I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE tc «I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE
CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE»

OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAI–AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO

NIOe?AEUeII? OA NOAeIAI? INEO?AO???

IAIAN

AIAe??E ?IIAIIAE*

OAeE
616.89-008.441.13+(616.893-02:616.89-008.441.13)]:616.155.1-008.82-08

II?OOAIIss Na-O?AINII?OOTH*EO NENOAI A A?EO?IOeEOAO O OAI?EO IA
AEEIAIE?CI, AEEIAIEUeI? INEOICE OA ?O EI?AEOe?ss

14.01.16 – ineo?ao??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeaaeai?e AI Aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AEIO ??eia Einei?aia,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ineo?ao???, ineoieia?? ? naenieia?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

IAEA?AIEI Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/,

ea??aiee a?oie ee?i?/ii? iae?iineoioa?iaeieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo

nioe?aeueii? oa noaeiai? ineo?ao??? IIC Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

IOOE Iaoae?y A?eai??aia,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ineo?ao???, caaaeueii? ? iaaee/ii?

ineoieia?? A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
I.?.Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie
caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «1»eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 10 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.620.01 a Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?

nioe?aeueii? oa noaeiai? ineo?ao??? ca aae?anith: 254080, i.Ee?a, aoe.
O?oica, 103.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo nioe?aeueii? oa noaeiai? ineo?ao???
(254080, i.Ee?a, aoe. O?oica, 103).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «29»aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe Iieoei TH.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE tc «CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE»

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiino? o?ii?/iiai
aeeiaie?cio a iao?e e?a?i, ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? oai?eo ia aeeiaieuei?
ineoice, a oaeiae eaoano?io?/i? iaaee/i? ? nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee
aeeiaie?cio iinoaaeee ia?aae a?o/eciyiith ineo?ao???th ?yae
iaa?aeeeaaeieo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue (A.I.Aoaiaeeeiaa,
I.I.Aiaeia?, 1987; I.ss.Oo?niaa, A.I.?aaaiie e ae?., 1990).

A aaaaoueio ioae?eaoe?yo (A.ss.Aa?ooeueeee, A.A.Iaaeoaa, 1988;
A.I.Anaaeia, 1983; I.Ii?ic, ?.Aeio, 1996; A.Bjorneboe, G.E.Bjorneboe,
1993) i?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a
?icaeoeo aeeiaie?cio, ?ic?iaee oaeoeee aoaeoeaii? iaoiaaiaoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii? oa?ai?? ? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo. Ne?ae i?eeiyoe aei oaaae,
ui i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ao?iiaoiaaiaco aeeiaieueii? oai?iae anoaiiaeaii
c?ooaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, iai?io
iae?iiaae?aoi??a, neioaco i?inoaaeaiaeei?a, iaoaaie?cio aoaeaaiae?a,
e?i?ae?a oa ai?iieeneio (I.N.Ao?ieno?ia, TH.N.Ai?iaeeei, 1990;
E.I.Aueiaa, O.I.AEoeiaa, 1991; A.I.Neieoeeee, I.E.Oa?/aiei, 1995;
R.Farskinen, E.A.Nikkila et. al., 1987). Iei? caeeoa?oueny iaei noii?a?a
a oiio, ui i?e aeeiaie?ci? ii?ooothoueny i?aeoe/ii an? eaiee ee?oeiiiai
iaoaaie?cio. Oiio c?icoi?eei ? ?ioa?an aei iaoai?ci?a ?iiiiai
o?ainii?oo, eio?? ooieoe?iiothoue a ee?oeiao ??cieo oei?a, ? aei ci?i
e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ii–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai, ui c`yaeythoueny
i?e o?ii?/iiio aeeiaie?ci? ? aeeiaieueieo ineoicao.

A?aeiii, ui i?e aeeiaie?ci? aeieeathoue cia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy a nenoaiao
iaaaa?i–/ooeeaiai oa iaaaa?i–?acenoaioiiai o?ainii?oo ?ii?a (I.I.Ii?ic,
?.E.Aeio, 1996; I.A.Ao?ee, 1997). Oaeiae anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino?
Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai ca o?ii?/iiai aeeiaie?cio, eio?ee
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith ?/aai ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiei
oeoe?iaei ae?aaaoii. Aacoth/enue ia oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aoei
i?iaeiaaeaii i?aoeth a aeaiiio iaoeiaiio iai?yieo, uia iaoe iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? ?iiiiai o?ainii?oo ? ca ?ioeo caoai?thaaiue, ui
aeieeathoue aiane?aeie o?ii?/iiai ceiaaeeaaiiy aeeiaieai, a oiio /ene? ?
i?e aeeiaieueieo ineoicao, a oaeiae iaa?oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue
canoinoaaiiy oo?acie?aeiio aeey iiaeieaiiy cao?aiue iao???aiai
aiiainoaco. Aea?? inoaiiueiai ye na?aaeieea, caeaoiiai iiaeoethaaoe
aeanoeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo ?ii–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai, aoa iioeaiaaiee
niinoa?aaeaiiyie, ca?aeii eio?eo oo?acie?aeii aieeaa? ia oaeaee?noue
ooee?caoe?? ee?oeiaie eenith, /eieoue ae?th ia aioeieneaeaioi? caoeni?
iaoai?cie ? i?ioeane ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (B. Sas, 1993),
oiaoi ci?ith? eaiee iaoaaie?cio, eio?? iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei
i?aeo?eiaiiy ?iiiiai neeaaeo aioo??oiuei– oa iicaee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeu.

Na?aae Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai oaeith, ui noaiiaeoue ia`?eo iaea?eueo
/eneaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ? Na,K–AOOaca, ca iina?aaeieoeoaii yei?
cae?enith?oueny iaaaa?i–/ooeeaee o?ainii?o Na+. Iaeiae i?ioyaii inoaii?o
?ie?a iaea?aeaii aaaii? aeieace iiaeeeaino? o?ainii?oo iiiiaaeaioieo
?ii?a iaaaa?i–?acenoaioieie iaoai?ciaie (TH.A. Iinoiia, N.I.I?eia, 1987;
A.R. Chipperfield, 1987; M.A.Post, D.C. Davson, 1994), cie?aia, Na, K,
Cl–eio?ainii?oii (P.Geck, B.Pfeiffer, 1989; N. Whisenant,1993) oa
Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?oii (T.C. Hardman, S.Sandhu et.al., 1992;
F.J.Muriana, C.Montilla et.al., 1996). Oi/a ?o aeoeai?noue a
a?eo?ioeeoao ? no?eeith i?ioyaii ia??iaeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? o?eaaeino?,
iaa?iiaaeaeothoueny aeai? ia ei?enoue oiai, ui caaaeai? nenoaie
i?aeaeathoueny iiaeoeyoe?yi ye aino?i, oae ? o?ii?/ii, ca aieeao
??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a. Cia/iee ?ioa?an o aeine?aeaeaii? oeeo iaoai?ci?a
noaiiaeoue ca`ycie i?ae ci?iaie ?o iiaaae?iee oa ie?aieie iaoieia?/ieie
noaiaie. Ii?ooaiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaaaa?i–?acenoaioiiai
o?ainii?oo iiiiaaeaioieo ?ii?a aeyaeaii i?e aiaeiaaiieo ineoicao
(E.E.Aeio, 1992) anaioe?aeuei?e a?ia?oaic?? (A.I.A?eoia, A.I.Eiaaeue e
ae?., 1991; A.I.Ineiiia, TH.A.Nie?iia e ae?., 1991; G.I.Adebajano,
P.Gaffney et. al., 1996; M.Canessa, 1994), oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao?
(M.Canessa, G.Zerbini, 1992; A.Czech, J.Taton, 1991; T. Senda,
N.Serisawa et.al., 1996), aeene?i?aeai?yo (S.H.Stengard, K.E.Zerba
et.al., 1997), iao?iiao?yo (Y.F.Sun, C.J.Tsai et. al., 1996; P.L. Neves,
M.Faisca et.al., 1996).

