?ioeth?oueny
o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeia onoaiiaea iaoee ia ae?iaeaiiy oaeiai ciaiy,
yea a aeiiiiaaaei ethaeei? noi?ioaaoe ? ?ice?eoe naith oe?e?nio
nooi?noue. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo, eiioi?eaoeaia ni?yiiaai?noue (a ia
iiiieia?/ia, ye oeoia/eeinue a ieioeiio) ? iiyniaiiy, ? ?icoi?iiy
aa/eoueny ye iiaeeea?noue ia?aaea/? oe?iiinoae oa o?aaeeoe?eiiai ciaiiy
?c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iao? ? aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye?
aeeth/athoue /ioe?e ia?aa?aoe, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e.

No?oeoo?a oa iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie, aieiaia iaoa oa
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniaeeai iaaieioo?oueny ia
oiio, ui aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe aeaiia ia?aeaeueieie
oeyoaie, ye? ia aeathoue, iaeiae, oioiaeieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaa?oioiaaii
iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? ?ene eiaeiiai c ieo, /ei, aeania,
iae?aneththoueny aieiai? a?oe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeaoaeueii
?ice?eaathoueny a aieiai?e /anoei? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Na?oiaeyaei? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae ?aeiino?
iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a no/ani?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?» i?iaiae?ciaaii
na?oiaeyaei? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy aeeoioii?? o eeane/i?e
iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?, a?aecia/aii caeaaei?noue ae??oaiiy aeaiii?
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? i?iaeaie a?ae na?oiaeyaeieo oa iaoeiaeo
i???ioe??a a/aiiai oa nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? onoaiiaee aiioe.

Ei?ioei i?iaiae?ciaaii aoeiieia?th ne?a «iiyniaiiy» oa «?icoi?iiy». Ia
iaoo aeoieo, aoaeaiia cia/aiiy neiaa iiaeiii aooe ?iaiaioii i?enooi?i o
iaoeiaiio iiiyoo? ye ia?a?nia ?aeay, a?oaoei. Iniaeeai yne?aai oea
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny o oeo aeiaaeeao, yeui iaoeia? iiiyooy ??aeiiiiai? (a
naia oaeeie ? «iiyniaiiy» ? «?icoi?iiy»), a ia caiice/ai?. A?aecia/aii
??cieoeth oa i?ioe??//y i?ae aoaeaiiei iiaeaiiyi oa iaoeiaith
oa?i?iieia??th, yea ia ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith oe?e?niiai na?oiaeyaeo oa
aa?iii?eiiai aeeth/aiiy eiaeii? ethaeeie (a o./. ? a/aiiai) a
iaaeieeoi?e na?o. A naia a inoaiiueiio aeaeaoi? o?einioe inoaiiueiai
noie?ooy aa/aoue iiaeeea?noue aeoiaeo ?c e?ece i?a?e?noe/iiai,
niiaeeaaoeueeiai noaaeaiiy aei na?oo ? aeaniiai aeeooy (I.Oiaiaea?,
O.I?oeoa, I.Aaeaeaaaa?, O.-A. Aaaeaia?, A.Ia/a?, E.Ianoaea oa ?io?).
E??i oiai, iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aoaeaiiei neiaiaaeeaaiiyi oa
iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii iaoee ni?ey? ia/?oeino? oa?i?iieia??, iaaaeaeaaoiiai
?? aeei?enoaiiy oiui. Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ae??oaiiy aeaiii? i?iaeaie o
aeciaii? ia eeoa nii??aeiaiino? iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia?? ? aoaeaiiiai
neiaiaaeeaaiiy, a e ?o aca?ii?icaeoeo ? aca?iicaaaa/aiiy.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oei iniaeeainoyi no/anii?
iaoeiai? aeoiee, ye? e oi?iothoue no/anio iaoeiao ia?aaeeaio.
I?eeiaoiith ?enith eeane/iiai i?aeoiaeo ? aeii?ioaaiiy iaeiiai
i?aeoiaeo, aeciaiiai ia iaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ?aeeii
a??iei. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai, o i?inoi?? iaeeaneee oi?io?oueny
aaaaoi ??ciiiai?oieo o?aaiaioa?ieo ia?aaeeai, ye? /anoi noia?a/aoue
iaeia iaeiiio.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, i?eeiaoiith ?enith nueiaiaeaiiy ? ioi?ieaiiy aace?/?
o?aaiaioa?ieo ia?aaeeai o ?aeeio. Aieiaieie ?enaie inoaiiuei?, ia iaoo
aeoieo, aoaeooue: ieth?ae?noe/iee ?icaeoie ?aeae, iino?eiee iiooe
iiaeeeaeo aeueoa?iaoea, aea ona ?icia?ooy aeoiie aoaea i?aeii?yaeeiaaia
e?eueeii aca?iiaeiiiaithth/ei na?oiaeyaeiei iiceoe?yi. O ia?oo /a?ao,
oea aeoiea i?i caa?aaeaiiy aeeai? ieaiaoe, ?aeay naii?icaeoeo oa
aeciaiiy neeaaeiino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ii oea icia/a?, ia?o ca ana, iayai?noue ia’?aeioth/eo
o?einionueeo aeoieo ?aeae, ye? aeiiiaiththoue iaeia iaeio o i?ioeanao
aca?ii?icaeoeo i?e caa?aaeaii? a?aeiinii? naiino?eiino?. Ana ?icia?ooy
aeoiie a no/anieo iaoeiaeo ia?aaeeaiao iiaea aooe ia’?aeiaia ?aea?th
oe?e?niiai ?icaeoeo, aca?iiaeiiiaithaaiino? oa aa?iii?eiiai
ieth?ae?noe/iiai ii?aeiaiiy e?eueeio ?aeae, ye? ? aecia/athoue iai?yi
?icaeoeo o?einionueeiai oa iaoeiaiai ciaiiy ? ? aaea nueiaiaei?
oi?iothoue ?aeeio no?oeoo?o no/anii? iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie.

