Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 82/88. 036. 9-3 (09)

A?aoi Ai?en sseiaeaae/

Iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ia?ac na?oo

(ia iaoa??ae? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo ?iiai?a 80-o ?ie?a
OO noie?ooy)

10.01.04 — E?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa eiiia?aoea?noeee
?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e

oa eiiia?aoea?noeee

?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoiinueeee Aeieo?i Aieiaeeie?iae/.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e

Ee?anueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoao

?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Oaoiaa E??a Ieaenaiae??aia;

— eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e

*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

?eoei Iao?i Aaneeueiae/.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e; I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?., i 10.00 aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.178.02 a ?inoeooo?
e?oa?aoo?e

?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe?
?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e

?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?.Aaei?/a?o

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Niaoeeo?ea eoeueoo?e, iaoee ? e?oa?aoo?e e?ioey OO noie?ooy iia’ycaia c?
ci?iith (?iaeoa ?? iiaeia iicia/eoe oa?i?iii “aeaeiino?oeoe?y”)
iiaea?i?nonueei? ?aeaeii-oe?ii?nii? ia?aaeeaie, ui neeaeany ca /an?a
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa o i?ney?aianainiee ia??iae, ? yea ia no/aniiio aoai?
u?eueii iia’ycaia c iinoiiaea?i?nonueeith nenoaiith iiaeyae?a ia
ethaeeio ? na?o. I?iaeaia ci?ie ia?aaeeai aena?oeth?oueny o /eneaiieo
o?einionueeeo, nioe?ieia?/ieo, ineoieia?/ieo oa ?i. aeine?aeaeaiiyo; oae
/e ?iaeoa aiia o?ainoi?io?oueny e o no/ani?e ooaeiaei?e i?aeoeoe?,
cie?aia, o iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiio ?iiai?.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?c iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo
o cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo ?iiaiao 80-o ??. aeicaiey?,
ii-ia?oa, aecia/eoe na?oiaeyaeio ? ooaeiaeith aeii?iaioo no/anii? aiioe,
ine?eueee iinoiiaea?i?ci aenooia? ia o?eueee ye iaeei c i?ia?aeieo
noee?a o e?oa?aoo??, a e ye iaaia oaiaeaioe?y o eoeueoo?? OO noie?ooy;
a, ii-ae?oaa, aea? oyaeaiiy i?i i?eioeeie ooaeiaeiuei? i?aai?caoe?? oa
eiioeaiooaeueiee ?yae iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ?iiaio.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o ca?oa?aeiiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa?, o?einio??,
anoaoeoe? oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio o ??cieo nai?o aniaeoao inieneth?oueny
o /eneaiiiio (a nueiaiaei? eiai a??i?oa iacaaoe — iac/eneaiiei) eie?
aeine?aeaeaiue. Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a iinoiiaea?i?cio ne?ae
iacaaoe ?.Aa?oa, TH.E??noaao, AE.Aea???aea, I.Ooei,

AE.-O.E?ioa?a, O.Aei, O.Ae’aia, Ae.Oieeaia, I.Eiceiane?, O.Aeoia,
?.Oannaia, O.Aeaeaeiniia, AE.Aeaeueica, O.Aaaooa??, AE.Aiae??ey?a,
I.Aiooaeia, I.?eee?ia, ?.?eue?ia oa ?i. O a?o/eciyiiio
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? oeueiio ieoaiith i?enay/ai? noaoo? Ae.Caoiinueeiai,
I.?aiaoaiea, O.Aeaieniai?, O.Aoiaei?iai? oa ?i. Oe?ieiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoaathoue a ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? Oe?a?ie i?eioeeie
iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? iiaoaeiae oaenoo, aeaeathoueny ia?aeeaaee oai??a
ienueiaiiee?a-iinoiiaea?i?no?a e iaoeiaeo i?aoeue eiai oai?aoee?a, a
oaeiae aeine?aeieoeuee? ?iaioe, ui noinothoueny oaiiiaio
iinoiiaea?i?cio, o?einionueeeo ? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo eiai aniaeo?a. Aea
oe?e?nieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo aiae?co ca?oa?aeii?
iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, a oe?a?inueeiio
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? ua ia aoei. Ii/anoe caiiaieoe oeth i?iaaeeio ? iaeiei
?c caaaeaiue, yea noaaeoue ia?aae niaith aeena?oaio.

Neacaiei aeua aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— ?iciaaeoaaoe iinoiiaea?i?nonueea na?oini?eeiyooy, ui aeicaiey?
o?aeooaaoe oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio o oe?ieiio nain? ye yaeua, ui
ia??iaee/ii aeieea? o eoeueoo?? ? e?oa?aoo?? ??cieo aiio, oa
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ooaeiaei?e noeeue, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? e?oa?aoo?i?
oai?e no/aniiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo;

— ?icaeyiooe ia iaoa??ae? ?a?iiaenueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo ?iiai?a 80-o
??. aeaye? c iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? ea?oeie na?oo, ui
aecia/ai? aeena?oaioii ye “ieoaoeue ? oaeno”, “na?o ye oaeno” oa
“neanoaaiiy ?noi???”;

— aeyaeoe aioo??oith noia?a/eea?noue iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeo oaeno?a, a
yeeo iiaea?i?nonueeee eiiieaen ?aeae i?aeaea?oueny ea?aeeiaeuei?e
aeai?oieia?caoe??;

— ia iniia? aiae?co iiaoeee ?ice?eoe eiioeaioe?? ?iiai?a I.Cthne?iaea
“Caiaoe”, E.?ainiae?a “Inoaii?e na?o”, Aeae.Oaeea?a “Oyae nia? ea?oeio”;

— nie?ath/enue ia ieceo oaeeo iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeo ?iiai?a ye “?aenuee?
ine” A.Iinna, “?i’y o?iyiaee”, “Iayoiee Ooei”, “Ino??a iaia?aaeiaei?”
O.Aei, “Oaca?nueeee neiaiee” I.Iaae/a, “Iaae?aio?” ?.Ia?ey oa ?i.
aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa

Oai?aoe/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue iinono?oeoo?ae?nonuee? e
aeaeiino?oeoea?nonuee? oyaeaiiy i?i oaiiiai oaenoo, ii?aeiai? ?c
aa?iaiaaoe/ieie i?eioeeiaie aiae?co ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o. Oea ia?o ca
ana oai??y aeaeiino?oeoe?? AE.Aea???aea, eiai e?eoeea i?eioeeio
“oeaio?aoe??”, eiaioeaio?ecio, ui iaioaaa o iiai?a?iiaenueeiio ieneaii?;
“a?oaieia?y ciaiiy” I.Ooei; i?aeoiaee aei oaenoo, ye? ? oa?aeoa?ieie
aeey ?.Aa?oa, TH.E??noaai?, AE.Aeaeueica, O.Aaaooa?? (eiioeaioe??
“nia?o? aaoi?a”, iiiyooy ianoeoo, iiinaeaeoe??, iaoaiiia?ae?,
?ioa?oaenooaeueiino? oa ?i.); eoeueoo?ieia?/i? eiioeaioe??
AE.-O.E?ioa?a, AE.Aiae??ey?a, I.Aiooaeia, ?.?eue?ia oa ?i.; iiaeyaee ia
iinoiiaea?i?ci ye yaeua, oa?aeoa?ia aeey e?eciaeo ia??iae?a o ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?e (O.Aei oa Ae.Caoiinueeiai); ?icoi?iiy niaoeeo?/ieo ?en
iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? ooaeiaeiuei? i?aeoeee o ?.Oannaia, O.Aeoia,
Ae.Oieeaia, O.Ae’aia, I. aea Iaia oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe

O aeena?oaoe?? ?iciaaeiao?oueny iinoiiaea?i?nonueea na?oini?eeiyooy e
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee noeeue, a nai oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio
?icaeyaea?oueny ia?o ca ana ye aeaeiino?oeoe?y iiaea?i?nonueeiai
eiiieaeno ?aeae. Aia?oa e??cue i?ecio o?ueio neeaaeiaeo
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo (“ieoaoeue ? oaeno”, “na?o ye oaeno”
oa “neanoaaiiy ?noi???”) i?iaiae?ciaaii a?aeiia?aeii ?iiaie I.Cthne?iaea
“Caiaoe”, E.?ainiae?a “Inoaii?e na?o”, Aeae.Oaeea?a “Oyae nia? ea?oeio”.
Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe cao?aeiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio ?icaeyiooi o ?iaio? ia oe?
eiie?aoieo ooaeiaei?o oai??a, ui aeicaiey? ?ice?eoe aaaaoii??i?noue oa
aioo??oith noia?a/eea?noue iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo.

Aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?iiaie I.Cthne?iaea “Caiaoe”, E.?ainiae?a
“Inoaii?e na?o”, Aeae.Oaeea?a “Oyae nia? ea?oeio” (ui aiae?cothoueny
aeaoaeueii), a oaeiae oe?iea eiei ?ioeo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oa
aia?eeainueeeo ?iiai?a: O.Aei, ?.Ia?ey, A.Iinna, Ae.Aa?ina, Ae.Aa?oa,
?.Eaeuea?ii, I.Iaae/a, Ae.Oaoeca oa ?i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeaoae?cothoue aa/aiiy no/aniiai e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano,
aeicaieythoue e?aua inyaiooe oai?e ienueiaiiee?a-iinoiiaea?i?no?a ?
oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio acaaae?, ni?eythoue aaaaeaiith a iaoeiaee ia?a
iio?aeooaaiue cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo ?iiai?a 80-o ??.,
iinono?oeoo?ae?nonueeeo ? aeaeiino?oeoea?nonueeeo eiioeaioe?e.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa iia’ycaia ?c oaiith a?aeae?eo na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e
oa eiiia?aoea?noeee ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie
“Ia/a?ee oai?aoe/ii? ?noi??? e?oa?aoo? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie oa Aia?eee”.

Aeena?oaoe?eiee iaoa??ae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee o eaeoe?eieo eo?nao ?c
ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy, o niaoeeo?nao ? nai?ia?ao c
iinoiiaea?i?cio.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo na?oiai?
e?oa?aoo?e oa eiiia?aoea?noeee ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI
Oe?a?ie. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee ?iaioe aoee ii?eethaeiai? a
i?i/eoaieo eaeoe?yo a ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a (AEeoiie?,
1994—1996), ia eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo o/aieo (Iineaa, 1995), ia nai?ia??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aea/aiiy ? aeeeaaeaiiy ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e”
(Ee?a, 1999), o eaeoe?? a Aano??enuee?e a?ae?ioaoe? (Ee?a, 1999).