Iaeiae iiai?noth a?aenooi? aeai? i?i ii?ooaiiy Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo
nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci oa aeeiaieuei? ineoice,
oiio ? i/aaeaeiith aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o
aeacaiiio iai?yieo.

3a’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aeaieea
Aaeeoeueeiai ? ? /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoai?ci?a ?icaeoeo ?iiieo iaia?aiiiao?e”. Oeo? ?I 30.00.0001.96, ?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0198 U 000877.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe — anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae iiaeoeyoe?? iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiai oa
iaaaa?i-?acenoaioieo iaoai?ci?a o?ainii?oo Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao ca
aeeiaie?cio, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie
ia/?iee, ? i?e aeeiaieueieo ineoicao.

A na?oe? iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaee ianooii? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

aea/eoe ee?i?/io aoaeoeai?noue oo?acie?aeiio i?e e?eoaaii? aeeiaie?cio;

aei??yoe ia?aiao?e o?ueio Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai – aeoeaii? aeno?oc??
Na+, oo?inai?ae–/ooeeaiai Na, K, Cl–eio?ainii?oo oa
Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?oo – a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee oa
a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, a oaeiae i?e ?icaeoeo aeeiaieueieo ineoic?a;

aea/eoe iniaeeaino? Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia
aeeiaie?ci, ui i?eeiaee oo?acie?aeii;

aeine?aeeoe ca aenia?eiaioaeueieo oiia /ooeea?noue Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo
nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao ? aaiaoioeeoao ca aino?iai oa o?ii?/iiai aieeao
oo?acie?aeiio;

anoaiiaeoe aca?iiae?th Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai c ?ioaineai?noth
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, aeoeai?noth eaoaeace oa ia?ieneaeace a
e?ia? oa ee?oeiao ia/?iee i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei i?ney aaaaeaiiy
oo?acie?aeiio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui iaeio c i?e/ei ia?aaaioaaeaiiy
a?eo?ioeeo?a ?iiaie Na+ o oai?eo, a eio?eo aeeiaie?ci i?eaiaeeoue aei
?icaeoeo aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, noaiiaeoue i?eai?/aiiy
iaaaa?i–/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? Na+. Eiiiainaoi?ia ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? Na,
K, Cl–eio?ainii?oo ? iaaeinoaoi?i aeey iiaa?iaiiy
aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a iaae? o?c?ieia?/iiai
ae?aiaciio. Anoaiiaeaii o/anoue oaeaeeino? oo?inai?ae–/ooeeaiai Na, K,
Cl–eio?ainii?oo a i?aeo?eiaii? noaa?eueiino? ?iiia?aie e?ia? o oai?eo c
aeeiaieueieie ineoicaie.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii ia?aiao?e iaaaa?i–/ooeeai? aeno?oc??
Na+, oo?inai?ae–/ooeeaiai Na, K, Cl–eio?ainii?oo oa
Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao ? aaiaoioeeoao ca aino?iai oa
o?ii?/iiai aieeao ia i?aai?ci i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei oo?acie?aeiio.
Anoaiiaeaii aenieo ?acenoaioi?noue Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai aeacaieo
ee?oei aei ae?? oo?acie?aeiio a /aniaee ?ioa?aae, eiee eiioeaio?aoe?y
oo?acie?aeiio a e?ia? ? iaeneiaeueiith, oa o a?aeaeaeaiee ia??iae.
Aeyaeaii aeice oo?acie?aeiio oa ?aaeei eiai aaaaeaiiy a i?aai?ci, ca
aeio?eiaiiy yeeo oeae i?aia?ao ia /eieoue ?iaeoeoi?iiai aieeao ia
i?ioeane ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a a e?ia? oa ia/?ioe?. Iaea?aeaii
aeieace iayaiino? o oo?acie?aeiio aeanoeainoae ni?eyoe ciaioaiith
ii?ooaiue Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai o oai?eo c aeeiaieueieie
caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeeeaee
iaoio?c?ieia?/iee iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy a?aeoeeaiue a aaeain? E+ oa Na+
i?e aeeiaie?ci? ca iayaiino? aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee,
cie?aia, ii?aeiaieo c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, iniiao yeiai
neeaaeathoue ?icaeoie ieneaeaoeaiiai no?ano oa cao?aiue ?iiiiai
aiiainoaco. Iaaaaeaii i?e/eie, noeoii?noue eio?eo caaacia/o?
noaa?euei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?e E+ oa Na+ a e?ia? o oai?eo c aeeiaieueieie
ineoicaie. Cae?eniaii aiae?c aeanoeainoae oo?acie?aeiio ye iiaeoeyoi?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ee?oei ??cieo oei?a. Iaiaaeaio caeaoi?noue
oo?acie?aeiio coiiaethaaoe aeieeiaiiy a?aeoeeaiue a iaaaa?i–/ooeeaiio oa
iaaaa?i–?acenoaioieo iaoai?ciao o?ainii?oo iiiiaaeaioieo ?ii?a a
a?eo?ioeeoao oa aaiaoioeeoao aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei aeei?enoaii aeey
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy aeacaiiai i?aia?aoo ca
iaoieia?/ieo noai?a, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoueny iao???aei ia?aaaioaaeaiiyi
ee?oei. Iieacaii, ui o?eaae?noue eo?no oa?ai?? oo?acie?aeiiii iiaeiia
aooe e?i?oiaaiith. Anoaiiaeaii aenieo eiia??i?noue iiaeieaiiy ii?ooaiue
aiiainoaco ?ii?a Na+ o oai?eo, a eio?eo aeeiaie?ci noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee, aea ia a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith,
ine?eueee a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo ci?ie Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai ?
aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaieie. Iaaieioaii, ui aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a
Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai iiaeia canoinoaaoe aeey eiio?ieth ca
ooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo aeena?oaioa.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a iiooeo oa ii?aoethaaii? aeaea?ae
e?oa?aoo?e, a aiae?c? aeooaeueiino? oa nooiaiy aea/aiiy i?iaeaie,
i?aeai?? oa ee?i?/iiio ianoaaeaii? oai?eo, iinoaiiaoe? iaoiaeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?aoethaaii? oa ocaaaeueiaii? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a, i?aeaioiaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai–i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 200–??//th Oa?e?anueei? i?nueei? ee?i?/ii? ineo?ao?e/ii?
e?ea?i? “Naao?iaa aea/a” (Oa?e?a, 1996), iaoeiai–i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 100–??//th A?iieoeueei? ineoiiaa?ieia?/ii?
e?ea?i? ?iai? I.?.THuaiea (A?iieoey, 1997), ui??/ieo i?aenoieiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo EAeIO (1995 – 1998), can?aeaiiyo iaeaniiai iaoeiaiai
oiaa?enoaa ineo?ao??a (1996 – 1998), iaoeiai–i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 100–??//th eaoaae?e o?c?ieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Euea?a, 1995), OV c`?cae? o?c?ieia?a Oe?a?ie
(Euea?a – Aeiiaoeuee, 1998), ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? ineo?ao???
? iaaee/ii? ineoieia??, ii?iaeueii? o?c?ieia??, iaa?ieia?? oa OeIAeE
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Aeaieea
Aaeeoeueeiai.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii? a i?aeoeeo ee?i?/iiai a?aeae?eaiiy
Euea?anueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? ineo?ao?e/ii? e?ea?i? oa noaoe?iia?ieo
a?aeae?eaiue Euea?anueeiai iaeaniiai ia?eieia?/iiai aeeniaina?o, a
iaoeiai–aeine?aeio ?iaioo ? iaa/aeueiee i?ioean eaoaae? ineo?ao???,
ineoieia?? ? naenieia??, eaoaae?e oa?iaeieia?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 14 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue ?? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy. C ieo 7 noaoae a
iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, 6 ?ia?o a iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e oa
1 ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 147 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, i’yoe i?ae?icae?e?a
aeaae “?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy”, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 192 aeaea?aea e?oa?aoo?e.
?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 21 oaaeeoeyie oa 9 ?enoieaie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss tc «CI?NO ?IAIOE
IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss»

