AEAAeAI?ss IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAE?IO??O?A?? ?i. aeaaeai?ea

A.I.?IIIAeAIIAA

AOAeEIA A?EOI? AAI?AI?IIAE*

OAeE:616.714.35-006-089:616.833.19.191.193-084

II?OOAIIss OOIEOe?E EAOAeAEUeII? A?OIE *A?AIIEO IA?A?A OA ?O
I?IO?EAEOEEA I?E O??O?A?*IIIO E?EOAAII? IICAIICEIAEO IOOEEI CAAeIUeI?
*A?AIII? ssIE

14.01.05 — iae?io??o?a?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, O?io ?onoai Iaiaoiae/,
?inoeooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie, ea??aiee
a?aeae?eo iicaiiceiaeo iooeei ?2.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? Iie?uoe Ieeiea ?o?aiiae/, Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooi?ea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iae?io??o?a??.

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiaeea Aaneeue Aaneeueiae/, E?einueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e iae?io??o?a??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a aianoac?ieia??, ?aai?iaoieia??, iae?io??o?a?? oa
i?neyaeeieiiii? i?aeaioiaee, IIC Oe?a?ie (i.Iaeana).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «__16__» _eenoiiaaea_ 1999 ?ieo i
_1330__ aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.557.01
i?e ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie
(252050, i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaio?euenueeiai, 32).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252655, i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaio?euenueeiai 32.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «_11_» __aeiaoiy____ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
TH.I.I?eia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?ae /an o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny ia caa?aaeaiiy eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy yeeo i?ecaiaeyoue aei a?oai? ?iaae?aeecaoe??
oai?eo, oneeaaeiththoue o?ae iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, a?a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao i?ecaiaeyoue aei
eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a (Ebersold M.J., 1992; Eiras J., 1984; Ojemann
R.G., 1992; Pellet W., 1987; Samii M., 1997; Sekhar L.N., 1984; Sollmann
W.P., 1995). Oe? i?e/eie iiyniththoue ia??aeei cae?enithaai? iia?aoe??
/anoeiaiai aeaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiue (Gabriel E.M., 1995; Kemink J.L.,
1990; Miyamoto R.T., 1991; Vinchon M., 1995).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo iae?io??o?a?? i?e?io??o?a?/ii? oaoi?ee cia/ii
iioe?eei iiaeeea?noue ?aaeeeaeueiiai aeaeaeaiiy iicaiiceiaeo
ia?anoiaao?iaeo iooeei. Iaea?eueo neeaaeia i?e oaeeo ao?o/aiiyo —
oieeiooe o?aaiaoecaoe?? eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a oa ioi/oth/eo
?o iaa?no?aeueieo noaeei. Oea aeiaaa? a?ae o??o?aa aeaoaeueiiai ciaiiy
iniaeeainoae i?e?ioiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oeeo iiaiooai?aiue a oiiaao
iaiaaeaiiai o??o?a?/iiai aeinooio.

Ciaiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a aca?iia?aeiioaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo
ia?a?a c iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?eueo aaeaeaaoi? o??o?a?/i? aeinooie oa iaoiaeeeo
aeaeaeaiiy oeeo iiaiooai?aiue.

Inue /iio aaeineiiaeaiiy i?e?io??o?a?/ii? oaoi?ee oa aeaoaeueia ioe?iea
iaoiaeeee aeaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiue c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a
aeicaieeoue iioei?coaaoe oiiae ?aaeeeaeueiiai aeaeaeaiiy iooeei
caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie oa iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiai?
iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie o?aaiaioaie ieaiiaeo oai, ui
aeeiioaaeeny a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaaeai?ea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa
AII Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii 1992-1998 ?.?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: iie?aueoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
c iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ooieoe?iiaeueieie ii?ooaiiyie eaoaeaeueii? a?oie
/a?aiieo ia?a?a.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? i?e?ioiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiue iicaiiceiaeo
iooeei caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie c eaoaeaeueiith a?oiith /a?aiieo ia?a?a ?
noaeei oe??? ae?eyiee.