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? ? 5 ioae?eaoe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (223 iaeiaioaaiiy). Iniiaiee oaeno — 154
noi??iee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii ci?no ?iaioe, ??
iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “I?iaeaie iinoiiaea?i?cio a no/aniiio
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? oa o?einio??. Iinoiiaea?i?nonueea na?oini?eeiyooy ?
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee noeeue” — ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoeei-e?oa?aoo?i?,
o?einionuee? oa nioe?ieoeueoo?i? aniaeoe oaie ia iniia? ye a?o/eciyieo,
oae ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaiiiaia iinoiiaea?i?cio.

Aiae?c i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo iinoiiaea?i?cio, aeoiaey/e c oaie
aeena?oaoe??, i?aaenoaaey? niaith iaeyae (yeee ia i?aoaiaeo? ia
ae/a?iai?noue /a?ac oe?ioo oaie) iaoeiaeo ?aeae, ui iia’ycai? ia?o ca
ana ?c ieoaiiyie niaoeeo?ee e?oa?aoo?ii? i?aeoeee. O aeine?aeaeaiiyo ye
ca?oa?aeieo (AE.Aea???aea, I.Ooei, ?.Aa?o, TH.E??noaaa, AE.Aeaeueic,
O.Aaaooa??, O.Aeaeaeinii, O.Aeoi, ?.Oannai, Ae.Aa?o, Ae.Oieeaia,
AE.Aiae??ey?a, AE.O.E?ioa?, ?.?eue?i, I.Aiooaei, I.?eee?i, O.Ae’ai,
Ae.Eiaeae, E.Aaoea?, A.Aaeueo, O.Aei oa ?i.), oae ? a?o/eciyieo
(Ae.Caoiinueeee, Ae.Iaeeaaeei, I.?aiaoaiei, O.Aeaieniaa, A.Aoiaei?iaa,
I.Coa?eoeueea oa ?i.) a/aieo aeena?oaio ae??ciy? o? iinoiiaea?i?nonuee?
oyaeeaiiy i?i ethaeeio ? na?o, ye? a?aeaeeeny o cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oa
aia?eeainueeeo ?iiaiao 80-o ??. ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aecia/athoue niiniae
iio?aeooaaiiy ia?aieo oai??a.

Ia’?eo oaaae ooo noaiiaeoue i?iaeaia noia?a/eeaino? iio?aeooaaiue
oa?i?io “iinoiiaea?i?ci”. Eiai aeei?enoaiiy ye oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaieo
“aeooiaieo noai?a” (O.Aei), i?eoaiaiieo ia?aeiiiei aoaiai o ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?e ??cieo aiio, aeena?oaio iicia/a? oa?i?iii “iinoiiaea?i?nonueea
na?oini?eeiyooy”. ?icoi?iiy iinoiiaea?i?cio o “aocueeiio” niene?, ye
iicia/aiiy niaoeeo?/iiai eiea yaeu iaoee, eoeueoo?e ? e?oa?aoo?e
ae?oai? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy, ioiieth? oa?i?i “iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee
noeeue”. Aeena?oaio coieiy?oueny ia ni?eueiinoyo ? a?aei?iiinoyo i?ae
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeei na?oini?eeiyooyi ? iinoiiaea?i?nonueeei noeeai.
sseui iinoiiaea?i?nonueea na?oini?eeiyooy nooi?nii a?aeooiaoo?oueny a?ae
iiia?aaeiuei? iiaea?i?nonueei? aiioe (aai “iiaea?i?nonueeeo aiio” — yeui
?icaeyaeaoe ia?o iiaea?i?ci-iinoiiaea?i?ci, one?ae ca Ae.Caoiinueeei, ye
eiinoaioo e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano Iiaiai /ano), ? aeaoaeiao?oueny ye
eiioeaioe?y a cia/i?e i??? ca ?aooiie ?oeioaaiiy iiaea?i?nonueeeo
“i?iaeo?a”; oi a ooaeiaeiueiio noee? iinoiiaea?i?cio iaoin caia?a/aiiy
eiiiaino?oueny caa?aaeaiiyi a?aee?eoeo iiaea?i?ciii i?eioeei?a
i?aai?caoe?? ooaeiaeiuei? ?aaeueiino?.

Ianooiiith oai?aoe/iith i?iaeaiith ?icae?eo ? /ania? ei?aeiie
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai e?oa?aoo?iiai noeeth. Nie?ath/enue ia oi/eo ci?o
Ae.Oieeaia oa ?i. aeine?aeiee?a, aeena?oaio a?aeiineoue /an iiyae
iinoiiaea?i?cio aei iiai?iii? aeiae, c iaiai?eith, ui aeaye?
iinoiiaea?i?nonuee? ?aea? ? ooaeiaei? i?eeiie cono??/athoueny ua ?ai?oa,
iai?eeeaae, o Aeaeiena aai Ai?oana. Aoai noaiiaeaiiy o?eaa? aei 60—70-o
??.; naia o oeae /an oai?aoeee ienoaoeoaa oa eoeueoo?ieiae
a?aecia/athoue a?ae/ooiee “cnoa” a ooaeiaei?e i?aeoeoe?, ?? ia?a?inoaiiy
iiaea?i?nonueeeo eaiii?a. O 80-o? ??. ianooia? aeiaa “c??eiai”
iinoiiaea?i?cio: a?i caeia? i?noea aeii?ioth/i? oaiaeaioe?? no/anii?
eoeueoo?e; a?aeiia?aeii ? e?oa?aoo?a oeueiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ?iiaio. Aeae? o ?iaio?
noaaeyoueny ieoaiiy a?aeiioaiiy iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? e?oa?aoo?e aei
noni?eueii? ?aeaieia??, ianiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ?aae?noe/ii? ia?aciino?,
iiaea?i?nonueeeo eiioeaioe?e ethaeeie ? na?oo. A i?ioean? ?o ?ic?iaee
aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui ca ia??iae naiai ?icaeoeo
iinoiiaea?i?ci aaiethoe?iioaaa a?ae ini?thaaiiy iane?aee?a oe?ieiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iiaea?i?cio a ?aeaieia?? e iania?e e?oa?aoo?? aei
e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy aeeaeiiiai ??aiy iiaea?i?nonueeeo eiioeaioe?e
aoooy. O ooaeiaei?o oaenoao iinoiiaea?i?cio aieiaiee aa?ie oa
oeaio?aeueiee eiiieaen ?aeae iinoaaeai? i?ae “ia?ao?aniee aiaiiue”
aca?iicaia?a/eeaeo iio?aeooaaiue; naia o ooaeiaei?o oaenoao iaeiai/i?oa
i?inoaaeo?oueny i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy i?o?a, i?e/iio i?o?a, ii?iaeaeaieo ?
iiia?aaeiueith, iiaea?i?nonueeith aeiaith, ? iaoaii?oicaie, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny ?c naieie iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeie oai??yie o i?ioean? ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Ae?oaee, o?ao?e ? /aoaa?oee ?icae?ee iathoue ?ciii?oio no?oeoo?o. Eiaeai
c ieo i?enay/aiee iaeiiio c eeth/iaeo, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aniaeo?a
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo (“ieoaoeue ? oaeno”, “na?o ye oaeno”
oa “neanoaaiiy ?noi???”), ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny ia iaoa??ae? eiie?aoieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo oai??a. Aea?? oaeno?a, ui aiae?cothoueny, ia ? aeiaaeeiaei:
aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaai? ?iiaie I.Cthne?iaea, E.?ainiae?a oa
Aeae.Oaeea?a iiaiie?iaii ?ai?acaioothoue aeua iacaai? aniaeoe ? iiaeooue
aooe ac??oeyie ?a?iiaenueei? oa aia?eeainueei? e?oa?aoo?e
iinoiiaea?i?cio. ?aooa oai??a— ?.Eaeuea?ii, Ae.Aa?oa, Ae.Aa?ina,
Ae.Oaoeca, O.Aei, A.Iinna, ?.Ia?ey, I.Iaae/a i?eoyaothoueny /anoeiai ?
?icaeyaeathoueny ye iaaia oei.

Eiaeiee ?icae?e ii/eia?oueny c ?icaeyaeo iaeiiai c iacaaieo aniaeo?a o
eiioaeno? iiaea?i?nonuee?e ? iinoiiaea?i?nonuee?e ia?aaeeai; eaeaoueny,
aeania, i?i aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ienueia o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? c ?aeaeiei eiiieaenii ? iiaoeeith iiaea?i?cio. Aeae?
cae?enith?oueny aeaoaeueiee aiae?c oai??a; i?ney /iai ?iaeoueny
ocaaaeueiaiiy ye ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co, oae ? ?icaeyaeo ?o oai?aoe/iiai
i?aea?oioy. Ana oea aeicaiey? o aeniiaeao i?aaenoaaeoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo. Aeei?enoaiiy o ?iaio? eaoaai???
“ia?ac na?oo” caea?oueny aeioe?eueiei, ine?eueee aiia aenooia?
oi?aa?naeueiith ? anaioiieth/ith oa?aeoa?enoeeith cia?aaeaii? o oai??
ooaeiaeiuei? ?aaeueiino?, oaeeo ?? neeaaeiaeo ye ia?ac aaoi?a, ia?ace
aa?i?a, ia?ace ?a/ae ? i?e?iaee; nthaeaoii-oaaoeueia i?aai?caoe?y oai?o,
niaoeeo?ea ooaeiaeiueiai /ano ? ooaeiaeiueiai i?inoi?o.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe??, ui ia? iacao “Aiieia?y oa e?ao
ia?a?iae?cio, aai Aeeaiaeaei? ia?aoai?aiiy ia?ooia?iiai ienoaoeoaa”, ia
iaoa??ae? ?iiaio Iao??ea Cthne?iaea “Caiaoe. ?noi??y iaeiiai aaeaoe?”
?icaeyiooa i?iaeaia “ieoaoeue ? oaeno”.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? — “Ieoaoeue ? oaeno o iiaea?i?ci? oa
iinoiiaea?i?ci?” —i?iaiae?ciaaii oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe ona?aeiieaiiy
iinoao? ieooey o a?aeiia?aeieo aei iacae ia?aaeeaiao. sse no?eaeiaaa
aeae?eaia ?aeay ia?a?iaeueiino? ieooey uiaei nioe?oio; niaoeeo?ea ??
ao?eaiiy o iiaea?i?nonuee?e oa iinoiiaea?i?nonuee?e e?oa?aoo??
noaiiaeoue iniiaiee ci?no aeaiiai ia?aa?aoo.

Aoceia? i?iaeaie aoooy o e?oa?aoo?? OO noi??//y noyaioo? aei iinoao?
ieooey, yeee ? iaeiei c oeaio?aeueieo ia?niiaae?a iiaea?i?nonueeeo e
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeo oaeno?a, a oaeiae aei eiai oai??iiy. Aeena?oaio
?iaeoue iaaiein ia o?ueio aniaeoao aeaii? i?iaeaie.