I?ae niinoa?aaeaiiyi ciaoiaeeeiny 114 oai?eo, o aoei ae?aaiinoiaaii
aeeiaie?ci oa aeeiaieuei? ineoice. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny c
aeei?enoaiiyi oeaee ee?i?/ieo iciae oaciiai ia?aa?ao aeeiaie?cio. A
a?oio ii??aiyiiy aoiaeeei 30 ineo?/ii caei?iaeo in?a, ye? aaaeooue
oaa?acee niin?a aeeooy. Aeey ii??aiyiiy ee?i?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
i?aia?ao?a nainea?e?coth/i? aei aeeiaieth ae?? aoei oaeiae aeae?eaii
eiio?ieueio a?oio c 30 oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, yeei aeoeai? iaoiaee
oa?ai?? ia i?iaiaeeeeny.

An?o oai?eo, ui ciaoiaeeeeny i?ae niinoa?aaeaiiyi,aoei iiae?eaii ia
a?oie:

oai?? ia aeeiaie?ci a ae?oa?e noaae??, yeei i?iaiaeeeanue oa?ai?y
oo?acie?aeiiii (i = 42);

oai?? ia aeeiaie?ci ae?oai? noaae??, yeei i?iaiaeeeanue oa?ai?y
oaoo?aiii (i = 36);

oai?? ia aeeiaie?ci, o yeeo ae?aaiinoiaaii aeeiaieueiee aeae???e (i =
24);

oai?? ia aeeiaie?ci c aino?ei aeeiaieueiei aaethoeeiicii (i = 12).

?ii–o?ainii?ooth/? ooieoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaee o 42 oai?eo ia
aeeiaie?ci ?? noaae?? ?icaeoeo, 24 oai?eo ia a?eo aa?y/eo, 12 oai?eo c
aino?ei aeeiaieueiei aaethoeeiicii. O 30 oai?eo aeeiaie?ci
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee, o 16 oai?eo
aeeiaieuei? caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee ii?aeioaaeenue ?c a?ia?oii?/iith
oai?iaith.

Aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao o
aeacaieo oai?eo i?iaiaeeee /a?ac o?e aeiae i?ney a?aei?ie aoaeue–yeiai
iaaeeeaiaioiciiai e?eoaaiiy, /a?ac i`youe ae?a uiaeaiiiai aaeeaaiiy
oo?acie?aeiio ? ia i`yoo aeiao ia??iaeo i?neyae??. A ?iaio? aeei?enoaii
oo?acie?aeii, aeaioiaeaiee ia aeoe?iia?iiio ia`?aeiaii? “Iiiioa?i”
(Oe?a?ia). I?aia?ao, ui i?noea 0,05 a aeoeaii? ?a/iaeie, i?ecia/aee
o?e/? ia aeaiue.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe aeeiiaia ia 156 a?eeo uo?ao, c eio?eo
144 aoee i?aeaeai? aieeaia? oo?acie?aeiio. A?e? uo??, ui i?aeaeaaaeenue
ae?? oo?acie?aeiio, aoee ia’?aeiai? a 12 i?aea?oi /ii 12 oaa?ei a
eiaei?e/. Uo?ai 1 … 6 a?oi iaeii?aciai ia?i?aeueii aaiaeeee
oo?acie?aeii /IAI A?iea?, Eaoa?y/ a ianooiieo aeicao: 333,6; 66,7; 13,3
ia o 1 ea iane o?ea /-1/. Oaa?ei aeacaieo ia?oeo o?ueio i?aea?oi
aeaeai?ooaaee i?ae eaaeei ao??iei ia?eicii /a?ac 1 aiae a?ae /ano
aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo, oaa?ei ?ioeo o?ueio i?aea?oi aeo?eioaaee i?ioyaii
5-aeiaiaiai ia??iaeo i?neyae??. Oaa?ei 7 … 12 i?aea?oi i?aeaeaaaee
o?ii?/iiio aieeaia? oo?acie?aeiio a aeicao: 9,00; 1,80; 0,35 ia o 1 ea
iane o?ea /-1/. Oaa?eiai7 … 9 i?aea?oi ia?i?aeueia aaaaeaiiy
oo?acie?aeiio cae?enithaaee uiaeiy i?ioyaii5-oe ae?a, 10 … 12 i?aea?oi
– i?ioyaii 20 ae?a.

Aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ oa K+ a a?eo?ioeeoao, ieaci? e?ia? oa
na?aaeiaeuao ?ieoaaoe??, a aaiaoioeeoao i?iaaaeaii iaoiaeii iieoi’yii?
oioiiao??? ia oioiiao?? oeio Plapho-4, Carl Ceiss, Jena.

I?i ?ioaineai?noue iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiai o?ainii?oo Na+ /aeoeaii? aeno?oc??
oeueiai ?iio/ noaeeee ca ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao
oa aaiaoioeeoao i?ney ?o ?ieoaaoe?? a na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeei iaaaa?i
/0,1 iI aeey a?eo?ioeeo?a ethaeeie, 1,0 iI — aeey a?eo?ioeeo?a uo?a, 5,0
iI — aeey aaiaoioeeo?a uo?a/. Oaeaee?noue iaaaa?i-?acenoaioiiai Na, K,
Cl-eio?ainii?oo anoaiiaethaaee ca i?e?inoii eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a
i?ioean? ?ieoaaoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a /e aaiaoioeeo?a ca i?enooiino? iaaaa?io
o aeacaieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo oa oo?inai?aeo. I?i oaeaee?noue Na/Li
-i?ioeo?ainii?oo noaeeee ca ??cieoeath eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a ioeueiaee oa
e?ioeaaee /an ?ieoaaoe?? ee?oei, ui ?? cae?enithaaee i?e aeiaeaaaii?
aeacaieo ?ia?a?oi??a ca iayaiino? oa ca a?aenooiino? LiCl. A?aeiia?aei?
noaiaea?oe iacaaieo ?ii?a aiooaaee ia ?ic/ei? oei?enoiai
oao?aiaoeeaiii?th ? MgCl2. Aeoeai?noue Na, K-AOOace a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo
iaia?ai anoaiiaethaaee oeyoii aecia/aiiy ??cieoe? i?ae aeoeai?noth
noia?ii? AOOace oa Mg-AOOace, ui ?o aecia/aee ca i?e?inoii
eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o. Aecia/aiiy ai?noo i?iaeoeo?a
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a — iaeiiiaaiiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo —
i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii Oeie?aoeaoiaa ?.A., Naeaciaaa A.E. /1981/,
aeoeaiino? eaoaeace — iaoiaeii Aaa?eeiaa A.A., Meoeipoaeioe M.E. /1983/,
aeoeaiino? ia?ieneaeace — iaoiaeii Iiiiaa I., Iaeeianeie E. /1971/.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ia/eneai? aa??aoe?eii-noaoenoe/iei
iaoiaeii Couethaeeioa-Oioapa.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss tc «?ACOEUeOAOE
AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss»

