IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?OAIEIA??

AEEEIAA AAEA??ss IAAE?AIA

OAeE: 903.4(477-37)“-4/3”

IINAEAIIss IEAEIUeIAI AeI?I?A A ?V NO. AeI I.A.-??? NO. I.A.

?noi?e/i? iaoee – 07. 00. 04 – a?oaieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ne?oi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?c?i Ay/aneaa TH???ae/,

?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ne?oi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Coaa? A?oae?e Ieoaeeiae/,

?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aioe/ii? a?oaieia??

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ieueaianueeee Na?a?e sseiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo ? na?aaei?o a?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_27__” __aeiaoiy___ 1999 ?. i __14__ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.234.01 ii caoenoo
aeieoi?nueeeo aeena?oaoe?e i?e ?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 254655, Oe?a?ia, i.Ee?a-210, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea,
12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeooo? a?oaieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a-210, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_14_”___aa?aniy_________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iao?aoaiei A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O ne?oi-na?iaonueeo aiioo ?noi?e/ia neooaoe?y a
Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’? aecia/aeany eiioaeoaie aa?aa?nueeiai oa
aee?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai, niinoa??aa?oueny
aca?iiae?y ne?onueei? oa a?aoeueei? eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e. Oea ?
oa?aeoa?iei aeey I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y a oe?eiio, a ie?aieo eiai
iaeanoyo a?aecia/athoueny eiie?aoi? i?iyae caaaeueiiai i?ioeano.
Aaaeeeaei aoaiii o aea/aii? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ieaiai oa ia?iae?a
i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ? aeae?eaiiy ?aa?ii?a e aeine?aeaeaiiy eiaeiiai c ieo
ie?aii. Ieaei? Iiaei?i?ia’y a ii??aiyii? c non?aei?ie oa?eoi??yie
Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey oa Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?no?ia’y aei inoaiiueiai /ano
caeeoaeiny iaio aeine?aeaeaiei ?aa?iiii. Oaeo iayaiino? iinaeaiue o
Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’? aoa a?aecia/aiee a?eueoa 100 ?ie?a oiio, aea
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aiie iaaeinoaoiuei oa ia??aiii??ii: ?iceiiee
i?iaiaeeeenue eeoa ia aeae?eueeio iinaeaiiyo, ia an? iaoa??aee aoee
iaeaaeiei /eiii iioae?eiaai?, oiio aea/aiiy oeeo iai’yoie noaei
aeooaeueiei. O ca’yceo c oeei iaiao?aeiei ? aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee ia?a
?acoeueoao?a ?ia?o noaoe?iia?ieo aeniaaeeoe?e 80-90 ??. ia iinaeaiiyo
Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a, ye? cia/ii iioe?eee aaco a?oaieia?/ieo aeaea?ae.
Inoaii? ?iaioe aeyaeee iaiaeii??aei?noue eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio,
a?eueo ?noioiith aenooia? oaia? ?ieue Ieuea?enueeiai iie?no.
Oa?aeoa?enoeea ni?a?nioaaiiy o ?aa?ii? ??cieo aoiieoeueoo?ieo a?oi iiaea
aooe aaeineiiaeaia caaaeyee ei?eaoaaiith o?iiieia?? oa aoiieoeueoo?ii?
ao?eaooe?? iinaeaiue. Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaeythoue iia? aeaooaaiiy
iai’yoie, ui, cie?aia, aea? iiaeeea?noue e?eoe/ii i?ae?eoe aei iioe?aii?
na?aae iaoeiaoe?a aeoiee, ui i?ney ?iciaaeo Aaeeei? Ne?o?? a Ieaeiueiio
Iiaei?i?ia’? ne?onueea ianaeaiiy caeeoeeiny oa ia?aeoei aei in?eiai
aeeooy. Aeooaeueiith iinoaea oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue ocaaaeueieoe oa
i?iaanoe aiae?c oiiaeo aeaea?ae, ia?aaeyiooe e iioi/ieoe ?nioth/?
oyaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei no/aniiai noaio ?icaeoeo a?oaieia?/ii?
iaoee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a ?aieao oaie “A?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea aeiae ?aiiueiai cae?ca ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie” a?aeae?eo ne?oi-na?iaonueei? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 04.102, iiia? i?iaeaie 4.12.15.1, iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0.193.V.042992

Iaoa e caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy o?iiieia??
iinaeaiue, ?oiy aoiieoeueoo?ia ao?eaooe?y, aeya ca’yce?a i?ae ieie.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e iinaeaiue ia oa?eoi??aeuei? oa o?iiieia?/i? a?oie.
Aei caaaeaiue, ye? ae??oo? aeena?oaio, aoiaeeoue aiae?c oa ni?anoaaeaiiy
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a a?oaieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e oa?eoi??aeueieo ?
o?iiieia?/ieo a?oi iinaeaiue. ?icaeyaeathoueny oiiia?ao?y,
no?aoea?ao?y, aoae?aieoeoai, iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a oiui.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee ie?aneai? ieaeiueith oa/??th Aei?i?a a?ae
Eai’yinueeiai ai?iaeeua oa ioi/oth/eo eiai iinaeaiue ia i?aii/? aei
ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio ia i?aaei?. Cao?aeiith iaaeath ?
Noai?neaanueeee ien, yeee a?aeie?aieth? aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?aa?ii a?ae
Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey. O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee (?oa?ae V-IV no. aei i.a. – ???
no. i.a.) aecia/ai? /anii aeieeiaiiy oa ?nioaaiiy iinaeaiue
ne?oi-na?iaonueei? aeiae ia cacia/ai?e oa?eoi???.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii
ocaaaeueithth/a ?aa?iiaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y ne?oi-na?iaonueei? aeiae. O iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeaii
iaoa??aee iiaeo a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie. Aaeineiiaeaii o?iiieia?th
eiie?aoieo iai’yoie, a ia oe?e aac? – a?oi iinaeaiue. Aeiaaaeaia
a?aenooi?noue iinaeaiue o Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’? a?ae ae?oai? o?aoeie
??? aei e?ioey ??-ii/aoeo ? no. aei i.a.; oea ni?inoiao? oyaeaiiy i?i
oa, ui iaaaeeea /anoeia ne?onueeiai ianaeaiiy i?iaeiaaeoaaea aeeoe a
Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia”? a ia??iae caiono?iiy noai?a oa i?i iayai?noue
i?yiiai ca’yceo i?ae Aaeeeith oa “Iaeith” Ne?o?yie. Iiaea?oueny iiaa
oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aeiiiai A?eica?nueeiai ai?iaeeua.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? oa a?oaieia?? Oe?a?ie, o caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?nao c
a?oaieia?? oa ?noi??? Oe?a?ie aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iaoeiaeo eiioeaioe?e oa oaiaoeei-aeniiceoe?eieo ieai?a iiaoaeiae
aeniiceoe?e ?noi?e/ieo oa e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a. Inoaii? aaea
cae?enith?oueny a Oa?niinueeiio e?a?ciaa/iio ioca?, aea caa??aa?oueny oa
aeniiio?oueny cia/ia /anoeia io?eiaiiai i?ae /an ?iceiiie iinaeaiue
iaoa??aeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O 1981 ?. ni?eueii c I.E.Aa?eoeiaith
i?iaiaeeea ?iceiiee ia ai?iaeeu? Cieioee Ien, ? ni?aaaoi?ii ca?oo.
Ai?iaeiaae 1983-1984 ??. aaoi?ii i?iaiaeeeenue ?ica?aeee ia iinaeaiiyo
Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y. O 1985-1988 ??. aeena?oaioii i?iaiaeeeeny
?iceiiee ia ne?onueeeo iinaeaiiyo Ia?aiia?aea 2, *a?ia/a, o 1990 ?. – ia
iinaeaii? Naaeeaa Eeoaeiaiea (Noai?neaa 2). O 1991 ?. — ia ai?iaeeu?
Aeeaiea I?enoaiue ni?eueii c N.A.Aoenueeeo. I?ioyaii 1989, 1991-1993,
1995, 1997, 1998 ??. i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a aeine?aeaeoaaeiny
A?eica?nueea iinaeaiiy.

O ni?eueiiio c I.A.Aaa?eethe oa N.I.E?aa/aieii i?ai?eio?, i?enay/aiiio
ne?onueeei iinaeaiiyi Noaiiaiai Iiaei?i?ia’y IV no. aei i.a., aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue /anoeia II.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
oa?eoee aei aeena?oaoe??, aoee ii?eethaeiai? a aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo o Iinea? (1986), Caii??aeae? (1989), Ieiaaeea? (1990),
Iaean? (1991, 1996, 1998), Neioa?iiie? (1990), ?inoia?-ia-Aeiio (1992,
1994, 1996), Ee?a? (1996), Aa?i? (1997) oa ?i. Aeena?oaioii ?ic?iaeaiee
oa aeeeaaea?oueny eo?n i?aeoe/ieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo caiyoue ?c
niaoe?aeueiino?, i?aeaioiaeaia oa ai?iaaaeaeaia eiioeaioe?y iiaoaeiae
iocaeii? aeniiceoe?? c ?noi??? Oa?niiueie ne?oi-na?iaonueei? aeiae
(Oa?niinueeee e?a?ciaa/ee iocae).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? a 43 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, o oiio /ene? — 13 noaooyo, ie?ai?e /anoei? i?ai?eioo, 29
ca??eao iaoa??ae?a ? oac eiioa?aioe?e oa ei?ioeeo iia?aeiieaiue i?i
a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a (180 noi?.), aeiaeaoeo A (26 noi?.), aeiaeaoeo A
(45 ?en.), nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e – 434 iaeiaioaaiiy (37 noi?.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/a?oueny
noai ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ? iniiai? aeaea?aea aea/aiiy, oi?ioeththoueny
iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

