I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a

A?A*IA ?ioao Aoiaoiae/

OAeE 616.69+618.17-036-085:615.851

II?OOAIIss NAENOAEUeIIAI CAeI?IA’ss

CA ??CIEO OI?I IAA?ICO O AE?IIE

OA EIAI INEOIOA?AIAAOE*IA EI?AEOe?ss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 14.01.16 — ineo?ao??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a oa o
Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeani?e ee?i?/i?e e?ea?i? ?i.I.?.Eae?i?ia

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Ieoaeeia Ai?en
Aieiaeeie?iae/, Oa?e?anuee?e ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e ineo?ao???

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Eooueei ?ai? ?aaiiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaa?ieia?? ? ineo?ao???, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
aoaeoeaii? iaoieia??;

aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Oaaa/ieeia Noai?neaa ?naaeiae/,
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa. eaoaae?ith
ineo?ao??? oa ineoioa?ai?? oaeoeueoaoo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe;

aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Niiiee A?eai??e O?ioeiiae/, Oe?a?inueea
iaaee/ia noiiaoieia?/ia aeaaeai?y, caa. eaoaae?ith ineo?ao???,
ia?eieia??, caaaeueii? oa iaaee/ii? ineoieia??.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, i.Ee?a, eaoaae?a ineo?ao???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 30 » aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 64.609.01 o Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo?
oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a ca aae?anith: 310176, i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Ei?/aa?ioe?a,
58

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 28 » ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
A?eai?iaa ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?iaeaia ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y i?e iaa?icao i?eaa?oaea
oaaao aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a. I?ioa aiia ia o?eueee ia ao?a/a? nai??
aeooaeueiino?, a e iaaoaa? aeaaeae? a?eueoiai iaaee/iiai oa
nioe?aeueiiai cia/aiiy. Oea coiiaeth?oueny c?inoaiiyi inoaii? ?iee
/anoioe iaa?ic?a, ui, ye i?aaeei, noi?iaiaeaeothoueny naenoaeueieie
?iceaaeaie, ye? ni?e/eiythoue naenoaeueio aeenaa?iii?th iiae?oaeiuei?
ia?e ? ia??aeei — ?iciaae n?i’?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?aoeyo aaoi??a, ye?
aeine?aeaeoaaee ?icaeyaeoaaio i?iaeaio (A.I.Nayaeiu, 1975;
A.E.Iai?a?iei, 1987; N.O.Aaa?eiaa, O.?.Aaa?eiaa, 1990; A.O.Niiiee, 1996;
N.?.Oaaa/ieeia, 1996; I.I.Ia?ooa, 1997; ?.?.Eooueei, 1997), a?aeoai?aii
iaoiaaiac, ee?i?eo oa oa?ai?th naenoaeueieo ii?ooaiue (caeaa?eueoiai o
/ieia?e?a) ca ie?aieo oi?i iaa?ico, i?ioa iniaeeaino? ao?ieia??,
iaoiaaiaco oa ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a iaa?ico, i?e/eiith yeiai ? naenoaeueia
ineoio?aaia, oa aoi?eiia caeo/aiiy o iaoieia?/iee i?ioean naenoaeueii?
ooieoe?? i?e iaa?ic?, coiiaeaiiio ianaenoaeueiith ineoio?aaiith, oae
naii ye ieoaiiy ?? aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee e oni?oiiai
e?eoaaiiy, ua ? aeaeaeeie a?ae naiai ?ica’ycaiiy. Oea iia’ycaii, ye iai
oyaey?oueny, ianaiia?aae ?c oei, ui aei oeueiai /ano ia aea/aii e ia
iienaii a e?oa?aoo?? /eneaii? ee?i?/i? oi?ie naenoaeueieo ?iceaae?a, ui
niinoa??aathoueny i?e iaa?icao, iniaeeai o ae?iie, ia ?ice?eoi i?e/eie,
iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo ? i?iyae ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? oa ?? ca’ycie ?c oi?iith iaa?ico, ?, ye ?acoeueoao,
iaaeineoue aoaeoeaia e?eoaaiiy /anoi ni?e/eiy? caoyaeiee ia?aa?a ye
naiiai iaa?ico, oae ? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??.

E??i oiai, o a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeeny, ?aii?o?oueny
ia?iee oa?aeoa? noaoaai? ooieoe?? ? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe
ianoaaeaiiy eeoa iaeiiai, oai?iai c iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e, ioaea, e
?aeiiaiaeiaaia oa?ai?y ia? iaeiia?/iee oa?aeoa?. Oei /anii ?
caaaeueiiaeciai? iieiaeaiiy no/anii? naenieia?/ii? iaoee, ? ee?i?/iee
aeina?ae iacaia?a/ii na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui naenoaeueiee ?iceaae a
iaeiiai c iiae?oaeaey iaieio/a ni?e/eiy? ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueii? ooieoe??
o ae?oaiai, ? oiio ei?aeoe?y naenoaeueieo ?iceaae?a, iacaeaaeii a?ae
?oiuei? i?e?iaee oa iia’ycaii? c ieie naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiaea
aooe aoaeoeaiith eeoa a ?ac? ianoaaeaiiy oa eiiieaeniiai
aeeoa?aioe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy iaio c iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e. Nooo?aith
i?iaaeeiith a ?ic?iaoe? ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ? e iaaeinoaoiy
aea/ai?noue nioe?aeueieo, ineoieia?/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
aniaeo?a ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y i?e iaa?icao o ae?iie.

No/anieie naenieia?/ieie i?aoeyie iieacaii, ui naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y
iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e iiaea aooe coiiaeaia iae??ciiiai?oieie i?e/eiaie oa
ianoaaeiaie. Cie?aia, aeoiaey/e c /ioe?eoaeoi?ii? eiioeaioe??
caaacia/aiiy naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? (A.A.E?eooaeue, 1985, 1990), ?yae
aeine?aeiee?a aeiaaee, ui ia o?eueee iiaiioe?ii?noue
aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai ?? eiiiiiaioa o iaio ?c iiae?oaeaey, a e ia
iaioith i??ith aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ?oiuei? nioe?aeueii?, ineoieia?/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe??, ui aecia/a? a?aeiia?aei?noue
naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee iiae?oaeaey, ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith caa?aaeaiiy
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y. Oaea ??ciiiai?oi?noue i?e/ei ? neeaaeiee aaiac
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e, a oiio /ene? i?e iaa?ic? o
ae?oaeeie, aeeeoothoue iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?o
aea/aiiy. Oei /anii aeine?aeaeaiiy c oeeo iiceoe?e a?aee?eaa?
iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii?
naenoaeueii? iaoieia?? ca ??cieo oi?i iaa?ico, aeyaeoe ?? niaoeeo?/i?
ee?i?/i? iniaeeaino? ? ?ieue o ?icaeoeo iiae?oaeiuei? aeenaa?iii??, ?,
ioaea, ?ic?iaeoe aeineoue aoaeoeaio nenoaio ei?aeoe?? oa aaeaeaaoi?
i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee.

Oeacai? ianoaaeie ? aecia/eee aea?? oaie oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo
oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a ca oaiith: «Nioe?aeuei?, ineoieia?/i?, a?ieia?/i?
oaeoi?e a ao?ieia?? oa iaoiaaiac?, ei?aeoe?? oa i?io?eaeoeoe? ii?ooaiue
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y».

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei,
iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a oa ee?i?ee ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y
i?e iaa?ic? naenoaeueiiai oa ianaenoaeueiiai aaiaco o ae?iie ?ic?iaeoe
nenoaio ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? ei?aeoe?? naenoaeueii? aeeaa?iii??
iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e ca aeaii? iaoieia?? o ae?oaeeie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei cacia/aii? iaoe a ?iaio? aoei iinoaaeaii oae?
caaaeaiiy.

1. Aea/eoe i?e/eie, iaoai?cie oa oiiae ?icaeoeo naenoaeueii? iaoieia?? o
ae?iie i?e iaa?anoai??, ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? oa iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaeo
noai?a.

2. Aeine?aeeoe e iienaoe ee?i?/i? oi?ie ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ca aeacaieo oi?i iaa?ico.

3. Aeine?aeeoe ca’ycie i?ae oa?aeoa?ii oa ia?aa?aii naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie oa oi?iith iayaiiai a ieo iaa?ico.

4. Aea/eoe ?ieue iaaaoeaieo nioe?aeueieo, ineoieia?/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a o aaiac?
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e i?e naenoaeuei?e
aeenooieoe?? o ae?oaeeie, oai?i? ia iaa?ic.

5. Aea/eoe i?iyae oa ia?aa?a naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? o ianoaaeaiiai
eiioeiaaioo iiae?oaei?o ia?.

6. Onoaiiaeoe aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa??? ??cieo aa??aio?a
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? i?e aeine?aeaeoaai?e iaoieia?? oa i?eioeeie ?
iaoiaee ?? i?io?eaeoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y
oia?oa aea/aii i?e/eie e iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? i?e iaa?anoai??, ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? oa
iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaeo noai?a o ae?iie. Oia?oa iienaii ee?i?/i? oi?ie
ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? iaoieia?? i?e iaa?ic? oa iieacaii ?oi?e ca’ycie
?c aea/aieie oi?iaie oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy.

Aeyaeaii ?ieue a?iaaiieo, nioe?iaaiieo oa iaaaoeaieo ineoieia?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a o oi?ioaaii? ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie, oai?eo ia iaa?ic, i?iaiae?ciaaii
ia?aa?a oa i?iyae naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e, ui
?icaeaa?oueny i?e oeueiio.

Iiaith ? ?ic?iaeaia ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaia
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ineoioa?aiaaoe/ieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
ei?aeoe?th ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e i?e
iaa?anoai??, ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? oa iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino? o ae?iie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
ia? aecia/aiiy oiia, iaoai?ci?a ?icaeoeo, ia?aa?ao oa i?iya?a
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e, a ye?e o ae?oaeeie ?nio?
naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y, ui ni?e/eiy? iaa?ic aai coiiaeaia iaa?icii.
Aaaeeeaeie aeey ee?i?/ii? i?aeoeee ? aeae?eaiiy oa iienaiiy iicieia?/ieo
oi?i ia?aeiieo naenoaeueieo ?iceaae?a ca aeine?aeaeoaaieo oi?i iaa?ico o
ae?iie ? ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? ?oiuei? aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee, ui
a?oioothoueny ia ?ioaa?aeueieo e?eoa??yo naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ?
a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeea?noue aeai?o aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo e?eoaaeueieo
i?ia?ai.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eiiieaenia nenoaia ae?aaiinoeee oa ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii?
ei?aeoe?? naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e, ui ?icaeaa?oueny
ca aea/aieo oi?i iaa?ico o ae?iie, ia? iaoiaaiaoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue ?
aea? ciiao aeineoue aenieiai oa no?eeiai oa?aiaaoe/iiai aoaeoo.
I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iathoue aeaeai? ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ae?aaiinoeee ? ei?aeoe?? ?iceaae?a
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aeena?oaioii aeeiiaii ieaioaaiiy oa cae?eniaiiy
on?o i?aaenoaaeaieo a aeai?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca ia??iae 1992-1997
?ie?a aeeeth/ii aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia ee?i?/ia,
ee?i?ei-ineoieia?/ia, aenia?eiaioaeueii-ineoieia?/ia oa nioe?ieia?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy 300 iiae?oaei?o ia?, a yeeo ae?oaeeia oai??ea ia iaa?ic.
On?i iaoe??ioai iniaenoi aaoi?ii aoei iaaeaii e?eoaaeueio,
ineoioa?aiaaoe/io oa eiinoeueoaoeaio aeiiiiiao. Aaoi?ii aeae?eaii e
iienaii ee?i?/i? oi?ie ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
i?e iaa?anoai??, ?noa??? oa iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino? o ae?oaeeie, aecia/aii
aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa??? oeeo oi?i oa aa??aio?a
iia’ycaii? c ieie naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e;
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio ei?aeoe??, i?eioeeie oa
iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ca
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oi?i iaa?ico.

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo oa iaoeiaa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th on?o caeiaooeo o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeaieo aeeiiaii naiei aaoi?ii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe o i?aeoeeo. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaii?
Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiai-iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa naeniiaoieia?a (1995, 1996,
1997 ??.); can?aeaii? Aeiiaoeueeiai iaoeiai-iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa (1995
?.), ia eiioa?aioe?? naeniiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (1996 ?.); ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth, i?enay/ai?e
aeanyoe??//th eaoaae?e iaaee/ii? naenieia?? oa iaaee/ii? ineoieia??
Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a (1997 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
a?aeae?eaiue n?iaeiiai e?ea?nueei-ineoieia?/iiai eiinoeueooaaiiy
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? oa Oa?e?anueeiai i?nueeiai
ineoiiaa?ieia?/iiai aeeniaina?o, a oaeiae o iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean ia
eaoaae?? iaaee/ii? naenieia?? oa iaaee/ii? ineoieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai
?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Io?eiai aeeieii Aeaaeai?? naenieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ca
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? aeinyaiaiiy o aaeoc? naenieia?? (1997?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii iiiia?ao?th, 16
iaoeiaeo noaoae o ia??iaee/ieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo ? 3 oace aeiiia?aeae o
ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 298 noi?.
iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeiai? aeaae, 7 aeaa aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a oa aeaio aeiaeaoe?a.

Aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue ocaaaeueiaii a 33 oaaeeoeyo. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee nienie
i?noeoue 363 aeaea?aea.