E??i ?ioaa?aoe?? ??ciiaeenoeeie?ia?iiai iaoeiaiai ciaiiy, i?eeiaoiith
?enith ia’?aeioth/eo ?aeae no/anii? iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie ? aeciaiiy
nii??aeiaiino? iaoee ?c ?ioeie oi?iaie oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie,
yea, aacoiiaii, aeeth/a? a naaa oaiiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icoi?iiy
eiioi?eaoe?? ? ye ?ioo?oeaiiai noiieaiiy, ? ye aa?aae?ciaaiiai
iiyniaiiy.

Oiaoi, iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy ye i?ioeaaeo?e iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy c
iiaeyaeo ?o aca?iiae??, no?oeoo?e, nieneo ia iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny iica
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iei oa ii?aeueiei e?eoa??yie. Noia?a/i? i?aeoiaee
uiaei aeaiiiai aeieo ieoaiue ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo
eeanee?a na?oiai? o?einio??: A.Ae?eueoay, I.Aaeaeaaaa?a, O.-A.Aaaeaia?a,
I.Eiioa, A.Aaecaiaa?aa, Aeae.I?eey, E.Iiiia?a, A.Aea?a, ?.Ea?iaia,
A.Oiiieuenueeiai, N.Ooei?ia, I.Iieai?, O.Ae?ay, Ae.Oieeanaeaey, O.Eoia,
?.Eaeaoina oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo.

O ?aaeyinuee?e iaoiaeieia?? aeiaaee /an on? caaaeai? i?iaeaie
ae??ooaaeeny aeeeth/ii c iiceoe?? iioei?noe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? ?icaeoeo
nioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa ? ianei?noe/ieo ia?aaeaa/aiue aeey ?ioeo
e?a?i, a ia?oo /a?ao, iae?icaeiai?oeo. Iaeiae aa/eii ?icaaeoaeai?,
?iiae? noia?a/eea?, aea aacia?a/ii oe?eaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c ??cieo
ieoaiue o?einio?? iaoee, a iaaeao yeeo i?aei?iaeeny ? na?oiaeyaei?
i?iaeaie iaoee, ?? aeeth/ai?noue a caaaeueiiethaenueeo eoeueoo?o,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoeiaeo niene?a oiui. Aacia?a/ii aaeeea oaaaa
i?eae?eyeany eia?ei-aiinaieia?/iiio aiae?co i?ioeaaeo? iaoeiaiai ciaiiy,
a oaeiae iaoiaeieia?? iaoee. Na?aae a/aieo, ye? caeiaeeny ?
i?iaeiaaeothoue nueiaiaei? caeiaoeny i?iaeaiaie iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a
no/ani?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai? oa noi?aeieie ieoaiiyie, iaea?eueo
aeaeaoiee aeeaae aianee:

A.THae?i, A.Noueii?i, A.Ai?ioia, I.?icia, A.Iaa?ioeueeee, A.?ae?oia,
A.Aeno?eoeueeee, A.O?eaoia, A.I?e?o?i, I.I?e?oi?ia, N.Aaneeue?a oiui.

A Oe?a?i? caaaeai? i?iaeaie ?icaeyaeathoueny ia aenieiio oai?aoe/iiio oa
iaoiaeieia?/iiio ??ai? o i?aoeyo:

I.Eiii?ia, N.E?einueeiai, I.Iiiiae/a, I.Eenaeueiaa, A.Ai?aea, ?.Ae/ea oa
A.Ae/ei, A.E?ena/aiea, A.Aiae?ouaiea, TH.Eaiea?ia, A.Naiaithea,
A.Iaeueie/oea, ?.I?aeeinueeiai, I.Oeiiiaa, N.Aiaea, A.Ia?aoiinueeiai,
I.?oaeaiea, A.E?ioeaia oa ?ioeo.

Naia caaaeyee aeine?aeaeaiiyi oeeo aaoi??a aoea iai?aoeueiaaia
caaaeueiioai?aoe/ia ? o?einionueea iniiaa, yea ni?eyea iinoaiiaoe? oa
aecia/aiith iiaeeeaeo iai?yi?a a aiae?c? i?ioeaaeo? iiyniaiiy, ?icoi?iiy
a no/ani?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?.

Oe?e?nia ? a?oioiaia aena?oeaiiy oaie a caaaeueii-oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo?
aeiaaaei caeo/aiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiue oa eiioeaioe?e ia eeoa c
o?einio??, a e c ?yaeo ?ioeo iaoe: o?ceee, aeieia??, ineoieia??,
eia?ee, e?oa?aoo?i- oa iiaiciaanoaa, a oaeiae iiaiciaa/iai aiae?co
iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo ? aiae?c iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue c i?eeeaaeii?
ineoieia??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e caaa?oo?oueny ei?ioeei ?acthia.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? «Aeeoioii?y iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a
eiioaeno? no/anii? iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie» i?enay/aiee aiae?co
iaiaaeaiino? nieneo oa no?oeoo?e iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy a eeane/i?e
iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?.