1. Eiioeaio?aoe?y Na+ oa K+ a e?ia? oa o?ainii?o Na+ iiiiaaeaioieo ?ii?a
a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci ? aeeiaieuei? ineoice tc «2.
Eiioeaio?aoe?y oa a e?ia? oa o?ainii?o iiiiaaeaioieo ?ii?a a
a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aeeiaie?ci»

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe
iniaeeaino? iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiai oa iaaaa?i-?icenoaioieo iaoai?ci?a ?iiiiai
o?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci ? aeeiaieuei? ineoice.
A oaaeeoe? 1 noiiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? K+ oa Na+
a a?eo?ioeeoao oa ieaci?, a oaeiae iaaaaeaii o?e ?iaeaene
ni?aa?aeiioaiue oeeo ?ii?a. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao, ui o iaoe??io?a c
aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee, a oiio /ene? i?e ii?aeiaii?
inoaii?o c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, eiioeaio?aoe?y
aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai K+ ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oaei?,
anoaiiaeaii? aeey i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo in?a, a eiioeaio?aoe?y K+ a ieaci?
e?ia? a iaeaeaio a?oiao ? a??ia?aeii i?aeaeuaiith. Eiioeaio?aoe?y Na+
aeyaeeanue ia?aiao?ii, cia/ii /ooeea?oei aei ?ioieneeaoe?? aeeiaieai,
ine?eueee ?? ci?ie aeieeathoue c iaeaeaio noi??i a?eo?ioeeoa?ii?
iaia?aie. Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeaii na?ae/aiiy iayaiino? ca aeeiaieueieo
caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee ?iiiiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ee?oei, /anoeiai coiiaeaii
iaaei??iei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi Na+.

O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aeoe/ii o an?o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, a oiio
/ene? i?e ii?aeiaii? c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, aeyaeaii a??ia?aeia
i?eai?/aiiy aeoeaiino? Na, K-AOOace a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai.

Ci?ie aeoeaiino? Na, K-AOOace ca aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee
iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai? c a?aeoeeaiiyie a e?i?aeiiio neeaae?
a?eo?ioeeo?a, ye oea iieacaii a /eneaiieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo /Bjorneboe et
at., 1993; Coudray et al., 1993; Gomes-Tubio et al., 1995; Arranz et
al., 1996; Shiraishi et al., 1996/.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? ? oa, ui o oaeeo oai?eo ? aaiaoioeeoe, ? a?eo?ioeeoe
caciathoue eeniaaiai aieiaeoaaiiy, a a?iien?y ? oaeoi?ii, e?i?ooth/ei
?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a aia?aiooai?aiiy. O?aaa oaeiae i?eeiyoe aei
oaaae, ui oaeaee?noue ae?eie?co cia/iith i??ith aeaoa?i?io?oueny
aaee/eiith eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai Na-a?aae??ioo. Ca?aeii iaea?aeaieo iaie
aeaieo, oeae ia?aiao? o ianoaaeaieo oai?eo cacia? ci?i, ui iieyaathoue o
cieaeaii? eiai aaee/ei.

Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui iaaei??ia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ?ii?a Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao
o iaoe??io?a c aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee iaeaeaio a?oi
coiiaeth?oueny i?eai?/aiiyi Na, E-AOOace a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai.
I?aaeeuei?noue iiae?aiiai aeniiaeo i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ia?aeaeueiei
cieaeaiiyi ?iaeaeno E+? / Na+? (oaaeeoey 1).

Oaaeeoey SEQ Oaaeeoey \* ARABIC 1 . Eiioeaio?aoe?y K+ oa Na+ (iI) oa
?iaeaene ni?aa?aeiioaiue (iaeeieoe?) oeeo ?ii?a a e?ia? o oai?eo ia
aeeiaie?ci a ?? noaae??.