CI?NO ?IAIOE. CAeIAOO? ?ACOEUeOAOE

I?ae niinoa?aaeaiiyi ia?aaoaaei 300 niaoe?aeueii a?ae?a?aieo iiae?oaei?o
ia?, a yeeo ae?oaeeie oai??ee ia iaa?ic: ii 100 iiae?oaei?o ia?, aea o
ae?oaeei aoei ae?aaiinoiaaii iaa?anoai?th, ?noa??th oa iaa?ic
iaa’yceeaeo noai?a.

C /enea ianoaaeaieo o 255 (837%) iiae?oaei?o ia? iaea i?noea
naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y, o ?aooe 45 (154%) naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y ia
niinoa??aaeany, iacaaaeath/e ia iayai?noue iaa?ico o ae?oaeeie. Oe?
iiae?oaei? ia?e ianoaaeoaaeeny ye eiio?ieueia a?oia.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oi?iith iaa?ico o ae?iie ianoaaeoaai? aoee
?iciiae?eai? ia o?e a?oie. Aei eiaeii? c ieo aa?eoee ii 85 iiae?oaei?o
ia?, a yeeo naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y aeieeea aiane?aeie naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? o ae?oaeeie, iia’ycaii? a?aeiia?aeii c iaa?anoai??th,
?noa?e/iei iaa?icii oa iaa?icii iaa’yceeaeo noai?a.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy aca?iica’yceo naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie ?
oi?ie iaa?ico aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui o 209 (844%) ianoaaeaieo
a?aecia/aeany ia?aeiia naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y, a o 46 (184%) —
aoi?eiia. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai a eiaei?e ?c a?oi iiae?oaei?o ia?
aoei aeae?eaii aea? i?aea?oie: ia?oo neeaee iiae?oaei? ia?e, a yeeo
naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y aoea iia’ycaia c ia?aeiiith naenoaeueiith
aeenooieoe??th o ae?oaeeie, ae?oao — ia?e, a yeeo aeenaa?iii?y aeieeea
ca iayaiiai o ae?oaeeie aoi?eiiiai naenoaeueiiai ?iceaaeo.

Ie iiae?ey?ii aeoieo A.A.E?eooaey (1985, 1996), yeee aei ia?aeiieo
naenoaeueieo aeenooieoe?e a?aeiineoue on? naenoaeuei? ii?ooaiiy, ui ?
ia?aeiiei niaoeeo?/iei naeniiaoieia?/iei ooai?aiiyi ? yaey? niaith
naiino?eio oi?io naenoaeueiiai ?iceaaeo, a aoi?eiieie aaaaea?
naenoaeuei? aeenooieoe??, ye? iiaoi?ii caeo/athoueny aei iaa?ioe/iiai
i?ioeano ? ? neiae?iiaie yeiainue niiaoe/iiai /e ineo?/iiai
caoai?thaaiiy i?aai?cio.

A on?o a?oiao ianoaaeaieo cia/iith i??ith ia?aaaaeaee ia?aeii?
naenoaeuei? aeenooieoe??. I?e oeueiio i?e iaa?anoai?? iae/ano?oa
niinoa??aaeany iaoi?aoeaeoi?ia oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? oa iaa?ic
i/?eoaaiiy, i?e ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? ia?aaaaeaee aaa?i?ci oa naenoaeueia
aaa?n?y, i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino? — iaa?ic i/?eoaaiiy naenoaeueii?
iaaaea/? oa iaoi?aoeaeoi?ia oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??. Oei /anii
i?eaa?oaea oaaao aaeeea /anoioa — o 433% oai?eo — aeacaaeaioeaieo oi?i
oa aeac?ioi?iaoe?eii? oi?ie ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
iacaeaaeii a?ae iayaieo o ae?iie oi?i iaa?ico.

Ianoaaeai? iiae?oaeaey aoee a?eii a?ae 21 aei 45 ?ie?a, i?e/iio /ieia?ee
e ae?oaeeie a eiaei?e iiae?oaei?e ia?? iaeaaeaee aei iaei??? o??? naii?
a?eiai? a?oie, ui ioiieth? 5 ?ie?a. A?eueo?noue ianoaaeaieo aoea a?eii
aei 30 ?ie?a, ia?aeii? naenoaeuei? aeenooieoe?? a?aecia/aeeny
caeaa?eueoiai aei 35 ?ie?a, a aoi?eii? iaaaaaoi /ano?oa cono??/aeeny o
ae?iie a?eueo noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oi.

Aeaai?noue iaa?ico o ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ae?iie noaiiaeea a?ae 1 aei
2 ?ie?a, i?e/iio ia?aeiia naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y o 807% ianoaaeaieo
o?eaaea aeecueei 5 ?ie?a, oiaoi aeieeea iaaaaaoi ?ai?oa a?ae
caoai?thaaiiy ia iaa?ic.

O ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? (897%) ae?iie iniiaieo a?oi iaee i?noea
naenoaeuei? ineoio?aaie oa yo?iaai??, oiae? ye o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?
ineoio?aai ia aoei i? a eiai c ianoaaeaieo, a o 817% aeiaaeeao
a?aecia/aeeny n?iaeii-iiaooia? oa ae?iaie/? ineoio?aaie.

Oaeei /eiii, eiioeiaaio iniiaieo a?oi ianoaaeaieo neeaee iiae?oaei? ia?e
c naenoaeueiith aeenaa?iii??th, coiiaeaiith naenoaeueiith aeenooieoe??th
o ae?iie, oai?eo ia iaa?ic ??cieo oi?i aiane?aeie naenoaeueii?
ineoio?aaie. Oea aoee iniae ia?aaaaeii iieiaeiai a?eo (aei 35 ?ie?a) ?c
aeaai?noth aeenaa?iii?? aeecueei 5, a iaa?ico — 2 ?ie?a.

Aoei i?iaaaeaii anaa?/ia eiiieaenia ianoaaeaiiy on?o oai?eo oa ?oi?o
/ieia?e?a, ui ia?aaoaaee i?ae iaoei iaaeyaeii, yea aeeth/aei ee?i?/ia,
ineoieia?/ia oa nioe?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy.

Aei ee?i?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iiae?oaeaey aoiaeeei aea/aiiy ?oiueiai
niiaoe/iiai oa ineo?/iiai noaio, aiaiiaco aeeooy eiaeiiai c ieo oa
aiaiiaco oai?ia? ae?oaeeie. Noai naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y iiae?oaeaey
aeine?aeaeoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y (A.A.E?eooaeue, 1995). Oei noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??
aecia/aee o ae?iie ca iaoiaeeeith ?.E.Aioi?ai? (1985), o /ieia?e?a — ca
A.N.Aaneeue/aieii (1975).

Naenieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy iiae?oaeaey i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii A.A.E?eooaey
(1995), ca aeiiiiiaith ea?oe ianoaaeaiiy naenieia?/ieo oai?eo, yea aea?
ciiao anaa?/ii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe niiaoi- oa ineoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie,
noai naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ae?iee e /ieia?ea. Oei /anii cacia/aiee
iaoiae naenieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e aea? iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaoe oe?eee ?yae caaaeueiiniiaoe/ieo oa ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
eiaeiiai c iiae?oaeaey, ui ie aaaaeaee aaaeeeaei aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae
oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?e ee?i?ei-ineoieia?/iiio ianoaaeaii? oai?eo oa ?oi?o /ieia?e?a
canoiniaoaaee iaoiaeeee, ni?yiiaai? ia aea/aiiy iniaeno?nieo
a?aei?iiinoae iiae?oaeaey oa oa?aeoa?o ?oi?o a?aeiinei, ui aecia/aee
??aaiue ineoieia?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe??. I?e
oeueiio ie aeoiaeeee c iiceoe?e, ?ic?iaeaieo a?aeiieie ineoieiaaie
A.I.I’yneuaaei (1960), A.I.Eaiioue?aei (1975), A.A.ssaeiaei (1975),
A.A.Iao?ianueeei (1978), A.O.Eiiiaei (1981).

??aaiue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? noi?niino? oa
naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiai? aaeaioaoe?? iiae?oaeaey aea/aee ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueiiai ieoaeueieea A.A.E?eooaey, I.E.Aa?oaai?, 1985.

Aea/aiiy ineo?/iiai noaio oa iniaeno?nieo a?aei?iiinoae oai?eo ia
iaa?ic, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeeo a?aei?iiinoae o iiae?oaei?e ia?? oa eiai
?ie? a aaiac? ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeeeith II??. C iaoith aecia/aiiy oei?a noaaeaiiy iiae?oaeaey aei
aeenaa?iii?? canoiniaoaaee iniaeno?niee ieoaeueiee Aaoo???anueeiai
?inoeoooo — EIA? (A.?.Ee/ei, I.ss.?aaiia, 1980). ?ieueia? iienaiiy oa
aeiiaaaiiy iiae?oaeaey o oetha? aeine?aeaeoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
ieoaeueieea ?II (A.I.Aieeiaa, 1979). Aeey aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee
i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiinei aoei aeei?enoaii ieoaeueiee «Ni?eeoaaiiy a
n?i’?» (TH.A.Aeueioeia c ni?aaao., 1987).

?c nioe?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aea/aee o?eaae?noue ia?aaoaaiiy
iiae?oaeaey o oetha?, i?oei?noue n?iaeieo a?aeiinei, ina?oo eiaeiiai,
caaaeueiee neeaae n?i’?, e?euee?noue ae?oae, i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue oa
nioe?aeuei? ca’ycee.

On? caeiaoo? a aeine?aeaeaii? aeai? ia?iaeaii iaoiaeii iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee e?eoa???a ciae?a ? ca oaaeeoeyie a?aenioe?a oa ?o iiieeie
(A.N.Aaian, 1967).

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui caaaeueiee o?ce/iee ?icaeoie a?eueoino?
ae?iie (887%) oa /ieia?e?a (905%) aoa ii?iaeueiei, o ?aooe /ano?oa
iicia/aeiny aeayea a?aenoaaaiiy. Caaaeueiee ineo?/iee ?icaeoie oaeiae a
iniiaiiio a?aeiia?aeaa ii?i?, eeoa o ae?iie c ?noa?e/iei iaa?icii a
ie?aieo aeiaaeeao a?aecia/aany neiae?ii ia?oe?aeueii? ?aoa?aeaoe?? oa
ineo?/iiai ?ioaioee?cio.

?ioa ea?oeia niinoa??aaeany a niiaoi- oa ineoinaenoaeueiiio ?icaeoeo
ae?iie. Oaii niiaoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aoei ii?ooaii a?eueo i?ae o
iieiaeie c ieo (524%), i?e/iio iae/ano?oa a?i aoa oiia?eueiaiee,
iniaeeai o oai?eo ia iaa?anoai?th (456%), i?enei?aiee ?icaeoie
a?aecia/aany o /anoeie iaoe??ioie ?c iaa?icii iaa’yceeaino?,
aeenaa?iii?eiee — i?e ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic?. Oaea ae naia oaiaeaioe?y
niinoa??aaeany e o ineoinaenoaeueiiio ?icaeoeo ae?iie: eiai ?aoa?aeaoe?y
iaea i?noea o 4810% c ieo, iae/ano?oa — i?e iaa?anoai?? oa ?noa?e/iiio
iaa?ic?, a i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino? ia??aeeei aoa ? ia?aae/aniee
ineoieia?/iee ?icaeoie. A?naenoaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue noaoaaiai iioyao
iicia/aeany o 64% ae?iie. O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? cao?eiee niiaoi- oa
ineoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia aoei a aeiaeii? c ae?iie, o ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? /ieia?e?a on?o a?oi a?i oaeiae ia a?aeoeeyany a?ae ii?ie.

Aneio?ii?? noaoaaiai ?icaeoeo, iae/ano?oa noeoii?, oaeiae aoee
oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaoe??ioie iniiaieo a?oi, o /ieia?e?a oa ae?iie
eiio?ieueii? a?oie aiie cono??/aeeny ??aeei, i?e/iio neeaaeieo
aneio?ii?e ia aoei i? a eiai c ianoaaeaieo.

Ii?ooaiiy noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee niinoa??aaeeny o 1/4 ae?iie,
aieiaiei /eiii ?? o?ainoi?iaoe?y o oai?eo ia ?noa?e/iee iaa?ic oa
a?ia??ieueiaa iiaaae?iea o iaoe??ioie ?c iaa?anoai??th, o eiio?ie?
iiae?ai? a?aeoeeaiiy cono??/aeeny a iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao.

Niiaoe/i? caoai?thaaiiy (o?ii?/iee oiicee?o, o?aiceoi?ia a?oa??aeueia
a?ia?oaic?y oiui) ? a ae?iie, ? a /ieia?e?a a?aecia/aeany ii??aiyii
??aeei (a?ae 11 aei 94%), ? na?aae ieo ia aoei oai?ia, ye? a iiaee
iineaaeoe naenoaeueio ooieoe?th. Ia aoei aeyaeaii o ianoaaeaieo
iiae?oaei?o ia? ? aiaieuaai? iaa?ieia?/ii? iaoieia??, o a?eueoino?
ae?iie ? /ieia?e?a aecia/aeany eeoa ?icn?yia iaa?ieia?/ia neiioiiaoeea.
Oei /anii o an?o ae?iie aoei aeyaeaii aaaaoaoeaii-noaeeiio aeenoii?th,
ia?aaaaeii neiiaoe/iiai oa ci?oaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Nooo?aeo a?aei?iiinoae o
nooiai? ae?aaeaiino? ia?aiai-aaaaoaoeaieo oa aaaaoaoeaii-a?noea?aeueieo
?iceaae?a ca ??cieo oi?i iaa?ico ie ia niinoa??aaee, a?i aecia/aany a
iniiaiiio oa?aeoa?ii aeii?ioth/eo o ee?i?/i?e ea?oei? caoai?thaaiiy
neiae?ii?a.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineo?/iiai noaio oai?eo ae?iie aoei anoaiiaeaii
iaaio caeaaei?noue i?ae oi?iith ?nioth/iai o ieo iaa?ico oa
i?aii?a?aeieie ?enaie: iaa?anoai?y /ano?oa ?icaeaaeany a iniaenoinoae c
aeoeaiooaoe??th oa?aeoa?o anoaii-iaa?ioe/iiai oeio oa oeci?aeiith,
?noa?e/iee iaa?ic — ca ?noa?i?aeii? aeoeaiooaoe??, iaa?ic iaa’yceeaino?
— i?e ineoanoai?/iiio oa naineoeaiiio oeiao aeoeaiooaoe??. C iaa?ioe/ii?
neiioiiaoeee iae/ano?oeie aoee anoai?/iee oa oia?/iee neiae?iie
(a?aeiia?aeii 405 oa 304%), a oaeiae neiae?ii iaa?ioe/ii? aeai?an??
(204%). Ia?oee aoa oa?aeoa?iee aeey oai?eo ia iaa?anoai?th, ae?oaee —
aeey iaa?ico iaa’yceeaino?, o?ao?e — aeey ?noa?e/iiai iaa?ico, o oai?eo
ia iaa?ic iaa’yceeaino? ia??aeei a?aecia/aany ? iananeaiee neiae?ii
(265%), a o oai?eo ia iaa?anoai?th — ?iioiiae?e/iee (204%).