Iniaeeai iaaieioo?oueny ia oaeeo iiiaioao:

1) iaoeiaa ? o?einionueea iiyniaiiy o aeine?aeaeaii? ia iathoue
i?eioeeiiai? ??cieoe?, aeaiee iiae?e ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe aei?a/iei;
a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei ? aeae?eaiiy nieneiaeo oa no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae
iiyniaiiy a ??cieo aaeocyo iaoeiaiai ciaiiy;

2) iien iiaea aooe /anoeiith iiyniaiiy (aenieaiaiaeoiii). I?aei?ia
iiyniaiiy iienii o iaooe? i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?aeie?aieaiiy, iaaii?
?cieyoe?? iaoee oa a?aeiiae a?ae ?? o?einionueeeo iniia. ?ic?iaea
«iieniai? iaoiaeieia??» na?ae/eoue i?i ni?iuai?noue oa aeoieiuai?noue
iieaciai «ia’?eoeaii?» iaoee;

3) ?ic?iaea aeaaeoeoeaii-iiiieia?/ii? iiaeae? iiyniaiiy oa aeeneon?y
iaaeiei canoinoaaiiy ?? o aoiai?oa?i?e noa?? cana?ae/eea ia eeoa oeae
aeaiiai oeio iiyniaiiy, a e aeeoioii?? iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy caaaeii,
iaiaaeai?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo. Iaeaaaeeea?oei, ia iaoo aeoieo, ?
ieoaiiy aeai?o ?c aace?ia/ii? iiiaeeie iiaeeeaeo iiyniaiue ?aeeiiai.
Aeaiee i?ioean aei oeueiai /ano ia aaeaeiny oi?iae?coaaoe, a ioaea a?i
aeiaiaeeoue ?ieue oai?/eo aeaiaio?a oa ?icoi?iiy ye ?ioo?oeaiiai
noiieaiiy noo? yaeua a i?ioean? iiyniaiiy;

4) iiyniaiiy iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a?aeie?aieaii a?ae i?ioean?a ?icoi?iiy
eeoa a ?aieao iaei???, /?oei caaeaii? iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie, ui aaea
na?ae/eoue i?i iaiaaeai?noue iiaeeeainoae oa no?oeoo?e iiyniaiiy o
eeane/i?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?. O ?ioiio aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeii ooeaoe oeyoe
caeeaeaiiy oeeo aeaio oaiiiai?a aae aei ?icoi?iiy ?o ae?aeaeoe/ii?
?aeiino?.

Iiyniaiiy ?icaeyaeaeiny a aaaaoueio i?aoeyo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?einio??
iaoee, aeaiaeeeenue eiai oeie, aeaee, no?oeoo?a, aea aein? a/ai? ia
ae?eoee aei ?aeeiiai eiai o?aeooaaiiy, iniaeeai yeui ii??aithaaoe
niaoeeo?eo iiyniaiiy o ??cieo noa?ao iaoeiaiai ciaiiy.

Iiyniaiiy, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeia oeoia/eoe ye aeai??aiaao no?oeoo?o,
aea aiii ?icaeyaea?oueny: (1) ye i?ioean iiooeo, i?ioeaaeo?a iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy; (2) ye ?acoeueoao aeine?aeaeaiiy. O o?einio?? iaoee aei
na?aaeeie XX noie?ooy iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaeaeeny aeeeth/ii
e??cue i?ecio ?o ?acoeueoao?a, a oiio ? iiyniaiiy aea/aeiny eeoa a
ae?oaiio aniaeo?. Eiaeai c oeeo ??ai?a iiyniaiiy ia? naith no?oeoo?o oa
iniaeeaino?, ye? ie aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?coaaee o ?iaio?.

Aace?/ ni?ia noai?aiiy iiaiai o?aeooaaiiy iiyniaiiy, a oaeiae iiaee
iiaeyae ia no?oeoo?o oe??? ooieoe?? iaoee, niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy iiyniaiiy a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao, ia?o ca ana a
?noi???, nioe?ieia??, ineoieia?? oa iaaeaaia?oe?. A e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa?
ae, aaaaea?oueny, ui oai?aoe/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?icoi?iiy aeeiio?
ooieoe?th iiyniaiiy, o iiaiciaanoa? — o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
canoiniao?oueny iiyniaiiy ia iniia? caeiio (aeaaeoeoeaia iiyniaiiy)
oiui.

I?ia?aoe aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iiyniaiiy, ie aeae?eeee a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? aeanyoue iniiaieo oei?a: (1) oaiiiaiieia?/ii-aeane?eioeaia
aai ia??aoeaia; (2) aaiaoe/ia; (3) eacoaeueia; (4) iiiieia?/ia aai
aeao?i?oeaia; (5) aeaaeoeoeaii-iiiieia?/ia aai no?oeoo?ii-i?e/eiia; (6)
noaoenoe/ii-?iia??ia; (7) ?aoe?iiaeueia; (8) ?ioaioe?iiaeueia aai
iiyniaiiy iaoe; (9) «aiioe?eia» aai aoaeoeaia; (10) nenoaiia. Nueiaiaei?
aeaeyaea? iaaeioe?eueiei iiaeaeueoa oeiieia?/ia oa no?oeoo?ia ae?iaeaiiy
iiyniaiiy, ine?eueee oaeee i?aeo?ae eeoa iaa?iiaaeaeo? ae??aieoe?.