Ia?oee c ieo iia’ycaiee c ?aea?th iaae?eaiiy ieooey “iaaecae/aeieie”
iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ? i?aaaie uiaei ae?eniino?, eiee aei iinoao? aaoi?a
noyao?oueny ony noeoii?noue nioe?aeueieo, ?noi?e/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo
eiioaeno?a, a nai aaoi? aenooia? ii?iaeaeoth/ith ?inoaioe??th ia eooaeo
Aiaa-oai?oey. I?ioa o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no. oe?ieiai ?aciiaino iaaoaa?
oaca i?i “nia?oue aaoi?a”, ui ?icoi??oueny ye ?oeioaaiiy oe?e?niino?
oai?/i? iniaenoino? a ?i’y naiino?eiino? ? aaoiiiiiino? ooaeiaeiuei?
ae?eniino?, oiio ui aeciaiiy aeoeaii? aie? ieooey o noai?aii? oaenoo
iaieio/a noaaeoue eiai oe?e?ni?noue i?ae noii?a.

Ianooiiee aniaeo i?iaeaie “ieoaoeue ? oaeno” a?oioo?oueny ia
iiaea?i?nonueeiio ?icoi?ii? ooaeiaeiueiai oai??iiy ye oe?e?nii? ?
naiiaooiuei? ?aaeueiino?, a?eueo ?noeiii? ? cia/eii?, i?ae ?aaeuei?noue
aii??e/ia. Aiane?aeie oeueiai nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ia ?aaeuei?noue
ia?e??o?oueny ye ia?noeiia ? iaaeineiiaea, iicaaaeaia inieneaiino? e
caaa?oaiino?, ye iaoa??ae aeey a?eueo oiieiai oeio ?aaeueiino? —
?aaeueiino? ooaeiaeiuei?. O oie aea /an ?icaeoie ?aea? oaenooaeueiino? o
iai?yieo inieneaiiy aii??e/ii? ?aaeueiino? ? noaa?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?
inyaiaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino? ca aeiiiiiaith eaoaai??e ? i?eioeei?a
aiae?co ?aaeueiino? ooaeiaeiuei?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icoi?iiy anueiai
na?oo ye oaenoo, ui, a naith /a?ao, ?oeio? ei?aeiie ooaeiaeiuei?
?aaeueiino?, ?? oe?e?ni?noue ? aii?yaeeiaai?noue, ai cieea? oei,
a?aeiinii yeiai oaeno aenooia? oaeith aii?yaeeiaai?noth.

O?ao?e aniaeo iia’ycaiee ?c ?icoi?iiyi oiai, ui iaaeieeoi?e na?o iiaea
aooe inyaiooee ethaenueeith na?aeii?noth eeoa ye iiia?aeue, oei
a?eueoa, ui iiaeeea?noue aaaaoueio iiia?aeae i?i na?o, a iaeiaeia?e i???
?noeiieo oa ia?noeiieo, i?aaaeeaeo /e oeaieo (aiane?aeie ao?aoe
“oeaio?o”, iaaiiai i?eioeeio ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae ?noeiiei oa ia?noeiiei),
?oeio? o?aaeeoe?eiee noaoon iaii?ooiino? e ia’?eoeaiino?, cae??ieaiee ca
aii???/iith ?aaeuei?noth. Iaeiae eiioeaioe?y “na?o ye oaeno” cacia?
naiie?eoeee, ai iaeii/anii c iath ?nio? ?aeay iaieio/i? o?ainoi?iaoe??
oaenoo ca caeiiaie na?oo, ui, iaaiith i??ith, iaiaaeo? naaaieth
oaenooaeueieo i?aaee ? iieiaeaiue.

??ii?/ia ?ica?i/oaaiiy iiaea?i?nonueeeo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ?aeae, ui
eaaeaoue o nai?e iniia? iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? ooaeiaeiuei? o?einio??, ?
iaeiei ?c aieiaieo aeaea?ae ?? aioo??oi?o noia?a/iinoae, ui iaoiiaeai?
oeie caeiiii??iinoyie ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e, ye? TH.Oaaa?ian iicia/ea
“aeniaaeaiiyi ooii?/ieo aia?a?e”.

?ice?eaath/e nooi?noue iaoai?ci?a, ui ea?othoue nioe?aeueiei e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aeeooyi, o?einioe iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai eiea
noaa?aeaeothoue eiioeaioe?th oaenooaeueiino? na?oo ? ethaenueei?
na?aeiiino?, a iaaeao yei? eiinoaoo?oueny, c iaeiiai aieo,
aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue ?iaeea?aea caeiiaie iaoaoaenoo, a c ae?oaiai —
?icoa?oaaiiy noaa?aiii? oa oe?e?nii? iniaenoino? ia ?yae “oaeno?a”
(na?aeiiino?, iana?aeiiiai, nioe?aeueiiai, naenoaeueiiai oa ?i.), ?iaeoa
eaaeo/e — ciainiaeaiiy. O oeueiio eiioaeno? eeoa iaaeeaeai? aei iaae?
oi?ie ia?a?iae?cio, ui inieneththoueny ye iaoa??ae?caoe?y i?eioeeiiai?
oaioe/iino? noa?e iana?aeiiiai o nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo?,
aeicaiey? i?ioenoiyoe oeneo inaaaeioi?aa?naeueieo noai na?oi?icoi?iiy,
ye? ae?iaeythoueny iaioth/eie ?aeaieia?yie.

Oaeei /eiii, iinoiiaea?i?nonueeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th iinoao? ieooey
iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe aac ?aea? ia?a?iaeueiino?, nooi?noue yei? iiaeia
caanoe aei oiai, ui naiaiaea iniaenoino? acaaae?, a oai?/i? iniaenoino?
— o ia?oo /a?ao, aeyaey?oueny a iiiceoe?? aei aoaeue-yeeo noaa?eueieo
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oyaeaiue, ?nioth/e, oae ae iiaeoe, “ii e?ayo”
io?oe?eieo aeeneo?n?a. Ia?a?iaeuei?noue iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia??iaeo
aenooia? ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iiaea?i?nonueei? o?aaeeoe??, a iaaeao yei?
aoonaeaea?noai aoei iaia’yceiaith iciaeith oai?/i? iniaenoino?, ? ??
caia?a/aiiyi, ai aiia aaea iicaaaeth?oueny ia?aoai?thth/iai iaoino ?
noa? caniaii e?eoeee “ciaiiy-aeaaee”.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao?, yeee ia? iacao “Aeeaiaeaei? ia?aoai?aiiy
ia?ooia?iiai ienoaoeoaa”, e??cue i?iaeaio “ieoaoeue ? oaeno”
i?iaiae?ciaaii ?iiai I.Cthne?iaea “Caiaoe”.

Ia?a?iaeuei?noue ye a?aeiiaa a?ae eoeueoo?ii-ii?aeueieo noa?aioei?a ?
?oo aei iiaeo oi?i caaithaaiiy aoooy; aei?iaoaaiiy ni?iiiaeiino?
anoaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei na?oo — oaeei ? oaiaoe/ia ??/eua oai?o
I.Cthne?iaea. O oeaio?? ooo ciaoiaeeoueny ia?a?iaeueia iinoaoue
ia?ooia?a AEaia-Aao?noa A?aioy, nai???aeii? “ethaeeie aac aeanoeainoae”.
O nai?io aeeoo? oeae aa?ie ea?o?oueny eeoa ?iioeuenaie, ui i?aeeacai?
eiio oaiiiaiaeueieie iaiiyoaeueieie cae?aiinoyie, ye? aeey A?aioy ?
?aeeiei i?ia?aeieeii o na?o? ethaeae; a “eoeueoo?ia iana?aeiia”, c
iayaieie o iueiio ii?iaie e noa?aioeiaie nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee, —
iiai?noth a?aenooi?.

A?aioe, ia?iaeaeaiee na?aae nii?iaeo ? a?oaeo, a?ey eeaaeiaeua,
aeoiaaiee o i?eooeeo, iaa/eaoenue ia?ooia?iiio ienoaoeoao, c /anii
noaaeoue nia? ca iaoo noai?eoe iaeaeineiiae?o? a?iiaoe o na?o?, ? caaeey
?? cae?eniaiiy aaea?oueny aei aaeanoa ae?a/ao (ai naia ?i iaeaaeeoue
iniaeeaee a?iiao, ui eiio iio??aii i?eaeanieoe e c?iaeoe neeaaeiaith
nai?o ia?ooi?a). Noiieaiee ? i?e?a/aiee aei no?aoe a?i ca/a?iao? iaoiai
nai?ie aeeaiaeaeieie ia?ooiaie ? i?aeei?th? eiai nia?, aea ia
aeeaey/enue ia oni?o, cacia? ii?aceo /a?ac oa, ui ia iiaea c?iaeoe
aeiaa?oaiee a?iiao nai?th aeani?noth. Oiio, ?ic/a?oaaaoenue o nai?o
caeaoiinoyo ? ia?ooia?iiio ienoaoeoa? a oe?eiio, A?aioe iiaa?oa?oueny
aei Ia?eaea, ? oai, i?e iina?aaeieoeoa? oeo aea /a??aieo ia?ooi?a,
ciaoiaeeoue na?e e?iaoeue ia ia?ecueeiio eeaaeiaeu?, aea eiai
c’?aeathoue ?ica?eieee. Ianiiae?aaiee niaeao eai?aae?cio — eeoa
cai?ioi?e a?e aaaeaiiy A?aioy aeoyaoe aeoo, aeineiiae?noue ?c o?eaniiai
na?oo ( o oeueiio aeania, iaoa a/eiaieo ?i aaeanoa), i?eaeanieoe eiai,
caoi/eoe o oeaeii ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey caeiaoooy aeaaee iaae na?oii.

?iiaiiee nthaeao i?aeaiaeeoue /eoa/a aei caieoaiue: /e ia i?aaenoaaey?
Cthne?iae a ia?ac? A?aioy ia?aaeeaio ieooey OO noie?ooy; /e ia ? oeae
?iiai ??ii?/iith iiia?aeaeth i?i oeyo ooaeiaeieea, c eiai ii/aoeiaith
“ii?iaeia/ath” ? iacae??ieai?noth o na?o? ethaeae, c eiai
ia?a?iaeuei?noth ? oaiiiaiaeueieie cae?aiinoyie “iaiiyoe” nooi?noue
yaeu, c eiai i?aeoiaeii aei na?oo ye aei ia’?eoo i?aeei?aiiy e aei iiey
iaoa??ae?caoe?? oai?/eo oaioac?e; ia?aoo? — c eiai iaae??oaieie
aioo??oi?ie eiioe?eoaie.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? — “Aiieia?y /e e?ao?” — ?iaeoueny ni?iaa
a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy: /e aaeaeiny ieooeth-ia?a?iaeo a?aenoiyoe naith
iiceoe?th o na?o? ? yeith oe?iith; /e ? ?noi??y ia?ooia?a A?aioy
aiieia??th ?aea? ia?a?iae?cio, aai, iaaiaee, o ?iiai? i?iaeaiiino?iaaii
?? iaieio/ee e?iaoeue?