?icae?e 1. No/aniee noai ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie: ?noi??y aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeaea?aea oa ?noi??ia?ao?y. Aea/aiiy iinaeaiue o Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’?
ii/aeinue o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. Oeueiio ia?aaeoaaee caaaeuei? iiene
i?noeaaino?. Ai?iiiio oiiia?aoo I.I.*e?eiao iaeaaeeoue caneoaa
neeaaeaiiy ia?oeo ieai?a oa ei?ioeiai iieno iinaeaiue [1867]. ?noi??y
a?oaieia?/ieo ?iceiiie ii/eia?oueny c ?ia?o A.E.Neaaeianueeiai (aieiae
Oa?niinueei? a/aii? a?o?aii? eii?n??) o 80-o ??. O?O no. Iiaeaeueo?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue ia Ieaeiueiio Aei?i?? c 1909 ii 1929 ??.
i?iaiaeeee A.?.Aioeaae/ oa eiai o/aieoey ?.A.Oaa?eoe?on. A?oaieia?/i?
?iaioe iiaeaaaeeeny a na?aaeei? OO no., aea ia?aaaaeaee ?ica?aeee
(I.I.Aeieo?aiei, 1946 ?.; E.I.Neaa?i, A.I.Iaioeaae/, ?.Ae.?aoia?,
1946-1950 ??. oa ?i); a cii? aoae?aieoeoaa Eaoianueeiai aiaeinoiaeua
aoee i?iaaaeai? ?iceiiee ia iinaeaiiyo Ieaei?e ?iaa/ee
(Ae.O.Aa?aciaaoeue, 1951 ?.), Cieioa Aaeea (A.A.Aeia?iaieuenueeee,
1951-1952 ??.), Aaa?ee?anueea (E.A.A?aaea, 1951 ?.), Ethaei?anueea
(E.Ae.Aeieo?ia, 1951-1952 ??); nenoaiaoe/ii aeine?aeaeoaaeinue
Eai’yinueea ai?iaeeua (A.I.A?aeia). O 50-60-oo ??. ?iceiiee aaeenue
o?eueee ia i?ciueine?onueeeo ai?iaeeuao (I.?.Aycuei?o?ia, I.I.Iia?aaiaa,
I.A.?eaa?ia, E.?.Einothe, ?.Ae.?aoia?). Iiaee aoai a?oaieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y ii/aany a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 70-o ??. C oeueiai /ano nenoaiaoe/ii i?iaiaeeeenue ?ica?aeee,
aoee a?aee?eo? iia? iai’yoee, ia 11 iinaeaiiyo i?iaaaeai? ?iceiiee
(?iaioe I.E.Aa?eoeiai?, N.A.Aoenueeeo, A.I.Aeeeiai?, I.A.Aae,
A.I.Coaa?y, I.A.Aaa?eethe, N.I.E?aa/aiea, ?.A.*a?iaiea).

Aeaea?aeaie ? iaoa??aee 47 a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie – ia 21 iinaeaii? aoee
i?iaaaeai? ?iceiiee, ia 12 c ieo a?aee?eoi ii 1000 i2 ? a?eueoa.
Eieaeoe?? ?a/iaiai iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai i?e ?iceiieao ? ?ica?aeeao ia
iinaeaiiyo Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y, caa??aathoueny a Oa?niinueeiio
e?a?ciaa/iio ioca?, a ?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, a A?i?oaae?
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), a IAeO (Iineaa), a Eai’yinueei-Aei?i?ianueeiio
?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iiio ioca?.

?ic?iaea cacia/aii? i?iaeaiaoeee ii/aeany iaeii/anii c i?iaaaeaiiyi
a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. Aei
ii/aoeo a?oaieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iio o O?O no. neeaeiny
oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui Ieaei? Iiaei?i?ia’y ? ne?onueeith oa?eoi???th, a
caie? Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey aoee inai?i? a?aeaie, ye? canioaaee
Ieuea?th. Iiyaa ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i a?oaieia?/i? iai’yoee aeeeeeaea ni?iae
?? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? I.I.*e?eiaei ? A.?.Aioeaae/ai. A?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee
oiae? ua ia iiaee aooe aeei?enoai? ye iiaiioe?iia aeaea?aei, aeniiaee
aoee c?iaeai? ia iniia? oaeoo ?nioaaiiy iinaeaiue, in?eee niin?a aeeooy
aaaaeaany i?eoaiaiiei ia?o ca ana a?aeai. Aea ie?ai? oao?aoe? ia
a?aeeeaeaee oai?aoe/ii? iiaeeeaino? aeieeiaiiy iinaeaiue e o ne?o?a,
oi/a oae? ia aoee ciaeaeai? (A.I?iic, I.?.?inoiaoeaa).

A?aeiiaeaiiy ?ioa?ano aei oaie niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie, aei oiai ae naia a ?one? ne?onueei? i?iaeaiaoeee. Aeayeith i??ith
oi?eaany i?iaeai iinaeaiue Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y I.?.A?oaiiiia. A?i
aeacaa, ui caiea?ianoai o ne?o?a aeieea? a ?ioa?anao neioa?noaa, a ia ye
i?ioenoaaeaiiy eiio [1948]. Aaaeeeaei aoaiii o aeine?aeaeaii? oaie aoea
ioae?eaoe?y iiiia?ao?? A.I.A?aeiaa [1954]. Naia a?i c?iaea aeniiaie i?i
aacia?a?ai?noue ?icaeoeo ne?onueei? eoeueoo?e oa ne?onueei? in?eino? ia
Ieaeiueiio Aei?i??. Aoea iinoaaeaia i?iaeaia ieaeiueiaei?i?ianueei?
“Iaei? Ne?o??” ? i?ciueine?onueei? eoeueoo?e, yeo ae??ooaaee
I.I.Iia?aaiaa, I.A.?eaa?ia, I.?.Aycuei?o?ia, inoaiiy aeacaea ia oa, ui
cacia/aia eoeueoo?a iinooiiai iaaoaa? neie?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aiae?coth/e e?iio ea?ai?eo c oeeo iinaeaiue, A.I.Iao?ia i?inoaaeea ??
??ci? aaiaoe/i? iniiae (1961). I.I.Aa?aiiaa aeyaeea ?ene na?iaonueei?
eoeueoo?e oa i?enooi?noue na?iao?a ia oeeo iai’yoeao (1962).
I?eoeeueieeii aacia?a?aiiai ?icaeoeo ne?onueei? eoeueoo?e ia Ieaeiueiio
Aei?i?? aoa I.I.Ooeueoe, yeee aecia/ea ?? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ae?oaith
iieiaeiith IV no. aei i.a. — III no. i.a. (1971). O 1970 ?. aeeoea
noaooy I.A.Uoe?ia, yeee cai?iiiioaaa ia?aaeyiooe aa?oi? aeaoe ?nioaaiiy
aeae?eueeio i?ciueine?onueeeo ai?iaeeu ia i?aenoaa? “aocueeeo
aeaooaaiue”, a oaeiae ooi/iea ia??iae ?nioaaiiy oe??? a?oie iinaeaiue e
iia’ycaa io?eiai? aeai? c ?noi?e/ieie iiae?yie. O 1987 ?. ?.I.O?aioiiaei
caoeuaii aeena?oaoe?th “I?ci? ne?oe ia Aei?i?? ? a E?eio”, aei yei?
aaaaeaii iiaee iaoa??ae iai’yoie E?eio. Noiniaii ai?iaeeu Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y aaoi? aeio?eio?oueny o?aaeeoee?eieo iiaeyae?a, aea
aeei?enoiao? ooi/iai? aeaooaaiiy I.A.Uoe?ia.

Caaaeii, aei 80-o ?ie?a i?iaeaia noaiiaeo ne?onueeeo iinaeaiue
i?aeoe/ii ia i?ae?eiaeanue o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo oa iiiia?ao?yo. ?aeeiei
aeaeaiiyi, aei yeiai oa?eoee an? a?aeii? ia oie /an ne?onuee? iai’yoee
IV-III no.no. aei i.a., aoea iiiia?ao?y A.A.?eue?inueei? oa
I.?.Oa?aiiaee?ia (1983).