Aiaeia?/i? oeae iiaeia aeae?eeoe ? a o?aeooaaii? ?icoi?iiy aeeeth/ii ye
ooieoe?? aoiai?oa?iiai i?ciaiiy. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a iaaieioothoue
ia neeaaeiino? aai e iaiiaeeeaino? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oei?a oa no?oeoo?e
?icoi?iiy. Oea ni?aaae? oae, yeui ?icaeyaeaoe ?icoi?iiy aeeeth/ii ye
?ioo?oeaia noiieaiiy oe?e?niino? i?aaeiaoa.

?ioith oiiaith, yea oneeaaeith? aea/aiiy ?icoi?iiy ? oa, ui aeey
o?einio?? iaoee o eeane/iiio oeoia/aii? cae/iei ? ?icaeyae aaciniaiaiai
iaacee/aiiai oeio ia?aaea/? ciaiue, ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oei
naiei, aeionea?oueny c iiey ci?o oa, ui ca eiie?aoiei oaenoii,
ia?aaeaiei ienaiii-a?ao?/iei niiniaii aai ca aeiiiiiaith oaoi?/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, i?eoiao?oueny eiie?aoia ethaeeia (inoaii?i /anii — a?oia
ethaeae ?c ni?eueieie iiaeyaeaie). O eeane/i?e aa?iaiaaoeoe? iaaea?aiii
aaaeaoueny iiaa i?i oeoia/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo oaeno?a. ?icaeyae on?o
ieoaiue, iia`ycaieo ?c ?icoi?iiyi, aaaeaoueny ?c iiceoe?? niinoa??aa/a,
/eoa/a, yeee ia? ?noi?e/ii a?eueoee aeina?ae, ai?ae oai?aoeue. Oaeei
/eiii, o eeane/i?e aa?iaiaaoeoe? caa??aa?oueny, ?c iaaieie
canoa?aaeaiiyie, noa`?eo-ia`?eoiee iiae?e, iaea?eueo oa?eoa?ii
ae?aaeaiee o i?e?iaeie/eo iaoeao, oi/a o aeaiiiio aeiaaeeo ? noa`?eo, ?
ia`?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aenooiathoue a?ae??aaii a?ae
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo oiia aiioe. ?noi?e/iee oaeno ye ia`?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy nii??aeiaiee ?c ia`?eoii o i?e?iaeie/eo iaoeao. ? oai, ?
oai oea ie?aiee, aea caeaaeiee a?ae aie? niinoa??aa/a oaeo aai
eoeueoo?e, aai i?e?iaee. Aeine?aeiee a?eueiee aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai
ca?aeii c? nai?ie iniaenoeie oyaeaiiyie, oe?iiinoyie, iio?aaaie,
aeaeath/e, iaeiae, ?o ca caaaeuei? eaoaai??? nai?? aiioe. Aeania oiio
i?iaeaia iiae o o?einio?? iaoee iae/ano?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ieoaiiy
naiaioeee aai neioaeneno ? aeoaea ??aeei aiai?eoueny i?i aiioe?eia
iaaaioaaeaiiy iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia?? oa ?ieue iniaeno?niiai ?icoi?iiy, a
oaeiae na?oiaeyaeii? coiiaeaiino? iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae iaaiei
aeenoeeie?ia?iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. E??i oiai, nueiaiaei? iiiieia?/i?noue
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iinooia?oueny i?noeai ae?a- oa iie?eia?/iino?.
Naia oiio, ia iaoo aeoieo, ?icoi?iiy iiaeiii ?icaeyaeaoeny ia eeoa ye
?ioo?oeaia noiieaiiy oe?e?niino? i?aaeiaoa, a e e??cue i?ecio eiai
eiioi?eaoeaii? ooieoe??. Iiaei iaaeaaiiyi o o?aeooaaii? oaiiiaio
?icoi?iiy a i?ioean? iaoeiai? eiioi?eaoe?? ? ?ic?iaea aca?iicaeaaeiino?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa eieaeoeaieo oyaeaiue, ?o ?aae?caoe?y o ciaii? (yea
o?aeoo?oueny nueiaiaei? ia eeoa /a?ac i?ecio ?acoeueoaoo, a e ye
oe?ii?noue oai?/iai i?ciaaaeueiiai iiooeo). ?ic?iaea oeeo ieoaiue
aeicaiey? ia eeoa ia?aaeyiooe iaoiaeieia?th iaoee, a e ?iaeoa
iiaeeaeoenue ia na?oiaeyaei? caniiaee i?ioeano i?ciaiiy.

?icaeyaeath/e no?oeoo?o ?icoi?iiy, aeoaea eaaei aianoe o e?aei?noue
oeoia/aiiy ciaiiy ye aeeeth/ii ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?ioeano, yeee
noeeo?oueny ?c ciai?oi?i na?oii eeoa /a?ac iiia?aaei? oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo iniaenoino?.

?icoi?iiy iae/ano?oa ?icaeyaeathoue i?ae o?ueiia ??cieie eooaie ci?o:

1) iae/ano?oa — ye aa?iaiaaoe/io i?iaeaio, oiaoi ye iaoiae oeoia/aiiy
?noi?e/ieo oaeno?a (i?ci?oa — ? ye iaoiae oeoia/aiiy on?o aeae?a
ienoaoeoaa), a oaeiae ye i?iaeaio inyaiaiiy nieneo;

2) ye oiiao eiioi?eaoe??;

3) ye ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th (iae/ano?oa — o i?e?iaeie/eo iaoeao);

4) ye ineoio?c?ieia?/iee oaiiiai, oa?aeoa?iee eeoa aeey ethaeeie
(i?aaeiaoia iiea ineoieia?/ii? iaoee).