0,8

0,7

0,4

0,5

7,3

7,7

0,4

0,3

1,2

1,4

0,3

0,4

o 50,5

I?ei?oea: x – p < 0,05 noiniaii a?oie ii??aiyiiy. Noeoii?noue aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo i?e aei??thaaii? ?iiia?aie e?ia?, aeoeaiino? Na, E-AOOace a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai ? aeae?eueeio ia?aiao??a iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiaio?ainii?oo Na+, cie?aia, aeoeaii? i?iieeeeaino? iaia?ai aeey Na+ oa eiao?oe??ioo iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiai a?aeiiiiiaoaaiiy ?ii?a Na+ cana?ae/o? a?aenooi?noue ?noioieo a?aei?iiinoae i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie o oai?eo c aeeiaieueieie o?aaeaiiyie ia/?iee ? ca aeiaeaoeiai? iayaiino? a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae. Ieoaiiy iaoiaaiaco ?iceaae?a ?iiiiai iai?io ca aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano caeeoaeenue iaei a?aeiieie. Iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aeey aiae?co ?iiii? o?aineieaoe?? o?ainii?oieo ?ia?a?oi??a iineoaeeea aaaiiei noeioeii aeey anoaiiaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaaaa?i-?acenoaioieo iaoai?ci?a iai?io ?ii?a. Neacaia a ia?oo /a?ao noino?oueny Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo oa Na /Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo. Iaea?aeai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiiy oaeaeeino? Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo iieacothoue, ui iai?yiie ci?i oeueiai iieacieea a a?eo?ioeeoao iaoe??io?a, eio?? ciaoiaeeeenue i?ae niinoa?aaeaiiyi, ? iaiaeiaeiaei (oaaeeoey 2). Ca iayaiino? aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee oaeaee?noue Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo ? a??ia?aeii aeuith, i?ae a a?eo?ioeeoao in?a, ui neeaaeaee a?oio ii??aiyiiy. Iaeiae i?aeoe/ii o an?o oai?eo, a eio?eo aeeiaieuei? caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee ii?aeiothoueny c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, oaeaee?noue aeacaii? o?aineieaoe? ? aiiiaeueii iecueeith. Oaaeeoey SEQ Oaaeeoey \* ARABIC 2 . Oaeaee?noue iaaaa?i-/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? (iIo1e ee?oei -1 o 1 aiae -1), Na, K, Cl-eio?ainii?oo (iIo1e ee?oei -1 o 1 aiae -1), Na/Li- i?ioeo?ainii?oo (iIo1e ee?oei -1 o 1 aiae -1) a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci ?? noaae??. 0,01o 62,5 I?ei?oea: x – p < 0,05 noiniaii a?oie ii??aiyiiy. Iaoai?ci Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ia’?i-caeaaeieo nenoai. sse i?aaeei, i?eai?/aiiy oaeaeeino? Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? ii?iioeeo?a a iae?ioeeoe, eiee a ee?oeio iineeaii iinooiathoue ?iie , a i?eai?/aiiy aeoeaiino? Na, E-AOOace iaia?ai neoaeeoue aeiaeaoeiaith i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy iao???aiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiai iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui iiaeoeyoe?y aeanoeainoae Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao a?ia?oaiceaieo in?a, aeeiaie?ci o eio?eo i?ea?a aei ?icaeoeo aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, ia i?iyaey? iciae niaoeeo?/iino?. A a?eo?ioeeoao in?a, a eio?eo aeeiaieuei? caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee ii?aeiothoueny c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, oaeaee?noue Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo ? a??ia?aeii ieae/ith a?ae eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue (oaaeeoey 2), ? a oeueiio ieai? iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iiae?aieie aei oaeeo, ui ?o ca?a?no?iaaii ca o?ii?/iiai aeeiaie?cio I oa O noaae?e, eio?ee noi?iaiaeaeoaaany a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith (Ao?ee, 1997). Oea iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeiaeaoeiaee aeieac i?aaeeueiino? a?iioace, ca?aeii yei? ci?ie iaaaa?i-?acenoaioieo iaoai?ci?a o?ainii?oo iiiiaaeaioieo ?ii?a ? aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaieie. Ui ae noino?oueny i?e/ei ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao ca aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, oi aiie iiaeooue aooe coiiaeai? ?iaeoeiaaieie aieeaii aeeiaieth ci?iaie iieaeoey?iiai neeaaeo a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo oinoie?i?ae?a (Shiraishi et al., 1993; Mori et al., 1994). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue oaeiae, ui o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icaeoeii aeeiaieueieo ineoic?a, niinoa??aa?oueny i?eai?/aiiy iieaciee?a aeoeaii? aeno?oc?? Na+ c a?eo?ioeeo?a ? noaa?e?caoe?y eiioeaio?aoe?? E+ oa Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao oa ieaci? e?ia?. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe /anoeiaith aeoeaaoe??th iaoai?cio Na, E, Cl–eio?ainii?oo, ui aeyaey?oueny o oai?eo ia a?eo aa?y/eo oa aeeiaieueiee aaethoeeiic. 2. *ooeea?noue Na-o?ainii?ooth/eo ooieoe?e a?eo?ioeeo?a aei aieeao oo?acie?aeiio o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci tc "3. *ooeea?noue Na-o?ainii?ooth/eo ooieoe?e a?eo?ioeeo?a aei aieeao oo?acie?aeiio o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aeeiaie?ci" Nainea?e?coth/a aeanoea?noue oo?acie?aeiio aei ae?? aeeiaieth, caeaoi?noue i?aia?aoo /eieoe aieea ia o? eaiee ee?oeiiiai iaoaaie?cio, ui iia’ycai? c iai?iii ?ii?a ? i?ioeanii ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (Oioeia E.E. e niaao., 1973; Aa?ooeeee A.ss., Iaaeoaa A.A., 1988) iineoaeeee iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeey aeeth/aiiy oo?acie?aeiio a a?naiae cania?a, ui ?o aeei?enoiaothoue aeey e?eoaaiiy aeeiaie?cio. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe cana?ae/eee ianooiia. I?ney 5-aeaiiiai eo?no e?eoaaiiy oo?acie?aeiiii oai?eo, aeeiaie?ci o eio?eo noi?iaiaeaeoaaany aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee, ca?a?no?iaaii a??ia?aeia cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao, ine?eueee oeae iieaciee noaiiaea iI o 1 e ee?oei (-1) i?ioe iI o 1 e ee?oei (-1) ia?aae ii/aoeii i?eeiaiiy i?aia?aoo; ?<0,05. Eiioeaio?aoe?y aeacaiiai ?iio a ieaci? a??ia?aeii i?aeaeuoaaeanue ? aoea iaaeeaeaiith aei iaae o?c?ieia?/iiai ae?aiaciio: iI o 1 e ee?oei (-1) i?ioe iI o 1 e ee?oei (-1) o i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo in?a c a?oie ii??aiyiiy. A?aeiia?aeii, ?iaeaen ni?aa?aeiioaiiy “iicaee?oeiiee Na+ / aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iee Na+” ia a?ae??ciyany a?ae eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue. Oaeo ?aaeoe?th oai?iai i?aai?cio ia aaaaeaiiy oo?acie?aeiio iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ye iiceoeaio, ine?eueee naia iao???aee eiioeaio?aoe?eiee a?aae??io aecia/a? ?ioaineai?noue aia?aiooai?thth/eo oa aia?ainiiaeeaath/eo i?ioean?a. Aaaeaiee ei?aaoth/ee aoaeo oo?acie?aeiio caa??aaany ? a ia??iae i?neyae??, ye oea anoaiiaeaii /a?ac i’youe ae?a i?ney i?eieiaiiy i?eeiaiiy oai?eie i?aia?aoo. Ui ae noino?oueny aaee/ei eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a E+ a a?eo?ioeeoao oa ieaci? e?ia? o in?a c aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee ca oiia aieeao oo?acie?aeiio, oi oeae ia?aiao? aeyaeany iaio /ooeeaei aei aeacaiiai i?aia?aoo, i?ae ?iie Na+, ine?eueee ?noioieo ?o ci?i noiniaii oaeeo ia?aae ii/aoeii e?eoaaiiy