C’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? ee?i?/ii? oa/?? iicaiiceiaeo iooeei caaeiuei?
/a?aiii? yie i?e ??cieo aiaoiii-oiiia?ao?/ieo aa??aioao
aca?iia?aeiioaiue iooeei c eaoaeaeueiith a?oiith /a?aiieo ia?a?a.

?ic?iaeoe aaeaeaaoi? o??o?a?/i? aeinooie oa iaoiaeeeo i?e?io??o?a?/iiai
aeaeaeaiiy iooeei caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie i?e ??cieo i?e?ioiiia?ao?/ieo
aca?iia?aeiioaiiyo iooeei oa eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a.

I?iaanoe aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie i?e ??cieo
i?e?ioiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiiyo iiaiooai?aiue c eaoaeaeueiith
a?oiith /a?aiieo ia?a?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

Aia?oa aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeaia i?e?io??o?a?/ia aiaoii?y ??cieo aa??aio?a
aca?iia?aeiioaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a c iicaiiceiaeie
iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie.

C’yniaai? i?e/eie, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue IX-XII
ia?a?a ia ??cieo aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aeae?eai? a?oie ?eceeo oai?eo c iiaeeeaith i?neyiia?aoe?eiith
aeenooieoe??th eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a.

Aecia/ai? aaeaeaaoi? o??o?a?/i? aeinooie a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniaeeainoae
aiaoiii-oiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a c
iiaiooai?aiiyi.

Aiaoii?/ii iaa?oioiaaia oa aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
i?e?io??o?a?/iiai aeaeaeaiiy iicaiiceiaeo iooeei caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie
c o?aooaaiiyi aca?iia?aeiioaiue iooeei c IX-XII ia?aaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeyaeai? i?e/eie
aeenooieoe?? eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a aeicaieythoue ua aei iia?aoe??
aeae?eeoe a?oio ?eceeo oai?eo, ye? iio?aaothoue niaoeeo?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
oa aaaeaiiy i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo iniaeeainoae iicaiiceiaeo iooeei caaeiuei?
/a?aiii? yie c’ynoaaei ??ci? aa??aioe aca?iia?aeiioaiue iiaiooai?aiue c
ei??ioeyie IX-XII ia?a?a. Noiniaii aei eiaeiiai c ieo, c iaoith
i?i?iaeueii? o?aaiaoecaoe?? eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a, aecia/ai? aaeaeaaoi?
o??o?a?/i? aeinooie oa iioeiaeueia iaoiaeeea aeaeaeaiiy iicaiiceiaeo
iooeei caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie c aeei?enoaiiyi i?e?io??o?a?/ii? oaoi?ee.
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeaeaeaiiy iicaiiceiaeo iooeei, c o?aooaaiiyi
aca?iia?aeiioaiue iiaiooai?aiue c IX-XII ia?aaie, caaacia/eea iie?auaiiy
?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oe??? a?oie oai?eo oa cieaeaiiy
i?neyiia?aoe?eii? nia?oiino?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii i?iaiae?ciaaia
e?oa?aoo?a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. ?acii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii
ae.i.i. ?.I.O?ioai noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aaoi?ii iniaenoi i?iaaaeaii aiae?c an?o ?noi??e oai??a iaoe??io?a c
iaoieia??th, yea aea/a?oueny, ?ic?iaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?eia ea?oa oa i?ia?aia
eiiithoa?iiai aiae?co iaoa??aeo, i?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie ni?eyth/?
?icaeoeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a,
?ic?iaeaia noaia oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo aa??aio?a aca?iia?aeiioaiue
eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a c iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie ia
iniia? yei? ?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iaoiaeee
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo, iaaiai?ai? ? noi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I-II c’?caeao
iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a, 1993; i.Iaeana, 1998); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th aeaeaoiiai a/aiiai
i?io.I.N.Eieii?e/aiei (i.Ee?a, 1998); aaniyi?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? ioiey??iaieia?a Oe?a?ie (i.Oaeai?iae, 1999).