Iaa?ioe/i? i?iyae niinoa??aaeeny ? a ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? /ieia?e?a
iaoeo iaoe??ioie, a iniiaiiio — a?iioei?/iee neiae?ii.

Nenoaiiee aiae?c noaio naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y iiae?oaeaey oa iiaoaeiaa
no?oeoo?ieo a?aoie eiai ii?ooaiue iieacaee, ui ca an?o oi?i iaa?ico o
ae?iie i?e/eiith naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iae/ano?oa (335 — 445%) aoei
noeoiia no?eaeiaaa o?aaeaiiy ineoieia?/iiai eiiiiiaioa oa ineo?/ii?
neeaaeiai? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai eiiiiiaioa. O ?aoo? aeiaaee?a iaei
i?noea ?cieueiaaia o?aaeaiiy oeeo /e ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a oa neeaaeiaeo —
nioe?aeueiiai, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai, ??aeoa — iae?iaoii?aeueii?
neeaaeiai? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai eiiiiiaioa. Ii?ooaiiy ?ioeo
eiiiiiaio?a oa neeaaeiaeo naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeiaaeeo a?ae?a?aaaei i?iaieoth/o aai ni?eyth/o ?ieue aai iineethaaei
??.

O /ieia?e?a o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a (926%) iaei i?noea
iineaaeaiiy ineo?/ii? neeaaeiai? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai eiiiiiaioa,
coiiaeaia ?oiueith iniaeno?niith ?aaeoe??th ia caoai?aiiy ae?oaeeie oa
naenoaeueio aeenaa?iii?th.

I?e nenoaiiiio aiae?c? ca ?ioaa?aeueieie e?eoa??yie naenoaeueiiai
caei?ia’y caeaaei?noue ii?ooaiiy inoaiiueiai a?ae oi?ie iaa?ico o ae?iie
aoei aeyaeaii, ui oiia?eueiaiee niiaoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie iae/ano?oa
niinoa??aaany i?e iaa?anoai??, i?enei?aiee — i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaeo
noai?a, i?e yeiio ia??aeei a?aecia/aany e ia?aae/aniee ineoinaenoaeueiee
?icaeoie. Aeey oai?eo ia ?noa?e/iee iaa?ic aoea oa?aeoa?ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?y noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee, a aeey ae?iie ?c
iaa?anoai??th – a?ia?oai?i?iia iiaaae?iea. O ieo iaaaaaoi /ano?oa
niinoa??aaeany ? aeac?ioi?iaoe?y a ieoaiiyo ineoia?a??ie noaoaaiai
aeeooy.

O oai?eo ia iaa?anoai?th iae/ano?oa aecia/aeeny oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee
oa ianeaii-i?aeei?thaaiee oeie naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe??, o ae?iie, oai?eo
ia iaa?ic iaa’yceeaino?, — oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee oa
aiiainoaa?e?coth/ee, a o iaoe??ioie c ?noa?e/iei iaa?icii naenoaeueia
iioeaaoe?y aoea iae??ciiiai?oi?oith — a?ae aa?aneaii-aaa?n?eii? aei
?a?iai?. ? a aeiaeii? c ae?iie ia aoei iioeiaeueiiai oeio naenoaeueii?
iioeaaoe?? – aca?iii-aeueo?o?noe/iiai eiioi?eaoeaii-aaaeii?/iiai, yeee
ii?yae c ?a?iaei iae/ano?oa niinoa??aaany o ae?iie eiio?ieueii? a?oie.

E?a?aei aoei ii?ooaii iaea?eueoa i?e iaa?anoai?? oa ?noa??? (iniaeeai
naenoaeueia) ? iaioith i??ith — i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino?. ?iceaaee
i?aacio (a?ii- oa aii?aaci?y, noa?o?noue i?aacio) — ca an?o oi?i
iaa?ico, aea i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino? iae/ano?oa iaea i?noea
aii?aaci?y. C ii/ooo?a, ui a?ae/oaaeeny aei /ieia?ea, ia ia?oiio i?noe?
ca /anoioith o oai?eo ia iaa?anoai?th aoea ethaia, o oai?eo ia
?noa?e/iee iaa?ic — ?aaiiu?, o iaoe??ioie ?c iaa?icii iaa’yceeaino? —
iiaaaa. Aeey an?o ae?iie aoa oa?aeoa?iee iaa?ioe/iee oei
aeenaa?iii?eiiai aa??aioa naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e, aiieii?anueeee ?? oei
cono??/aany eeoa c??aeea.

Aiae?c caeaaeiino? ii?ooaiiy eiiiiiaio?a oa neeaaeiaeo naenoaeueiiai
caei?ia’y a?ae oi?ie ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie
iieacaa, ui nioe?aeueiee eiiiiiaio iae/ano?oa aoei ii?ooaii ca
aeac?ioi?iaoe?eii? oa aeacaaeaioeaii? ?? oi?i (nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?,
naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiai? oa ?i.). Ineoieia?/iee eiiiiiaio aoei o?aaeaii
o an?o ae?iie c ei?oioia??th, aaa?i?ciii, aeaeneoei?/iith oi?iith ? ca
oaeeo aeacaaeaioeaieo oi?i, ye nioe?ieoeueoo?ia,
naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiaa, naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia, a oaeiae o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a — ca ?ioeo oi?i ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??.
Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee eiiiiiaio aoei ii?ooaii o an?o iiae?oaei?o
ia?, a yeeo o ae?oaeei niinoa??aaeany naenoaeueia aaa?n?y, ? aeoaea
/anoi — ca aeacaaeaioeaieo oi?i naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??.
Iae?iaoii?aeueia neeaaeiaa aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/iiai eiiiiiaioa
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y aoea o?aaeaia a on?o ae?iie ?c ?aoa?aeaoe?eiith
oi?iith aeenooieoe?? ? ca iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??
iiae?oaeaey.

Nenoaiiee aiae?c caeaaeiino? ii?ooaiue naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y a?ae oi?i
ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? ca e?eoa??yie naenoaeueiiai
caei?ia’y aeaa ciiao aeyaeoe ?yae oaeeo caeiiii??iinoae.

Oiia?eueiaiee niiaoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie a?aecia/aany o an?o ae?iie c
?aoa?aeaoe?eiith ? a ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? c aeaeneoei?/iith oa
aeacaaeaioeaieie oi?iaie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??. Aeey on?o
ianoaaeaieo ?c oeeie oi?iaie, aeey on?o aeiaaee?a iaa?aeiia?aeiino?
noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??, a oaeiae aeey a?eueoino? iaoe??ioie ?c aaa?i?ciii
aoea oa?aeoa?ia cao?eiea ineoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. I?e
?aoa?aeaoe?ei?e oi?i? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o 1/3 oai?eo aoei
aeyaeaii aneio?ii?? noaoaaiai ?icaeoeo.

O a?eueoino? ae?iie ?c naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiaith ? iaeaea o iieiaeie —
c aeaeneoei?/iith oi?iith ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
niinoa??aaeany o?ainoi?iaoe?y noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee. A?ia??ieueiaa
iiaaae?iea aoea aeyaeaia o /anoeie ae?iie ?c ei?oioia??th, iaa?icii
i/?eoaaiiy, nioe?ieoeueoo?iith oa aeac?ioi?iaoe?eiith oi?iaie
aeenooieoe??.

Iaiiaia oa iai?aaeeueia ii?ioi?iiaai?noue o noa?? naeno a?aecia/aeany o
an?o ae?iie c aeac?ioi?iaoe?eiith, aeaeneoei?/iith,
naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iith oi?iaie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, a on?o
aeiaaeeao iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai? eiinoeoooe?? oa o ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? ?ioeo ianoaaeaieo. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? ca on?o oi?i
aeenooieoe?? iae/ano?oa aoa oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiei, aeaui ??aeoa —
aiiainoaa?e?coth/ei, i?ioa iieaciai, ui aa?aneaii-aai?noe/iee ?? oei
a?aecia/aany eeoa o ae?iie ?c aaa?i?ciii, a aa?aneaii-aaa?n?eiee — o
iaoe??ioie ?c naenoaeueiith aaa?n??th. Ianeaii-i?aeei?thaaiee oei
naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? iiaeia aoei a?aecia/eoe o 1/3 ae?iie ?c
?aoa?aeaoe?eiith oi?iith naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, aai?oaeueiee oei aoa
oa?aeoa?iee aeey oai?eo ?c naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiaith aeacaaeaioaoe??th.

Iioeaaie noaoaaiai aeoo aoee iae/ano?oa aeeiiaiiy iiae?oaeiueiai
iaia’yceo o ae?iie ?c ?aoa?aeaoe?eiith oi?iith naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
oa iaa?icii i/?eoaaiiy, noaoaaee aeo ye can?a eiiiainaoe?? niinoa??aaany
ca aeaeneoei?/ii? oi?ie, a noaoaaee aeo ye can?a aeinyaiaiiy
ianaenoaeueieo oe?eae aoa oa?aeoa?iee aeey iaoe??ioie ?c naenoaeueiith
aaa?n??th (6311%).

Neaaea noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y iae/ano?oa a?aecia/aeany i?e ei?oioia??,
naenoaeuei?e aaa?n??, aaa?i?ci?, neeueia iaea i?noea eeoa o /anoeie
ianoaaeaieo ?c iaoi?aoeaeoi?iith oi?iith naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? ? c
iaa?aeiia?aei?noth noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??, c??aeea — o oai?eo ia iaa?ic
i/?eoaaiiy. O ae?iie c ?ioeie oi?iaie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
caeaa?eueoiai aoea na?aaeiy noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y.

Ieaoii?/ia e?a?aei aoei neaai ae?aaeaii aai a?aenooi? ca ?aoa?aeaoe?eii?
oi?ie aeenooieoe?? oa naenoaeueii? aaa?n??; o an?o ae?iie c
aeaeneoei?/iith oi?iith ? a?eueoino? c iaa?aeiia?aei?noth noaoaai?
eiinoeoooe?? oa naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiaith aeacaaeaioaoe??th aoei neaai
ae?aaeaiei naenoaeueia e?a?aei. A?ioe/ia e?a?aei caeaa?eueoiai aeyaeeiny
caa?aaeaiei. O an?o ianoaaeaieo ?c ?aoa?aeaoe?eiith oi?iith naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? aoei i?eooieaii naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy, a?aenooi? aiie aoee
iae/ano?oa ca aeaeneoei?/ii?, aeacaaeaioeaii? oi?ie aeenooieoe?? oa i?e
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai? eiinoeoooe?? ae?oaeeie e /ieia?ea. Aieueia?
naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy niinoa??aaeeny o an?o oai?eo ia aaa?i?ci ? ia
iicia/aeeny i? a eiai c ianoaaeaieo ?c iaoi?aoeaeoi?iith oa
?aoa?aeaoe?eiith oi?iaie, i?e ei?oioia?? oa naenoaeuei?e aaa?n??.

A?iii?aaci?y iaea i?noea i?eaeecii iaeiaeiai /anoi ca an?o oi?i
ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, aea iaaaaaoi /ano?oa niinoa??aaeany
aii?aaci?y. Aiia aoea oa?aeoa?ia aeey an?o ae?iie ?c ?aoa?aeaoe?eiith,
aeac?ioi?iaoe?eiith oa naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iith oi?iaie aeenooieoe??, c
ei?oioia??th, aaa?i?ciii ? aeey a?eueoino? ?aooe oai?eo.

Eeoa aeecueei 1/4 ae?iie ?c iaoi?aoeaeoi?iith oi?iith naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? ? c naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iith aeacaaeaioaoe??th a?ae/oaaee
ethaia aei naiai /ieia?ea, ae?iee c ?ioeie oi?iaie — ua ??aeoa, aeineoue
/anoith aoea aaeaeoae?noue aei /ieia?ea, a aeey iaoe??ioie c
aeaeneoei?/iith oa ?aoa?aeaoe?eiith oi?iaie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
aoee oa?aeoa?i? ?aaiiu?. Iaeiioe?ai?oei oeiii naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e ca
on?o oi?i aeenooieoe?? aoa iaa?ioe/iee, ae?oaa i?noea ca /anoioith
iin?aeaa i?ei?oeaiee, aa?iii?eiiai ?? oeio ia aoei a aeiaeii? c ae?iie.