aeyaeaii ia aoei. ? aaaeeeaei, ui ca aieeao oo?acie?aeiio o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeeiaieueieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia/?iee, aeaaii?e?ii? ci?ie aeieeathoue ia eeoa c? noi?iie iaaaa?i-/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? Na+, aea e ?ioeo nenoai o?aineieaoe?? -oo?inai?ae-/ooeeaiai Na+, E, Nl-eio?ainii?oo oa Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo. No?ee?noue aeinyaiooeo ca iina?aaeieoeoaii oo?acie?aeiio aoaeo?a aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ia i’yoo aeiao ia??iaeo i?neyae??. Ui ae noino?oueny aieeao oo?acie?aeiio ia Na-o?ainii?ooth/? nenoaie a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci a ?? noaae??, aeeiaieuei? caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee o eio?eo ii?aeioaaeeny c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, oi aaaeaieo aoaeo?a a ieai? ii?iae?caoe?? iieaciee?a iai?io Na+ aeinyaiooe ia aaeaeinue, ine?eueee ? ?iiia?aia e?ia?, ? oaeaee?noue an?o o?ueio Na-o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao ye i?ney caaa?oaiiy eo?no e?eoaaiiy oeei i?aia?aoii, oae ? a ia??iae i?neyae?? ia a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae oaeeo iaia?aaeiaei? e?eoaaiiy. 3. *ooeea?noue Na-o?ainii?ooth/io nenoai a?eo?ioeeo?a oa aaiaoioeeo?a aei aino?iai oa o?ii?/iiai aieeao oo?acie?aeiio. tc "1. *ooeea?noue Na-o?ainii?ooth/io nenoai a?eo?ioeeo?a oa aaiaoioeeo?a aei aino?iai oa o?ii?/iiai aieeao oo?acie?aeiio." Iiooe aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e a iai?yieo ye oieneeieia?/ieo, oae ? ee?/ie/eo aoaeo?a oo?acie?aeiio aeyaea eeoa iiiaeeiie? iia?aeiieaiiy noiniaii /ooeeaino? ?iiiiai iai?io aei aeacaiiai enaiia?ioeea, ui caiaeeoueny a iniiaiiio aei iia?aeiieaiue i?i eiia??i?noue ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a Na+ a ieaci? e?ia? ? ii?ooaiue iaoai?cio o?ainii?oo Na /Ca-iai?io (Lax et al., 1994). Iaeiae iayai?noue na?ae/aiue, ui ca aaaaeaiiy oo?acie?aeiio ? iiaeeeaeie ?icaeoie aiai?? ?, ioaea, a?iiene/ieo aoaeo?a (Zaman et al. 1995; Ali et al., 1996), ci?ie e?eueeino? oee?eoethth/i? e?ia? (Khan et al. 1995), iiaeoeyoe?y aioeieneaeaioieo caoenieo iaoai?ci?a, aeoeaaoe?y i?ioean?a ia?aeeniaai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (Sas, 1993) ui coiiaeth? aeieeiaiiy ieneaeaoeaiiai no?ano, ?iaeyoue a??ia?aeieie i?eiouaiiy i?i ii?ooaiiy iino?eiino? ?iiiiai neeaaeo aioo??oiuei- oa iicaee?oeiieo na?aaeiaeu. A iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaea?aeaii aeai?, ye? cana?ae/othoue aeinoaoith noaa?euei?noue nenoai iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiai aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oo , oo?inai?ae-/ooeeaiai Na, K, Cl-eio?ainii?oo oa Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao, aeae?eaieo c e?ia? a?eeo uo??a /a?ac 1 aiae i?ney ia?i?aeueiiai aaaaeaiiy aeacaiiai iaaeeeaiaioo. Aiaeia?/ia a?oia i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei aoea aeo?eiaia i?ioyaii 5-aeiaiaiai ia??iaeo i?neyae??, i?ney caaa?oaiiy eio?iai oaeiae i?iaiaeeee aei??thaaiiy oaeaeeinoae Na-o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai. Ia?aiao?e ?iiiiai o?ainii?oo Na+, ia aeoiaeeee ca iaae? eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue. I?e o?ii?/iiio aieea? oo?acie?aeiio, a a?eo?ioeeoao, aeae?eaieo c e?ia? i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei i?ney 5-oe uiaeaiieo aaaaeaiue i?aia?aoo, o?aineieaoe?y ?ii?a, ui cae?enith?oueny nenoaiaie aeoeaii? aeno?oc?? Na+ oa oo?inai?ae-/ooeeaiai Na, K, Cl-eio?ainii?oo, ia a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae oaei? a a?eo?ioeeoao uo??a eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Iaeiae oaeaee?noue Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao uo??a, aoea a??ia?aeii i?aeaeuaiith. I?ioeeaaeio ea?oeio anoaiiaeaii a a?eo?ioeeoao, aeae?eaieo c e?ia? uo??a i?ney 20-oe uiaeaiieo aaaaeaiue oo?acie?aeiio: oaeaee?noue iaaaa?i-/ooeeaiai o?ainii?oo Na+ (aeoeaii? aeno?oc?? oeueiai ?iio) aoea ??cei cieaeaiith, oaeaee?noue oo?inai?ae-/ooeeaiai Na, K, Cl-eio?ainii?oo i?aeaeuoaaeanue, a oaeaee?noue Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo ia a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae oaei? a a?eo?ioeeoao eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Oaeei /eiii, ca aino?iai aaaaeaiiy oo?acie?aeiio a aenieeo aeicao i? /a?ac 1 aiae a?ae /ano i?eeiio i?aia?aoo, i? /a?ac 5 ae?a ia??iaeo i?neyae?? a a?eo?ioeeoao uo??a ia aeyaeaii a??ia?aeieo ci?i eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+. O?ii?/iee aieea i?aia?aoo a iecueeeo aeicao ia a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+, iaeiae i?eaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy oeueiai iieacieea ca oiiae i?iaeiaaeaiiy eo?no aaaaeaiiy aei 20-oe ae?a. Caaaeueiia?aeiiei oaeoii ? iayai?noue ca’yceo i?ae ?iiiith i?iieeeea?noth oa e?i?aeiith eiiiiiaioith ieaciaoe/ieo iaia?ai. I?i inoaiith a aeai?e ?iaio? noaeeee ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei??thaaiiy a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? oa aiiiaaiaoao ia/?iee eiioeaio?aoe?? iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo - aaaeeeaiai ia?aiao?o ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, ui ? niaoeeo?/iei i?iaeoeoii ?iciaaeo ia?aeen?a aee?ieo eeneio. A oeeo aea ia’?eoao aecia/aee oaeiae aeoeai?noue aeaio oa?iaio?a aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo - eaoaeace oa ia?ieneaeace. Aiae?cii ?ioaineaiino? ooai?aiiy /ooeeaeo aei o?iaa?a?oo?iai? eeneioe ?a/iaei a e?ia? oa ia/?ioe?, ui aeicaiey? noaeeoe i?i caeaoi?noue ee?oei aei ia?ieneaeaoe??, aeyaeaii aeinoaoith noaa?euei?noue cacia/aieo ia?aiao??a ? ca aino?iai, ? ca o?ii?/iiai aieeao oo?acie?aeiio. Ca aeiaeieo c? canoiniaaieo ?aaeei?a ae?? i?aia?aoo ia aoei ca?a?no?iaaii a??ia?aeieo i?aeoaa?aeaeaiue eiai oeeoioiene/iino?. Ioaea, oo?acie?aeii, ui iinooia? a i?aai?ci i?aeaeine?aeii? oaa?eie a cacia/aieo aeua aeicao, ia ? ?iaeoeoi?ii ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, ? oeae aeniiaie ? ni?aaaaeeeaei, ii e?aei?e i???, aeey ee?oei ia/?iee oa e?ia?. Oe?eeii eiia??ii, ua ?icaeoie ieneaeaoeaiiai no?ano iiia?aaeaeo?oueny iineeaiiyi aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo, oi/a oaeo ?aaeoe?th aaeaeinue aeyaeoe eeoa a aeoaea iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a. Cie?aia, a??ia?aeia c?inoaiiy aeoeaiino? eaoaeace aeyaeaii a a?eo?ioeeoao uo??a /a?ac 1 aiae a?ae /ano aaaaeaiiy oo?acie?aeiio. Ioaea, ii?ooaiiy ?ii-o?ainii?ooth/eo ooieoe?e a?eo?ioeeo?a, ui aeieeathoue ca iaaieo oiia aieeao oo?acie?aeiio, ia noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ieeniith iiaeeo?eaoe??th e?i?ae?a. Aeniiaee tc "Aeniiaee" 1. I?e aeeiaie?ci?, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icaeoeii aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, a oiio /ene? ca iayaiino? a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae, eiioeaio?aoe?y aioo??oiueia?eo?ioeeoa?iiai E+ ia ci?ith?oueny, eiioeaio?aoe?y oeueiai ?iio a ieaci? ? i?aeaeuaiith. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao ia oii? ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+ a ieaci? e?ia? na?ae/eoue, ui ?iiia ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ee?oei /anoeiai coiiaeth?oueny iaaei??iei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi Na+. 