Aeena?oaoe?th ai?iaiaaii ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?
iae?io??o?a?? Ee?anueei? Iaaee/ii? Aeaaeai?? I?neyaeeieiiii? Ina?oe ?i.
I.E.Ooi?ea ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey 18 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

Ioae?eaoe?? oa ?io? oi?ie ai?iaaaeaeaiue. Ca iaoa??aeaie i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 13 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue, o oiio /ene? 2
naiino?ei? (5- aeo?iaeuei? noaoo?, 8- o ca??ieeao oac iaoeiaeo eiia?an?a
? eiioa?aioe?e).

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 155
noi??ieao, ?ethno?iaaii 12 oaaeeoeyie ? 16 iaethieaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 5 ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.
A?ae?ia?ao?y i?noeoue 237 iaeiaioaaiue aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiao ?iaioe neeaa aiae?c
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a o 606
oai?eo c iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie, ye? e?eoaaeenue
a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie c 1988
ii 1998 ??e.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae a?noino?oeoo?e iooeei oa i?noey ?? aeoiaeiiai ?inoo
oai?? ?iciiae?eai? ii iicieia?/ieo a?oiao:

iaa??iiie VIII ia?ao — 408 oai?eo (c ieo 10 oai?eo c 2-a?/ieie
iaa??iiiaie), yeei i?iaaaeaii 476 iia?aoe?e;

iai?ia?iie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie — 154 oai?eo (4 c iiiaeeiieie
iiaiooai?aiiyie); i?iaaaeaii 160 iia?aoe?e;

oieanoaaoiie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie — 23 oai?eo;

iooeeie y?aiiiai ioai?o:

aeiioni? iooeeie iniiae /a?aio — 11 oai?eo;

iaa??iiie IX-XII ia?a?a — 10 oai?eo.

I?noea aeo?aeiiai ?inoo iooeeie oa iai?aaeaiiy caeaa?eueoiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiiy ioe?ithaaeenue ca aeaieie eiiiuethoa?ii?
(EO) oa iaaieoii-?aciiainii? (I?O) oiiia?ao??, ?io?aiia?aoe?eiei oa
naeoe?eiei niinoa?aaeaiiyi. A?eiaee ae?aiacii oai?eo /ieia?/i? (161) oa
ae?ii/i? (445) noao? noaiiaea 15-72 ?iee (na?aaei?e a?e 44 ?iee).

Ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueia ae?aaiinoeea aeeth/aea: niiaoe/ia,
iaa?ieia?/ia, iae?iiooaeueiieia?/ia, ioiiaa?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy, yea
aeiiiaithaaeinue ?aioaaiia?ao??th /a?aia, EO oa I?O, a oaeiae c iaoith
c’ynoaaiiy aeaea?ae e?iaiiinoa/aiiy iooeeie oa ?? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy aei
iaa?no?aeueieo noaeei — naeaeoeaiith aia?ia?ao??th.

Ii/eiath/e c 1993 ?ieo a?oia oai?eo (197 niinoa?aaeaiue), yea iaea oi/
iaeio c ne?aeoth/eo iciae: noiooith na?oeaai-eaaaiaao iaoieia?th,
aeenooieoe?th eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a, ?ici?? iooeeie a?eueo 3,5 ni o
ae?aiao?? c aeeneieaoe??th noiaao?iaeo a?aeaeae?a iiceo (ca aeaieie EO
aai I?O) — a aeiiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? ia i?ioyc? 14-20 aei?a io?eioaaea
aioeieneaeaioe (a?oai?i A, iao?eo?aoeee).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee nenoaiaoeciaai? ca aeiiiiiaith
ea?oe-noaie ia?iaee ?noi??e oai?ia oa i?aeaeai? eiiithoa?iiio aiae?co
i?ney caianaiiy aei aace aeaieo i?ia?aie DataEase International, Inc.
USA (Release 4.2).

Iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi eiia?iiaaiiai
ia?eico, i?e iaiao?aeiino? ia oii? ea?iaaii? a?oa??aeueii? a?iioii??.
606 oai?ei i?iaaaeaii 680 iia?aoe?e (a 60 niinoa?aaeaiiyo iiaoi?ia
aeaeaeaiiy o ca’yceo c i?iaeiaaeaiei ?inoii aai ?aoeeaeeaii iooeeie; a
14 — aeaeaeaiiy ae?oai? iooeeie i?e iiiaeeii?e iaoieia??). I?e oeueiio
62 oai?eo iia?iaai? aea?/?, 11 — o?e/?, oa iaeei oai?ee /ioe?e ?ace.
Oioaeueia aeaeaeaiiy iooeeie i?iaaaeaii o 317 niinoa?aaeaiiyo;
noaoioaeueia — 159; /anoeiaa — 204. Iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c
aeei?enoaiiyi noaieoeei?oaeueiiai (637 niino.), o?ainiao?iciiai (16
niino.), aai eiia?iiaaiiai noanoi?aoaioi??aeueiiai (27 niino.)
aeinooi?a. Aeaeaeaiiy iooeei i?iaiaeeeinue c aeei?enoaiiyi
ca?eueooaaeueii? iioeee oa i?e?ineiia (o??ie OPTON), i?e?io??o?a?/iiai
?ino?oiaioa??y oa i?e iaiao?aeiino? aeaeo?iai??a aeey a?aeae?eaiiy
noaeei oa ia?a?a ona?aaeai? e?noeiaeo eaiae?a.

Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c iicaiiceiaeie
iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie ii??aithaaeenue aeai? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a aei-, i?ae /an iia?aoe??,
oa a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, ?aaeeeaeuei?noue iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue
oa i?neyiia?aoe?eia nia?oi?noue.

C iaoith iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aiaoii?? a
ae?eyioe? iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy noa?aiii o?enoaaeenue ?io?aiia?aoe?ei?
aeai?, a i?e eaoaeueieo aeiaaeeao (77 niinoa?aaeaiue) oiiia?ao?/ia
aiaoii?y aea/aeanue ia aeie-i?aia?aoao iiceo.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

I?iaaaeai? ii?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe
oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? aa??aioe aca?iia?aeiioaiue ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii?
a?oie ia?a?a c iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae a?noino?oeoo?e iiaiooai?aiue, i?noey aeo?aeiiai ?inoo
oa caeaa?eueoiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iooeeie.

Aca?iia?aeiioaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a c iaa??iiiith VIII ia?ao. I?e
caeaa?eueoiio ?ic?inoaiith iooeeie a i?aeueiiio iai?yieo (28 niino.)
aiia caoiaeeoue a ae?eyieo iao?aeii? oeenoa?ie noiaao?a iiceo. Ei??ioe?
IX-XI ia?a?a i?eieeathoue aei ieaeiueiai iiethno iooeeie oa iooei c ieie
ca’ycai?. I?e caeaa?eueoiio ?iciianthaeaeaii? iooeeie a eaoaeaeueiiio
iai?yieo (39 niino.) ei??ioe? IX-X ia?a?a, a o?ioe ieae/a XI ia?aa
?icieanoothoueny ii caaei?e iiaa?oi? ieaei?o a?aeae?e?a iiaiooai?aiiy. C
eainoeith iooeeie ca’ycai? oaeiae ei??ioe? XII ia?aa, ye? aeoaoaaoi
ci?uaii? a aaio?aeueiiio iai?yieo. I?e caeaa?eueoiio ?iciianthaeaeaii?
iooeeie a iaae?aeueiiio iai?yieo (17 niino.), aiia aeeaiei caoiaeeoue
aei aieiai? iiaa?oi? noiaao?a iiceo oa ieaeiuei? iiaa?oi? na?aaeiuei?
i?aeee iici/ea, ooai?thth/e a ieo aeneaaaoe?th. I?e oeueiio
?iciianthaeaeaii? iooeeie cia/ii no?aaeaea? i?aeueia aaiicia n?oue
aaio?aeueii? iiaa?oi? iinoa oa aeiaaanoiai iiceo. Aaiici? noaeeie
caeaaeai? oa aeaoi?iiaai?. A oie aea /an aaeee? a?aeaiaeaeoth/? aaiici?
noiaao?e, ne?aeoth/? ocaeiaae e?ath iooeeie, ??cei iioe?ai?. IX-X ia?ae
i?eieeathoue aei ieaeiueiai e?ath iiaiooai?aiiy oa ??cei ?icoyaioo?
iniaeeai a nai?o ii/aoeiaeo a?aeae?eao.