O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? iiae?oaei?o ia?, ye iieacaa i?iaaaeaiee o ieo
nenoaiiee aiae?c ca e?eoa??yie naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y, niiaoi- oa
ineoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie o ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ae?iie (914%) aoa
ii?iaeueiei. Caaaeyee i?aaeeuei?e oa aeineoue iiai?e ii?ioi?iiaaiino? o
ieoaiiyo ineoia?a??ie noaoaaiai aeeooy i? a eiai c iiae?oaeaey ia
iicia/aeiny ia?ae?o/aii? ioe?iee nai?o naenoaeueieo i?iya?a. Oei
naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? ae?iie, ca ??aeeeie aeiyoeaie, aoa ?a?iaee oa
aca?iii-aeueo?o?noe/iee eiioi?eaoeaii-aaaeii?/iee, a?aeiia?aeieie aoee e
iioeae noaoaaiai aeoo — eiioi?eaoe?y ? aaaeaiiy aeaoe ianieiaeo
/ieia?eia?. A?eueo?noue ae?iie eiio?ieueii? a?oie (766%) iaeaaeaee aei
neeueiiai oeio noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??, ?aooa — aei na?aaeiueiai.
Iiae?oaeaey, ye i?aaeei, a?ae/oaaee iaeia aei iaeiiai aca?iio ethaia. O
an?o ae?iie niinoa??aaany aa?iii?eiee oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e —
aiieii?anueeee aai i?noe/iee, ? i? a eiai ia aoei iaa?ioe/iiai /e
anaenoaeueiiai ?? oeio.

I?e oeueiio iaeaaaeeea?oei /eiieeii, ui caaacia/o? naenoaeueio aa?iii?th
iiae?oaei?o ia? eiio?ieueii? a?oie, aoea oa ianoaaeia, ui o a?eueoino? c
ieo ia aoei iaa?aeiia?aeiino? ca ?icaeyiooeie iieacieeaie, a a oeo
aeiaaeeao, eiee oaea iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iaea i?noea, iiae?oaeaey
eiiiainoaaee ?? i?aaeeueiith naenoaeueiith iiaaae?ieith.

Oaeei /eiii, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c ca e?eoa??yie naenoaeueiiai
caei?ia’y iieacaa, ui eiaeia oi?ia ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o
ae?iie ia? nai? iaoiaaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? oa ee?i?/i? i?iyae, ye?
iathoue a?aoiaoaaoeny i?e ae?aaiinoeoe? oa ei?aeoe?? iayaieo o ieo
naenoaeueieo ?iceaae?a oa ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? ei?aeoe?? naenoaeueii?
aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e.

I?iaaaeai? ee?i?ei- oa aenia?eiaioaeueii-ineoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaee ciiao aecia/eoe ?yae caeiiii??iinoae a iniaeno?nieo a?aei?iiinoyo
oa i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiineiao oai?eo ia iaa?ic ae?iie oa ?oi?o
/ieia?e?a, ye? aoee i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy a ieo naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii??
aai ni?eyee ?? ?icaeoeia? oa iineethaaee ??. Oae, aoei aeyaeaii iaaiee
ca’ycie i?ae caeiaooei aeoiaaiiyi oa oi?iith iaa?ico. Oai?? ia
iaa?anoai?th iae/ano?oa aeoiaoaaeeny ca oeiii aeii?ioth/i?
a?ia?i?ioaeoe??, oai?? ia ?noa??th — ca oeiii iioo?ath/i? aai
aeii?ioth/i? a?ia?i?ioaeoe??, a 625% ae?iie c iaa?icii iaa’yceeaino?
aeoiaoaaeeny a oiiaao aiioe?eiiai caiaaeaaiiy. O a?eueoino? iiae?oaeaey
iniiaieo a?oi iaea i?noea iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ni?yiiaaiino? iniaenoino?:
o 516% i?e iaa?anoai?? o ae?oaeeie, o 605 ? 526% a?aeiia?aeii i?e
?noa??? oa iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino?, oiae? ye o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oaea
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue niinoa??aaeany eeoa a iaei??? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e.
Nooo?ao aeenaa?iii?eio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaei iani?eyoeeaa niieo/aiiy a
iiae?oaei?e ia?? ineoinaenoaeueieo oei?a /ieia?ea ? ae?iee, iae/ano?oa
niieo/aiiy ae?iea-iaoe oa /ieia?e-aaoueei i?e iaa?anoai?? o ae?oaeeie,
ae?iea-aei/ea oa ianeaii-i?aeei?thaaiee /ieia?e i?e ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic?
o ae?oaeeie, ae?iea-aei/ea oa aa?aneaiee /ieia?e i?e iaa?ic?
iaa’yceeaino? o ae?oaeeie.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiinei iiae?oaeaey iecueeee
??aaiue ineoieia?/ii? noi?niino? aoei anoaiiaeaii o 765% iiae?oaeaey
iniiaieo a?oi, a naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia aeacaaeaioaoe?y aoea aeyaeaia o
an?o 255 iiae?oaei?o ia? oeeo a?oi. Ianoaaeaiiy ca iaoiaeeeith II??
iieacaei a?aenooi?noue a??ia?aeieo a?aei?iiinoae i?ae iieacieeaie oeae o
oai?eo ia ??ci? oi?ie iaa?ico, i?ioa aiii aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe
ona?aaeiai? i?io?e? ae?iie oa /ieia?e?a, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue o
ieo ?en, ui ni?eythoue ii?ooaiith eiioi?eaoe?? (naineoeaiino?,
o?eaiaeii? iiieneiaino?, caieiooino?, aaioeaio?e/iino? oiui). I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? noaaeaiiy aei aeenaa?iii?? i? a eiai c ae?iie ia aoei
anoaiiaeaii aaeaeaaoiiai, aa?iii?eiiai ?? oeio, ia?aaaaeaee
iaa?anoai?/iee, iananeaii-oia?/iee, aaioeaio?e/iee oeie. Aeyaeai? o
ae?iie oeie ?aaaoaaiiy oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeaee iayaiei o ieo oi?iai
iaa?ico. Na?aae /ieia?e?a aa?iii?eiee oei noaaeaiiy aei aeenaa?iii??
a?aecia/aany eeoa o 103%, o ?aooe aoee a?aiiaoe/iee, o?eaiaeiee,
aiiciaiice/iee, naineoeaiee, iaeaioie?eiee eiai oeie. ?acoeueoaoe
aea/aiiy ?ieueiaeo i/?eoaaiue iiae?oaeaey o oetha? aeaee ciiao
anoaiiaeoe, ui ?ieueiaa iaaaeaeaaoi?noue iaea i?noea o 934% iiae?oaei?o
ia?, a yeeo ae?oaeeie oai??ee ia ?noa?e/iee iaa?ic, o 546% — i?e iaa?ic?
iaa’yceeaino? o ae?oaeeie ? o 435% — i?e iaa?anoai?? o ae?oaeeie.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ineoieia?/iiai caoenoo o iaoeo
oai?eo iicia/eany iaaiee ca’ycie eiai aeae?a c oi?iith ia?aeiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??. Ca iaoi?aoeaeoi?ii? oi?ie iae/ano?oei
ineoieia?/iei caoenoii aoea ?aa?an?y, ??aeoa noae?iaoe?y; ca
?aoa?aeaoe?eii? oi?ie ? i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino? aoee oa?aeoa?i?
iaiaaeaiiy ss oa eiiiainaoe?y; iieiaeia ae?iie c ei?oioia??th oaeiae
aaeaaaeany aei iaiaaeaiiy ss, a ae?oaa iieiaeia — aei a?aeoiaeo a?ae
naaa oa ?aa?an??; o ae?iie ?c aaa?i?ciii a?aecia/aeany iae/ano?oa
?aa?an?y, ??aeoa — eiiiainaoe?y oa ?io? aeaee ineoieia?/iiai caoenoo.
Naenoaeueia aaa?n?y niiioeaea ae?iie aei aa?an?? oa iaaaoea?cio; ca
aeaeneoei?/ii? oi?ie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? a?aecia/aeeny iae/ano?oa
noae?iaoe?y, a?aeo?ae a?ae naaa, ca aeac?ioi?iaoe?eii? oi?ie —
noae?iaoe?y oa ?aoe?iiae?ci. Iieiaeia oai?eo ?c nioe?ieoeueoo?iith
oi?iith aeenooieoe?? aaeaaaeany aei i?iaeoe??, ?aooa — aei a?aeoiaeo
a?ae naaa, ?iiae? — aei aa?an??. Ca naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiai? oi?ie
iaeaea iaeiaeiai /anoi niinoa??aaeeny i?iaeoe?y, iaiaaeaiiy ss oa
aa?an?y, a ca naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ii? — a?aeo?ae a?ae naaa, iaaaoea?ci,
?aa?an?y. Ia?aoo?, ca iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai? eiioeoooe?? ae?iee
aaeaaaeeny aei ?aoe?iiae?caoe??, aa?an??, aea oaeiae aei iaiaaeaiiy ss
oa iai?ioeyoe??.

Aeey an?o ae?iie ?c aoi?eiiith naenoaeueiith aeenooieoe??th i?e iaa?ic?
ianaenoaeueiiai aaiaco aoee oa?aeoa?i? oae? aeaee ineoieia?/iiai
caoenoo, ye iaiaaeaiiy ss oa eiiiainaoe?y. Ie??i oeueiai, o ??cieo
oiiaao oai?? ia iaa?anoai?th canoiniaoaaee «caoeni? ianee» oa
i?iaeoe?th, ae?iee c ?noa???th — aeo?niaiiy, c iaa?icii iaa’yceeaino? —
?aoe?iiae?caoe?th oa ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?th, ui, ye e caoeni? ianee, ia
cono??/aeany a ae?iie ?c ia?aeiiith naenoaeueiith aeenooieoe??th.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy aca?iiiai aieeao ?yaeo nioe?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oa naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? i?e iaa?ic? o ae?iie c’ynoaaeiny, ui
iaeiaioee oa?i?i iiae?oaeiueiai aeeooy (aei 1 ?ieo) /ano?oa a?aecia/aany
i?e ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? o ae?oaeeie, iaea?eueoee (iiiaae 10 ?ie?a) — i?e
iaa?anoai?? o ae?iie. O aacae?oieo n?i’yo oa n?i’yo c iaei??th aeeoeiith
iiae?oaeiy aeenaa?iii?y cono??/aeany iaaaaaoi /ano?oa, i?ae o n?i’y ?c
aeaiia /e o?ueiia ae?oueie (a?aeiia?aeii 505 ? 737%).

Naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y iaaaoeaii aieeaaea ia i?oei?noue oethao, i?i ui
na?ae/eoue oie oaeo, ui iaeaea iieiaeia ae?iie (i?e/iio na?aae oai?eo ia
?noa?e/iee iaa?ic 764%) ?iaeea ni?iao ?iceo/eoeny aai aeoiaea i?i
?iceo/aiiy, a na?aae /ieia?e?a aaaeaee ?ic??aaoe oetha 515%. Iaaaoeaiee
aieea ni?aaeyea aeenaa?iii?y ? ia o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue, ? ia
nioe?aeueia i?inoaaiiy a?eueoino? iiae?oaei?o ia?, iniaeeai ae?iie. Ia
nioe?aeuei? ca’ycee oa aca?iia?aeiineie c eieaeoeaii naenoaeueia
aeenaa?iii?y oa iaa?ic o ae?iie aieeaaee iaaaoeaii, o /ieia?e?a
aeenaa?iii?y caeaa?eueoiai ia ni?aaeyea oaeiai aieeao.

Eiiieaenia nenoaiia ianoaaeaiiy iiae?oaeaey, ui ia?aaoaaei i?ae iaoei
niinoa?aaeaiiyi, aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe ao?ieia?/i?, iaoiaaiaoe/i?
/eiieee oa ee?i?/io ea?oeio ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y i?e
ia?aeii?e oa aoi?eii?e naenoaeuei?e aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie.

Nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c o an?o iaoe??ioie ?c ia?aeiiei naenoaeueiei
?iceaaeii aeaa ciiao anoaiiaeoe noeoiia ii?ooaiiy eiiiiiaio?a oa
neeaaeiaeo naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y, i?e/iio no?eaeiaaa ?oi? o?aaeaiiy,
ui noaei aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith aeenaa?iii??, aecia/aeiny oi?iith
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, a ii?ooaiiy ?aooe eiiiiiaio?a oa neeaaeiaeo
ni?eyei ?icaeoeia? iiae?oaeiuei? aeenaa?iii?? oa iineethaaei ??.
Ni?eueiith aeey an?o ae?iie ?c ia?aeiiith aeenooieoe??th aoea
ineoinaenoaeueia iacaaeiaieai?noue.

Ca iaoi?aoeaeoi?ii? oi?ie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, i?e/eiith yei? ?
iaoieia?/ia o?enaoe?y ia iaaaeaeiio noaoaaiio aeo?, iaeaea o iieiaeie
ae?iie a?aecia/athoueny aneio?ii?? noaoaaiai ?icaeoeo, /ano?oa noeoii?.
O a?eueoino? c ieo oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe??,
a iioea noaoaaiai aeoo — aeeiiaiiy iiae?oaeiueiai iaia’yceo. Noaoaaa
eiinoeoooe?y iaeaea o iieiaeie ae?iie neaaea. Oeiiaeie ? i?eooieaiiy
naenoaeueieo a?ae/ooo?a oa aii?aaci?y, iaa?ioe/iee oei naenoaeueii?
eoeueoo?e. ?icaeoie iaoi?aoeaeoi?ii? oi?ie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, ye
i?aaeei, ia? aino?ee oa?aeoa?.

sse ineoio?aaia, oey oi?ia ia?aeiii? aeenooieoe?? ni?e/eiy? /ano?oa
iaa?anoai?th, i?ae ?io? oi?ie iaa?ico, ? aeieea? caeaa?eueoiai o ae?iie
a?eii 26-30 ?ie?a.