Iaei?ino?oa aeoeoia/eoe no?oeoo?o ?icoi?iiy ca Ae.Oieeanaeaeai, yeee
i?aaia aeiaanoe, ui a?aeooeoaaiiy nieneo a iaoa??ae?, yeee iaiao?aeii
c?icoi?oe, a?aeaoaa?oueny a?iioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiei niiniaii, a ioaea
caniae eia?ee, a oiio /ene? ? iiyniaiiy, oe?eeii caaeia?eueiythoue
iio?aao a ?icoi?ii?. Oaea ?icoeo?oaaiiy oa?iieoe? ?icoi?iiy aoei a
aeoaea c?o/iei aeey aaaaoueio a/aieo, yeae aiii aoei ?aeeiei. Ia aeaeue,
a iaooe? iaiothoue ??ci? iiaeyaee ia no?oeoo?o ?icoi?iiy, aeiaeai c yeeo
ia ? iiaiei, a iiaeia ?o ?icaeyaeaoe ye aca?iiaeiiiaithth/?. Eeane/ii
no?oeoo?o ?icoi?iiy iienothoue ca i?aaeeii aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea (aac
?ioo?oeaiiai noiieaiiy oe?eiai iaiiaeeeaei ? ?ioo?oeaia noiieaiiy eiai
/anoei ? iaaiaee). I?e aiae?c? ?icoi?iiy a iaoeia?e i?aeoeoe? ie eiai
iiaeeo?eoaaee ye: i?ciaoe oe?ea iaiiaeeeai aac i?ciaiiy eiai /anoei, ?
iaaiaee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c ineoieia?? aeicaieythoue aeeth/eoe a
no?oeoo?o ?icoi?iiy ?ioa?i?aoaoe?ei? noaie (o ??cieo a/aieo ciaoiaeeii e
?io? iiiyooy, iai?eeeaae, aai iayaia ciaiiy, aai ia?eoa??eia
na?aeii?noue), ye? aeaye? a/ai? iaceaathoue ia?aaeoiiaieie eiioaenoaie.
Naia aiie aeicaieythoue aeae?eeoe ??ai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icoi?iiy oa
eiai ca’ycie ?c iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueiei (nioe?ieia?ciaaiei) ?icoi?iiyi.

C oeueiai iiaeyaeo ooo iiaa iiaeiia eoe ia i?inoi i?i “nioe?aeueio
iaaaioaaeai?noue” ? ?ieue i?aeoeee, yea aecia? oai??th, a eiee
“i?ciath/ee noa`?eo ia?aiineoue noaie, ii?ie oa ?aeaaee nioe?aeueii?
i?aeoeee a iaoiaeieia?th oa ?aaoeyoeaio iaeanoue i?ciaiiy”, oi a?i ia
eeoa nioe?ae?co? ciaiiy, a e iiynith? nioe?aeueio noa?o eaoaai??yie
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «?aei?noue iiyniaiiy-?icoi?iiy oa ooieoe?iiaeueia
??ciiiai?oi?noue iaoiaeieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e o no/ani?e iaoeia?e
ia?aaeeai?» ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue oa iaoiaeieia?/ia iiaeeea?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aeeii? no?oeoo?e iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy, aea iiyniaiiy
? iane?aeeii ? ia?aaeoiiaith ?icoi?iiy, eiai iiaeeeaith aa?aae?ciaaiith
oi?iith — ye iiaeeeaa aa?aae?ciaaia ?icoi?iiy. Naia c oeueiai iiaeyaeo
noa? c?icoi?eei aea?? iaeiiai (o aeeeth/ieo aeiaaeeao — e?eueeio)
iiyniaiiy ?c aace?ia/ii? iiiaeeie iiaeeeaeo.

E??i oiai, iiyniaiiy oaeiae iaaoaa? ooieoe?e eiioi?eaoe??,
?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeaiaio ae?aeiao, ni?iaa aiae?co iaoa?oaaiiy ??cieo
niene?a, iiaeeeaeo i?aeoaeno?a oiui. Aiae?co?oueny aeeth/ai?noue
?icoi?iiy a no?oeoo?o iiyniaiiy c ??cieo, caaaeaee aeeneon?eieo, oi/ie
ci?o c iiaeyaeo ia eeoa ?o iaoeiai? oe?iiino?, a e c
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae a?aeiia?aea? aieiai?e iao? iaoee: ia?aaea/? /a?ac
iieie?iiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai ciaiiy, ?noi?e/ia ?icoi?iiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?oo oa ethaeeie ? iino?eia iiiaeaiiy oeueiai ciaiiy. ?aei?noue
iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye iino?eia aeinyaiaiiy
aeaaeae? a?eueoa oneeaaeiaieo iaoeiaeo niene?a.