2. I?e aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee, ii?aeiaieo aai ia ii?aeiaieo c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, aeyaeaieo o oai?eo c aeeiaie?ciii, aeoeai?noue Na,K–AOOace a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai i?eai?/o?oueny, oaeaee?noue iaaaa?i–/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? Na+ ciaioo?oueny. I?e aeeiaie?ci? ca a?aenooiino? a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae oaeaee?noue Na,K,Cl–eio?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao c?inoa?, ca ?? iayaiino? – ciaioo?oueny. Iiae?ai? iai?yiee ci?i ? oa?aeoa?ieie ? aeey Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao. 3. O oai?eo ia aeeiaieueiee aaethoeeiic eiioeaio?aoe?y E+ oa Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao oa ieaci? e?ia?, iacaaaeath/e ia i?eai?/aiiy iieaciee?a aeoeaii? aeno?oc?? Na+ c a?eo?ioeeo?a, ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao o?c?ieia?/iiai ae?aiaciio, ui /anoeiai caaacia/o?oueny aeoeaaoe??th iaoai?cio Na, E, Cl–eio?ainii?oo. Ca iayaiino? a?ei? aa?y/ee noaa?e?caoe?y eiioeaio?aoe?? E+ oa Na+ a e?ia? niinoa??aa?oueny ia oii? iaci?iieo iieaciee?a aeoeaii? aeno?oc?? Na+ c a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e iaeii/aniaiio ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? Na, E, Cl–eio?ainii?oo. 4. Ia?i?aeueia i?eeiaiiy oai?eie, aeeiaie?ci o eio?eo i?ea?a aei ?icaeoeo aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, oo?acie?aeiio (iaeii?aciaa aeica – 50 ia aeoeaii? ?a/iaeie; o?e/? ia aeiao; 5 ae?a) ni?ey? onoiaiith a?aeoeeaiue aiiainoaco Na+ a e?ia? oa ii?iae?caoe?? Na–o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao. ?icaeoie oaeiai aoaeoo i?aia?aoo ? iiaeeeaei ca a?aenooiino? o iacaaieo oai?eo a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae. 5. Na–o?ainii?ooth/? nenoaie, ui cae?eniththoue iaaaa?i–/ooeeao aeno?oc?th Na+, oo?inai?ae–/ooeeaee Na,K,Cl–eio?ainii?o oa Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?o, a a?eo?ioeeoao a?eeo uo??a, eio?? caciaee aino?iai aieeao oo?acie?aeiio a aeicao 333,6; 66,7; 13,3 ia o 1 ea (–1), /a?ac 1 aiae a?ae /ano aioo??oiueioeoieiaiai aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo oa ia 5–oo aeiao ia??iaeo i?neyae?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith noaa?euei?noth. 6. Aino?ee oa o?ii?/iee aieea oo?acie?aeiio ia a?eeo uo??a ia i?eaiaeeoue a a?eo?ioeeoao aei ci?i oaeaeeino? iaaaa?i–/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? Na+ oa Na,K,Cl–eio?ainii?oo, aea i?iyaey?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi oaeaeeino? Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?oo, a a aaiaoioeeoao ca aeaieo oiia ia aeyaeaii ?noioieo ci?i eiioeaio?aoe?? Na+, oaeaeeino? iaaaa?i–/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? Na+ oa Na, K,Cl–eio?ainii?oo oa Na/Li–i?ioeo?ainii?oo. 7. Oo?acie?aeii ca iaeii?aciaiai aaaaeaiiy a?eei uo?ai a aeicao 333,6; 66,7; 13,3 ia o 1 ea (–1) oa ca aaaaoi?aciaiai aaaaeaiiy a aeicao 9,00; 1,80; 0,35 ia o 1 ea (–1) ia /eieoue ?iaeoeoi?iiai aieeao ia ?ioaineai?noue ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a a e?ia? oa ia/?ioe?. Eiia??ii, ui ?icaeoie ieneaeaoeaiiai no?ano /anoeiai iiia?aaeaeo?oueny iineeaiiyi aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo. Ia?ieneaeaca ia/?iee ? a?eueo /ooeeaith aei o?ii?/iiai aieeao oo?acie?aeiio, i?ae eaoaeaca, i?i ui na?ae/eoue aaeueioaaiiy ?? aeoeaiino? i?ney 5–oe oa 20–oeaeiaiaiai aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo a aeic? 9,00 ia o 1 ea (–1). Nienie ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? tc "Nienie ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??" 1. Iaian A.?. Acaaiica’cie ii?ooaiue ?iiiiai aiiainoaco iao??th c ?ioaineai?noth ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a i?e oa?ai?? aeeiaie?cio // Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??. - 1998. - O. 6. - Aei. 2 /17/. - N. 49 -50. 2. Iaian A.?., E?ai/ei A.A. Canoinoaaiiy oo?acie?aeiio i?e e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aeeiaie?ci //Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??. - Oa?e?a, 1996. - O. 4. - Aei. 4 /II/. - N. 185 - 186. 3. Ao?ee I.A., Iaian A.?. Eaoaiianoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, ye? i?ioiaeeee eo?n e?eoaaiiy a i?noeyo iicaaaeaiiy aie? //Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??. – Oa?e?a, 1995. - O. C. - Aei. 2 /6/. - N. 238 - 239. 4. Aeio ?.E., Ii?ic 0.I., Ao?ee 0.A., Iaian A.?. Ca’ycie Na- oa E-o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai c ii?ooaiiyi ?iiiiai aiiainoaco e?ia? i?e aeeiaie?ci? // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia?? , aaoa?eia??? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. - Euea?a, 1996 .-N.11 - 12. 5. Ii?ic O.I., Iaian A.?. Ao?ee I.A., A?ei/eoei I.I. Oo?inai?ae-/ooeeaee Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?o a a?eo?ioeeoao i?e o?ii?/i?e aeeiaieuei?e ?ioieneeaoe?? //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??, aaoa?eia??? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. - Euea?a, 1998. - N. 78 - 86. 6. Iaian A.?., Oeaaieye A.A., Ao?ee I.A., A?ei/eoei I.I. Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?o a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aeeiaie?ci //A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. - 1998. - Aei. 23. - N. 128 - 132. 7. Ao?ee I.A., Aa?a?iaoeue E.A., Aae?aae ?.C., Eiaaeuenueeee I.I., Iaian A.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ii-o?ainii?ooth/eo ooieoe?e a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e cao?aiiyo ?iiiiai aiiainoaco // O?c?ieia?/iee aeo?iae. - 1998. - O.44. - ?3. - N.154. 8. Ii?ic I.I., Aa?a?iaoeue E.A., Iaian A.?., Iai/aiei A.A. Ia?aiao?e aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oo Na+ a a?eo?ioeeoao i?e aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ni?a?ia?oiee?a EIAII ?iai? I.E.Ooieea. – Ee?a, 1999. – Aei.8. – Ei.1. – N. 433 – 436. 9. Aeio ?.E., Aeaieeaiei TH.I., Iaian A.?., Eiaaeue/oe ss.N. I?i canoinoaaiiy o?ieaineio a eiiieaeni?e oa?ai?? aeeiaieueiiai aanoeiaioiiai neiae?iio //Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iaa?ieia??, ineo?ao??? ? ia?eieia??. - A?iieoey, 1997. - N. 149. 10. Aeio ?.E., Aeaieeaiei TH.I., Iaian A.?. Ao?ee I.A., Ee?eethe ss.TH. Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? oo?acie?aeiio a eiiieaeni?e oa?ai?? aeeiaie?cio //Enoi?ey Naao?iaie aea/e. Oniaoe ineoeao?ee, iaa?ieiaee, iae?ioe?o?aee e ia?eieiaee. - Oa?ueeia, 1996. - N. 477 - 478. 11. Aeio ?.E., Aeaieeaiei TH.I., Iaian A.?., Ao?ee 0.A. Canoinoaaiiy na?i?iio a eiiieaeni?e oa?ai?? aeeiaieueiiai aanoeiaioiiai neae?iio // Enoi?ey Naao?iaie aea/e. Oniaoe ineoeao?ee, iaa?ieiaee, iae?ioe?o?aee e ia?eieiaee. - Oa?ueeia, 1996. - N. 476 - 477. 12. A?o?aiei O.A., Iaian A.?., Ee?eethe ss.TH. Aieea i?o?ioo?aiiaeo niieoe ia ia?aeenia ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a /IIE/ //Aenia?eiaioaeueia oa ee?i?/ia o?c?ieia?y. - Euea?a, 1995. - N. 118 - 119. 13. Iaian A.?., Iao?oeia A.A. Aecia/aiiy oo?acie?aeiio a a?ieia?/ieo ??aeeiao iiey?ia?ao?