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ??ii?y e na?eici?noue c naiiai ii/aoeo
noai?ththoue o ?iiai? ii?aeiothoueny, ui acaaae? aeanoeaa
iinoiiaea?i?cio, yeee oi?iaeueii aoaeo? ooaeiaeith ?aaeuei?noue ca
caeiiaie iiaea?i?nonueei? i?oioai?/ino? ?, aiaeii/an, ?oeio?
oe?e?ni?noue aeanieo iiaoaeia. ?c iaaiith aeieath oiiaiino? iiaeia
o?aeooaaoe A?aioy ye ni?aaaeiueiai ieooey, iin?y ?noeie oai?/ino?, ui
i?aee?aneth?oueny ia?noeii?noth, inaaaeioai?/ei oa?aeoa?ii ni?yioaaiue
eiai aioeiiae?a (Aaeueae?i?, Oaeaae-Ani?ianna, Ae?thi); ? ye ia?iae?th
ia ieooey, a?aoiaoth/e oi/a a oa, ui ia’?eo eiai oai?/ino? — noa?a
aaeueie i?ica?/ia — ia?ooie. Oa e ia?ooia?ia ienoaoeoai ca oaei?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenooia? ??ii?/iei neiaieii ienoaoeoaa acaaae? (a eiai
“aeeaiaeaei? ia?aoai?aiiy” nooue iiia?aeue i?i oai?/? iiooee). O oii? ae
iiia?aea/a, ui canoaeaeo? aioeaoiai?ci A?aioy, /othoueny ??ii?/i? iioee
uiaei aoiai?noe/ii? nenoaie oe?iiinoae, yeo a?i ia/aaoi ?ai?acaioo?.

?ioeie neiaaie, a ?iiai? caaaeaii ac??oeaao iiaea?i?nonueeo neooaoe?th,
yea i?i/eoo?oueny aeena?oaioii oaeei /eiii: ia?ooia?ia ienoaoeoai ooo
neiaie?co? ienoaoeoai acaaae?, A?aioe — oiai “?aeaaeueiiai” ieooey, ui
i?aeoi ci?a c’yaeoeny, yeae ooinue, ca iiaea?i?nonueeeie ?aoeaioaie,
ae?iuoaaa aiioieoeona, a yeiio aoee a ao?eai? iniiai? aeiiae
iiaea?i?nonueei? anoaoeee. Oea, ii-ia?oa, i?e?iaeia aai?aeuei?noue,
ii-ae?oaa, ia?a?iae?ci, a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeiai aaaeaiiy aienaoeny o
nioe?aeueia aeeooy, ?, ianaie?iaoeue, naiaiaea a?ae eaeaeai?a
“eoeueoo?iiai iana?aeiiiai”, iiaia iani?eeiyooy nioe?aeueieo
noa?aioei?a, ia?o ca ana o noa?? ii?ae?. Iinoiiaea?i?nonueea ??ii?/ia
?ica?i/oaaiiy oe??? iiaea?i?nonueei? iiaeae? (o no/anio aiioo — aeiey ia
ia?aieo aai??a-ia?a?iae?a, a ianiai? na?aeiiino?) ? neeaaea?
eiioeaioe?th ?iiaio Cthne?iaea.

Ia oieea? naiiaee?eooy ? iinoaoue ieooey-ia?a?iaea, yeiio oi/ ?
aaea?oueny i?ioenoaaeoe naith oai?/?noue nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iei
noa?aioeiai, oa aiaeii/an ia aaea?oueny i?ciaoe ? ia?aai?ioe iac?icoi?e?
eiio caeiie na?oiaiai aeeooy, ui ?oeiothoue eiai oai?/? iiaoaeiae.
Oei-oi ie e niinoa??aa?ii o ?iiai? Cthne?iaea iaeii/anii ? aiieia?th
ia?a?iae?cio, ? aeaiiino?aoe?th eiai e?aoo, i?e/iio e?aoo o eii?aeeiaoao
ia?aiiae. Aea caa?oa? oaaao e iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ca iioiaeaeaiiyi
i?eioeei aeene?aaeeoaoe?? iiaea?i?nonueeeo “i?iaeo?a”: a?aeaa?oa
oaao?aeuei?noue; i?aee?aneaia ??ii?/i?noue iiia?ae?, ui na?ae/aoue i?i
ia?aiin “neee oyae?iiy” c? noa?e “na?eiciiai” ia noa?o “ni?oiaiai” (yeui
aeei?enoiaoaoe oa?i?i I.Aaoo?ia).

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? — “Inoaii?e na?o” E.?ainiae?a: iicaaaeaiiy
a?ae oaenoo /e iaiicaooi?noue oaenoo?” — i?enay/aiee aniaeoo
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo, yeee iicia/aii “na?o ye oaeno”.

O ia?oiio eiai ia?aa?ao? “Na?o ye oaeno: ?icoi?iiy ooaeiaeiuei?
?aaeueiino? o iiaea?i?ci? oa iinoiiaea?i?ci?” ?icaeyaea?oueny niaoeeo?ea
iio?aeooaaiue ooaeiaeiuei? ?aaeueiino? o a?aeiia?aeieo ia?aaeeaiao, a
oaeiae ?icoi?iiy oaenoo ye naiiaeinoaoiuei? ?aaeueiino? ? na?oo ye
oaenoo.

Cie?aia a?aei?/a?oueny, ui o OO noie?oo? aiane?aeie o?eaaei? aeiae ai?i
? ?aaiethoe?e, ethaeeia ia?anoaea a?ae/oaaoe naaa oeaio?ii Anana?oo,
ao?aoeea ?ioa?an aei c?ooaiue o nioe?aeuei?e ?aaeueiino? ? aei iiooe?a o
noa?? o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai. I?eaaaeeuai aeooiaiino? a oeth aiioo e?ece
o?aaeeoe?eieo oyaeaiue i?i na?o, ethaeeio, nioe?oi noaea eoeueoo?a. Oiio
o iiaea?i?nonueeee ia??iae ?noi??? e?oa?aoo?e oaeno (aeoa?? ienoaoeoaa
caaaeii) aia?oa ia?anoaa ?icaeyaeaoeny ye iio?aeia a?ae o??? /e ?ioi?
noa?e ae?eniino? (nioe?aeueii?, ineoieia?/ii? oiui). Aiaineioaaaoenue
a?ae aii???/ii? ?aaeueiino?, a?i noaa ni?eeiaoeny ye naiiaeinoaoiy
ooaeiaeiy ?aaeuei?noue. O iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ia??iae niinoa??aa?oueny
a?aeo?ae a?ae eiioeaioe?e, ui ??oioothoueny ia ??aiicia/iinno? oaenoo
?ioei noa?ai ae?eniino?, aei ?icaeyaeo naiiai na?oo ye iaaii? noie
oaeno?a. I?e oeueiio o na?oa, ui ia?aoai?eany ia iaeei aaee/aciee oaeno,
ia eeoeeiny ciai?oi?o aniaeo?a inieneaiiy ? ioe?iee. Ona?aaeei? oeueiai
iaoaoaenoo ei?aeiie i?ae iac/eneaiieie oaenoaie, c yeeo a?i
neeaaea?oueny, cieeaee, a a?aeoae cieeaei e oyaeaiiy i?i oii?yaeeiaaiee
? ?aoe?iiaeueii c?icoi?eee Anana?o. O nenoai? iiae?aieo oyaeaiue
eiie?aoiee ooaeiaei?e oaeno noaa ?icoi?oeny ye caieiaia nenoaia ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, ye ony caieiaia nenoaia, iaaeeceany aei naii?oeioaaiiy.

A?aeoai?aiiy eiioeaioe?? a?ia?oaenooaeueiino? o iinoiiaea?i?nonuee?e
ooaeiaei?e i?aeoeoe, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui
“ii/aoeiaei” iaoa??aeii oai?o noa? “/oaeee” oaeno (yeui iicia/eoe oae
iaoa??ae eoeueoo?e). “*oaeee oaeno” i?e iiae?aiiio ?aeo?n? ?icaeyaeo
iicaaaeaii non?aenoaa ciai?oiuei? uiaei iueiai ae?eniino? aeooiaiiai aai
aii??e/iiai ii?yaeeo ?, eiai, a?aeiia?aeii, aeeo/aii ?c i?ioeano
aeooiaiiai noaiiaeaiiy, nooue yeiai iieyaa? a ia?ainieneaii? oaenoo a
eiioaeno? “aaeeeiai /ano” (I.Aaoo?i), a?ae aeiae aei aeiae. Oiio “/oaeee
oaeno” iaiia ae canoeaa? ye ?ac ? iacaaaeaee anoaiiaeaia ?noeia i?i
na?o, a caeiie ?nioaaiiy cia?aaeaii? a iueiio ae?eniino? — ooaeiaeiuei?
ae?eniino? — aeyaeythoueny iaia?aai?ieie, ine?eueee ?oi? iiaeieaiiy
iiaeeeaa eeoa ca iayaiino? ciai?oiuei? eiioeaioe??, “noi?iiiueiai”
iiaeyaeo ia cia?aaeaiee na?o. Oiio aoaeue-yeee “/oaeee” oaeno a
no?oeoo?? oaenoo-na?oo (yeui iicia/eoe oae iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee
ooaeiaei?e na?o) aenooia? o ooieoe?? aaniethoii? ?aaeueiino?. Oiio-oi
ci?no iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeo ?iiai?a a iaecaaaeuei?oiio aeaeyae? iiaea
aooe caaaeaiee aei iiaeieaiiy canoeaeiai “/oaeiai” oaenoo, uiaei yeiai
noai?thaaiee oaeno-na?o ? ao?a/aiei ciai?oi?i aniaeoii aoooy. “*oaeee”
oaeno iine?aeiaii ?oeio?oueny ca ?aooiie iaaienii? ieooaieie ii/aoeiaeo
nthaeaoieo neooaoe?e, i?aee?aneaii? oaioanoe/iino? oeo eiai iiiaio?a,
ye? iaee aeaeyae oe?eeii aeeoo?iiae?aieo, ??ii?/ieo ? naoe?e/ieo
eiiaioa??a aei iueiai, aae aei caaaeaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a “/oaeiai”
oaenoo” aei “aeioaenoiaiai” noaio: a?aeaa?o?e i?nai?oieoe?, ia?aiith,
aeiaaeeiaiio nieaoaiith nthaeaoieo aeaiaio?a oiui.