Iaaeae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iia’ycai? c iiiiaeaiiyi ?iceiiie
iinaeaiue Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y. Iaea?eueoee aianie o ?ic?iaeo i?iaeai
o?iiieia?? oa aiae?co iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e iinaeaiue Aei?i?ianueeiai
eeiaio c?iaea N.A.Aoenueeeo [1982, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1996]. Ne?ae
oaeiae a?aecia/eoe i?aoe? I.E.Aa?eoeiai? [1982; 1985 — ni?eueii c
aaoi?ii], I.A.Aaa?eethe ? A.I.Coaa?y [1983], A.I.Aeeeiai? [1989, 1991,
1992, 1994, 1996]. Ia?oa ei?ioea ocaaaeueiaiiy iaeiie/aiiai iaoa??aeo
ne?onueeeo iinaeaiue aoei c?iaeaii o 1987 ?. ni?eueii o?ueiia
ea??aieeaie ?iceiiie (I.E.Aa?eoeiaa, A.I.Aeeeiaa, I.A.Aaa?eethe).
I?iaeiaaeaiiy ?iceiiie noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aiae?cii caeiaooeo
?acoeueoao?a. Aoa c?a?aiee aeinoaoi?e iaoa??ae aeey ii??aiyiiy
ne?onueeeo oa i?ciueine?onueeeo iinaeaiue [I.A.Aaa?eethe, I.E.Aa?eoeiaa,
1991], iinaeaiue aioe/ii? oa aa?aa?nueei? o?aaeeoe?e [A.I.Aeeeiaa, 1991,
1995, 1998; I.E.Aa?eoeiaa, A.I.Aeeeiaa, 1994]. C?a?aiee iaoa??ae oa
?acoeueoaoe eiai aiae?co aeicaieeee ciiao iinoaaeoe i?iaeaio “Iaei?
Ne?o??”. O iiiia?ao?? N.A.Iie?ia, ui i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai o?iiieia??
ne?onueeeo oa na?iaonueeeo iioiaaeueieo iai’yoie I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y [1992], a?aei?/a?oueny ?ic?ea o ?icaeoeo ne?onueei?
eoeueoo?e a?ae ii/aoeo III aei II no. aei i.a., aea oeae aaaeeeaee
aeniiaie ia iioe?th?oueny ia an? iinaeaiiy ?aa?iio. I.A.Aaa?eethe,
aeei?enoiaoth/e iia? iaoa??aee, i?aeo?eiaea ?aeath A.?.Aioeaae/a i?i
iaoeaiiy ieuea?enueeiai ianaeaiiy ia i?ciueine?onueeeo ai?iaeeuao
Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a [1991]. Aoee aeie?aieai? ca?oaeiaoeuee? eiiiiiaioe a
i?ciueine?onuee?e eoeueoo?? Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a [?.A.Iaeneiia, 1972,
1982, 1987]. Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie noaiiai? Ne?o?? ?icaeyaeathoueny o
i?aoeyo I.A.Aaa?eethe. A ?? iiiia?ao?? [1989] an? iinaeaiiy Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y IV no. aei i.a. caaaeothoueny o eiioaeno? ne?onueei?
eoeueoo?e. I.A.Aaa?eethe cai?iiiioaaea iiao oa?aeoa?enoeeo Eai’yinueeiai
ai?iaeeua, aeae?eeea Eai’yinueeee aeieiai-aeiiii?/iee ?aeii [1989, 1990,
1992, 1994, 1996]. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ?ieue Eai’yinueeiai ai?iaeeua
? oaiith niaoe?aeueii? noaoo? N.ss.Ieueaianueeiai [1987]. Aiae?c
ieaioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-aoae?aaeueieo eiiieaen?a Eai’yinueeiai ai?iaeeua
? i?ciueine?onueeeo iai’yoie aoa c?iaeaiee N.Ae.E?eaeeoeueeei [1982].
Oi?oeo?eaoe?y iinaeaiue ieuea?enueei? oi?e ?einueeiai /ano ?icaeyaeaeany
a niaoe?aeuei?e iiiia?ao?? N.A.Aoenueeeo [1991], ii??aiyiiy
i?ciueine?onueei? oi?oeo?eaoe?? ia Ieciaiio Aei?i?? ? a E?eio aea?oueny
a noaoo? I.Ae.Aeaoaanueei? [1990]. Aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeaiaioai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a [A.I.Iaoeaae/, 1990, 1991] ? iaeaiciieia?/ieo
?aooie [I.I.AEo?aaeueia, 1990, 1991, 1993]. Aea aei oeueiai /ano
ocaaaeueithth/a aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue ?aa?iio ia i?iaiaeeeinue.

?icae?e 2. Oiiia?ao?y, ieaioaaiiy oa aoae?aaeuei? eiiieaene iinaeaiue
Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a. ?icae?e neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, o yeeo
a?aeiia?aeii oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iinaeaiiy i?aaeaiii? (i?ai?/ii-no?aeia
ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio oa ae?ea Aei?i?a) ? i?ai?/ii?
(e?aiaa?aaeaey e i?aaiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a a ieaei?e oa/??) a?oi. Ia
ii/aoeo eiaeiiai i?ae?icae?eo iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
iaeaiaaia?ao?/ieo oiia.

Iinaeaiiy i?aaeaiii? a?oie ?icoaoiaai? a iiiecc? Aei?i?ianueeiai
i?aaiaa?aaeaey. Aiie ciaoiaeyoueny ia aenieeo aa?aaao iaae aeeaeiieie
ae?eyieaie no/aniiai eeiaio. Ia?aaaaaie oaeiai ?icoaooaaiiy ? iayai?noue
?iaeth/eo caiaeue, c?o/i? i?enoai?, iiaeeea?noue ?eaaeuenoaa. Iinaeaiiy
aeoyaioo? iiacaeiaae aa?aaa, aeiaaeeia ia iaio i?ae aaea?/? ia?aaeuo?
oe?eio. ?oiy ieiua, ui caa?aaeany ia nueiaiaei?, noaiiaeoue, a
na?aaeiueiio, 2 aa. Ai?iaeeua Aeeaiea I?enoaiue ia? ieiuo a?ey 10 aa,
a?ae??ciy?oueny oaeiae iayai?noth iai?iiieo nii?oae (aae, ??a, eai’yi?
no?ie), aea ca ?ioeie iciaeaie ia ia? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a a?oi?. Ia
an?o iinaeaiiyo iayaiee iiooaeiee eoeueoo?iee oa?, aeyaeaii aeae?eueea
aoae?aaeueieo ia??iae?a, i?inoaaeo?oueny ?oi? aacia?a?aia ?nioaaiiy a?ae
?oaaaeo V-IV no. aei ia?oi? o?aoeie III no. aei i.a. Iayai? aeaiaioe
nenoaiiiai ieaioaaiiy, eiiiaeoia caaoaeiaa.

O I no. aei i.a. ia o?e nai?e oa?eoi??? aeieeee ai?iaeeua, aeey yeeo
aea?? i?noey aecia/aany c iiceoe?e aaciaee. Oe? ai?iaeeua
?icoaoiaoaaeeny ia aaaeeiaeinooiieo ienao, ui iaee i?e?iaei? ia?aoeiaee,
iai?eueiee a?e aoa caoeuaiee iai?iiieie nii?oaeaie (eai’yi?
aeaiiaioee?i? no?ie c aeeiyiith caaooiaeith, ?iae, i?ci?oa – caieyi?
aaee c aea?aa’yiei iae?naaeii). Ieiua ai?iaeeu – 1-2 aa, oa?eoi??y ca ?o
iaaeaie aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aeey ainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa. Iiooaei?noue
eoeueoo?iiai oa?o – aei 2 i. I?inoaaeaii aeae?eueea aoae?aaeueieo
ia??iae?a. Iai’yoee oa?aeoa?eco? eiiiaeoia aioo??oiy ?aaoey?ia
caaoaeiaa, aeae?eythoueny aeeoeia? eaa?oaee, aoeeoe?.

sse ia ?aii?o, oae ? ia i?ci?o iinaeaiiyo ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai
eeiaio i?aaenoaaeai? aeaa oeie aoae?aaeue: iacaii? ne?oeaai-eai’yi? oa
caaeeaeai? o iaoa?ee. Ia?o? – oea ?aooee aaaaoieaia?ieo aeeoeiaeo
aoaeeie?a c iiaea??’yie, aeaoii ?c /a?aieoe? aai i/a?aoo, aeeiiaeoieie
i?aeeiaaie. I?aaenoaaeaia aeaioa?iaa iaeii?yaeiaa iinoaeenoi-eiaeeiaa
eeaaeea c aaiiyeiaeo ieeo, oaeiae ? ciao?aeee ne?oeaaeo oeaaeei. Ieiua
eaia?e i?ei?uaiiy 13-18 i2. Ae?oa? — iai?acaieyieia? aeeoea ieiuath
10-30 i2 , caaeeaeai? a iaoa?ee ia 0,3-0,4 i, c??aeea – aei 1 i, iacaii?
no?ie neeaaeai? c ne?oeth, aeaoe – c /a?aieoe? aai c aeeie oa i/a?aoo.
Aeie?aieththoueny aeaa iae?ai?oeo aeeoea ieiuath 5 i2. Aeine?aeaeaii
ainiiaea?nuee? iai?acaieyiee e?oaei? oi?ie oa oi?ie, aeecueei? aei
iaaeueii?, ?oiy ieiua a na?aaeiueiio 8 i2, aeeaeia a iaoa?eeo – 0,4-1,4
i. Ciaeaeaii oaeiae eueioe, e?eieoe?, oeenoa?ie, ainiiaea?/? yie
(iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai? oeie — c aocueeith aa?oiueith /anoeiith oa
aaeeeei ?icoe?aiei ai?noeeeuai). Aiaieua neeaaeai? ?c oiaoe?a aaiiyeo,
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae aeeiyi? aea?iai?, ye? iiaeia aoei ia?aiineoe.
Ia oeeo iinaeaiiyo ciaeaeai? niaoe?aeuei? i?noey aeey aeeeaeaiiy iiiaeo.
Oa?aeoa?ii, ui ciaeaeaiee a oaeeo i?noeyo iii?e i?noea iaa??
niaoeeo?/ieo aeeiyieo ae?ia?a, iia’ycaieo c eoeueoii aeiiaoiueiai
aiaieua. ??cieoey i?ae ?aii?ie e i?ci?ie iinaeaiiyie a oiio, ui a
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo iai?acaieyiee aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o?eueee aeey
ainiiaea?/eo iio?aa.