O an?o ae?iie ?c ?aoa?aeaoe?eiith oi?iith naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, ui
aeieea?, ye aeaeii ?c naii? iacae, aiane?aeie cao?eiee noaoaaiai
?icaeoeo, a?aecia/athoueny noeoii? oa neeaaei? aneio?ii?? noaoaaiai
?icaeoeo. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee,
ianeaii-i?aeei?thaaiee aai aai?oaeueiee. Noaoaaa eiioeoooe?y o oeeo
ae?iie caaaeaee iineaaeaia, e?a?aei a?aenooi? aai neaai ae?aaeaii;
naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy i?eooieai?, ia? i?noea aii?aaci?y. Oei
naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e cae/aeii iaa?ioe/iee. I?iyae naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? aeieeathoue ?c naiiai ii/aoeo noaoaaiai aeeooy ? iathoue
no?eeee oa?aeoa?, i?ioa aaa?oi?noue ? iieiae, a oaeiae naenoaeueia
aeoeai?noue ia?oia?a ni?eythoue ii?iae?caoe?? eiioeyoeaiiai oeeeeo.

?aoa?aeaoe?eia oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? /ano?oa ni?e/eiy?
?icaeoie ?noa?e/iiai iaa?ico, ye i?aaeei, o iieiaeeo ae?iie (a?ae 20 aei
30 ?ie?a).

I?e iaa?ic? i/?eoaaiiy, coiiaeaiiio naenoaeueiith ineoio?aaiith,
ii?ooaiiy noaoaaiai ?icaeoeo cono??/athoueny ??aeoa, i?ae ca ?ioeo oi?i
ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe??
cae/aeii oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee, iioea noaoaaiai aeoo — aeeiiaiiy
iiae?oaeiueiai iaia’yceo. Noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y ae?iie caeaa?eueoiai
neaaea aai na?aaeiy. E?a?aei a iniiaiiio caa?aaeaii, aea naenoaeuei?
a?ae/oooy i?eooieai? aai a?aenooi?, niinoa??aa?oueny aii?aaci?y, ??aeoa
a?iii?aaci?y. Oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e — iaa?ioe/iee. Caoai?thaaiiy
ii/eia?oueny aino?i, i?e/iio iae/ano?oa aaea?oueny aecia/eoe /?oeee
ca’ycie ia?oiai iaaaeaeiai noaoaaiai aeoo c iaaieie ciai?oi?ie aai
aioo??oi?ie iaoiaaiieie /eiieeaie, ui iiaeaeoaee iaee i?noea ua aei
ii/aoeo noaoaaiai aeeooy.

Oey oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? cae/aeii ni?e/eiy? iaa?ic
iaa’yceeaino? o ae?iie a?eii 20-30 ?ie?a.

I?e/eiith ei?oioia??, ye ? iaa?ico i/?eoaaiiy, ? naenoaeueia
ineoio?aaia, ui iiaea aooe ona?aeiieaiith aai iaona?aeiieaiith. Ca oe???
oi?ie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ae?iie
ii?ooaii, /ano?oa oiia?eueiaii, ineoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie,
niinoa??aathoueny oaeiae aneio?ii??, a iniiaiiio noeoii?. Noaoaaa
eiinoeoooe?y neaaea aai, ??aeoa, na?aaeiy. E?a?aei neaai ae?aaeaii aai
a?aenooi? a?eueo i?ae o iieiaeie oai?eo. Naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy
i?eooieai?, ?iiae? a?aenooi?, ? o an?o ae?iie ia? i?noea aii?aaci?y. Oei
naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? — aiiainoaa?e?coth/ee aai
oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee. *anoi niinoa??aa?oueny aaeaeoae?noue aei
/ieia?ea. Oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e — iaa?ioe/iee, ?iiae?
a?ia??ieueiaee. O ee?i?/i?e ea?oei? ei?oioia?? ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeyoue
aiioe?ei? ii?ooaiiy — ii/oooy a?oaeueii? iia?ice, o?eaiaa, no?ao
aeii?io? iaae aeiaiaeaie ?icoio. Ei?oioia?y ia??aeei ni?e/eiy?
a??aiaai?th.

Oey oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? iae/ano?oa aecia/a? ?icaeoie ?noa???
oa iaa?ico iaa’yceeaino?, ye i?aaeei, o ae?iie 20-30 ?ie?a.

Ia?aeiiee aaa?i?ci aeieea? cae/aeii o ae?iie c aiioe?eiith iano?ee?noth,
iiieneia?noth, /ano?oa ca ia??oo/i? iiaaae?iee /ieia?ea oa iayaiino? a
iueiai oai?i?iieo ?en, a oaeiae o aeiaaeeao ooai?aiiy iaoieia?/iiai
oiiaiiai ?aoeaeno o ca’yceo c aea??eiai-iaoiaaiiith neooaoe??th. Aeey
ae?iie ?c aaa?i?ciii oa?aeoa?i? oiia?eueiaiee niiaoi- oa
ineoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie ? noeoii? aneio?ii??. Noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y a
ieo neaaea aai na?aaeiy. E?a?aei o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a caa?aaeaii, aea
o an?o oai?eo niinoa??aathoueny aieueia? naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy oa
aii?aaci?y. Aeey naenoaeueieo oaioac?e ae?iie oa?aeoa?ia cai?ia
ia?oia?a. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? cae/aeii aa?aneaii-aai?noe/iee,
iioea noaoaaiai aeoo — naenoaeueia naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy. Oei naenoaeueii?
eoeueoo?e iaa?ioe/iee aai i?ei?oeaiee. I?e aaa?i?ci? aeieea? a??aiaaiiee
oetha, ui o?eaa? ?ieiee e?eueea ?ie?a.

Aaa?i?ci ni?e/eiy? ?icaeoie eeoa ?noa?e/iiai iaa?ico o iieiaeeo (aei 30
?ie?a) ae?iie.

?icaeoie naenoaeueii? aaa?n?? ia? nai?th i?e/eiith iae/ano?oa ii?ooaiiy
aca?iia?aeiinei iiae?oaeaey, aei yeeo iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ?ieueiaeo iiceoe?e, naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe??,
oa?aeoa?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oiui. Aeey oe??? oi?ie naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? oa?aeoa?i? ?aoa?aeaoe?y ineoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo,
noeoii? aneio?ii??, ianeoe?iia iiaaae?iea ae?iie. Noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y
oai?eo iae/ano?oa neaaea, aea iiaea aooe ? na?aaeiueith, ? neeueiith.
Naenoaeueia e?a?aei ia??aeei neaai ae?aaeaii. O naenoaeueieo oaioac?yo
i?aaaeth? cai?ia ia?oia?a, naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy caaaeaee ii?ooai?,
i?eooieai? aai a?aenooi?, niinoa??aa?oueny a?ii- oa aii?aaci?y. Oei
naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? o an?o oai?eo aa?aneaii-aaa?n?eiee, iioea
noaoaaiai aeoo cae/aeii aeinyaiaiiy ianaenoaeueieo oe?eae. Aei /ieia?ea
oe? ae?iee a?ae/oaathoue eeoa aaa?n?th. Oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e
iaa?ioe/iee, ?iiae? e?aa?aeueiee aai i?a?anoe/iee. Naenoaeueia aaa?n?y
?icaeaa?oueny iinooiiai ? i?ioiaeeoue o nai?io ?icaeoeo aeae?eueea oac —
a?ae oi?iaeueieo a?aeiinei ?c ia?oia?ii aei a?ae?ace aei noaoaaiai
aeeooy.

Oaea oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? iae/ano?oa ni?e/eiy? ?icaeoie
?noa?e/iiai iaa?ico, i?e/iio o ae?iie noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oi — a?ae 31 aei
40 ?ie?a.

Aeaeneoei?/ia oi?ia ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? iaoiiaeth?oueny
iaai?iiyi i?aaeeueii ii?aeioaaoe ?iaioo c a?aeii/eieii. O an?o ae?iie c
oe??th oi?iith a?aecia/athoueny ?aoa?aeaoe?y ineoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
oa aneio?ii??. Oa?aeoa?i? o?ainoi?iaoe?y noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee,
neaaeee oei noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??. Naenoaeueia e?a?aei, ye i?aaeei,
neaai ae?aaeaii, naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy i?eooieai?, i?aaci ii?ooaiee,
/anoi a?aenooi?e. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? aiiainoaa?e?coth/ee aai
oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee, ??aeoa aai?oaeueiee, iioea noaoaaiai aeoo —
can?a ?aeaenaoe??. Oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e — iaa?ioe/iee aai
i?a?anoe/iee.

Aeaeneoei?/ia oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? iiaea iaeiaeiai /anoi
ni?e/eiyoe an? aea/ai? oi?ie iaa?ico, ia ia? oai??thoue cae/aeii ae?iee
a?eii 31-40 ?ie?a.

Ca aeac?ioi?iaoe?eii? oi?ie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, coiiaeaii?
iecueeei ??aiai ciaiue o ieoaiiyo naeno, noaoaaee ?icaeoie ae?iie
iae/ano?oa oiia?eueiaiee, o ieo iayai? noeoii?, ??aeoa neeaaei?
aneio?ii??. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? cae/aeii
oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee, noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y neaaea, ??aeoa na?aaeiy.
Naenoaeueia e?a?aei neaai ae?aaeaii, ieaoii?/ia caa?aaeaii. Oei
naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e caeaa?eueoiai i?ei?oeaiee.

Ca oe??? oi?ie aeenooieoe?? /ano?oa aeieea? iaa?anoai?y, oai??thoue ia
ia? a iniiaiiio iieiae? ae?iee — aei 30 ?ie?a.

Nioe?ieoeueoo?ia oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? aeieea? i?e
aeenaa?iii?eieo oeiao naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa iaa?aeiia?aeiino? ??
oei?a o iiae?oaeaey. O iieiaeie ae?iie ?c oe??th oi?iith, ia a?aei?io
a?ae ?ioeo oi?i naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, a?aecia/a?oueny ia
?aoa?aeaoe?y, a ia?aae/aniee ineoinaenoaeueiee ?icaeoie. Cia/ii ??aeoa,
i?ae ca ?ioeo oi?i, cono??/a?oueny ? iaaeinoaoiy ii?ioi?iiaai?noue o
ieoaiiyo naeno — eeoa o 2513% aeiaaee?a. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe??
iae/ano?oa oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee, aea ia??aeei e ?a?iaee. Noaoaaa
eiinoeoooe?y — neaaea e na?aaeiy. Naenoaeueia e?a?aei o iieiaeie ae?iie
neaai ae?aaeaii, a?ioe/ia ia??aeei a?aenooi?. O naenoaeueieo oaioac?yo
i?aaaeththoue oae? nthaeaoe, ye caaaeooaaiiy oa a?oiiaee naen.
Naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy iaeaea o iieiaeie ae?iie ii?ooaii ? o an?o
a?aecia/a?oueny a?ii- aai aii?aaci?y. Oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e
iaa?ioe/iee.

Ca nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? oi?ie aeenooieoe?? iaeaea iaeiaeiai /anoi
aeieeathoue on? oi?ie iaa?ico, cae/aeii o a?eueo noa?oeo ae?iie — a?ae
30 aei 45 ?ie?a.

Nioe?aeueii-iiaaae?ieiaa oi?ia ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
?icaeaa?oueny aiane?aeie iaa?aeiia?aeiino? o iiae?oaeaey
noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee. Iaeaea o an?o oai?eo c aeaiith oi?iith
aeyaey?oueny cao?eiea noaoaaiai ?icaeoeo ? aeoaea /anoi — aneio?ii?? oa
o?ainoi?iaoe?y noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee, o 1/4 ae?iie iicia/a?oueny
a?naenoaeueia i???ioaoe?y. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? caeaa?eueoiai
aai?oaeueiee, iioea noaoaaiai aeoo — ciyooy noaoaaiai iai?oaeaiiy.
Noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y oai?eo — neaaea aai na?aaeiy. Naenoaeueia e?a?aei
neaai ae?aaeaii, a?ioe/ia ia??aeei a?aenooi?. O 1/3 ae?iie a?aenooi?
naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy ? o an?o a?aecia/a?oueny a?ii- aai aii?aaci?y. Oei
naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e iaa?ioe/iee, ?ieiee a?ia??ieueiaee.

Oey oi?ia aeenooieoe?? iaeiaeiai /anoi ni?e/eiy? an? oi?ie iaa?ico ?
cono??/a?oueny o ae?iie a?eii aei 30 ?ie?a.

Naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia oi?ia naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? ? iane?aeeii
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? ae?aiaciio i?eeiyoiino? iiae?oaeaey oa a?aenooiino?
iioei?caoe?? noaoaaiai aeoo. O noaoaaiio ?icaeoeo ae?iie aeyaeythoueny
?aoa?aeaoe?y oa noeoii? aneio?ii??. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe??
oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee aai aai?oaeueiee, iioea noaoaaiai aeoo
iae/ano?oa — aeinyaiaiiy ianaenoaeueieo oe?eae. Noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y
ae?iie na?aaeiy aai neaaea. Naenoaeueia e?a?aei ia??aeei neaai
ae?aaeaii, ieaoii?/ia oa a?ioe/ia cae/aeii caa?aaeaii. Naenoaeuei?
a?ae/oooy a on?o oai?eo i?eooieai? aai a?aenooi? ? o an?o ia? i?noea
aii?aaci?y. Oei naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e iaa?ioe/iee aai i?ei?oeaiee.

Naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia oi?ia aeenooieoe?? iiaea ni?e/eiyoe aoaeue-yeo
oi?io iaa?ico, aea aeaui /ano?oa — iaa?anoai?th. Oai??thoue ia ia?
ae?iee on?o a?eiaeo a?oi a?ae 20 aei 45 ?ie?a.

I?e/eiith iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai? eiinoeoooe?? o iaoeo iaoe??ioie
aoea ?ica?aei?noue ?oiuei? noaoaai? eiinoeoooe?? c oeiii noaoaai?
eiinoeoooe?? /ieia?ea — ii?aeiaiiy neaaeiai ?? oeio o ae?oaeeie ?
neeueiiai o /ieia?ea, aai, ??aeoa, iaaiaee. O an?o ae?iie ?c aeaiith
oi?iith aeyaeythoueny ?aoa?aeaoe?y ineoinaenoaeueiiai ? o a?eueoino? —
niiaoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae noeoii? aneio?ii?? noaoaaiai
aec??aaiiy. Oei naenoaeueii? iioeaaoe?? — caaaeaee
oaaeiiii-?aaeaiaioiaaiee. Noaoaaa eiinoeoooe?y cae/aeii neaaea aai
na?aaeiy. A?ioe/ia e?a?aei caeaa?eueoiai a?aenooi?, naenoaeueia neaai
ae?aaeaii, naenoaeuei? a?ae/oooy i?eooieai? aai a?aenooi?,
niinoa??aa?oueny a?ii- aai, /ano?oa, aii?aaci?y. Oei naenoaeueii?
eoeueoo?e a iniiaiiio iaa?ioe/iee.

Cacia/aia oi?ia aeenooieoe?? iiaea ni?e/eiyoe an? oi?ie iaa?ico ?
niinoa??aaoeny a aoaeue-yeiio a?oe?, aea /ano?oa o ae?iie 26-35 ?ie?a.

Aoi?eiia naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y, ye oaea caaaeoaaeiny, ?icaeaa?oueny
aiane?aeie o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie iaa?ico, i?e iiaoi?iiio caeo/aii?
naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? aei iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Iaeiei c iniiaieo
iaoai?ci?a ?? ?icaeoeo ? aeacaeooae?caoe?y naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee, ca
yei? aeieeathoue naenoaeueia aanoeiaioe?y oa iinoaanoeiaioi? ?iceaaee,
coiiaeai? ciaioaiiyi cia/ouino? naeno. Aiie aeyaeythoueny a iineaaeaii?
e?a?aei, cieaeaii? a?iaaiii? ?aaeoeaiino?, naenoaeueii? aeoeaiino? oa
caiiacyoeeaino?, o i?eooieaii? naenoaeueieo a?ae/ooo?a, noa?oino?
i?aacio, o aeeneiioi?oieo a?ae/oooyo a i?aaiao iaeiai oaco.

O oi?ioaaii? naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? i?e aoi?eii?e naenoaeuei?e
aeenooieoe?? o ae?oaeeie aieiaio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue o?e iniiai?
iaoai?cie: aeacaeooae?caoe?y naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee ae?iee, naenoaeueia
aeenooieoe?y, ui aeieeea a ia? oiane?aeie ?iceaaeo ineo?/ii?,
aaaaoaoeaii? oa iae?iaoii?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? naenoaeueii? ooieoe??, oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia aeacaaeaioaoe?y iiae?oaeaey.

I?e iaa?anoai?? ?icaeoie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? iia’ycaiee c
ii?ooaiiyi ineo?/ii? oa iae?iaoii?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? naenoaeueii?
ooieoe??. Naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y ca aeaii? iaoieia?? ?icaeaa?oueny
iinooiiai, cae/aeii i?ioyaii ia?oiai ?ieo i?ney caoai?thaaiiy ae?oaeeie.

?icaeoie naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? i?e ?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? o ae?oaeeie
/ano?oa ia? i?aeaino?ee oa?aeoa? ? aeyaey? oaiaeaioe?th aei
oaeeaiiae?aiiai ia?aa?ao, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae aiioe?eiiai noaio oai?i? oa
ciai?oi?o oiia. O aaiac? naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? ca oe??? oi?ie
iaa?ico aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue, ie??i aeacaeooae?caoe??
naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? o ae?oaeeie, iecueeee ??aaiue
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? oa naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiai? aaeaioaoe??
iiae?oaeaey.

A iniia? aeieeiaiiy naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? i?e iaa?ic? iaa’yceeaino?
o ae?oaeeie eaaeeoue iayaia a ia? naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y, coiiaeaia
?iceaaeii ineo?/ii? ?aaoeyoe?? naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? ii iaa?ioe/ieo
iaoai?ciao ? /anoi — i?aeiniaeno?niei eiioe?eoii iiae?oaeaey. ?icaeoie
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? ia? i?aeaino?ee oa?aeoa? ? o?nii iia’ycaiee ?c
ci?noii iayaieo o oai?i? iaa’yceeaeo ia?aaeeaaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, caeiaoo? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i
??ciiiai?oi?noue i?e/ei, iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a ? i?iya?a
naenoaeueieo ?iceaae?a o ae?iie, oai?eo ia ??ci? oi?ie iaa?ico. sse ie
ia?aeiiaeeny, o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y ?
ia?aeiiith ?, aenooiath/e ye ineoio?aaia, ni?e/eiy? ?icaeoie iaa?ico. A
?ioeo aeiaaeeao, iaaiaee, iaa?ic ni?e/eiy? aeieeiaiiy naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe??, yea o naith /a?ao noa? i?e/eiith naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii??
iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e. O neeaaeiiio aaiac? ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai
caei?ia’y ? a oiio, ? a ?ioiio aeiaaeeo a?ae?a?a? ?ieue ? oe?eee ?yae
?ioeo iaoiaaiieo /eiiee?a, ianaiia?aae iniaeno?ni? a?aei?iiino?
iiae?oaeaey oa ?o niieo/aiiy a iiae?oaei?e ia??, iniaeeaino? niiaoi- oa
ineoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, oei noaoaai? eiioeoooe?? ? nooi?iue
aaeaioaoe?? /ieia?ea oa ae?oaeeie ia an?o ??aiyo aca?iiae??.

Aeey ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??? oa?aeoa?iei neiae?ii
naenoaeueii? a?ia?aeooae?caoe??: cia/ou?noue naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o
?yae? aeiaaee?a aeinyaa? nooiaiy iaaeoe?iii? ?aea?, aeaaeae? iia? ni?iae
oai?i? uiaei ?ioeiii? aeecueeino? aeeeoothoueny ia aioo??oiueith
iio?aaith, a aaaeaiiyi ia?aa??eoe nai? naenoaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei o?anei. Aeey oai?eo ?c ia?aeiiith naenoaeueiith
aeenooieoe??th oa?aeoa?ia o?eaiaeia iiieneia?noue, aiie /anoi
iia’ycothoue naith naenoaeueio iani?iiiaei?noue ?c ianoo?aaoe??th a
thiino? aai c yeeienue oaoaeueieie ciai?oi?ie aieeaaie. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
iienaii? ea?oeie, aeey aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? oa?aeoa?iee
neiae?ii naenoaeueii? aeacaeooae?caoe??, ui aecia/a? ?? ee?i?/i? i?iyae
oa naenoaeueio aeenaa?iii?th iiae?oaeaey.

Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? oa oiiae ?icaeoeo naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o
oai?eo ia iaa?ic ae?iie aoei iieeaaeaii iaie a iniiao ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii?
oaeoeee, ui iaea ia iao? ei?aeoe?th ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ca
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaoieia??.

?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? ei?aeoe?? ii?ooaiue naenoaeueiiai
caei?ia’y a?oioo?oueny ia a?aeiieo, ai?iaiaaieo no/aniith naenieia?/iith
iaoeith oa i?aeoeeith i?eioeeiao eiiieaeniino?, iine?aeiaiino?,
aoaiiino?. Aiia aae?ano?oueny aei o?ueio i?aenenoai iniaenoino? —
?io?a?iaeea?aeii?, ?ioa??iaeea?aeii? oa iaoa?iaeea?aeii? ?
neeaaea?oueny, ca?aeii ?c no?oeoo?ith iniaeno?nii? aca?iiae??, c o?ueio
eiiiiiaio?a — eiai?oeaiiai (?ioi?iaoe?eiiai), aoaeoeaiiai (aiioe?eiiai)
oa eiiaoeaiiai (iiaaae?ieiaiai). Cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia ei?aeoe??
a?aoiao? noai naenoaeueii? ooieoe??, ineo?/iee noai iiae?oaeaey ?
nooi?iue ?oiuei? aaeaioaoe?? ia eiaeiiio c ??ai?a aca?iiae??, a
ei?eaoaaeuei? caoiaee, ui ?? neeaaeathoue, iieyaathoue, c iaeiiai aieo,
o e?eoaaii? iaa?ico o ae?iie oa iia’ycaii? c iei ia?aeiii? aai aoi?eiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, c ae?oaiai — o ineoioa?aiaaoe/i?e ei?aeoe??
iiae?oaeiuei? aeenaa?iii??, coiiaeaii? o??th /e ?ioith oi?iith
naenoaeueiiai ?iceaaeo oa aeacaaeaioaoe?? iiae?oaeaey. E?eoaaeueia
oaeoeea i?e oeueiio a?aeiia?aea? aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iei
iieacieeai, ye? aecia/athoueny ca ?ioaa?aeueieie e?eoa??yie
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y. I?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy ie iaaea?ii oaeiae
ineoioa?aiaaoe/i?e ?iaio? c /ieia?eaie oai?eo. Ii-ia?oa, a aan?aeao ?c
ieie ooi/iththoueny i?e/eie oa ianoaaeie ?icaeoeo naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie, ii-ae?oaa, i?iaiaeeoueny ?ino?oeoaae uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? o/ano? /ieia?ea a iiina?aaeeoaaii? oa iioaioe?thaaii?
e?eoaaiiy ? i?aaeeueii? iiaaae?iee c o?aooaaiiyi noaio oai?i?.

Aea?? iaoiae?a ? oi?i ineoioa?ai??, ye ? iaaeeeaiaioicieo i?aia?ao?a oa
e?eoaaeueieo i?ioeaaeo? (o?c?ioa?ai?y, aeaeo?ioa?ai?y) aecia/a?oueny
oi?iith naenoaeueii? iaoieia?? oa ee?i?/ieie iniaeeainoyie iayaieo o
oai?eo iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a. Canoiniaoaai? ineoioa?aiaaoe/i? iaoiaeeee
iathoue a?aoiaoaaoe oaeiae iniaeno?ni? a?aei?iiino? oai?eo ? iathoue
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Ca iaoi?aoeaeoi?ii? oi?ie ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? aei
caaaeaiue i?iaiaeaeoaaii? ine?ioa?ai?? aoiaeyoue aeacaeooae?caoe?y
iaoieia?/ii? ianoaiiae iaoe??ioee ia naith naenoaeueio iani?iiiaei?noue,
iiaan?iiy iaoieia?/iiai oiiaiiai ?aoeaeno oa ae?iaeaiiy iiaeo, caei?iaeo
ianoaiia. ?c oe??th iaoith aeei?enoiaothoueny ?aoe?iiaeueia,
a?iiinoaanoeaia ineoioa?ai?y, aooiaaii? o?aioaaiiy, a oaeiae
ieaoeaaiineoioa?ai?y. Ca ?aoa?aeaoe?eii? oi?ie naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??
aeei?enoiao?oueny a iniiaiiio ?aoe?iiaeueia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia oa ia?ia
(iiae?oaeiy) ineoioa?ai?y, ui ia aeeeth/a? i?iaaaeaiiy ca iieacieeaie
a?iiinoaano?? oa aooiaaiiiai o?aioaaiiy. I?e iaa?ic? i/?eoaaiiy, ie??i
?aoe?iiaeueii? ineoioa?ai?? oa aooiaaiiiai o?aioaaiiy oai?i? ca
A.N.Ei/a?yiii, iaii c iiae?oaeaey i?iaiaeeee naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iee
o?ai?ia, a ye aeiaeaoeiaee iaoiae — a?ae?ioa?ai?th. E?eoaaeueiee
eiiieaen i?e aaa?i?ci? oa ei?oioia?? aeeth/aa ?aoe?iiaeueio
ineoioa?ai?th, a?iiinoaano?th, aeoeaia naiiiaa?thaaiiy, a oaeiae
ia?eiineoioa?ai?th. I?e naenoaeuei?e aaa?n?? canoiniaoaaee iiae?oaeith
ineoioa?ai?th o oi?i? aeeneon??, ia?aeiiaiiy, iaa?thaaiiy, a?oiiao
ineoioa?ai?th, i?e aeaeneoei?/i?e oi?i? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? —
?aoe?iiaeueio ineoioa?ai?th oa naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iee o?ai?ia
iiae?oaeaey.

Iniiaiei iaoiaeii ei?aeoe?? aeac?ioi?iaoe?eii? oi?ie ia?aeiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? aoea ?aoe?iiaeueia eiai?oeaia ineoioa?ai?y,
aiia aeiiiaithaaeany a?ae?ioa?ai??th ?, ie??i oeueiai, iiae?oaeaeth
i?iaiaeeany naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iee o?ai?ia. Ei?aeoe?y nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
oi?ie aeinyaaeany ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aeiiaiiy, aeoeaiiai naiiiaa?thaaiiy
oa naenoaeueii-iioeaaoe?eiiai o?ai?iao. I?e naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieia?e
oi?i? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? i?ney ii?iae?caoe?? aca?iia?aeiinei
iiae?oaeaey i?iaiaeeany ?ieueiaee ineoinaenoaeueiee oa
naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iee o?ai?ia, i?e naenoaeueii-a?ioe/i?e oi?i? —
?aoe?iiaeueia ineoioa?ai?y oa naenoaeueii-a?ioe/iee o?ai?ia. Ca
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai? eiinoeoooe?? aieiaieie iaoiaeaie ei?aeoe??
aoee ?aoe?iiaeueia ineoioa?ai?y oa aeai-oa?ai?y.