Naia oeae eoo ci?o aecia/ea i?aeo?ae aei ?iiaio E??noioa ?ainiae?a
“Inoaii?e na?o”.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? — “? i?ui ia noeoia, ia cao?a iiai eiaiiy” (aeiey
“/oaeiai” oaenoo ? oaenoo-na?oo a ?iiai?) aeena?oaio oi?ea?oueny ??cieo
a?aiae o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?aea? “na?o ye oaeno” o oai?? aano??enueeiai
ienueiaiieea.

Nthaeao ?iiaio E.?ainiae?a neeaaea? ?iciia?aeue i?i iiaei?iae ?eieyieia
Eiooe aei Oii?a, ia ie?a?io ?einueei? ?iia???, o i?noi, eoaee aoei
caneaii ciaiaieoiai iiaoa Ia?ae?y Iaciia. Iiooiaoii aei ia? noaea
ooiaiia ca?noea i?i oa, ui iiao iiia?. I?eoeeueiee oai?/ino? Ia?ae?y,
Eiooa iaa iai?? ciaeoe a Oiiao aai naiiai iiaoa, aai, o ?ac? eiai
nia?o?, ?oeiien “Iaoaii?oic”, ye?, ca?aeii ?c nthaeaoii ?iiaio (aea ia c
?noi?e/iith ae?eni?noth), aoee niaeai? iiaoii ia?aae caneaiiyi. Eieae
Ia?ae?y Eiooa ia ciaoiaeeoue, aea ia?niiaae? “Iaoaii?oic” ao?eeeeny a
naio ae?eni?noue Oii?a, yeo aeena?oaio iaceaa? oaenoii-na?oii. O naith
/a?ao “/oaeei” oaenoii ooo iicia/aii noio ?noi?e/ii? (yeui
aeaaiuei?einueeo ?noi??th ?icaeyaeaoe ye oaeno) ? ooaeiaeiuei?
(“Iaoaii?oice” Ia?ae?y) ?aaeueiinoae.

Caeiiii oaenoo-na?oo ? iaoaii?oice, ye? a ?iiai? aenooiathoue
ia?aaea?nieeaie caaeaae? ethaenueeiai: nii/aoeo a ia?niiaae?
ciaioo?oueny ethaenueea ia/aei, a iio?i a?aeaoaa?oueny iaoaii?oica, ui
“cae??ieth?” oeae i?ioean. Iaoaii?oice o oaeno?-na?o? (oiinuee?e
ae?eniino?) aenooiathoue na?ae/aiiyi ?? ae/a?iaiino? ? e?ia/iino?:
ethaeeia, ui, ye Oa?ae, aeioiaeeoue aei iaae? ethaenueeiai,
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ca??a, yeee aoa ethaeeiith (iai?eeeaae, E?eaii).
“Oooo?ieia?/i?” i?iaiice aeaiaioey Ia?ae?y na?ae/aoue i?i inoaoi/io
caaeaaeue ethaenoaa, ia ci?io yeiio i?eeaeooue ?noioe c eai?iiy. Oaeei
/eiii, noia ia?aoai?aiue noa? aaeoi?ii niaoeeo?/iiai “?noi?ecio”, ai ?
caneaiee o Oiie Ia?ae?e, ? /oaeee oeueiio na?oia? ?eieyiei Eiooa, ? naia
ianaeaiiy Oii?a iio?aieythoue iica nai?th aieath o i?ioean ia?aao?eaiue
? ia iiaeooue iie?aoeny caaaeueiiio ?ooia? oaenoa-na?oo aei inoaiiuei?,
caaaeueii? aeey an?o iaoaii?oice, nooi?noth yei? ? iiaa?iaiiy oiinueeiai
einiino a oain. Ii?iaeaeaiee eieaith — “/oaeei” oaenoii — oiinueeee na?o
aeia ca?aeii c ?aea?th anainyaeii? iaoaii?oice ? i?i?ioeoa iiaoa, ui
neeaaeathoue, oae ae iiaeoe, “i?iaeo” oe??? ae?eniino?.

Ia ia?oee iiaeyae caea?oueny, ui i?ae ?eiii (?noi???th) ? Oiiaie
(oea?noaii ooaeiaei?o ia?ac?a, ye? iaeeee) ?nio? iacaeieaiia iaaea.
Aaeaea iiia?aeue i?i ?einueeee na?o a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae nthaeao?a
oiinueei? ae?eniino? oei, ui aiia aaoue iicaaaeaia aeeaaoeoa, aeeth/a?
?aaeueii-?noi?e/iee eiioe?eo iiaoa c aeaaeith ? i?aeei?y?oueny
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/iei caeiiii??iinoyi, ye? iaeaaeaoue, uii?aaaea,
a?eueo OO noi??//th, c eiai oioae?oa?ieie ?aaeeiaie, i?ae aei ?einuee?e
aioe/iino?. Aea Ia?ae??aa i?i?ioeoai, aae?aniaaia ?eio, a
oooo?ieia?/iiio aniaeo? iiai?noth c??aith? eoeueoo?iee oeaio? aioe/iino?
?c caiaiaeith i?ia?ioe??th: io?aoeiee ia?iae, yeee i?eeaea ia ci?io
iaoeaioeyi Aa?ie, ? oei aea ??ciiaeaeii “iaethaenoaa”, ui ? aacaeueoia?
?noioe, ia?oeyi? iiaoii Oiiai. O? ? o? ciaiaiothoue niaith o?iae
ethaenueei? noi??iee caiii? ?noi???. Oiio ? ?aaeueii-?aoe?iiae?noe/iee
?einueeee na?o, ? ???aoe?iiaeueii-???aaeueiee na?o Oii?a /aea? iaeia ?
oa naia aeiey —caaeaaeue “noa?iai” ethaenoaa, “e?iaoeue ?noi???” ? iiyaa
iiaeo iieie?iue ethaeeiiiiae?aieo? ?noio. Oeei aeiaaaeaii, ui “/oaeee”
oaeno (?ei) ? na?o-oaeno (Oiie) iaeiaeiai noeeuei? aei ?iciaaeo, ui Oiie
— ia ?aeee?/iee ino??a iiiaeaeue a?ae oioae?oa?iiai ?eia, a eeoa iaea
eiai /anoeia, oe?eaaa oei, ui ooo, ia a?aei?io a?ae aaaaoiethaeii?
noieeoe? , ana iiaeia ?icaeyiooe o iaeae??ai?oeo aeaoaeyo. Ioaea,
“inoaiiy” iaoaii?oica, ui ?ic?a?o?oueny a Oiiao, i?ieia aeiaaeueii?
eaoano?ioe, yea ia ieia, ca?aeii c ?iiaiiith eia?eith, ? ?eia.

I?aenoiie nthaeaoiiai ?icai?oaiiy iaeiaeiaee ye aeey “/oaeiai” oaenoo,
oae ? aeey oaenoo-na?oo — cieuaiiy, ?ic/eiaiiy, iia/aiiy. A?aeoae
iine?aeiaii caia?a/o?oueny e eiioeaioe?y oai?/ino?, yea ? iayaiith a
Ia?ae??aeo “Iaoaii?oicao” ? iiao, ui i?enayoea na?e oa?? ieeiiino?
aoooy, o e?ioeaaeo ?yaeeao aeeo/ea aeaniee aai?e c iioieo iane?i/aiieo
ia?aoai?aiue. Oey oi?ioea iiaoe/ii? oai?/ino?, ui i?aeiineoueny iaae
aoooyi, ? yeo ai?iaeiaae aeaio oeny/ie?oue a?ae??ciyea aeiyoeiaa
no?ee?noue a ?noi??? eoeueoo?e, cai?ith?oueny ?ioei,
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeei, iai?oanoii, o yeiio noaa?aeaeo?oueny
aacaeocae?noue aoaeue-yeeo caien?a, aaeaea aiie noathoue a?ith aeey
aiaeaa?eueieo, ?, acaaae?, inyaiaiiy ae?eniino? aaea ?o ia iio?aao?.

O naith /a?ao, “/oaeee” oaeno ?oeio?oueny ca ?aooiie aiao?ii?ci?a, ui
iaeaaeaoue ia aioe/i?e ae?eniino?, ? ia Ia?ae??a?e iiai?, a OO
noie?ooth, ai c ia?oeo aea noi??iie iiaeyae /eoa/a oie?a?oueny a
?iceeaae aaoiaon?a, oioia?ao??, i?iaeaaoe?a eioa?aeieo a?eao?a oiui.
Ia?aeaioe/i?noue iaeiieiaiieo aa?i?a “Iaoaii?oic” ? ia?niiaae?a
“Inoaiiueiai na?oo”, a oaeiae ?noi?e/ieo ae?y/?a Aeaaiueiai ?eio ? ?oi?o
ia?ac?a a ?iiai? niaoe?aeueii i?aee?aneaia iayai?noth a e?ioe? eieae oae
caaiiai “Ia?ae??aa ?aia?ooa?o”. Aea? ia?aeaeuei? eieiiee a iueiio:
“Ia?niiaae? Inoaiiueiai na?oo” oa “Ia?niiaae? Aeaaiueiai na?oo” —
na?ae/aoue ia o?eueee i?i ?aeath ia?aeaeueiiai ? ??aiioe?iiiai ?ooo
?noi?e/iiai ? ooaeiaeiueiai /an?a, a ua e i?i ?aeath aca?ii?oeioaaiiy
“/oaeiai” oaenoo (eieiiea “Ia?niiaae? Aeaaiueiai na?oo”) ? oaenoo-na?oo
(eieiiea “Ia?niiaae? Inoaiiueiai na?oo”), ui i?ioenoiyoue iaeei iaeiiio.
Oea aca?ii?oeioaaiiy ? iciaeith iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? ooaeiaeiuei?
i?aeoeee.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? — “Iiaei?iae o oaeno” — ?icoi?iiy na?oo ye oaenoo
?icaeyiooi a eiioaeno? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eoeueoo?e o no/aniiio
noni?euenoa?.

Aeena?oaio caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui iiyaa iinoiiaea?i?cio iiynith?oueny
aeeaeiiith iio?aaith eoeueoo?e (yea a nenoai? o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeieo
iiaoaeia OO noie?ooy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye Aanietho) o naiie?eoeoe?.
Iinoiiaea?i?ci ae?aaea? i?ioano i?ioe ia?aoai?aiiy neeaaeiiai ?
niiaiaiiai i?ioe??/ ?icia?ooy eoeueoo?e o yeonue iaeii??aeio
oe?e?ni?noue, o noio “aioiaeo” oyaeaiue i?i na?o. O ?iiaii?e iiaoaeia?
aeaiiioaae Aaniethoo i?ae iacaith “Eoeueoo?a” cae?enith?oueny oeyoii
?oeioaaiiy aeaio ieano?a ooaeiaeiuei? ?aaeueiino?, iaeei ?c yeeo o
?iaio? aoei iacaaii “/oaeei” oaenoii, a ae?oaee — oaenoii-na?oii.