Neio?iii? iinaeaiiy i?ai?/ii? a?oie ?icoaoiaoaaeeny ia iaio aa?aaao
Aei?i?a c aeayeei ia?aaaaeaiiyi e?aiaa?aaeieo. Ia?aaaaaie ?o
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoee caeeai? eoee, ?iaeth/? ae?eyiee caie?,
aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue aieiae, ?icaeiaia ?ineeii?noue, iayai?noue i??nii?
aiaee, aeinooii?noue aieioieo oa ica?ieo cae?cieo ?oae. Ieiua iinaeaiue
1-4 aa. Oeaio?aeueia i?noea caeiaei Eai’yinueea ai?iaeeua ieiuath
aeecueei 1200 aa. Aeaye? iai’yoee iathoue iai?iii? nii?oaee (caieyi?
aaee oa ?iae). Eoeueoo?iee oa? iiooaei?noth 0,6-1 i ia an?o iinaeaiiyo
neaai iane/aiee aoae?aaeueieie caeeoeaie oa ?a/iaeie ciao?aeeaie; ia
aeaioa?iaeo iai’yoeao oa? ne?onueeiai /ano eiio?anoo? c iiooaeiei oa?ii
aeiae a?iice, yeee i?aenoeea? ne?onueeee. Oa?eoi??y iinaeaiue
caaoaeiaaia ia ?aaoey?ii, oa?aeoa?iith ? iayai?noue a?eueieo ae?eyiie
cia/iiai ?ici??o. Iacia/ia e?euee?noue aocueei aeaoiaaiiai iaoa??aeo ia
aea? ciiae aecia/eoe o?iiieia?th eiaeiiai iinaeaiiy; a oe?eiio, a?oia
ne?onueeeo iinaeaiue a?aeiineoueny aei ?oaaaeo V-IV no. – ia?oi?
o?aoeie ??? no. aei i.a.

Ia ?ai?oa, i?ae o ae?oa?e iieiaei? II – ia ?oaaae? ??-? no. aei i.a.,
aeieea? a?oia i?ciueine?onueeeo ai?iaeeu c oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie:
/ioe?eeooi?, iaiaaeai? e?ooei aa?aaii, aaeeaie oa aeaiia iai?iiieie
e?i?yie. Ia?oa e?i?y oe??ieaiue ioi/o? 1-4 aa, ae?oaa – aei 10 aa o
na?aaeiueiio, iaeneiaeueii – aeecueei 14 aa. Euea?anueea iinaeaiiy
iai?iiieo oe??ieaiue ia ia?. Oi?oeo?eaoe?ei? nii?oaee – oea
aeaiiaioee?i? no?ie aacnenoaiii? eeaaeee ?c caaooiaeith ae??aiei
eai?iiyi, aaooe, caieyi? aaee, ?iae. Iiooaei?noue eoeueoo?iiai oa?o ia
??cieo iai’yoeao oa ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao iaeiiai iinaeaiiy ??cieoueny a
iaaeao a?ae 0,7 aei 2 i. Iiae?ai?noue o no?aoea?ao?? ia
i?inoaaeo?oueny.

O aoae?aieoeoa? ?aii?o i?ai?/ieo iinaeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? caieyiee ?
iacaii? noiaiia? oa aeeiiieaoai? aoae?ae?. Oeaio?aeuei? i?ei?uaiiy
iacaiieo aoae?aaeue ia Eai’yinueeiio ai?iaeeu? iathoue ieiuo 50-80 i2.
E?eaie?i?eii-aii?oi? a ieai? aoae?ae? iia’ycoaaeeny N.Ae. E?eaeeoeueeei
c oeiii noaoe?iia?ii? th?oe. I?yiieooi? iaee iaeii– aai aeaineaoiee
aeao. Caieyiee ia oeueiio ai?iaeeu?, ye ? ?io? oeie aoae?aaeue, iathoue
aaeee? ?ici??e. Ia ?ioeo iinaeaiiyo on? aeaee aoae?aaeue iaaaeee? — a?ae
3-9 i2 aei aeecueei 20 i2. Aeeaeia caieyiie aei 2 i, cae/aeii aiie
iathoue ao?ae o aeaeyae? noiaeeiie oa iaoa?eeia? eaaeaiee, ?icoaoiaai?
ii ia?eiao?o. Aiaieua aeeiiaeoi?, iaaeueii? oi?ie aai o aeaeyae?
caaeeaeaiue ?c neoi/aiiyi aoa?eey. AEeoea noi?iaiaeaeothoueny /eneaiieie
iaaeeaieeie ainiiaea?/eie yiaie, iaeiioe?ai?oei oeiii yeeo ? e?oae? aai
iaaeuei? a ieai?, c aa?oeeaeueieie /e o?ioe caoaeaieie aei aeia
no?ieaie. Aeey oeeo iinaeaiue oa?aeoa?ia iayai?noue eiiieaen?a
cae?ci?iaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia i?ci?o ai?iaeeuao i?aaenoaaeai? iacaii? aoaeeiee – eai’yi?,
aeeiiaeoi?, aeeiiieaoai? – oa iaeeie/i? iai?acaieyiee, i?e aoae?aieoeoa?
yeeo oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaeeny eai?iue ? aeeia. Iacaii? aoaeeiee aoee
iaeiieaia?ieie ? aeaieaia?ieie, oa?aeoa?ieie ? o?eoa?ia? eeaaeee, a yeeo
aeei?enoiao?oueny ???aaoey?ia iinoaeenoa nenoaia. Iayai? eai’yi?
aiaieua, aeiinoee, yie ??cieo oei?a. Ciaeaeai? ae?iaie/? eiiieaene, ui
iia’ycai? c aeiaoaaiiyi cae?ca oa ae?iaieoeoaii cae?cieo ?a/ae.
Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith oeeo iinaeaiue ? aii?oi? “cieueieee”, ye? i?noyoue
??ciiiai?oiee ?a/iaee iaoa??ae aac niaoeeo?/ieo eoeueoiaeo ae?ia?a.

sseui i?ae ?aii?ie oa i?ci?ie iinaeaiiyie, ?icoaoiaaieie ia ocaa?aaeae?
Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio, i?inoaaeo?oueny iiae?ai?noue, oi i?ae a?oiaie
i?ai?/ieo iinaeaiue iii?oi? a?aei?iiino?, ye? iiyniththoueny ia?o ca
ana ??cieoeath ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iiai oeio a?oi ianaeaiiy. Aea
iiaeia i?ine?aeeoe noiae?noue aeaiaio?a oi?oeo?eaoe??, iacaiieo
aeeiiieaoaieo aoae?aaeue ? iai?acaieyiie, ae?iaie/eo eiiieaen?a.

?icae?e 3. Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a. O aeaio i?ae?icae?eao oeueiai
?icae?eo i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o a?aeiia?aeii aei
?iciiae?eo iinaeaiue ia a?oie. Ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ea?ai?ea, ?io? a?oie
?a/iaiai iaoa??aeo, iaeaiaioai?/i? ? iaeaiciieia?/i? ?aooee.

Iniiaiith oa iaeae?aci?oith /anoeiith ?a/iaiai iaoa??aeo ia iinaeaiiyo
ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio ? ea?ai?ea, ?io? ?a/ia? ciao?aeee
neeaaeathoue 1%. O?aaiaioe aioi? — oea 65-80% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? ea?ai?/ieo o?aaiaio?a. A ?aii?e a?oi? iayai? aioi?e O?ina
(i?eaeecii 30%), Aa?aeea? Iiio?enueei? (20%), Oanina ? Iaiaee (ii
15-18%), Neiiie (5-8%), Oa?niiana (2-6%), Iaia?aoa (2-9%), Eina (2-5%),
Aeaioa, Ei??ioa, Eieo?aee, Eanaina, Ei?aea (o iaaaeee?e e?euee?no?).
Aiie aeaoothoueny a?ae ae?oai? iieiaeie V aei ia?oi? o?aoeie ??? no. aei
i.a. Ia iinaeaiiyo i?ciuei? a?oie iae?ai?oeie ? aioi?e c aeainoaieueieie
?o/eaie ? no. aei i.a. – ? no. i.a., iayai? /eneaii? oeie ??-??? no.
i.a., o iaio?e e?eueeino? ciaeaeai? aioi?e ???-?V no. sse o ?aii?e, oae
? a i?ci?e a?oiao iinaeaiue na?aae aii/a?iiai iinoaeo iaea?eueo iioe?aia
n??iaeeiyia ea?ai?ea, aeae?, o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy, – /i?ii- oa
/a?aiiieaeiaa, eooiiia, oianoino?iia. Aoae?aaeueia ea?ai?ea
?ai?acaioiaaia ia an?o iinaeaiiyo, iaeneiaeueii ?? /anoea noaiiaeoue 5%.
I?inoee noieiaee iinoae neeaaea? a?ae 25% aei 60% a ea?ai?/iiio
eiiieaen? (aac o?aooaaiiy aioi? ? /a?aieoe?). Oeae iinoae iiaea aooe
a?aeianaiee aei ieuea?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia ?aii?o oa i?ci?o
iinaeaiiyo i?inoaaeo?oueny iane?aeoaaiiy oi?i. Ia?aaaaeathoue aea/eee,
/anoi cono??/athoueny ?eai? aethaea, iaeii?o/i? oa aeai?o/i? ienee oiui.
Aii/a?iee eooiiiee iinoae — oea oeiia? aee?inuee? eano?oe? oa ai?ueee,
c oiai ae ea?ai?/iiai o?noa ae?iaeaii aeaye? aea/eee, iie?eoee e
na?oeeueieee. Aei oianoino?iii? ea?aiiee ia iinaeaiiyo ?aiiuei? a?oie
a?aeiinyoueny eooa??? neiiinueeiai ? ei??ionueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia
ai?iaeeuao i?ciuei? a?oie – i?oine. E?iiee iinoae neeaaea? a?ae 6-8% aei
18-20% anueiai ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno. Ia oeeo iinaeaiiyo ciaeaeai?
ai?ueee oa iie?eoee ne?onueeeo oei?a, iacia/ia e?euee?noue ai?uee?a ?
ienie aaoi-o?ae?enueeiai aeaeyaeo, a oaeiae ai?ueee, ienee, /ao?,
iinoaeeie ia oeee?iae?e/ieo i?aeeao, na?oeeueieee, oe?aeeeee, ?eai?
aethaea, eano?oe?, aeaee, eaioa?e, e?aoa?e, i?i?aoth?i? iinoaeeiee.
?a/ia? ciao?aeee ?ioeo a?oi ia ?aii?o oa i?ci?o iinaeaiiyo ocaa?aaeaey
Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio oaeiae iiae?ai?. Ciaeaeaii cae?ci?, a?iicia? ?
naeioeaa? ae?iae, aea, iaa?oue o aeaeyae? oeae?a aai ?oaee, a?aenooi?
ne?aee ?oiueiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ae?iae ?c neea i?aaenoaaeai? ie?aieie
iaienoeiaie, aeeiyi? — i?yneeoeyie, a?oceeaie aeey oeaoeueeiai noaiea,
a?oceeaie aeey ?eaaeuenueei? n?oee, i?iaeaie, iaiioeaie, eiueeaie oa
eoeueoiaeie ?a/aie. Oa?aeoa?iith ciao?aeeith ? a?aoo?o?, oa?aeioe,
ieuea?enuee? iiiaoe. Na?aae eai’yieo ae?ia?a ia?aaaaeathoue oeaiee oi/ee
? a?oceea aeey ?eaaeuenueeeo n?oie. Ciaeaeai? ??ciiiai?oi? ae?iae c
e?noie aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei, o iaea?eueo?e e?eueeino? – “?aoiee?”.
Iaeaiaioai?/i? ? iaeaiciieia?/i? ciao?aeee oaeiae aeaiiino?othoue
iiae?ai?noue ?aii?o oa i?ci?o i?aaeaiieo iinaeaiue. Caiea?ianoai
aaco?oueny ia ae?iuoaaii? y/iaith e ioaieoe?, ? i?ini. O noaae? 40%
oaa?ei neeaaea? ae??aia ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, 26% — aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, 17%
(a na?aaeiueiio) – e?iue. A?aei?ii?noue i?ae ?aii?ie oa i?ci?ie a?oiaie
iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia inoaii?o o iiaie?a’? ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue
naeiae, iaoii?noue noa? iaioa niaae. E?o aeiiaoi?e ciaeaeaiee o?eueee ia
A?eica?nueeiio iinaeaii?. Ia aeine?aeaeaieo iinaeaiiyo ciaeaeaii aaaaoi
iia’ycaieo c ?eaaeuenoaii iaoa??ae?a. Aiae?c iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e
i?aeoaa?aeea, ui iinaeaiiy i?aaeaiii? a?oie aeaio o?iiieia?/ieo aoai?a
iathoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue iiae?aieo iciae.