Iaeiae, oneeaaeiai?noue no/anieo iaoeiaeo i?ioean?a, ?o caei??iaiiy a
?noi?e/iiio ieioeiio i?eiooothoue aeciaoe iaaeinoaoi?i oaeee ?icaeyae
i?iaeaie, ine?eueee iiyniaiiy ia eeoa caa??aa?, a e oneeaaeith? naith
no?oeoo?o, a ?icaeyae ?icoi?iiy ye aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea aeaea?oueny aeey
oaeiai nieneiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaiaaeaiei. Aaeaea oneeaaeiaiiy nieneo
a?aeaoaa?oueny oeeee?/ii (oiaoi, ca?aeii eiioeaioe?? aa?iaiaaoe/iiai
eiea), iaeiae ia eiaeiiio ?noi?e/iiio c??c? aa/eii eiai cia/io
iiaeeo?eaoe?th.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, oaeee oeeee?/ii-aeno?aeiee ?oo a?eueo aaeaeaaoii
ia?aaea? ?aeay ni??ae?, a ia eiea. E??i oiai, ia iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i
??ai? inyaiaiiy ?icoi?iiy, yeui a?aoe aei oaaae o?aaeeoe?eio ?aeath
aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea. ?icaeyae oeeo ??ai?a a?eueoith /e iaioith i??ith
aa/eii ua o eeane/i?e ia?aaeeai?, iaeiae ia niinoa??aa?ii ae??oaiiy
aeaeeiiai ia?aaeieno: canoinoaaiiy ?aea? eiea iiaea ia?aaeaa/aoe
aeeth/ai?noue /anoeiaiai ? oe?eiai ye aeaio i?ioeeaaei?o noi??i eiea,
iaeiae ia ia? ai? aei??o aeeaeie, ai? aei??o /ano. Aeey ian oea icia/a?
a?aenooi?noue ?noi?e/ii? oneeaaeiaiino? niene?a iaoee oa oaeno?a ia
eiaeiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai?, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue iiaeeeaino?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icoi?iiy ia ??cieo ??aiyo.

Naia oiio, i?ei?ieii aei aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae?, ie aaiaeeii aeaa
aei??e: aei?? aeeaeie, ye aei?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai inyaiaiiy nieneo, oa
aei?? /ano ye ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai, nioe?ieia?ciaaiiai
?icoi?iiy, yea oneeaaeith?oueny (oiaoi ?ooa?oueny ii aeno?aei?e) c
iiaeyaeo ?noi?e/iiai c??co, iaeiae neio?ii?/iee iai aea?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeeee?/iiai ?ooo a?ae a?iioaoe/iiai c?icoi?eiai aei
iayniiai, a c iiaeyaeo oaea noaeiai yaiei iiia?aaeiueiai iayniiai —
?icoi?iiy a?iioaoe/ii c?icoi?eiai (aa?iaiaaoe/ia eiei).

Aiaeia?y aa?iaiaaoe/ii? ni??ae? c iiaeaeeth AeIE, ei?aeyoe?y aei???a
neeaaeiino? (a ia?oo /a?ao, aei??o /ano) ?c o?einio??th neeaaeiino?,
?ic?iaeaii? ?.I?eaiaeeiei, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia iniia? o?einionueeeo
eiioeaioe?e o?ce/iiai ciaiiy, aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i
aca?iiaeiiiaithaai?noue iaoiae?a ??ciiaeenoeeie?ia?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

C oeueiai iiaeyaeo ie ni?iaoaaee iiynieoe iinooiiaa oneeaaeiaiiy
iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo iaoee, a oaeiae aaiethoe?th oa ci?io iaoeiaeo
ia?aaeeai.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeathoueny aieiai? aeniiaee c ?iaioe oa aeacothoueny iiaeeea?
ia?niaeoeae ?ic?iaee aeaiii? oaie.

Iniaeeai iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui i?eeiaoith nueiaiaei?oiuei? iaoee ?
iayai?noue e?eueei? ?aeae (caa?aaeaiiy aeeai? i?e?iaee,
naiii?aai?caoe??, oa ?aeay neeaaeiino?), ye? noathoue na?oiaeyaeiith oa
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue. C ?ioiai aieo,
a?aenooi? caia?a/aiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiaee, aiie
ni?eeiathoueny ye iiooiao aei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo. Oaeee noai o
no/ani?e iaooe?, ia iaoo aeoieo, na?ae/eoue i?i oi?ioaaiiy i?inoi?o
iinoiaeeaneee ye aca?ii?icaeoeo oa aca?iiaeiiiaithaaiino? i?ia?aeieo
?aeae.

Oeyoii aeiaaaeaiiy a?ae noi?ioeaiai ie i?iaiae?coaaee ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a eeane/i?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?, ui aeicaieeei
ia?aeiieeai aeiaanoe iaaeiionoeio ni?iuaii?noue ?o nieneo oa no?oeoo?e
i?e aeeoioii??, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo iaoee, a
oaeiae iaiiaeeea?noue aaeaeaaoiiai canoinoaaiiy ?o aei i?aeaaeocaaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa o i?ioean? ci?ie ia?aaeeai.

Nueiaiaei? a?aecia/a?oueny aaeeea ?icaaeoaeai?noue oa aeeneon?ei?noue o
o?aeooaaii? iiiyoue iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy. Oeyoii o?einionueeiai oa
e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaii ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?o naiaioe/ii?
?aeiino?, a caaaeyee aiae?co iaoa??ae?a ineoieia?? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei
aeyaeaii aca?iicaeaaei?oue oeeo i?ioean?a.