Iaeiae ?oeioaaiiy na?oo, ui cia?aaeaii a ?iiai? ?ainiae?a, iiaea
neoaoaaoe aeieacii oiai, ui ni?iae “iicaaaeaiiy” a?ae aeaaee iiaiai
Aaniethoo ia caaa?oeeeny a?aee?eooyi i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?aeoiae?a ye aei
noa?e o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai, oae ? aei noa?e aii??e/iiai, ui i?ioean oeae
o?eaa? a no/aniino? ? iiee — o iaaeao eiioeaioe?? na?oo ye oaenoo —
na?ae/eoue i?i iaiicaooi?noue oaenoo.

Iinoiiaea?i?nonueea ?oeioaaiiy eoeueoo?e — caeiiii??ia noaae?y
aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa, ui aea?eueiy? i?ino?? aeey iiaeo
iaa?aeiieo ?noei i?i na?o, ye?, ca?aeii c eia?eith oeueiai ?icaeoeo,
caaaeaee aeieeathoue ia ?o?iao noa?eo na?oiaeyaeii-oe?ii?nieo ia?aaeeai,
iiae?aii aei Ie?iio, ui c’yaey?oueny iai?ee?ioe? ?iiaio ?ainiae?a:
ae?inoath/e c “/oaeiai” oaenoo, a?i aei e?ioey oeueiio oaenoo aaea ia
iaeaaeeoue.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “Neanoaaiiy ?noi??? ? i?e?a/ai?noue ia ?nioaaiiy
a ?noi?e/iiio na?o?” (Aeae.Oaeea?, “Oyae nia? ea?oeio”)” — aeena?oaio
coieiy?oueny ia i?iaeai? iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai iio?aeooaaiiy ?noi???.

Ia?oee ?? ia?aa?ao — “Noaoon ?noi?e/ii? ae?eniino? o iiaea?i?ci? ?
iinoiiaea?i?ci?” — i?enay/aii aiae?co iio?aeooaaiue ?noi??? o ooaeiaei?o
oai?ao i?ia?aeieo i?aaenoaaiee?a e?oa?aoo?e iiaea?i?cio (Aeae.Aeaeiena,
O.Eaoee, I.I?onoa, A.Aanna, O.Iaiia) ? iinoiiaea?i?cio (O.E.Ai?oana,
O.Aei, I.Iaae/a oa ?i.). A anoaoeoe? iiaea?i?cio ooaeiaeiy ?aaeuei?noue
ni?eeia?oueny ye naiiaeinoaoi?e na?o, aii?yaeeiaai?noue yeiai
i?ioenoi?oue oaino ?noi??? ? ciaoiaeeoueny o oe?ii?ni?e ???a?o?? aeua ca
iueiai. E??i oiai, o iiaea?i?ci? aeene?aaeeoothoueny iiceoea?nonuee?
eiioeaioe?? , a iniia? yeeo eaaeaoue oyaeaiiy i?i i?ia?an e
inieneai?noue ?noi?e/iiai ?ooo. Oaea caia?a/aiiy iiceoea?nonueeeo
i?aeoiae?a aei ?noi??? coiiaeaia iaaaoeaiei aeina?aeii na?oiaeo a?ei,
e?eaaaeo ?aaiethoe?e, oioaeueiiai eiioe?eoo i?ae ?iaeea?aeii ? nioe?oiii
ca aeiae oioae?oa?ecio.

sseui ni?aaaei?e ci?no ?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?, ca?aeii c
iiaea?i?nonueeeie oyaeaiiyie, a?aeoai?th?oueny ienoaoeoaii, aea
i?oieia?ciaaia ae?eni?noue aenooia? i?ioeaaaith iicaaaeaiiio naino
?noi?e/iiio i?ioeano, oi e?oa?aoo?a iinoiiaea?i?cio, ui oniaaeeoaaea
iiaea?i?nonueeo i?oioai?/?noue ye niin?a oai?aiiy ooaeiaeiuei?
?aaeueiino?, caa?ioeany aei e?eoeee iiaea?i?nonueeiai ?icoi?iiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino? oa ienoaoeoaa.

Ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ienueiaiieee-iinoiiaea?i?noe “aeicaieythoue”
aa?ith-iin?th iiaea?i?nonueeeo eiioeaioe?e ia?aiiaoe ?aaeuei?noue
(?noi??th): Ia?ae?e “iaoa??ae?co?” “Iaoaii?oice”, ia?aoai?thth/e ?o
ia?niiaae?a ia iaoeaioe?a Oii?a (“Inoaii?e na?o” E.?ainiae?a);
A?eueaaeuei Aanea?a?euenueeee ae?noa?oueny aei noa?aiii i?eoiaaii? eieae
A??noioaey, o ye?e ciaoiaeyoueny ?icaaaeee oa?iieoeue na?oiaoaeiae
(“?i’y o?iyiaee” O.Aei); AEai-Aao?no A?aioe noai?th? ia?ooie, ui
aeathoue aeaaeo iaae ethaenueeith ni?eueiioith (“Caiaoe” I.Cthne?iaea).
Aea eia?ea ?icai?oaiiy ?iiaiieo nthaeao?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
iiaea?i?nonueea ?aeay i?aeai?eaiiy ?noi?e/iiai na?oo ienoaoeoaii cacia?
e?aoo. Ienoaoeoai aeyaey?oueny iacaeaoiei aeeeooaaoe aoooth nai? caeiie,
iiaea?i?nonueeee ?ea??a iie?o ea?a?oueny caaeaaeeth ieooey e ?oeioaaiiyi
noai?aiiai iei na?oo, neiaieii yeiai aenooiathoue /e oi Oiie, /e oi
eieaa, /e oi neeyiea ia?ooi?a. Oae, Ia?ae?th iai?aeaeaaeiee iei aea
ii?iaeaeaiee na?o, ui iaa?ioany ia ?oeiaoe?th ? caoiiea o ao?oeeaee
iio?e caoaieo ia?aoai?aiue naiai oai?oey; a?aee?eooy A?enoioaeaai?
eieae ni?e/eiy? caaeaaeue a?ae?ioaee ? iiianoe?y; i?noe/i? iaoiu? A?aioy
eeoa i?iaieothoue aaeoaiae?th iaoiaio oa ianooue aa?ith caaeaaeue.

Iinoiiaea?i?ci, yeee ?icaeyaea? ae?eni?noue ?noi??? ye noeoii?noue
oaeno?a, c?ooo? ei?aeiie i?ae iath oa ooaeiaei?i oaenoii. A?i a?aeeeaea?
naio ?aeath “i?ea?eaeiaaiino?” aoaeue-yei? c noa? aoooy, /e oi
aii??e/ii-?noi?e/ii?, /e oi ooaeiaeiuei?. Inoaiiy iicaaaey?oueny nai??
aaoiiiiiino? oa aeeeth/iiai — ui aoei oa?aeoa?ii aeey iiaea?i?cio —
noaoono, ? aaea ?icaeyaea?oueny ii?yae c ?noi?e/iei, nioe?aeueiei,
aeiiii?/iei, ineoieia?/iei oa ?i. “oaenoaie”. Ana oea cia/eoue, ui o
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeo aeiao ienoaoeoai aaea ia aenooia? i?ioeaaaith oaino
?noi???.

Ci?no ae?oaiai ia?aa?aoa — “Ie… oaeiae, iiaeeeai, aeaaaeai?”:
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee oeyo neanoaaiiy ?noi???” — neeaaea? aiae?c ?iiaio
Aeae.Oaeea?a “Oyae nia? ea?oeio”, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ae eooii ci?o
iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? eiioeaioe?? ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano.

Ia ciai?oiueiio ??ai? nthaeao ?iiaio i?ae-oi iiaoi?th? iiaea?i?nonueeo
neooaoe?th. O eiai oeaio?? ciaoiaeeoueny ea?oeia ?aia?aiaeoa
“A?enoioaeue o ?icaeoiao iaae athnoii Aiia?a”, ? oea ? neiioiiaoe/iei,
aaeaea o e?oa?aoo?? iiaea?i?cio naia oa?? ienoaoeoaa aoa oei oe?ii?niei
oeaio?ii, yeee ia’?aeioaaa iaaeiei naaa ??cii??aei? e ??ciiieaiia? yaeua
?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino? ? eoeueoo?e. Aea o iinoiiaea?i?noa Oaeea?a
?icoa?iao?oueny ? oa?? ienoaoeoaa, ui a aeiaeiiio c iiiaio?a ?iiaio ia ?
/eiinue caaa?oaiei, ? ?noi??y, iiae?? yei? ia’?aeiai? iaaeiei ea?oeie.

Aa?i? oa ?noi?e/i? oaeoe o Oaeea?a ii?aeiai? i?ae niaith ca
anioe?aoeaiei i?eioeeiii: A?enoioaeue, yeiai ieoaoeue cia?aaeo? ia
ea?oei?, nai?ie aeoieaie “aeeeeea?” iiyao iinoao? Nie?aoa, ui e
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ae?eiao iniao; i?i Nie?aoa ienaa Ieaoii, oiae
iiia?aea/ oi?ea?oueny ? aeeooy Ieaoiia; i?ae ia?ii ienueiaiieea
iaeeaathoue no/anieee aioe/ieo o?einio?a: Ia??ee e Ieaenaiae?
Iaeaaeiinueeee. A?ae ?aia?aiaeoa, ui ienaa ea?oeio, i?noee a?eueii
ia?aeeaeathoueny ia Aieeaiaenueeo ?anioae?eo, Nieiico oa Aeaea?oa;
a?aoo? ?aoo, inoaii?i ina?aaeeii “A?enoioaey o ?icaeoiao iaae athnoii
Aiia?a” noa? aia?eeainueeee iocae Iao?iiie?oai, ui e iaaea? iiaeeea?noue
?iciia?noe i?i ?noi??th Niieo/aieo Ooao?a. Ea?oeia, oaeei /eiii,
aenooia? ia iiaea?i?nonueeith iaae?aaeuei?noth, a “inaaaeioeaio?ii”,
i?aee?aneaii-aeiaaeeiaei; aaeaea aiia ia aea? ciiae inieneeoe oo
noeoii?noue ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a, ui a?oiothoueny iaaeiei ia?, ?iaeoa, i?ae
ye anana?oith i?nai?oieoeth. E??i oiai, e ea?oeia o ?iiai? iaoioiaeia
naia nia?: aiia ciaoiaeeoueny aai a i?ioean? iino?eiiai oai?aiiy, eiee
ooaeiaeiee aanue /an /e oi aeiaea? aei ii?o?aoa iiaeo ithain?a, /e oi
ci?ith? ae?ac iaee//y aa?iy; aai ia “ai?cia?oueny” aeyaea/aie, ye?
aaa/athoue o ?? ia?niiaae? oi Aeueaa?oa Aaeeeiai, oi yeiainue o?aiieiaa,
oi aieeaiaenueeiai iiaoa ? ?noi?eea I?oa?a Ei?iae?ona Oi?oa, oi
Aa?a?e?y.