Ia ?aii?o i?ai?/ieo iinaeaiiyo /anoea ea?ai?ee o iiaiiio ?a/iaiio
eiiieaen? ? cia/iith, aea caaaeii — oea ae??ai? o?aaiaioe aioi? ?
e?iieo ai?uee?a. O ea?ai?/iiio eiiieaen? aioi?e noaiiaeyoue, a
na?aaeiueiio, 40%, ia?aaaaea? oa?a Aa?aeea?. Aioi?e aeaoothoueny
?oaaaeai V-?V no. – ia?oith o?aoeiith ??? no. aei i.a. O?aaiaioe
aii/a?iiai iinoaeo (/i?iieaeiaiai, n??iaeeiyiiai ? /a?aiiiaeeiyiiai)
neeaaeathoue ia a?eueoa 1% a?ae caaaeueiiai ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno.
E?iiee iinoae ia?aaaaea? (60%), aea ca neeaaeii a?i iaeiiiai?oiee, a
iniiaiiio oea ai?ueee, iie?eoee, a oaeiae ? neiai?iaee, oe?aeeeee,
ieni/ee, ?i?oaoe?? aioi? oa a?iiciaeo eacai?a. I?inoaaeo?oueny ??cieoey
i?ae neeaaeii ciao?aeie ia oeaio?aeueiiio Eai’yinueeiio ai?iaeeu? oa ia
?ioeo iinaeaiiyo. Aea anthaee o?aieythoueny iaoaeaa? ae?iae, ia?aaaaeii
?c cae?ca, ciaeaeai? oaeiae cae?ci? oeaee ? ?oaea, a?aeii? a?aeiinii
iaei/enaeuei? a?iicia? ?a/?, ??aee?nieie ? ae?iae ?c naeioeth e n??aea.
O aaeee?e e?eueeino? ciaeaeai? neeyi? iaienoeie. Cae/aeieie ae?iaaie c
aeeie ? i?yneeoey. Na?aae iaea?ai?/iiai iaoa??aeo ia?aaaaeathoue eai’yi?
ae?iae – oea, ia?o ca ana, oi/eea, cono??/athoueny oaeiae cia?yaeaey,
iia’ycai? c caiea?ianoaii (ca?iioa?ee, ?icoe?a/?), o iaio?e e?eueeino? –
i?auia? yae?a, iaienoeie.

Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a i?ci?o i?ai?/ieo iinaeaiue a oe?eiio
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iaoa??ae?a ?ioeo a?oi. Ea?ai?/iee eiiieaen oeeo
iinaeaiue neeaaeathoue, aioi?ia oa?a (a?aenioie oeaie?a — a?ae 32-35%
aei 50% oa aeua ia ??cieo iai’yoeao), e?iiee iinoae (30-70%), aii/a?iee
(n??iaeeiyiee–1-20%, /a?aiiiaeeiyiee–1-4%, /a?aiiieaeiaee) iinoae.
Ciaeaeaii o?eueee ie?ai? o?aaiaioe i?oin?a oa eooiiieo aii/a?ieo
iinoaeei, iiiaeeiie? oeaiee /a?aieoe? iayai? o?eueee ia i’yoe iai’yoeao.
Ianiaee iaoa??ae aeaoo?oueny ? no. aei i.a. – ? no. i.a. ? ?-?? no. i.a.
Aieiaio /anoeio ?iii?oo neeaaea? iaeiac?enueeee /a?aiiieaeiaee iinoae,
cono??/athoueny oaeiae iaaa?nuee? /ao?. Iae/eneaii?o? oi?ie e?iii?
ea?ai?ee – ai?ueee ? ienee, ?iciianthaeaeai? oaeiae aea?iai?, ieioee,
aea/eee, eo?eeueieoe? oiui. Neaai- oa /?oei i?io?eueiaai? ai?ueee
iathoue ca i?ioioeie ne?onuee? oi?ie. A oeiao ienie iniaeeai iii?oiee
ca?oaeiaoeueeee aieea. Aeaye? oeie aea/ee?a oa eo?eeueieoeue iathoue
aaciina?aaei? aiaeia?? a na?iaonuee?e eoeueoo??, cono??/a?oueny ea?ai?ea
o?ae?enueeiai aeaeyaeo, ciaeaeai? ?i?oaoe?? aii/a?iiai iinoaeo aioe/ieo
oei?a. E??i ea?ai?ee, iae/eneaii?oo a?oio ciao?aeie neeaaeathoue eai’yi?
ae?iae. Na?aae ieo ? ?a/?, iia’ycai? c ?eaaeuenoaii, aea a?oceea aeey
n?oie ? ye??i? eaiai? ia noiae? c ae?iaaie ia iinaeaiiyo ocaa?aaeaey
Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio. Aaaaoi ciaeaeaii cae?cieo oa a?iiciaeo ae?ia?a,
aeyaeai? cae?ci? oeaee oa ?io? ?aooee ae?iaieoeoaa. A iaaaeee?e
e?eueeino? (anueiai o?noue) cono??/athoueny iiiaoe, aea a?aenooi?
ieuea?enuee?. Iiaei aeaiaioii eoeueoiaeo ?a/ae ? aeeiyi? i?aenoaaee aeey
aiaieu ?c cae?i/aiiyi o aeaeyae? aie?aie eiiae aai aa?ai?a.
Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeeiyi? a?oceea aeey oeaoeueeiai noaio. O?aieythoueny
iiiaeeiie? ciao?aeee a?aoo?o? o aeaeyae? ie?aieo e?oa? ? oaiaiiiae?aieo
ciae?a. A cia/i?e e?eueeino? i?aaenoaaeai? neeyi? i?ee?ane.
Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a oeeo iinaeaiue iiaea aooe a?aeianaia aei
aa?aa?nueeiai oeio, aea aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eoeueoo?e ?aii?o
i?ai?/ieo iinaeaiue, a naia: aiie iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo
ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?ieo oei?a oa o?iiieia?/ieo ia??iae?a, iathoue
??ci? aoi?/i? ei?ai?. Aeaye? ?ene oeeo eoeueoo? iiae?ai?. Ii??aiyiiy
iaeaiaioai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a oaeiae aeaiiino?o? aeecuee?noue neeaaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?: ia?aaaaea? i?ini, ia ae?oaiio i?noe?
y/i?iue, aeae? – ioaieoey. Na?aae iaeaiciieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo aeyaeaia
nooo?aa a?aei?ii?noue – oaeeaaiiy ?eae oa cia/ii? e?eueeino? aeeeeo
oaa?ei ianaeaiiyi i?ciueine?onueeeo ai?iaeeu, ??cieoueny oaeiae neeaae
ooaeiaeie.

?icae?e 4. O?iiieia?y oa aoiieoeueoo?ia ao?eaooe?y iinaeaiue Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y ne?oi-na?iaonueei? aeiae. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?oaieia?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a iinaeaiue Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y aecia/athoueny o?iiieia?/i?
aoaie ?o ?nioaaiiy, a oaeiae aena?oeth?oueny ieoaiiy aoiieoeueoo?ii?
ao?eaooe?? iai’yoie ?aa?iio.