Aeai? iaoiaee, a oaeiae i?eioeeie ae?aeaeoe/ii? ?aeiino?, ?noi?ecio,
ia’?eoea?cio, aoee iniiaieie aeey ?icaeyaeo oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
aeicaieeei ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai? aeine?aeeoe oe?e?ni?noue i?ioean?a
iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ? oea ie aeiaaee a i?iaaaeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii?, iiyniaiiy iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye iane?aeie (aaoi?nueea
?icoi?iiy) ? ia?aaeoiiao ?icoi?iiy (ni?iaa aeinyaiaiiy ?icoi?iiy o
?aoeei??ioa), oiaoi aiii aenooia? ia ye iiiieia?/ia iiaeaeue, a
ae?aeia?/ia, yea aeeth/a? aaoi?a ? ci???ioiaaia ia eiie?aoiiai
niiaeeaa/a oa ni?aoai?oey.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae ia eeoa aeicaiey? aaeaeaaoii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiyniaiiy a
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao, a e ia?ai???ioiao? i?ioean ?icoi?iiy. Aa?iaiaaoe/ia
eiei aeyaey?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith no?oeoo?ith c iiaeyaeo no/anii?
iaoeiai? ia?aaeeaie. Oiio c aaaaeaiiyi ia?aiao??a neeaaeiino?
aa?iaiaaoe/ia eiei ia?aoai?th?oueny ia aa?iaiaaoe/io ni??aeue, yea ia?
aeaa iniiaieo aei??e: aeeaeie oa /ano. Aeai? aei??e, a oaeiae
oneeaaeiaiiy ?icoi?iiy no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie iiyniaiiy (eiia??i?niee
aeniiaie, eia?/ia noaeaeaiiy oiui) aeicaieythoue aiai?eoe ia eeoa i?i
?iaeea?aeoaeueia ?icoi?iiy, a e i?i iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueia
(nioe?ieia?ciaaia) ?icoi?iiy.

Oae noaei iiaeeeaei i?iaiae?coaaoe c iiaeyaeo no?oeoo?e aa?iaiaaoe/ii?
ni??ae? oneeaaeiaiiy iaoeiaeo niene?a, ?o naiaioe/ia oa aiioe?eia
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ioyaii ci?ie ?noi?e/ieo aiio, a oaeiae iiynieoe
aeieeiaiiy oa ci?ie iaoeiaeo ia?aaeeai. Ia iaoo aeoieo, i?iaaaeaiiy
iiae?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?ioeo aaeocyo ciaiiy aeicaieeoue ii iiaiio
ia?ainieneeoe aeie i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c eia?ei-aiinaieia?/iei oa
iaoiaeieia?/iei aiae?cii oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai ciaiiy, eiai iiaiaeaeaiiy ?c
iayaieie ?ioa?i?aoaoe?eieie noaiaie oiui.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaii?
?iaioe ii?eethaeiaii aaoi?ii ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie”
(*a?i?aoe?, 1996), “Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: oaeoi? na?oiai? ?ioaa?aoe??”
(*a?i?aoe?, 1997), a oaeiae aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
eaoaae?? o?einio?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o 5 iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo (iaeia ?c ieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?):

1. Iaoeiaa oai?/?noue: oai?aiiy, a?aeia?aaeaiiy /e
ae?iaieoeoai?//Iaoeiaee a?niee *AeO: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — A.8:
O?einio?y. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997 — N.43-48.

2. ?ethc?y ye oaeoi? iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy//Iaoeiaee a?niee *AeO: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — A.8: O?einio?y. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997 — N.83-88 (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? ?c i?io. Neaei?aieii I.I.).

3. I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oai?oey a no/ani?e oeie?//No/ania aoiai?oa?ia
ina?oa: Noai ? ia?niaeoeae. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. —
*a?i?aoe?: Ieoaoeue, 1996. — N. 246-250.

4. Eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?ei? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?//Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: oaeoi? na?oiai? ?ioaa?aoe??.
— Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — *.1. —
*a?i?aoe?: Ieoaoeue, 1997 — N.145-151.

5. I?iaeaia ?icoi?iiy ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo iaoee//Iaoeiaee a?niee
*AeO: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — A.35: O?einio?y. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO,
1998 — N.12-19.

Aiioaoe?y

Ea?iaiei I.A. Iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy a no/ani?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?. —
?oeiien.

Ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.09 — o?einio?y iaoee.

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, *a?i?aoe?, 1999.

Iniiai? ?aea?, ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee:

I?eeiaoiei yaeuai nueiaiaei?oiuei? iaoee ? aca?ii?icaeoie aaaaoueio
?aeae, ye? aeiiiaiththoue iaeia iaeio ? oeei oi?iothoue no/anio iaoeiao
ia?aaeeaio. Iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy i?iaiae?ciaaii c iiaeyaeo aeeoioii?? a
eeane/i?e iaoeia?e ia?aaeeai?, iieacaii ?o nieneiao oa no?oeoo?io
iaiaaeai?noue.

A i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo iiyniaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy
aca?iiaeiiiaiththoue iaeia iaeiiai. ?icoi?iiy aenooia? ye ia?aaeoiiaa
iiyniaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, noa? c?icoi?eei aea?? ?aeeiiai aa??aioo
iiyniaiiy c aace?ia/ii? iiiaeeie iiaeeeaeo. Oea oaeiae oneeaaeith?
no?oeoo?o aa?iaiaaoe/iiai eiea, yea ?icai?oa?oueny a aa?iaiaaoe/io
ni??aeue. Aeey oeueiai aaiaeyoueny aeaa aei??e neeaaeiino?: aei??
aeeaeie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icoi?iiy oa aei?? /ano nioe?ae?ciaaiiai
?icoi?iiy. Oaea oe?e?nia no?oeoo?a iiyniaiiy oa ?icoi?iiy iiaea oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiyniaiiy, ?icoi?iiy, no/ania iaoeiaa ia?aaeeaia,
iiceoea?ci, aa?iaiaaoeea.