O naith /a?ao, ?noi??y ca ?aooiie oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeeio
iiioaaeo iicaaaey?oueny o?aaeeoe?eii? iine?aeiaiino? ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a,
eia?/iino?. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oeae iiioaae ia? ia iao? neiii?iiaooaaoe
?noi??th ye uinue inieneaia, ? na?aae aace?/? i?eeeaae?a
“inaaaeica’yce?a” i?ae ?noi???th ? a?ia?ao??th iaaaaeaii eeoa iaeei:
aiai?y/e i?i oa, ui aeaa’yoe??/iee ?aia?aiaeo caienaany o eaoeinueeo
oeieo, iiia?aea/ aeiaea? aei oeueiai a?ia?ao?/iiai oaeoo ua e ?noi?e/i?
aeai?: o oeae /an aieeaiaeoe? ci?ieee ii?ooaaeueoe?a ia Iieoeeao ?
anoaiiaeee iiiiiie?th ia i?yiiu?. Oaeei /eiii, ia eeoa oa?? ienoaoeoaa,
a e ?noi??y o ?iiai? caciathoue iino?eiiai ?icii?ioaiiy,
ia?aoai?thth/enue ia o?eoe?th oa a?o.

A o??aithaaii? ?noi??? ? oai?o ienoaoeoaa iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a?
A?enoioaeue — ia?niiaae ea?oeie e aa?ie ?noi???. Oe? aeaa aniaeoe ia?aco
A?enoioaey aeicaieythoue iiaeyiooe ia ?noi?e/i? iiae?? c na?aaeeie
?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano (A?enoioaeue “?noi?e/iee”) ? cciai?, eiee
ia?niiaaeaa? ea?oeie “aeicaiey?oueny” iiaeyiooe ia ?noi??th inoaii?o
noi??/ue c “ea?oeiii? ?aie”. ? o ia?oiio, ? o ae?oaiio aeiaaeeao, ? a
aeiao ?aia?aiaeoa, ? a no/aniino? ?noi?e/i? iiae??, ui noiae? iaeia ia
iaeio, iaeiaeiai aano?aei? c oi/ee ci?o caei?iaiai aeocaeo ? aeui?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, iin??i yei? aenooia? A?enoioaeue. Oiio iiia?aea/
?iaeoa, ye c anaioiiethth/ith ??ii??th e ia iiaea i?i ieo ?iciia?aeaoe.
A?i aiaaiaiee nai ? caiaaiy? nai?o /eoa/?a, ui i?inoi ia ?nio? oaei?
?aea?, yea a aeicaieeea inieneeoe ?noi?e/iee i?ioean. Ia?aae /eoa/ai
i?ioiaeeoue aaea?ay i?nai?oieoeue: aacaeocae?noue ?noi???, ui ia cia?
ai? ?icaeoeo ai? naino; aacaeocae?noue eoeueoo?e, yea o ??ciiiai?oieo
nai?o oi?iao oae ? ia i?aei?ia?oueny iaae oainii ?noi???; aacaeocae?noue
a?ia?ao??, ui aae i?ye ia iiynith? aai?aeuei?noue ieooey oa ?i. Oe?
noa?e ae?eniino? ia o?eueee iicaaaeai? naino a nai?o caieiooeo iaaeao,
aea e i?aeneeththoue aano?aei?noue iaeia iaeiiai, noai?thth/e aoaeo,
yeee aeena?oaio iicia/a? ye “neanoaaiiy ?noi???”. ? oea ? ?acoeueoao
iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? aeaeiino?oeoe??, iicaaaeaiiy eiaeii? c iacaaieo
noa? ae?eniino? “i?ea?eaeiaaiiai” noaoono, “aeaoeaio?aoe??” ?noi?e/iiai
i?ioeano.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? — “Oioaeuei?noue ?noi???” — iiaa eaea i?i oa, ui
neaniaaia ye eia?/ia iine?aeiai?noue, ye yaeua, ui ia? iaoo ? nain,
?noi??y ana ae oaee iaio? o cia?aaeai?e Oaeea?ii ea?oei? na?oo, a
?noi?e/i? oaeoe ioiieththoue eiaeio ?eno a?ia?ao?e ia?niiaae?a, eiaeiee
aaoi?nueeee ?icaeoi. Iniaenoino? caeeoathoueny eeoa aocuee? oia?eie
o?einionueei? ?aoeaen?? aai oai?/ino?, oa e o? ia “iaae” ?noi???th, a
“ana?aaeei?” ??, o /a?aa? oeueiai anana?oiueiai Eaa?aoaio.

Ethaeeia, oaeei /eiii, iieiy?oueny iaiaeeioe? c aano?aeii ?
aacaeae?ni?noth ?noi???. sseui caaeaaeue Nie?aoa ? iciaeith ??
aacaeae?niino?, oi aeiaaeeiaa, aiioeaiaaia eeoa iaa??ii c?icoi?eeie
ia?aaenia?oieie neiaaie o?einioa, nia?oue Aneeai?y na?ae/eoue i?i
aeeeth/io aano?aei?noue ?noi???. Ethaeei? iaia ia ui nie?aoeny, aiia
iiaea iieeaaeaoe iaae?? eeoa ia naaa, ?icoi?th/e i?e oeueiio, ui na?o, o
ae??aieoeyo ? a aeiaaeuei?e nai?e eia?oe?, aeey ia? ? iacaaaiaiiei. Oiio
caeeoa?oueny aai ?aae?nii iiia?oe, ye Nie?ao, aai ooeeeoeny iae ae?ieo,
ye A?enoioaeue, ui ia aaaeaa, aae ao?iyie aea?/? nei?ee cei/ei i?ioe
o?einio??, cieueaoe oaeiae ? eiai. Ia ea?oei? ?aia?aiaeoa A?enoioaeue
c’yaey?oueny, aae i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ?c neaioe/iei oa caeeaiaaiei ae?acii
iaee//y noaaeeoe ca aacaeocaeinoyie ?noi?e/iiai /ano ? i?inoi?o. ? o
an?o aeiaaeeao iniaeno?noue eeoa?oueny iaeei ia iaeei ?c na?oiaith
?noi???th, yea i?eoaee ia ?ooa?oueny, oa e ia cieea?, caiiaithth/e
ooaeiaeith ?aaeuei?noue ?iiaio ? iia?iceeai iaiiacath/e ia cia?aaeaieo o
iueiio aa?i?a, ai ? nia?oue Nie?aoa, ? ooii?? Ieaoiia, ? i?eaeeoo?a? e
“ii?o?aoi?” iaiae?e A?enoioaey i?ioiaeyoue ona?aaeei? ?noi?e/iiai
i?ioeano.

Oaeei /eiii, neanoaaoe ?noi??th aeyaey?oueny iaaaaaoi eaaoa, ai?ae
iicaooeny ?? oioaeueii? i?enooiino?. Aeaeiino?oeoe?y iiaea?i?nonueei?
iiaeae?, “iaaeia??a aei iaoaiiia?aeae” (AE.-O.E?ioa?) o iinoiiaea?i?ci?
aeicaiey? neanoaaoe ?noi??th ye Aanietho, aea ia aea? naiaiaee a?ae ia?.
O?aaeeoe?ei? oeyoe aea?eueiaiiy a?ae oeneo ?noi???: aeo?ae o
o?ainoeaiaeaioio noa?o, o eoeueoo?o (yea aenooiaea o iiaea?i?ci? o
ooieoe?? o?ainoeaiaeaioii? ?aaeueiino?), iaae?y ia nioe?aeueiee i?ia?an
— aaea iaaeooaeuei? a iinoiiaea?i?ci?, aaeaea ?aeay nioe?aeueiiai
i?ia?ano neiii?iiaoiaaia nai?th iaeaaei?noth aei oioae?oa?ieo
?aeaieia?e, a aaniethoecaoe?y eoeueoo?e aeiaeiith i??ith ia caoenoeea
ethaenoai a?ae e?eaaaeo iiae?e OO noi??//y; ia?aoo?, noa?a
o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai iaeaea aeo?niaia ia ia?eoa??th o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
i?ney?aianainieo aio?iii- ? ?aoe?ioeaio?e/ieo oyaeaiue i?i na?o, a iiaa
aa/aiiy o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai ua ia a?aee?eoi.

O Aeniiaeao ia oe?ieiio oe? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo
?iiai?a 80-o ??. i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee niinoa?aaeaiue, ye? aoee c?iaeai?
o iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao, a oaeiae aeaia ocaaaeueithth/a oa?aeoa?enoeea
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo.

Aiae?c i?iaeaie “ieoaoeue ? oaeno” o ?iiai? I.Cthne?iaea “Caiaoe”
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ooaeiaeiee-ia?a?iae, c iaeiiai aieo a?eueiee a?ae
noa?aioei?a “eoeueoo?iiai i?aena?aeiiiai”, a c ?ioiai — ui noai?ea na?e
“aanietho” — iaeaeiaa?oaii?o? ia?ooie, oa?ieoue ii?aceo. I?e oeueiio
iiceoe?y ooaeiaeieea-ia?a?iaea caeeoa?oueny a eiioaeno? ?iiaio ?aeeiith
ae?enii oai?/ith iiceoe??th, ia caaaeath/e ia na?e a?aeaa?oee
aioeaoiai?ci. ?icaeyae iio?aeooaaiue oaenoo ye na?oo ? na?oo ye
noeoiiino? oaeno?a, ui a?aeaeeeny o ?iiai? E.?ainiae?a “Inoaii?e na?o”,
i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeoiee i?i oa, ui “iicaaaeaiiy a?ae oaenoo” —
iaoa??ae?caoe?y o oiinuee?e ae?eniino? Ia?ae??aeo “Iaoaii?oic” — ia
ca?eueiy? oeth iiao ?aaeuei?noue a?ae eiaeee ia?aoai?aiue-?oeioaaiue,
ye? aoee aeanoea? naiiio oaenoo iiaie (a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?ainiae?a) ?
na?ae/eoue i?i “iaiicaooi?noue” eiai caeii?a. Oaeea??anueeee aa??aio
“neanoaaiiy ?noi???” oeyoii ia’?aeiaiiy ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a iaaeiei
“inaaaeioeaio?o” ?noi??? — ea?oeie ?aia?aioa “A?enoioaeue o ?icaeoiao
iaae athnoii Aiia?a”, ?ica’yco?oueny o noai oioaeueii? ?noi?e/iino?
na?oo.