A ?aa?ii? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y iinaeaiiy c’yaeeenue ia ?oaaae? V-IV
no. aei i.a. ye o i?aaeaii?e, oae ? a i?ai?/i?e eiai /anoei?. ?nioaaiiy
i?aaeaiii? oa i?ai?/ii? a?oi iinaeaiue iaeii/anii i?eieieeinue o ia?o?e
o?aoei? ??? no. aei i.a. Ine?eueee ia iinaeaiiyo a?aenooi? ne?aee
?aioiaiai ai?iaeiai iaiaaeo, ianiaeo iiaeaae, ?oeioaaiue oiui, aeieea?
i?eiouaiiy i?i ia?ai?uaiiy iaoeaioe?a ia iia? i?noey. Oe?eaaeie uiaei
oeueiai ? oaeoe ciao?aeie nea?a?a ieuea?enueeeo iiiao, ye? aeaoothoueny
naia ia?oith /aa?ooth ??? no. aei i.a. ? iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i
ianoaa?euei?noue oiai/anii? neooaoe??, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy e a
iaeii/aniiio cieeiaii? ne?onueeeo eo?aaiieo iiaee [Iie?i N.A., 1992]. O
Aeia?oaeae? aeyaeaii i?enooi?noue ne?o?a a?ae e?ioey ?V-ia?oi? o?aoeie
??? no. aei inoaiiuei? /aa?o? ?? — ii/aoeo ? no. aei i.a. [Aiae?oo N.?.,
1995]. O E?eio a ia?o?e iieiaei? ??? no. aei i.a. niinoa??aa?oueny
?oeioaaiiy ne?oaie aee?inueeeo iinaeaiue, a caiaeii aeieeiaiiy iai’yoie
aa?aa?nueeiai oeio, aeine?aeieeai aaeaeiny i?inoaaeeoe iaaieiiee ianooi
ne?o?a ia caie? I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai E?eio ai?iaeiaae ???-?? no. aei i.a.
[Uaaeia A.I., 1978; Eaioeia N.A., 1994; Eooaenia A.A., Oaeaioeaa A.A.,
1994; Caeoeaa TH.I., 1995]. Ia oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y ?nio?
o?iiieia?/iee i?ii?aeie i?ae caaaeaieie aeua iai`yoeaie oa ai?iaeeuaie,
ye? iinooiiai aeieeaee c ?oaaaeo ??-? no. aei i.a. A?ae ?oaaaeo ??-? no.
aei i.a. aei ??-??? no. i.a. ia Ieaeiueiio Aei?i??, ye ? ?ai?oa,
ni?a?niothoue iinaeaiiy aeaio aoiieoeueoo?ieo a?oi.

A?oia i?ai?/ieo ai?iaeeu c’yaey?oueny ?ai?oa. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeiith
aeaoith canioaaiiy oeeo iinaeaiue ? ?oa?ae ??-? no. aei i.a., iiaeeeai,
iae?ai?oei ?c ieo ? Ciai’yinueea ai?iaeeua, ia yeiio ciaeaeai?
iaoa??aee ae?oai? iieiaeie ?? no. aei i.a. I?ioa iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe,
ui ia aeae?eueeio ai?iaeeuao cono??/aeenue ie?ai? ?aii? ciao?aeee
?V-ia?oi? o?aoeie ??? no. aei i.a., ye? iiaeooue cana?ae/oaaoe
ei?ioei/ania aeei?enoaiiy oe??? i?noeaaino? aeey naciiieo no?eaeu, aea
eoeueoo?iee oa? oa ia’?eoe ?V no. aei i.a. ia ieo ia aeyaeai?. Uiaei
aa?oiuei? aeaoe, oi ia i’yoe iai’yoeao aiia aecia/a?oueny ye ?-?? no.
i.a., ia ?aoo? iinaeaiue — ?? no. i.a. Ia oa?eoi??? i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai
ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio ai?iaeeua aeieeee ia iaae? ? no. aei
i.a. ? ? no. i.a. ii?o/ c iiia?aaei?ie iinaeaiiyie oa ?nioaaee aei ???
no. i.a.

??cieoey i?ae a?oiaie ?aii?o iinaeaiue ?aa?iio aeineoue ae?acia.
A?ae??ciythoueny i?noey ?icoaooaaiiy iinaeaiue, ieaioaaiiy, oa?aeoa?
eoeueoo?iiai oa?o, oei caaoaeiae, iai?iii? nii?oaee, ae?iaie/?
eiiieaene. Oi/a ye ia i?aaeaiieo, oae ? ia i?ai?/ieo iinaeaiiyo
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iai?acaieyiee, a eiaei?e c a?oi aiie iathoue nai?
iniaeea? ?ene. A?ae??ciy?oueny oaeiae no?oeoo?a ?a/iaiai eiiieaeno ?
eiie?aoii ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno. Iieaciaei ? oa, ui neeaae e?iii?
ea?ai?ee ia iaeiaeiaee aeey aeaio a?oi iinaeaiue. Aeey iinaeaiue
ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ? aaeeea
e?euee?noue ciao?aeie, iia’ycaieo c ?eaaeuenoaii; o eiaeiiio aeeoe?
ciaeaeai? a?oceea aeey oeaoeueeiai noaio, ui cian?i ia ? i?eoaiaiiei
aeey ne?onueeeo iinaeaiue. Ia ni?aiaaea? neeaae oa i?eioeei aeei?enoaiiy
iiiao, a?aei?ii? eoeueoia? ae?iae, iaa?oue neeaae ?a/ae c e?noie ?
eaiaith ?ic??ciy?oueny. Nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny neeaae noaaea oa
cia/aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.

Ianaeaiiy iinaeaiue i?aaeaiii? a?oie ia a?ae??ciyeiny a?ae iaoeaioe?a
aeeaeiuei? oi?e Ieuea?? ca ?iaeii ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? (iniiai?
caiyooy – caiea?ianoai, neioa?noai, ?eaaeuenoai, oi?a?aey), oa ca
iniiaieie iciaeaie eoeueoo?e. Neio?iiia ii??aiyiiy iinaeaiue i?aaeaiii?
/anoeie Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y c iai’yoeaie aeeaeiuei? oi?e Ieuea?? ia
oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey aeaiiino?o? iaeaea iiaio oioiaei?noue
?oiuei? eoeueoo?e. Aieiai? caiyooy ianaeaiiy – caiea?ianoai, neioa?noai,
?eaaeuenoai, aeiiaoi?i ae?iaieoeoaii aoei oeaoeoai, iiaeeeai, ia?iaea
oe??, eino? e eaiaith. Ia aeeeth/a?oueny ?nioaaiiy aii/a?iiai
ea?ai?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?iaea iaoaeo ia i?inoaaeo?oueny. Aeaiaioe
aa?aa?nueei? eoeueoo?e ia ?icaeyiooeo iinaeaiiyo ?ai?acaioiaai?, aea
aiie ia ? iniiaieie ? ia aecia/athoue eoeueoo?o a oe?eiio.

O i?ai?/i?e /anoei? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y aeieeee iinaeaiiy o iaaeao
ne?onueei? noaiiai? eoeueoo?e. Ne?onueeee ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iee oei
aacoaaany ia ii?aeiaii? aenoaineaiiai neioa?noaa ? caiea?ianoaa o
??/eiaeo aeieeiao, aeiiaoi?o aeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa, oi?a?ae?. Caaaeii oea
ia noia?a/eoue ei/iaiio ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iiio oeio: o ei/iaee?a
iaaia i?noea iin?aeathoue aeiiii?aei? aeaee ae?yeueiino?, ianaiia?aae,
caiea?ianoai. Aeaiia?ao?/iee iaaeeeoie o ei/iaee?a iino?eii ia?aaeuo?
iiaeeeaino? ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, ? “caea? ethaee” ci?iththoue niin?a
aeeooy, ui ? iaei??th c oiia aeaeeaaiiy on??? nenoaie [Aeeaa? AE.-I.,
1989].

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oa, ui i?aaeaii? oa i?ai?/i?
iinaeaiiy ?aiiueiai aoaio iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo a?oaieia?/ieo eoeueoo?.
?ene iiae?aiino? i?ae ieie iacia/i?: aeei?enoaiiy aae?a ? ?ia?a o
oi?oeo?eaoe??, aeaye? eaoaai??? aioe/iiai ?iii?oo oa ae?iae ne?onueeeo
oei?a ia iinaeaiiyo ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio (a?no?y no??e,
iiae?, inae??, e?ii? ai?ueee oa ?oi? iie?eoee).

I?ae ?aii?ie oa i?ci?ie iinaeaiiyie ocaa?aaeaey Aei?i?ianueeiai eeiaio
i?inoaaeo?oueny iiae?ai?noue o ieaioaaii?, aoae?aieoeoa?, ainiiaea?/?e
ae?yeueiino? iaoeaioe?a, iaoa??aeuei?e eoeueoo??, ea?ai?/iiio eiiieaen?.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?ae ieie ? o?iiieia?/iee i?ii?aeie, iii?oia
?oiy nii??aeiai?noue oa niaaeei?ii?noue.