Aiioaoeey

Ea?iaiei I.A. Iauyniaiea e iiieiaiea a nia?aiaiiie iao/iie ia?aaeeaia. —
?oeiienue.

Ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe.

Niaoeeaeueiinoue 09.00.09 — oeeinioey iaoee.

*a?iiaeoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, *a?iiaoeu, 1999.

Iniiaiua eaeae, ?acoeueoaou e auaiaeu:

Niaoeeoeeie nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey iaoee anoue oi?ie?iaaiea nia?aiaiiie
iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu. A ioee/ee io iaeeane/aneeo ia?aaeeai, aeey eioi?uo
auea oa?aeoa?ia o?aaiaioa?iinoue, iicae/iinoue oeeinioneie iunee,
i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiie iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
eaeaa oeaeinoiiai iiieiaiey /aeiaaeii naay e ie?a, a n yoie oi/ee c?aiey
e iaiythony i?a?iaaoeau a ie?iaic?ai/aneeo e iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
iniiaaieyo iaoee. Nia?aiaiiay iao/iay ia?aaeeaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
acaeii?acaeoeai iiiaeo eaeae, eioi?ua i?aaie/anee aeiiieiytho ae?oa
ae?oaa. A oi aea a?aiy ia eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue ca?iaeaeaiey e
?acaeoey aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ia?aaeeai. Aeaaiuie iauaaeaiythueie eaeayie
yaeythony: nio?aiaiea aeeaie ieaiaou, eaeay naiii?aaiecaoeee e oeeinioey
neiaeiinoe.

Iaoiaeieiae/anee yoi icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue cia/eoaeueiie iiaeeoeeaoeee
iao/iuo iaoiaeia e i?ioeaaeo?, niaianoiia e oieaa?naeueiia
eniieueciaaiea oao, eioi?ua ?aiueoa auee oa?aeoa?iu eee aeey
aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe, eee aeey i?e?iaeiaaaeaiey. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey
i?iaiaeece?iaaia ?ieue, ianoi, no?oeoo?a e iniaaiiinoe iauyniaiey e
iiieiaiey a eeane/aneie iao/iie ia?aaeeaia, auaeaeaiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu
?acee/iua eo ?aciiaeaeiinoe. Iieacaii iaaeinoaoi/iinoue oaeiai
iiaeoiaea, aiciiaeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey
iauyniaiey e iiieiaiey.

A iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo enneaaeiaaieyo iauyniaiea e iiieiaiea acaeiii
aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa, aunooiatho eae oeaeinoiay no?oeoo?a. Iiieiaiea
aunooiaao eae i?aaeoneiaea (aaoi?) e oeaeue (?aoeeieaio) iauyniaiey. N
yoie oi/ee c?aiey noaiiaeony iiiyoiui auai? aaeeiiai iauyniaiey ec
aaneiia/iiai iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo, iiaeii ooi/ieoue no?oeoo?o
iauyniaiey e iiieiaiey.

Oaeaea oaeie iiaeoiae eciaiyao e no?oeoo?o aa?iaiaaoe/aneiai e?oaa,
eioi?ue i?e aaaaeaiee ia?aiao?ia neiaeiinoe ?acai?a/eaaaony a
aa?iaiaaoe/aneoth nie?aeue (iioiaeoth ia nie?aeue AeIE). Iu aaaee aeaa
ia?aiao?a neiaeiinoe: ecia?aiea aeoaeiu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiieiaiey e
ecia?aiea a?aiaie iaaeeiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai (nioeeieiaece?iaaiiai)
iiieiaiey.

Oaeay oeaeinoiay no?oeoo?a iauyniaiey-iiieiaiey iiaeao oe?iei
eniieueciaaoueny eae a aoiaieoa?iuo, oae e a i?e?iaeiaaae/aneeo iaoeao,
oioy iaeaieaa oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea yoie no?oeoo?u iu aeaeei a
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo enneaaeiaaieyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iauyniaiea, iiieiaiea, nia?aiaiiay iao/iay ia?aaeeaia,
iiceoeaeci, aa?iaiaaoeea.

Summary

Natalia V.Karpenko. Explanation and Understanding in Modern Scientific
Paradigm. — Manuscript to be conferred PhD degree.

Major 09.00.09 — philosophi of science.

Chernivtsi State University, Chernivtsy, 1999.

Main principles, results and conclusions:

The characteristic feature of the contemporary science is the
interdevelopment of many ideas. They supplement each other and create
modern scientific paradigm. Explanation and understanding have been
analysed from the view point of dichotomy in the class scientific
paradigm. Their sense and structural limits have been studied too.

Explanations and understanding are mutually complementary in the
interdisciplinary investigations. Understanding manifests itself as a
premise/precondition and the objective of explanation. The choice of
only one variant of explanation from the infinite multitude of other
possible variant becomes clear. It also complicates the structure of
hermeneutic cycle which unfolds itself in a hermeneutic spiral. For that
purpose two levels of complicacy are introduced — that of the depth of
individual understanding and that of the time of socialized
understanding. Such an integral structure of explanation and
understanding can be widely used in contemporary researches.

Key-worlds: explanation, understanding, modern scientific paradigm,
positivism, hermeneutics.

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