Oaeei /eiii, ?icaeyioo? a i?ioean? aiae?co eiiieaene ?aeae, ui aeae?eai?
ye iaeaaaeeea?o? neeaaeia? iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai ia?aco na?oo: “ieoaoeue
? oaeno”, “na?o ye oaeno” oa “neanoaaiiy ?noi???”, —aee?eaathoue
iaeiieacia?o? eiai noia?a/iino?. Ia?niaeoeaa ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/
eoeueoo?e ? aoooy (e aeciaiiy iaaeioe?eueiino? naiiai ieoaiiy acaaae?
i?i eiai iiaeeea?noue) eeoa?oueny ca iaaeaie iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai
?icoi?iiy na?oo, yea ? ?acoeueoaoii ?icaeoeo nenoaie iiaeyae?a, ui
noi?ioaaeeny a aeiao A?ae?iaeaeaiiy o i?ney?aianainiee ia??iae ?noi???
eoeueoo?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. O?iiioiie/aneee aiaeec eeoa?aoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey // ?onneee ycue e
eeoa?aoo?a a n?aaeieo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo Oe?aeiu. — 1991. — ? 11. — N.
18-23.

2. Eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea eae ooaeiaeanoaaiiay ?aaeueiinoue //
Anana?oiy e?oa?aoo?a o na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie. — 1997.
— ? 5—6. — N. 27—30.

3. “Iineaaeiee ie?” E.?ainiae?a: ecaaaeaiea io oaenoa eee iaecauaiinoue
oaenoa? // A?eii a na?o. Ca?oa?aeia e?oa?aoo?a: iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?noi??y, iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy. — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 141—160.

4. I?aa?aoiinoe ia?othia?iiai eneonnoaa, eee Aiieiaey e e?ao
ia?aeiaeecia (I.Cthneeiae “Ia?othia?”) // A?eii a na?o. Ca?oa?aeia
e?oa?aoo?a: iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?noi??y, iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy. —
1999. — ?2. — N. 162-185.

5. Iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ia?ac na?oo // A?eii a na?o. Ca?oa?aeia
e?oa?aoo?a: iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?noi??y, iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy. —
1999. — ? 3. — N.96.

Aiioaoe?y

A?aoi A.ss. Iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ia?ac na?oo (ia iaoa??ae?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo ?iiai?a 80-o ??. OO noie?ooy). —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.04 — e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. —
?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia oe?ieiio oe? iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? e?oa?aoo?ii?
i?aeoeee, a iniiaiiio ?iiaiii?, a oaeiae ia iniia? anoaoe/ieo,
o?einionueeeo oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ?icaeyioo?
?ica?aeiino? i?ae iiaea?i?ciii e iinoiiaea?i?ciii, a oaeiae i?ae
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeei na?oini?eeiyooyi e iinoiiaea?i?nonueeei noeeai. Ia
iaoa??ae? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e aia?eeainueeeo ?iiai?a 80-o ??. OO
noie?ooy aeine?aeaeo?oueny iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee ia?ac na?oo, iniiai?
aniaeoe yeiai iicia/ai? ye “ooaeiaeiee ? oaeno”, “na?o ye oaeno” oa
“neanoaaiiy ?noi???”. I?ae aeaiei eooii ci?o aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaai?
o?e iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeo ?iiaie: “Caiaoe” I.Cthne?iaea, “Inoaii?e na?o”
E.?ainiae?a oa “Oyae nia? ea?oeio” Aeae.Oaeea?a. Aiae?c iiaoeee ?
eiioeaiooaeueiiai no?ith iinoiiaea?i?nonueeeo ?iiai?a aeicaiey? aeyaeoe
niaoeeo?eo ao?eaiiai o ieo ia?aco na?oo, c iaeiiai aieo caeaaeiiai a?ae
iiaea?i?nonueeiai eiiieaeno ?aeae, a c ae?oaiai — oaeiai, ui aeaiiino?o?
i?ioean ea?aeeiaeueii? aeaeiino?oeoe?? iiaea?i?nonueei? ia?aaeeaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iinoiiaea?i?ci, ia?ac na?oo, ?iiai, oaeno,
ia?a?iaeuei?noue.

Summary

Begun B.Y. — Postmodernistic image of the world (on the material of
West-European and American novels of the 80th of the XX century).

Dissertation for awarding candidate degree of philological sciences on
speciality 10.01.04 — foreign literature — Shevchenko institute of
literature NAS of Ukraine, Kyev, 1999.

The author of the dissertation considers the differences between
modernism and postmodernism, postmodernistic world perception and
postmodernistic style on the extensive background of postmodernistic
literary practice, as well as aesthetics, philosophy and history of
literature.

The author studies the postmodernistic image of the world, the main
aspects of which are labelled as “the artist and the text”, “the world
as the text” and “elimination of history” on the material of
West-European and American novels of the 80th of the XX century. From
this perspective the author gives a detailed analysis of three
postmodernistic novels: “Perfumer” P.zuskind, “The Last World”
K.Ransmayer, “Picture This” J.Heller.

Analysis of poetics and conceptual system of postmodernistic novels
allows to reveal the specificity of the image of the world incarnated in
them this specificity on the one hand depends on the modernistic complex
of ideas and, on the other hand demonstrates the process of cardinal
destruction of modernistic paradigm.

Key words: postmodernism, novel, text, image of the world, marginality.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaaoi A.ss. Iinoiiaea?ienoneee ia?ac ie?a (ia iaoa?eaea
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo e aia?eeaineeo ?iiaiia 80-o aa. OO noieaoey). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.04 — eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. —
Einoeooo eeoa?aoo?u ei. O.A.Oaa/aiei IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia oe?ieii oiia iinoiiaea?ienoneie eeoa?aoo?iie
i?aeoeee, i?aeiouanoaaiii ?iiaiiie, a oaeaea eeoa?aoo?iaaae/aneeo,
oeeinioneeo e ynoaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ?anniio?aiu ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
iiaea?ieciii e iinoiiaea?ieciii, a oaeaea iaaeaeo iinoiiaea?ienoneei
ie?i/oanoaiaaieai e iinoiiaea?ienoneei noeeai. A i?ioeanna aiaeeca
aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi iiiyoea “iinoiiaea?ienoneia
ie?i/oanoaiaaiea” iicaieyao oe?iei o?aeoiaaoue oaiiiai iinoiiaea?iecia
eae yaeaiea, ia?eiaee/anee aicieeathuaa a eoeueoo?a e eeoa?aoo?a, a
iiiyoea “iinoiiaea?ienoneee noeeue” oa?aeoa?ecoao eeoa?aoo?iua
i?iecaaaeaiey eiie?aoiiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea, ia/eiay n 50-o aa. OO
noieaoey.

Ia iaoa?eaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo e aia?eeaineeo ?iiaiia 80-o aa. OO
noieaoey enneaaeoaony iinoiiaea?ienoneee ia?ac ie?a, iniiaiua aniaeou
eioi?iai iaicia/aiu eae “ooaeiaeiee e oaeno” , “ie? eae oaeno” e
“oi?acaeiaiea enoi?ee”. Iiae aeaiiui oaeii c?aiey aeaoaeueii
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu o?e iinoiiaea?ienoneeo ?iiaia: “Ia?othia?”
I.Cthneeiaea, “Iineaaeiee ie?” E.?ainiae?a, “Aiia?ace naaa ea?oeio”
Aeae.Oaeea?a. A oeaio?a aiaeeca “Ia?othia?a” I.Cthneeiaea — i?iaeaia
“ooaeiaeiee e oaeno”. Aa ?anniio?aiea iicaieeei naeaeaoue auaiae i oii,
/oi ooaeiaeiee-ia?aeiae, naiaiaeiue io noa?aioeiia “eoeueoo?iiai
aanniciaoaeueiiai” e nicaeaaoee naie aanietho (eaeae oioaeueiie
oaenooaeueiinoe, naienoaaiiie iinoiiaea?ienoneiio iuoeaieth, iicaieyao
o?aeoiaaoue aeooe eae iaoaoi?o “oaenoa”, i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa aiiaua)
oa?ieo e?ao, i?e yoii aai ia?aeiaeueiay iiceoeey i/a?/aia a ?iiaia eae
aaeeinoaaiiay e iiaeeeiii oai?/aneay iiceoeey. Iiieiaiea oaenoa eae ie?a
e ie?a eae niaieoiiinoe oaenoia ?anniio?aii a i?ioeanna aiaeeca
“Iineaaeiaai ie?a” E.?ainiae?a. “Ecaaaeaiea io oaenoa” — iaoa?eaeecaoeey
a oiineie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe Iaeaeeaaauo “Iaoaii?oic” — ia inaiaiaeaeaao
yoo iiaoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue io eiaeee i?aa?auaiey-?ac?ooaiey,
i?enouae naiiio oaenoo aioe/iie iiyiu (a ?ainiae?iaie o?aeoiaea) e
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i “iaecauaiinoe” aai caeiiia. Oaeea?ianeee aa?eaio
“oi?acaeiaiey enoi?ee” iin?aaenoaii i?iecaieueiiai iauaaeeiaiey
enoi?e/aneeo oaeoia aie?oa inaaaeioeaio?a enoi?ee — ea?oeiu ?aia?aiaeoa
“A?enoioaeue, ?aciuoeythuee iaae athnoii Aiia?a”, ia ioiaiyao
oioaeueiinoue enoi?e/aneiai ie?a. Oi?acaeiaiea “niunea enoi?ee” oai ia
iaiaa ia iicaieyao au?aaoueny ec noa?u enoi?e/aneiai, aeaaea anee iia
aanniuneaiia: eiaiii a iae auioaeaeaiu nouanoaiaaoue e oeeinio, e
ooaeiaeiee, e naiia i?iecaaaeaiea eneonnoaa.

Aiaeec iiyoeee e eiioeaiooaeueiiai no?iy iinoiiaea?ienoneeo ?iiaiia
iicaieyao auyaeoue niaoeeoeeo aiieiuaiiiai a ieo ia?aca ie?a, a ?aieao
eioi?iai iiaea?ienoneee eiiieaen eaeae (i ooaeiaeieea-ia?aeiaea,
aicauoathuainy iaae nioeeoiii; ia eneonnoaa, i?ioeainoiyuai oaino
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe; i oai?aiee eneonnoaa eae naiiaeinoaoi/iie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe, i?aainoiaeyuae nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneoth
?aaeueiinoue) iiaeaa?aaaony e?iie/aneiio ia?ainiuneaieth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iinoiiaea?ieci, ia?ac ie?a, ?iiai, oaeno,
ia?aeiaeueiinoue.

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