Ei?aeoe?y aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, ui aeieea? a ?acoeueoao?
aoi?eiiiai caeo/aiiy naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? aei iaa?ioe/iiai i?ioeano,
iio?aao? ianaiia?aae ao?ieia?/iiai oa iaoiaaiaoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy
i?e/eiiiai caoai?thaaiiy — iaa?ico. I?ioa, ine?eueee ?icaeoie
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? ? aeiaeaoeiaith ineoiaai??th,
ineoioa?aiaaoe/ia ei?aeoe?y iiaeiia aooe ni?yiiaaia ia ciyooy
iniaeno?nii? ?aaeoe?? oai?eo ia na?e naenoaeueiee ?iceaae. C oe??th
iaoith ie canoiniao?ii iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaio (?aeiino?oeoeaio) oa
ia?niiae?noe/io ineoioa?ai?th, ?aoe?iiaeueio ?iaeea?aeoaeueio oa a?oiiao
ineoioa?ai?th, a?iiinoaano?th, ia?eiineoioa?ai?th. I?e oeueiio
aaaeeeaith oiiaith ? neia?a?ci aieeao i?iaiaeaeoaaiiai e?eoaaiiy c
oa?ai??th iniiaiiai caoai?thaaiiy ae?iie — o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie iaa?ico.

Cae?eniaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? ei?aeoe?? ii?ooaiiy
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y i?e iaa?ic? o ae?iie aeaei ciiao caeiaooe oae?
?acoeueoaoe.

Iiaii? ei?aeoe?? naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? o an?o iiae?oaei?o ia? aoei
aeinyaiooi i?e ia?aeii?e naenoaeuei?e aeenooieoe?? o oi?i? aaa?i?cio oa
ei?oioia?? o ae?oaeeie oa i?e aeac?ioi?iaoe?ei?e oi?i? aeenooieoe??.
Oaeiai ae naiiai aenieiai oa?aiaaoe/iiai aoaeoo aaeaeiny aeinyaiooe e o
ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ianoaaeaieo c ?ioeie oi?iaie ia?aeiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, ca aeiyoeii iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaoaai?
eiinoeoooe??, i?e ye?e o 9115% iiae?oaeaey niinoa??aaeiny cia/ia
iie?ioaiiy aai /anoeiaa ei?aeoe?y aeenaa?iii??.

Ca aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ae?oaeeie iiaia ei?aeoe?y
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? a?aecia/aeany aeaui ??aeoa, oi/ i?e
?noa?e/iiio iaa?ic? aiia aeinyaaea 828%. I?e aoi?eii?e aeenooieoe??
aeieeaea aaeeea e?euee?noue ?aoeeaeea?a (96% o ii??aiyii? c 32% i?e
ia?aeii?e aeenooieoe??), iia’ycaieo, ye i?aaeei, ?c caaino?aiiyi
iaa?ico.

O oe?eiio aeineoue aenieee oa no?eeee oa?aiaaoe/iee aoaeo aoa
aeinyaiooee o 236 (918%) iiae?oaei?o ia?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy naenoaeueii? iaoieia?? o ae?iie, oai?eo ia
iaa?ic, oa naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e, ui
?icaeaa?oueny i?e oeueiio, aeaee iai ciiao iai?oeoe iniiai? oeyoe ?
aecia/eoe iaoiaee ineoii?io?eaeoeee ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ca
aeaii? iaoieia??.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c caaaeueieie i?eioeeiaie aiia ia? neeaaeaoeny c
ia?aeiii?, aoi?eiii? oa o?aoeiii? i?io?eaeoeee. Ia?aeiia i?io?eaeoeea
ia? ia iao? onoiaiiy /eiiee?a ?eceeo, caeaoieo ni?e/eieoe ii?ooaiiy
noaoaaiai ?icaeoeo, caaino?aiiy ?en oa?aeoa?o, oi?ioaaiiy iai?aaeeueii?
iioeaaoe?? naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee oa ?ioeo iaaaoeaieo a?aei?iiinoae, ui
ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? oa iaa?ico, a oaeiae
noaoaaa aeoiaaiiy oa naenoaeueio i?ina?oo. Aoi?eiia i?io?eaeoeea
ni?yiiaaia ia ?aii? aeyaeaiiy naenoaeueieo ii?ooaiue oa ?oith
ei?aeoe?th. Caaaeaiiy o?aoeiii? i?io?eaeoeee — caiia?aaiiy caaino?aiiyi
iaa?ico, ia?aeii?e naenoaeuei?e aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie, caiia?aaiiy
o?ii?/iiio ?o ia?aa?ao oa o?ainoi?iaoe?? o a?eueo oyaee? oi?ie.

On? caoiaee uiaei caiia?aaiiy ii?ooaiiyi naenoaeueiiai caei?ia?y iathoue
aaeeaaoeny i?e noai?iio aeiaea?aeaii? i?eioeei?a nenoaiiino?, aoaiiino?
oa iine?aeiaiino?, eiiieaeniino? oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiino?, niaaeeiaino?
oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?. Ci?no canoiniaoaaieo i?e oeueiio iaoiae?a,
aieiaiei /eiii ?aoe?iiaeueieo aan?ae oa eaeoe?e, ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe
caaaeaiith caiia?aaiiy ?icaeoeo o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? oa iia’ycai?e c iath naenoaeuei?e aeenaa?iii??
iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e.

AENIIAEE

1. I?e iaa?icao o ae?iie iayaia a ieo naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y iiaea
aooe ye ia?aeiiith, oae ? aoi?eiiith. Ia?oa yaey? niaith naiino?eia
caoai?thaaiiy ? aenooia? ye ineoio?aaia, ui ni?e/eiy? ?icaeoie iaa?ico,
ae?oaa ? ?acoeueoaoii iiaoi?iiai caeo/aiiy naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? aei
iaa?ioe/iiai i?ioeano ? yaey? niaith iaeei ?c neiae?ii?a iaa?ico.

2.A iniia? ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? ye naiino?eii?
iicieia?/ii? oi?ie eaaeaoue nioe?iaaii? /eiieee, ui ni?e/eiythoue
aeac?ioi?iaoe?th, iecueeo naenoaeueio eoeueoo?o iniaenoino?, iaaaoeai?
ineoieia?/i? — iniaeeaino? ineoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, naenoaeueii?
iioeaaoe?? oa iioea?a noaoaaiai aeoo, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? —
ii?ooaiiy i?aeiniaeno?nieo a?aeiinei iiae?oaeaey, oa niiaoia?ieia?/i?
/eiieee — iniaeeaino? niiaoinaenoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ineo?/ii? oa
iae?iaoii?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? naenoaeueii? ooieoe??.

*eneaii?noue oa ??ciiiai?oi?noue oeeo iaoiaaiieo /eiiee?a coiiaeth? e
aaaaoiia?aci?noue ee?i?/ieo oi?i oa iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a ia?aeiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??.

3.Ia?aeiia naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y o ae?iie (844%) iiaea aooe
?iaeea?aeoaeueiith, ui ni?e/eiy? aeacaaeaioaoe?th iiae?oaeaey
(iaoi?aoeaeoi?ia, ?aoa?aeaoe?eia, aeaeneoei?/ia, aeac?ioi?iaoe?eia
oi?ie, iaa?ic i/?eoaaiiy, ei?oioia?y, aaa?i?ci), oa ia?iith,
aeacaaeaioeaiith (naenoaeueia aaa?n?y, nioe?ieoeueoo?ia,
naenoaeueii-iiaaae?ieiaa, naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia oi?ie oa
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??).

Eiaeia c oeeo oi?i ia? naith ao?ieia?th oa niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
iaoiaaiaco, ia?aa?ao oa i?iya?a, i?e/iio aeey an?o ia?ae?/aieo oi?i
oa?aeoa?iith ? a?ia?aeooae?caoe?y naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? ye o ae?iie,
oae e o /ieia?e?a.

4.Aoi?eiia naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y o ae?iie (184%) ye iane?aeie
aoi?eiiiai caeo/aiiy naenoaeueii? ooieoe?? aei iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano
?icaeaa?oueny ii o?ueio iaoai?ciao: aiane?aeie coiiaeaii? iaa?icii
aeacaeooae?caoe?? naenoaeueii? iiaaae?iee ae?iee, aiane?aeie ?iceaaeo
ineo?/ii?, aaaaoaoeaii? oa iae?iaoii?aeueii? ?aaoeyoe?? naenoaeueii?
ooieoe??, oa a ?acoeueoao? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aeacaaeaioaoe??
iiae?oaeaey.

Ia?aa?a oa i?iyae aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? caeaaeaoue a?ae
oi?ie ? oa?aeoa?o ia?aa?ao iaa?ico o ae?iie.

5.Naenoaeueiee ?iceaae o ae?iie ni?e/eiy? ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueii?
ooieoe?? a ?oi?o /ieia?e?a, yea caeaa?eueoiai ia? a?aeiiniee oa?aeoa?,
aea iiaea o?ainoi?ioaaoeny e o ?noeiia ii?ooaiiy iioaioe??. On? /ieia?ee
a?ae/oaathoue ineoinaenoaeueio iacaaeiaieai?noue, ui ia??aeei ni?ey?
iicaoethaiei ca’yceai.

6.Naenoaeueia aeenaa?iii?y iiae?oaeiuei? ia?e i?e iaa?ic? o ae?oaeeie
coiiaeth?oueny ia o?eueee iayaiith a ia? naenoaeueiith aeenooieoe??th
(ii?ooaiiy e?a?aei, naenoaeueieo a?ae/ooo?a oa i?aacio, iaaaeaeaaoi?
naenoaeuei? oaioac??), aea e aeaa?aoe?yie noaoaai?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee,
ineoinaenoaeueii? i???ioaoe??, iaa?aeiia?aei?noth oei?a naenoaeueii?
iioeaaoe??, iioea?a noaoaaiai aeoo, noaoaai? eiinoeoooe??, oei?a
naenoaeueii? eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae iecueeei ??aiai ii?ioi?iiaaiino? a
ieoaiiyo ineoia?a??ie noaoaaiai aeeooy.

O caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ie? ia?ae?/aieo /eiiee?a o aaiac? ?iceaaeo
naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y aiie iiaeooue aooe aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith
aeieeiaiiy naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii??, iineethaaoe ?? aai neoaeeoe
iaoiieanoe/iei oiiii ?? ?icaeoeo.

7.Nooo?ao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie oa
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? a?ae?a?athoue iniaeno?ni? ?ene, ui ni?eythoue
ii?ooaiith eiioi?eaoe??, iani?eyoeeaa niieo/aiiy a iiae?oaei?e ia??
ineoinaenoaeueieo oei?a /ieia?ea ? ae?iee, ?ieueiaa iaaaeaeaaoi?noue
iiae?oaeaey, iecueeee ??aaiue ineoieia?/ii? noi?niino?, a oaeiae
naenoaeueii-a?ioe/ia aeacaaeaioaoe?y, aeyaeaia o an?o iiae?oaei?o ia?.

O aaiac? ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y aeathoue na?e aianie
iaaaeaeaaoi? oeie ?aaaoaaiiy iiae?oaeaey ia aeenaa?iii?th, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue o ae?iie oi?i? niinoa?aaeoaaiiai o ieo iaa?ico
(iaa?anoai?/iee, iananeaii-oia?/iee, aai?noe/iee) oa iaoai?cie
ineoieia?/iiai caoenoo, ye? iathoue iaaiee ca’ycie ?c oi?iith ia?aeiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? (?aa?an?y i?e iaoi?aoeaeoi?i?e oi?i?, aa?an?y
oa iaaaoea?ci i?e aaa?n?? oiui) ? c naenoaeueiith aeenooieoe??th i?e
iaa?ic? ianaenoaeueiiai aaiaco (iaiaaeaiiy ss oa eiiiainaoe?y).

8.?nio? iaaia caeaaei?noue i?ae aeayeeie nioe?ieia?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oa naenoaeueiith aeenaa?iii??th i?e iaa?ic? o ae?iie.
Iaeiaioee oa?i?i iiae?oaeiueiai aeeooy a?aecia/a?oueny i?e ?noa???,
iaea?eueoee — i?e iaa?anoai?? o ae?iie. Aeenaa?iii?y iae/ano?oa
?icaeaa?oueny o aacae?oieo iiae?oaei?o ia? ? ca an?o ianoaaei iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia i?oei?noue oethao, a oaeiae ia o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue oa
nioe?aeueia i?inoaaiiy iiae?oaeaey.

9. Ae?aaiinoeea ii?ooaiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ca iaa?ico o ae?iie ia?
i?iaiaeeoeny iaoiaeii nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co, yeee aea? ciiao
aecia/eoe oi?io ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o
ae?oaeeie ? nooi?iue nioe?aeueii?, ineoieia?/ii?,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? oa niiaoia?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? iiae?oaeaey.