??cieoey i?ae ne?onueeeie oa i?ciueine?onueeeie iinaeaiiyie
iiynith?oueny, ia?o ca ana, ??cieie ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?ieie oeiaie
ianaeaiiy. Aeayea iiae?ai?noue i?ae ieie i?inoaaeo?oueny o iayaiino? oa
oa?aeoa?? ae?iaieoeoaa, neeaae? ?a/iaeo eiiieaen?a, aeei?enoaii? aae?a
oa ?ia?a o oi?oeo?eaoe??, iayaiino? iai?acaieyiie oa aeeiyiiieaoaieo
aoae?aaeue, neeaae? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, iacia/i?e ?ie? a?ioiaiai ia?ao.
??cieoey i?ae oeeie a?oiaie iinaeaiue nooo?ai iii?oia o i?eioeeiao
caaoaeiae oa?eoi???, aeei?enoaii? ia a?eueo i?ci?o iai’yoeao aoae?aaeue
?c eaiaith oa a?eueo neeaaeieo iai?iiieo nii?oae, o no?oeoo?? eiiieaeno
ea?ai?ee, eoeueoiaeo ae?iaao. Iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui iaeaea? a?oie
ianaeaiiy ?nioaaee a iaaeao aa?aa?nueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, aea
??cieoey i?ae ieie ia aea? iiaeeeaino? a?aeianoe ?o aei iaei???
eoeueoo?e ia aeaio o?iiieia?/ieo aoaiao.

Iinaeaiiy i?ci?o a?oi aeieeee ia iniia? iiae?aiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai
oeeaaeo. Oeei, aei iaaii? i??e, aeeeeeaia noiae?noue aeaio iiaeo a?oi
iinaeaiue, aea niinoa??aathoueny e a?aei?iiino? o ?ici??ao, i?eioeeiao
aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi???, aoae?aaeueieo o?aaeeoe?yo, oi?oeo?eaoe??,
ae?iaie/?e ae?yeueiino?, ea?ai?/iiio eiiieaen? (a naia – e?ii?e
ea?ai?oe?), eoeueoiaeo ae?iaao, ioi?ciaoe/ieo ciao?aeeao, neeaae?
aa?ieoeueoo? oiui, oiaoi, ca iniiaieie iciaeaie, ui neeaaeathoue
eoeueoo?o ianaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, aoiieoeueoo?ia neooaoe?y ia oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y a ne?oi-na?iaonueeo aiioo aecia/a?oueny ni?a?nioaaiiyi
aeaio iniiaieo a?oi ianaeaiiy. Iaeia c ieo aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c
ieuea?enueeith eoeueoo?ith ?, oi/a ?nioaaiiy iinaeaiue ia aoei
aacia?a?aiei, o eoeueoo?? ?o iaoeaioe?a i?inoaaeaia niaaeei?ii?noue, ye
? ia oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey [E?eaeeoeueeee N.Ae., Aoenueeeo
N.A., Ao?aeia A.A., Io?aoei A.I., 1989]. Aa?aa?nueea o?aaeeoe?y ia ia?
yaii? niaaeeiaino? ?icaeoeo. A?aenooi?noue iinaeaiue ia Ieaeiueiio
Aei?i?? a ia??iae «nionoioaiiy noaio» e iii?oi? a?aei?iiino? i?ae
ne?onueeeie oa i?ciueine?onueeeie iai’yoeaie ?aa?iio ia aeicaieythoue
aaa/aoe o ianaeaii? i?ci?o ai?iaeeu aaciina?aaei?o niaaeei?ioe?a
eoeueoo?e noaiiaeo ne?o?a IV no. aei i.a. Neie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?
i?ciueine?onueei? eoeueoo?e iino?eii a?aecia/aee ?? aeine?aeieee,
aeie?aiethth/e i?e oeueiio ne?onuee?, a oaeiae ca?oaeiaoeuee?,
na?iaonuee?, aee?inuee?, aaoi-o?ae?enuee? aeaiaioe.

AENIIAEE

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a iinaeaiue, ye? ?nioaaee ia
oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y a ne?oi-na?iaonueeo aiioo, iieacaa, ui
o?iiieia?y oa aoiieoeueoo?ia ao?eaooe?y oeeo iai’yoie iiaeii? aooe a
cia/i?e i??? ci?iai? oa ooi/iai?. Aeine?aeaeaii aea? naiino?ei? e?i??
aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e iinaeaiue o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ?aa?ii?.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eeoe aeaa iniiaieo oa iaeei i?ii?aeiee ia??iaee a
?nioaaii? oeueiai ianaeaiiy.

?oa?ae V-IV – ia?oa o?aoeia ??? no. aei i.a. – ia??iae, eiee i?aaeaiia
/anoeia Aei?i?ianueeiai i?aaiaa?aaeaey inaithaaeany iin?yie
ieuea?enueei? eoeueoo?e, a o noaiiaeo ne?o?a c’yaeeeny aeani? iinaeaiiy.
Iaoa??aeueia ? aeooiaia eoeueoo?a, niin?a aeeooy aeacaieo a?oi ianaeaiiy
?ic??ciythoueny aeiei??iii.

C ae?oai? o?aoeie ??? aei ae?oai? iieiaeie ?? – ?oaaaeo ??-? no. aei
i.a. ia oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y ia aeyaeaii a?oaieia?/ieo
ne?ae?a iino?eiiai i?iaeeaaiiy yeiainue ianaeaiiy.

?oa?ae ??-? no. aei i.a.– ??-??? no. i.a. – ia??iae iiiiaeaiiy in?eiai
niiniao aeeooy ia an?e oa?eoi??? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y ia iniia?
noiaeiai ainiiaea?nueeiai oeio. I?aaeaiii-cao?aeia /anoeia ?aa?iio ciiao
canaey?oueny i?aaenoaaieeaie ieuea?enueei? eoeueoo?e, a aeae? ia i?ai?/
aeieeathoue iai’yoee aa?aa?nueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, a eoeueoo??
ianaeaiiy yeeo ? ne?onuee?, ca?oaeiaoeuee?, na?iaonuee?, aioe/i?,
o?ae?enuee? ?ene. I?aeaoi?/i? eiioaeoe a oeae ia??iae aoee a?eueo
o?nieie, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy ye o eoeueoo?? ianaeaiiy,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiiai c Ieuea??th, oae ? a eoeueoo?? iin??a
aa?aa?nueei? o?aaeeoe??.

NIENIE INIIAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Cae?uoue eiiieaen aioi?iie oa?u n iinaeaiey “Onaaeueaa Eeoaeiaiei” ia
Aeiai?ianeii eeiaia //Ae?aaiinoe Noaiiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey e E?uia.-
Caii?iaeuea, 1992.- O. ???.-N. 130-136.

A?oaieiae/aneay eieeaeoeey Oa?niineiai e?aaaaae/aneiai iocay
//AAeE.-1993.-? 2.-N. 233-241.

Aei ieoaiiy i?i no?aeio iaaeo n?euenueei? ie?oae Ieuea?? a
i?ciueieeane/iee-?aiiueiaee?i?noe/iee /an //A?oaieia?y.- 1994.-Aei.
3.-N. 19-31.

A?aee e aa?aa?u a Ieaeiai Iiaeiai?iauea a eiioea V-ia?aie o?aoe ??? aa.
aei i.y. (ii iaoa?eaeai ?aneiiie iinaeaiee) //AAeE.- 1995.-? 4.-N.
111-116.

E aii?ino i oi?aiauo naycyo Ieueaee e Oa?niiana n ianaeaieai Ieaeiaai
Iiaeiai?iauey a eiioea V-?V aa. aei i.y. //Aioe/iua iieenu e ianoiia
ianaeaiea I?e/a?iiii?uey.- Naaanoiiieue: IAI Oe?aeiu. EA, E?ui. oeeeae,
Iaoe. caiiaaaeiee “Oa?niian Oaa?e/aneee”, ?AI. Ei-o anaiauae enoi?ee.
Oeaio? n?aaieoaeueiiai eco/aiey ae?aaieo oeeaeeecaoeee, 1995.-N. 61-64.

Iinaeaiea «Onaaeueaa Eeoaeiaiei» ia Aeiai?ianeii eeiaia //IAEYO. -1996.
-O. V.-N. 5-11, n. 456-460.

Excavations on the Eastern Boundary of the Chora of Olbia Pontica
//Echos du Monde Classique-Classical Views.-1996.- XL, 15, No. 1.- ?.
99-118.

I o?iiieiaee iinaeaiee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey aioe/iie yiioe //Ieeiiee e
aioe/iue ie? Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey.-Iaeanna: IAI IAIO, Oiiae a?a/.
eoeueoo?u. Iaean. oeeeae, 1997.-N. 186-192.

Eaiiay ea?aieea iinaeaiee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey (IV-ia?aay o?aoue III
a. aei i.y.) // Ae?aaiaa I?e/a?iiii?uea: IV *oaiey iaiyoe I.I.
Ea?uoeianeiai.-Iaeanna: IAO, EA AI ONN?, IAI AI ONN?, IIA., IAI,
1998.-N. 26-33.

Aei i?iaeaie ca’yce?a ? ci?ie eoeueoo? ianaeaiiy Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y
a aioe/io aiioo // A?oaieia?y.– 1998.–? 3.–N. 113-121.

Neeoneea iinaeaiey ?V a. aei i.y.a Noaiiii Iiaeiai?iauea.-E, 1992.-*.
1-2. — 57 n., 50 n. (I?ai?./AI Oe?aeiu. Ei-o a?oaieiaee).– Ni?aaaoi?e
Aaa?eethe I.A., E?aa/aiei N.I.

AIIOAOe??