/iei iaoiaeii //Iaaeeoeeia ? oa?iaoe?y - aeinyaiaiiy ? ia?niaeoeae. - Euea?a, 1990. - N. 146. 14. Iaian A.?. Iaoiaeeea canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo oo?acie?aeii o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aeeiaie?ci // ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno ? 75-96- Aei.10. “Ineo?ao??y”. - 2 n. Aiioaoe?y tc "Aiioaoe?y" Iaian A.?. Ii?ooaiiy Na-o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, aeeiaieuei? ineoice ? ?o ei?aeoe?y. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.16 - ineo?ao??y. - Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai, Ee?a, 1999. ?oeiien i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeainoae iaaaa?i-/ooeeai? aeno?oc?? Na+, oo?inai?ae-/ooeeaiai Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oo oa Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oo a a?eo?ioeeoao o oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, oaeiae i?e iayaiino? aeeiaieueieo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, a oiio /ene? i?e ii?aeiaii? c a?ia?oii?/iith oai?iaith, ? i?e aeeiaieueieo ineoicao. Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy a oa?ai?? aeeiaie?cio oo?acie?aeiio ye na?aaeieea, caeaoiiai ni?eyoe iiaeieaiith a?aeoeeaiue aiiainoaco oa ii?iae?coaaoe Na-o?ainii?ooth/? ooieoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii oiiae ae?? oo?acie?aeiio ia i?aai?ci, ca yeeo iioeiaeaeaiiy Na-o?ainii?ooth/eo nenoai oa ?icaeoie ieneaeaoeaiiai no?ano a e?ia? oa ia/?ioe? ? i?i?iaeueieie. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeiaie?ci, aeeiaieuei? ineoice, aeeiaieuei? caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee, a?ia?oii?/ia oai?iaa, a?eo?ioeeoe, aaiaoioeeoe, ia?aeenia ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, oo?acie?aeii, o?ainii?o ?ii?a. Aiiioaoeey tc "Aiiioaoeey" Iaian A.P. Ia?ooaiey Na-o?ainii?oe?othueo nenoai a y?eo?ioeeoao i?e aeeiaieecia, aeeiaieueiuo ineoicao e eo ei??aeoeey. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.16 - ineoeao?ey - Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao eiaie Aeaieea Aaeeoeeiai, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iaaaaei-/oanoaeoaeueiie yeno?ocee Na+, oo?inaieae-/oanoaeoaeueiiai Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oa e Na/Li-i?ioeo?ainii?oa a y?eo?ioeeoao o aieueiuo aeeiaieeciii, a oaeaea i?e iaee/ee aeeiaieueiuo caaieaaaiee ia/aie, a oii /enea i?e ni/aoaiee n aeia?oiie/aneie aieaciueth, e i?e aeeiaieueiuo ineoicao. Oeaeue ?aaiou – onoaiiaeaiea iniaaiiinoae iiaeoeyoeee iaaaaei-/oanoaeoaeueiiai e iaaaaei-?acenoaioiiai iaoaieciia o?ainii?oa Na+ a y?eo?ioeeoao i?e aeeiaieecia, eioi?ue nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeeiaieueiuie caaieaaaieyie ia/aie, e i?e aeeiaieueiuo ineoicao. Aeey enneaaeiaaiey eniieueciaaeenue eeeieei-ineoieiae/aneea, eaai?aoi?iua e noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu. A iaoai enneaaeiaaiee i?aeoe/anee o anao aieueiuo n aeeiaieeciii, a oii /enea n aeeiaieueiuie ineoicaie, iaia?oaeaii aeinoiaa?iia oaiaoaiea aeoeaiinoe Na, K-AOOace y?eo?ioeeoa?iuo iaia?ai. Auyaeaii, /oi iai?aaeaiea eciaiaiee nei?inoe Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oa a a?eo?ioeeoao aieueiuo aeeiaieeciii yaeyaony ?acee/iui. I?e iaee/ee aeeiaieueiuo caaieaaaiee ia/aie nei?inoue Na,E,N?-eio?ainii?oa aeinoiaa?ii auoa, /ai a y?eo?ioeeoao eeoe eiio?ieueiie a?oiiu. Iaeiaei i?aeoe/anee o anao aieueiuo, o eioi?uo aeeiaieueiua caaieaaaiey ia/aie ni/aoathony n aeia?oiie/aneie aieaciueth, nei?inoue oeacaiiie o?aineieaoeee yaeyaony aiiiaeueii ieceie. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi o aieueiuo n aeeiaieueiuie ineoicaie iaaethaeaaony oaiaoaiea iieacaoaeae aeoeaiie yeno?ocee Na+ n y?eo?ioeeoia e noaaeeecaoeey eiioeaio?aoeee E+ oa Na+ a y?eo?ioeeoao e ieacia e?iae. Iinea eo?na ea/aiey oo?acieeaeiiii aieueiuo n aeeiaieeciii auyaeaii aeinoiaa?iia nieaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee Na+ a y?eo?ioeeoao e iiauoaiea oeacaiiiai eiia a ieacia. Ei??eae?othuee yooaeo oo?acieeaeiia nio?aiyeny e a ia?eiae iineaaeaenoaey. Nouanoaaiii, /oi i?e aeeyiee oo?acieeaeiia o aieueiuo n aeeiaieeciii, aeaaii?eyoiua eciaiaiey aicieeaee ia oieueei ni noi?iiu iaaaaei-/oanoaeoaeueiie yeno?ocee Na+, ii e ae?oaeo nenoai o?aineieaoeee -oo?inaieae-/oanoaeoaeueiiai Na+,E,Nl-eio?ainii?oa e Na/Li-i?ioeaio?ainii?oa. Yenia?eiaioaeueiuie enneaaeiaaieyie ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey aeaenoaey oo?acieeaeiia ia i?aaieci, i?e eioi?uo iia?aaeaeaiey Na-o?ainii?oe?othueo nenoai e aa?iyoiinoue ?acaeoey ieneaeaoeaiiai no?anna a e?iae e ia/aie ieieiaeueiu. I?e ino?ii aaaaeaiee oo?acieeaeiia a aunieeo aeicao a yenia?eiaioa aeinoiaa?iuo eciaiaiee eiioeaio?aoeee Na+ ia auyaeaii. O?iie/aneia aeeyiea i?aia?aoa a ieceeo aeicao ia io?aaeaaony ia aioo?ey?eo?ioeeoa?iie eiioeaio?aoeee Na+, iaeiaei i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio oaaee/aieth yoiai iieacaoaey i?e oneiaee i?iaeieaeaiey eo?na aaaaeaiey aei 20 nooie. Onoaiiaeaii oaeaea, /oi ia?ooaiey eii-o?ainii?oe?othueo ooieoeee y?eo?ioeeoia, eioi?ua aicieeatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo aeeyiey oo?acieeaeiia, ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony ieeneeoaeueiie iiaeeoeeaoeeae eeieaeia. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ineoeao?e/aneie i?aeoeea aeey eiio?iey ca ooieoeeiiaeueiui ninoiyieai y?eo?ioeeoa?iuo iaia?ai, n oeaeueth iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ea/aiey aieueiuo aeeiaieeciii, aeey eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii i?iaiaeeiie oa?aiee, a oaeaea aeey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e ea/aieth aeaiiiai eiioeiaaioa aieueiuo.. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeiaieeci, aeeiaieueiua ineoicu, aeeiaieueiua caaieaaaiey ia/aie, aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue, y?eo?ioeeou, aaiaoioeeou, o?ainii?o eiiia, ia?aeeniia ieeneaiea eeieaeia, oo?acieeaeii. Summary tc "Summary" Panas A.R. Disturbances of Sodium-Transportihg Systems in Red Blood Cells and Their Correction in Patients with Alcoholism, alcohol psychoses. Thesis for the of Candidate of Medical Sciences degree in speciality 14.01.16 – psychiatry – Lviv State Medical University of Danylo Halytsky, Kiev, 1999. Publication includes result of investigation of ouabaine-sensitive sodium extrusion , furosemid-sensitive Na, K, Cl – cotransport and Na/Li- countertransport pecularities in red blood cells of patients with alcoholism, in the presence of hepatic alcohol affections, including cases with concomitant high blood pressure and alcohol psychoses. Author substantiated the need for furazolidone administration in the treatment of alcoholism as an agent that is able to eliminate disturbances of Na+ homeostasis and normalize sodium–transporting function of red blood cells. Experimental studies established the ways, in which furazolidone influences body functions with minimal influence on sodium–transporting systems and oxydative stress development in blood and liver. Key words: alcoholism, alcohol psychoses, alcohol liver affections, high blood pressure, red blood cells, liver cells, hepatocytes peroxydative lipides oxydation, ione transport. PAGE 16 PAGE 7

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