10.Ineoioa?aiaaoe/ia ei?aeoe?y ii?ooaiue naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y i?e
iaa?ic? o ae?iie ia? aooe ni?yiiaaia, o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?oiueiai
aaiaco, a iaeieo aeiaaeeao ia e?eoaaiiy ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii?
aeenooieoe?? oa iaa?ico, a ?ioeo — ia e?eoaaiiy iaa?ico ? aoi?eiii?
naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??. Ae?oaee iai?yiie nenoaie ei?aeoe?? —
ineoioa?aiaaoe/ia ei?aeoe?y iiae?oaeiuei? aeenaa?iii??, coiiaeaii? o??th
/e ?ioith oi?iith naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? o ae?iie oa
aeacaaeaioaoe??th iiae?oaeaey ia oiio /e ?ioiio ??ai? aca?iiae??.
E?eoaaeueia oaeoeea i?e oeueiio ioneoue a?oiooaaoeny ia
aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ieo iieacieeao, ui aecia/athoueny ca
?ioaa?aeueieie e?eoa??yie naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. A?a/aa ?.A. Ia?ooaiea naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e iaa?icao o
aeaiuei. – Aeiiaoee: Aeiiao/eia, 1997. – 200n.

2. A?a/aa ?.A. Nenoaia ei??aeoeee naenoaeueiie aeenaa?iiiee i?e iaa?ica
o aeaiuei // A?o. eeei. e yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1996. – O. 5, aui. ? 2. –
N. 3-5.

3. A?a/aa ?.A. Naenoaeueiay aeenaa?iiiey noi?oaeaneie ia?u i?e
iaoi?aoeaeoi?iie oi?ia ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee // A?o. eeei.
e yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1997. – O. 6 , aui. ? 3. – N. 20-22.

4. Ieoaeeia A.A., E?eooaeue A.A., Oeeaoiaa I.A., A?a/aa ?.A. I?e/eiu e
oneiaey ?acaeoey ia?ooaiey naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey o aeaiuei //
I?iaeci?. – Niaoe. aui. «Caei?iauea aeaiueiu». – 1998. – N. 22.

5. A?a/aa ?.A. Cia/aiea ia?ooaiee iieiaiai ?acaeoey a aaiaca
?anno?ienoaa naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e iaa?icao o aeaiuei // A?o.
eeei. e yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1997. – O. 6 , aui. ? 3. – N.23-25.

6. A?a/aa ?.A. Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay ei??aeoeey aoi?e/iie naenoaeueiie
aeenooieoeee i?e ?aciuo oi?iao iaa?ica o aeaiuei // A?o. eeei. e yeni.
iaaeeoeeiu. – 1997. – O. 6 , aui. ? 4. – N. 3-5.

7. A?a/aa ?.A. I i?e/eiao e iaoiaaiaoe/aneeo iaoaieciao ia?ae/iuo
naenoaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa i?e iaa?icao o aeaiuei // A?o. eeei. e yeni.
iaaeeoeeiu. – 1997. – O. 6 , aui. ? 4. – N.6-7.

8. A?a/aa ?.A. Iaoaieciu ineoieiae/aneie caueou o aieueiuo iaa?icii
aeaiuei n ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeeae / A?niee A?iieoeueeiai
aea?ae. iaae. oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998. – O. 2., ? 2. – N. 387-389.

9. A?a/aa ?.A. Ia?ooaiea naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e
aeacaaeaioaoeeiiiuo oi?iao ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee o aeaiuei
// A?o. eeei. e yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1998. – O. 7 , aui. ? 2. – N.23-27.

10. A?a/aa ?.A. Naenoaeueiay aeenaa?iiiey noi?oaeaneie ia?u i?e iaa?ica
iaayc/eainoe o aeaiu // A?o. eeei. e yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1997. – O. 7,
aui. ? 2. – N.28-30.

11. A?a/aa ?.A. Ia?ooaiea naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e enoa?e/aneii
iaa?ica o aeaiuei. – AEo?i. ineoeao?ee e iaae. ineoieiaee. – 1998. –
?1(4). – N.67-68.

12. A?a/aa ?.A. Iniaaiiinoe ia?ooaiey naenoaeueiie ooieoeee i?e
iaa?anoaiee o aeaiuei. – AEo?i. ineoeao?ee e iaae. ineoieiaee. – 1998. —
?1(4). – N.69-71.

13. A?a/aa ?.A. Iniaaiiinoe ia?ooaiey naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e
naenoaeueiie aaa?nee o aeaiuei // A?o. eeei. e yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1998.
– O.7, aui.? 6. – N.16-17.

14. A?a/aa ?.A. Aa?eaiou nioeeieoeueoo?iie e naenoaeueii-iiaaaeai/aneie
oi?iu ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee o aeaiuei // A?o. eeei. e
yeni. iaaeeoeeiu. – 1998. – O.7, aui.? 6. – N.18-20.

15. A?a/aa ?.A. Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e aeeaaiinoeea e ei??aeoeee aaaeiecia
// Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??. – 1999. – O. 7, aei. 1(19). – N.
51-53.

16. A?a/aa ?.A. I?e/eiu e oneiaey ?acaeoey ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie
aeenooieoeee o aeaiuei i?e iaa?ica // Oe?a?ineee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??
. – 1999. O. 7, aei 1 (19). – N. 12-15.

17. A?a/aa ?.A. Iaa?icu e naenoaeueiua ?anno?ienoaa o aeaiuei //
Iaaeaeoia?. iaae. aeo?i. – 1999. – O. 5, ? 1. – N. 71-74.

18. A?a/aa ?.A. Aeiaaiie noaoeeiia? aeey ei??aeoeee ia?ooaiee
naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey a iiiaii?ioeeueiie eeeie/aneie aieueieoea //
Naenieia. e aiae?ieia. – Eeaa, 1992. – Aui. 1. – N. 190-192.

19. E?eooaeue A.A., A?a/aa ?.A. Ineoiaeeaaiinoeea e ineoiei??aeoeey
naenoaeueiie aeenaa?iiiee noi?oaeaneie ia?u // Ineoieiaey e iaaeeoeeia.
– Oac. aeieeaaeia Ia?aiai Oe?aeineiai naieia?a iaaeeoeeineeo ineoieiaia
21-22 yiaa?y 1994a. – Aeiiaoee – Oa?ueeia – Eeaa – Ia?eae. – 1994. –
N.71.

20. A?a/aa ?.A. Ia?ooaiea naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e ?aciuo oi?iao
ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee o aeaiuei // Ia?oo. naen.
caei?iauey. Aeeaaiinoeea, ei??aeoeey, i?ioeeaeoeea: Iaoa?. iao/.-i?aeo.
eiio. n iaaeaeoia?. o/anoeai, iina. 10-eaoeth eaoaae?u iaae. naenie. e
iaae. ineoie. OEOA. – Oa?ueeia, 1997. – N.65-69.

Aiioaoe?y

A?a/ia ??oao Aoiaoiae/. Ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ca ??cieo oi?i
iaa?ico o ae?iie oa eiai ineoioa?aiaaoe/ia ei?aeoe?y. ?oeiien.
Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.16 – ineo?ao??y. Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo
oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a, Oa?e?a, 1999.

C iiceoe?e nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aeine?aeaeaii i?e/eie, iaoiaaiaoe/i?
iaoai?cie oa ee?i?eo ii?ooaiue naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y ca iaa?anoai??,
?noa?e/iiai iaa?ico ? iaa?ico iaa’yceeaeo noai?a o ae?iie. Iienaii
ee?i?/i? oi?ie ia?aeiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe??, iieacaii ?oi?e
ca’ycie c oi?iaie iaa?ico. Aeyaeaii ?ieue a?iaaiieo, nioe?iaaiieo oa
iaaaoeaieo ineoieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a o
oi?ioaaii? ia?aeiii? ? aoi?eiii? naenoaeueii? aeenooieoe?? oa
naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? ca iaa?ico o ae?iie.

?ic?iaeaii aeeoa?aioe?eii-ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa??? oa nenoaio
ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? ei?aeoe?? naenoaeueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiae?oaeiuei?
ia?e ca aea/aii? iaoieia?? o ae?iee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?ooaiiy naenoaeueiiai caei?ia’y, ia?aeiia ? aoi?eiia
naenoaeueia aeenooieoe?y, iaa?ic o ae?iie, ineoioa?aiaaoe/ia ei?aeoe?y

AIIIOAOeEss

A?a/aa ?eoao Aoiaoiae/. Ia?ooaiea naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e ?aciuo
oi?iao iaa?ica o aeaiuei e aai ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay ei??aeoeey.
?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.16 — ineoeao?ey.
Oa?ueeianeee einoeooo oniaa?oainoaiaaiey a?a/ae, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

N iiceoeee nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea enneaaeiaaiu i?e/eiu, iaoiaaiaoe/aneea
iaoaieciu e eeeieea ia?ooaiey naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey i?e iaa?anoaiee,
enoa?e/aneii iaa?ica e iaa?ica iaayc/eainoe o aeaiuei. Ia iniiaa
eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai ianeaaeiaaiey 300 noi?oaeaneeo ia? onoaiiaeaii,
/oi eiathuayny o ieo naenoaeueiay aeenooieoeey iiaeao auoue eae
ia?ae/iie, oae e aoi?e/iie.

Iieacaii, /oi a iniiaa ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee,
i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie naiinoiyoaeueioth iicieiae/aneoth oi?io, eaaeao
nioeeiaaiiua, ineoiaaiiua, iaaaoeaiua ineoieiae/aneea e
niiaoiaeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u. Iiiai/eneaiiinoue e ?aciiia?acea yoeo
iaoiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia iaoneiaeeaatho iiiaiia?acea eeeie/aneeo oi?i e
iaoiaaiaoe/aneeo iaoaieciia ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee.
Aoi?e/iay naenoaeueiay aeenooieoeey o aeaiuei, aunooiathuay a ea/anoaa
iaeiiai ec neiae?iiia iaa?ica, ?acaeaaaony ii o?ai iaoaieciai: a
?acoeueoaoa iaoneiaeaiiie iaa?icii aeacaeooaeecaoeee naenoaeueiiai
iiaaaeaiey aeaiueiu, naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee, aicieeathuae o iaa
aneaaenoaea ?anno?ienoaa ineoe/aneie, aaaaoaoeaiie e iae?iaoii?aeueiie
?aaoeyoeee naenoaeueiie ooieoeee, e nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie
aeacaaeaioaoeee noi?oaia.

Aia?aua iienaiu oa/aiea e i?iyaeaiey ia?ae/iie e aoi?e/iie naenoaeueiie
aeenooieoeee e iieacaia eo naycue n eco/aiiuie oi?iaie iaa?ica o
aeaiuei. Eco/aii ninoiyiea naenoaeueiie ooieoeee ioaeae aieueiuo
aeaiuei.

Auyaeaiu iaoiaaiiua naenieiae/aneea, ineoieiae/aneea,
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea e nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u, eioi?ua a
caaeneiinoe io eo ?iee a aaiaca ?anno?ienoaa naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey
iiaoo auoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey naenoaeueiie
aeenaa?iiiee noi?oaeaneie ia?u, onoaoaeyoue aa eee neoaeeoue
iaoiieanoe/aneei oiiii aa ?acaeoey. Iienaiu iaoaieciu ineoieiae/aneie
caueou e eo naycue n oi?iie ia?ae/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee e n
naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeeae i?e iaa?ica ianaenoaeueiiai aaiaca.

?ac?aaioaiu aeeooa?aioeeaeueii-aeeaaiinoe/aneea e?eoa?ee ia?ae/iuo
naenoaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa o aeaiuei i?e enneaaeiaaiiuo oi?iao iaa?ica,
iniiaaiiua ia eioaa?aeueiuo e?eoa?eyo naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey e
iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue auai?a n eo iiiiuueth aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo
ea/aaiuo i?ia?aii. Iieacaii, /oi aeeaaiinoeea ia?ooaiey naenoaeueiiai
caei?iauey i?e iaa?ica aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny iaoiaeii
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca, iicaieythuaai ii?aaeaeeoue oi?io
ia?ae/iie e aoi?e/iie naenoaeueiie aeenooieoeee o aeaiu e noaiaiue
ia?ooaiey nioeeaeueiie, ineoieiae/aneie, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie e
niiaoiaeieiae/aneie aaeaioaoeee noi?oaia.

I?aaeeiaeaia eiiieaeniay nenoaia ei??aeoeee naenoaeueiie aeenaa?iiiee
i?e iaa?ica o aeaiuei, eiathuay iaoiaaiaoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue e
iicaieythuay aeinoeaiooue aunieiai e noieeiai oa?aiaaoe/aneiai yooaeoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?ooaiea naenoaeueiiai caei?iauey, ia?ae/iay e
aoi?e/iay naenoaeueiay aeenooieoeey, iaa?ic o aeaiuei,
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneay ei??aeoeey

SUMMARY

Grachev Rifat Akhmetovich. Disorders of sexual health at different
forms of neurosis in women and their psychotherapeutical correction. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor of science degree by speciality 14.01.16 —
psychiatry. — The Kharkov Institute for Advanced Training of Doctors,
Kharkov, 1999.

The causes, pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical picture of disorders of
sexual health at neurasthenia, hysterical neurosis and obsessional
neurosis in women have been studied from the point of view of systematic
approach. Clinical forms of primary sexual disfunction are described and
their relation to neurosis forms shown. The role of biogenic, sociogenic
and negative psychological and social-psychological factors were
revealed in creating primary and secondary sexual disfunction and sexual
disharmony at neurosis in women.

Differential diagnostic criteria and psychotherapeutic system have been
developed for the correction of sexual disharmony in married couples in
case of the pathology under study.

Key words: disorders of sexual health, primary and secondary sexual
disfunction, neurosis in women, psychotherapeutical correction

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo – 26.10.1998?.

Oiia. ae?oea?. a?e. – 2.0. Oe?aae – 100 i?.

Cai. ? 0507.

Iaae?oeiaaii – AAO Aeiiaoeueeee oi?aiaaeueiee ae?i «Aeiiaan»

Na. ? 13485542 a?ae 21.05.98?.

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