Aeeeiaa A.I. Iinaeaiiy Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a a IV no. aei i.a.–??? no.
i.a.– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04 – a?oaieia?y.–?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ianaeaiiy
Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y a ne?oi-na?iaonueeo aiioo. A iaoeiaee ia?a
aaiaeyoueny iaoa??aee c aeine?aeaeaieo a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy iai’yoie.
O ?iaio? iieacaii o?iiieia?th iinaeaiue oa aeyaeaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aee?inueei? oa aa?aa?nueei? eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e. Aeae?eythoueny
o?iiieia?/i? aoaie: anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aa?ii aoa inai?iee ianaeaiiyi aeaio
aoiieoeueoo?ieo a?oi ia ?oaaae? V-IV no. aei i.a., o ia?o?e o?aoei? ???
no. aei i.a. iinaeaiiy i?eieieee ?nioaaiiy; iio?i aei ae?oai? iieiaeie —
e?ioey ?? no. aei i.a. iaia? a?oaieia?/ieo ne?ae?a iino?eiiai
i?iaeeaaiiy aoaeue-yeiai ianaeaiiy; ia iaae? ??-? no. aei i.a. in?eee
niin?a aeeooy iiiiaeany, iia? a?oie iinaeaiue ?nioaaee aei ??-??? no.
i.a. Cai?iiiiiaaia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaio a?oi iinaeaiue, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei ?onoeo?eiaaii? eoeueoo?e Ieuea?? ia aeaio
o?iiieia?/ieo aoaiao, ? aeaio a?oi iinaeaiue aa?aa?nueei? eoeueoo?ii?
o?aaeeoe??, aea iaeaea iaiiaeeeai i?inoaaeeoe i?yio niaaeei?ii?noue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iinaeaiiy, ne?oi-na?iaonueea aiioa, Ieaei?
Iiaei?i?ia’y, o?iiieia?y, aee?inueea ? aa?aa?nueea eoeueoo?i?
o?aaeeoe??, aoiieoeueoo?ia ao?eaooe?y.

Bylkova V.P. Settlements in Lower Dnieper Region from the IVth cent.
BC to the IIId cent. AD.-Manuscript

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00.04.– archaeology.–
The Institute of Archaeology of National Academy of Science of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to an examination of problems relating to
the ethnocultural situation in the Lower Dnieper region in the Scythian
and Sarmatian period, based on the material from settlements excavated
in recent decades. The chronology is clarified, the relationship between
Hellenic and barbarian cultural types is reviewed. It is established
that there are three historical phases: from the early 4th century to
the first third of the 3rd century BC the region was occupied by a
population consisting of two different ethnocultural groups; in the late
2nd century BC two new groups of settlements had appeared, which were
occupied until the 3rd century AD. There is thus a chronological break
when there was no settled population, Hellenic or barbarian. Culturally
there are two chronologically distinct groups of settlements which share
the culture of the Olbian chora, and two other groups, not directly
connected, which have a Scythian or mixed barbarian population.

Key words: settlement, Scythian and Sarmatian period, Lower Dnieper
Region, chronology, Hellenic and barbarian cultural types, ethnocultural
definition.

Aueeiaa A.I. Iinaeaiey Ieaeiaai Aeiai?a a IV a. aei i.y. – III a.
i.y.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04.-a?oaieiaey.-Einoeooo a?oaieiaee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco a?oaieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, iieo/aiiuo
i?e ?aneiieao iinaeaiee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey neeoi-na?iaoneie yiioe. A
iao/iue iai?io aaiaeyony iaoa?eaeu iinaeaiee, enneaaeiaaiiuo a
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey. A ?aaioa aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea oiiia?aoee,
ieaie?iaee, no?aoea?aoee, iai?iieoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, no?ieoaeueiuo
eiiieaenia, aauanoaaiiiai iaoa?eaea, aeaiiuo iaeaiaioaieee e
iaeaiciieiaee niioaaonoaaiii ?acaeaeaieth iinaeaiee ia aeaa
oa??eoi?eaeueiua a?oiiu. Ooi/iaiu aeaoe?iaee eiie?aoiuo iaiyoieeia,
iieacaia o?iiieiaey iinaeaiee, ?anniio?aiu aii?inu yoiieoeueoo?iie
ao?eaooeee.

Iaeiei ec ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony ooi/iaiea aaniethoiie
o?iiieiaee nouanoaiaaiey iinaeaiee a ?aaeiia. Aicieeee aeaa a?oiiu
iinaeaiee a Ieaeiai Iiaeiai?iauea ia ?oaaaea V-IV – a ia/aea IV aa. aei
i.y., e iaa iie i?ae?aoeee nouanoaiaaiea a ia?aie o?aoe III a. aei i.y.
Aeaa iiaua a?oiiu iinaeaiee aicieeee a ia?eiae io ?oaaaea II-I aa. aei
i.y. aei ?oaaaea I a. aei i.y. – I a. i.y. e i?ae?aoeee nouanoaiaaiea ai
II-III a. i.y. Yoa o?iiieiaey aeaao iniiaaiea aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey oiai,
/oi i?iaeeaaiea inaaeeiai ianaeaiey a ?anniao?eaaaiii ?aaeiia a
neeoi-na?iaoneoth yiioo ia auei iai?a?uaiui.

Iinaeaiey, iniiaaiiua ia naaa?i-ainoi/iii iiaa?aaeuea Aeiai?ianeiai
eeiaia, io?aaeatho aeoeaiinoue ianaeaiey Ieueaeeneiai iieena a nicaeaiee
aieueoie oi?u. I?e oii, /oi iinaeaiey iaeaaeatho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie
iniaaiiinoyie, noiaenoai a iniiaiuo /a?oao iicaieyao ioianoe eo e
iaeiie eoeueoo?a, ii?aaeaeaiiie enneaaeiaaoaeyie Ieueaee eae
?onoeoeoee?iaaiiue aa?eaio ieueaeeneie.

Ae?oaie oa?aeoa? eiaee iinaeaiey, aicieeoea o neeoia. Iie iiyaeeenue a
?aieao ei/aaie eoeueoo?u aac i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey iaeiiai ia?aca aeecie
ae?oaiio, yaeyynue iaeiei ec oneiaee auaeeaaiey ei/aaiai iauanoaa.
Aeaiia?aoe/aneee eceeoae ii ioiioaieth e aiciiaeiinoyi n?aaeu iaoiaeee
iiaia ianoi a iauanoaa, iniiau eioi?iai yoei ia cao?aaeaaeenue, ii
neioiaiaenoai aeiiieiyeinue aniiiiaaoaeueiuie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec oiiia?aoee, ieaie?iaee, no?aoea?aoee, no?ieoaeueiuo
eiiieaenia e aauanoaaiiiai iaoa?eaea iinaeaiee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey
neeoi-na?iaoneie yiioe iieacae ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aeaoiy a?oiiaie
ianaeaiey neio?iiiuo iinaeaiee ia o?iaia a?oaieiae/aneeo eoeueoo? e
oicyenoaaiii-eoeueoo?iuo oeiia. Ia ia?aii o?iiieiae/aneii yoaia (?oaaae
V-IVaa. aei i.y. – ia?aay o?aoue III a. aei i.y.) a thaeiie /anoe
?aaeiia ?acaeaathony oicyenoaaiii-eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee a?aeia
Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey, a aieueoay /anoue Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey
yaeyaony a?aaeii ?ani?ino?aiaiey neeoneie eoeueoo?u. I?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea
“yeeeinoaa” e “aa?aa?noaa” ia yoii yoaia iaeaaeaao eiie?aoiui
niaea?aeaieai.

A ia?aie o?aoe ??? a. aei i.y. aeeciue ia iinaeaieyo iaaeo a?oii
i?ae?aoeeanue, naiue iicaeiee iaoa?eae ia ieo aeaoe?oaony ia?auie
aeanyoeeaoeyie ??? a. aei i.y. I?e ionoonoaee neaaeia a?aaeaneiai
ianooieaiey, iiaea?ia, ?ac?ooaiee e o.i. aicieeaao i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia
ooiaea ianaeaiey. Einaaiiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii ianoaaeeueiinoe ianoaiiaee
yaeythony eeaaeu iiiao. Ana yoi aienuaaaony a iauoth neooaoeeth a
Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea. A?oaieiae/aneeo naeaeaoaeuenoa i?aauaaiey
ianaeaiey ia oa??eoi?ee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiai?iauey ai a?aiy “caionoaiey
noaiae” ia iaia?oaeaii.

Aiciaiiaeaiea inaaeeiai ia?aca aeecie, au?aceaoaany a iiyaeaiee iiauo
iinaeaiee, ia/aeinue ia ?oaaaea ??-? aa. aei i.y. A oicyenoaaiiii
oeeaaea ianaeaiey iinaeaiee iiaa?aaeuey eeiaia e iicaeianeeoneeo
ai?iaeeu eiaaony noiaenoai, eioi?ia iaoei io?aaeaiea a iaoa?eaeueiie
eoeueoo?a. Oai ia iaiaa, ?acee/ey iaaeaeo yoeie a?oiiaie iaiyoieeia
i?ineaaeeaathony a iniiaiuo eoeueoo?iia?acothueo i?eciaeao: ?acia?ao
iinaeaiee, ieaie?iaea, no?aoea?aoee, no?ieoaeueiuo o?aaeeoeeyo,
oi?oeoeeaoeee, ea?aie/aneii eiiieaena, iaai?a iiiao, niioiioaiee
aa?eeoeueoo? e aeeaioiuo a noaaea. I?enouaa ia?aiio yoaio
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea a?a/aneie e aa?aa?neie eoeueoo?u oaia?ue oaea ia
iaaethaeaaony oae yaii eae i?aaeaea, iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue e eoeueoo?iia
caeinoaiaaiea, e yoie/aneia niaoaiea, iaeiaei aeaa eoeueoo?iua
o?aaeeoeee ii-i?aaeiaio iaoiaeyo au?aaeaiea a a?oaieiae/aneii iaoa?eaea
aeaoo a?oii iinaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iinaeaiea, neeoi-na?iaoneay yiioa, Ieaeiaa
Iiaeiai?iauea, o?iiieiaey, yeeeineay e aa?aa?neay eoeueoo?iua
o?aaeeoeee, yoiieoeueoo?iay ao?eaooeey.

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