Iaeiae oaeee i?ae?icae?e aeanoeaee o?eueee aeey iooeei aei 3-3,5 ni o
ae?aiao??. Ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy iooeeie a?ae 3,5 ni aei 6-7 ni a
ae?aiao?? (oioaeueiee aa??aio — 324 niino.), a?aecia/ai? aeua ii?ooaiiy
ii?iaeueieo oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiue oi?ioaaiue
iinoi-iici/eiaiai eooa ua a?eueo iiaeeaeththoueny ? iooeeia aieeaa?
iaeaea ia an? ooai?aiiy caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie. IX-XI ia?ae iae/ano?oa
(246 niino.) a?aeoenioo? iooeeiith eaoaeaeueii ? aaio?aeueii
nioneath/enue ?iiae? aei ??aiy aaeeeiai iioeee/iiai ioai?o. Iaeiae a
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao (45 niino.) aiane?aeie aiaoii?/ieo iniaeeainoae
aoaeiae caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie (?icoaooaaii? y?aiiiai ioai?o i?aeoe/ii
ia iaeiiio ??ai? c aioo??oi?i neooiaei i?ioiaeii oa ia?aaaaeii
ia?aaeiuei-ieaeiueiio ?iciianthaeaeaii? iooeeie) ei??ioe? IX-X ia?a?a
ci?uothoueny iooeeiith a aei?ci-eaoaeaeueiiio iai?yieo. A 3-o
niinoa?aaeaiiyo oaeiio ci?uaiith i?aeaeaany o?eueee IX ia?a, a oie /an
ye aeoeath/ee ia?a ci?uaany aeiieco. A 22-o niinoa?aaeaiiyo iooeeia
ci?uoaaea IX-XI ia?ae aaio?aeueii.

Aca?iia?aeiioaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a c iai?ia?iiith caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie.
I?e aeoiaeiiio i?noe? ?inoo iooeeie a?ae aioo??oiueiai neooiaiai
i?ioiaeo aei ae??cee A?oaa?a (26 niino.), ae?eyioe? i?ae ae??ceith
A?oaa?a oa ia?aaei?ie a?aeae?eaie ieaeiueiai eai’yienoiai neiona (11
niino.), i?ae aioo??oi?i neooiaei i?ioiaeii oa caaei?ie a?aeae?eaie
aa?oiueiai eai’yienoiai neiona (8 niino.), ae?eyioe? aa?oi?o a?aeae?e?a
neaoo (2 niino), ia?aaeiueiio aa??aio? ?inoo iai?ia?ii a ae?eyioe?
aaeeeiai iioeee/iiai ioai?o (2 niino.), aeoiaeo iooeeie c ia?aaei?o
a?aeae?e?a iici/eiaiai iaiaoo (11 niino.), ii i??? naiai ca?eueoaiiy
iooeeia iiai?noth aeiiaith? iinoi-iici/eiaee eoo oa ci?uo? ei??ioe?
IX-X-XI /a?aiieo ia?a?a aeiieco, ye i?aaeei, inoaii? ca’ycai? c
eainoeith iooeeie iau?eueii, oa o?eueee iacia/ii ?icoyaioo? ia i?e. I?e
?ino? iai?ia?ii a ae?eyioe? y?aiiiai ioai?o (5 niino.), aiia ci?uo?,
caeaaeth? oa /anoi ia?inoa? ei??ioe? IX-X-XI ia?a?a. Ci?uaiiy ei??ioe?a
IX-X-XI /a?aiieo ia?a?a iiaea aooe ia iaeiia?/iei. I?e caeaa?eueoiio
?iciianthaeaeaii? iooeeie aeiieco aiia caeaaeth? oa a?aeoeneo? a
i?ioeeaaeiee a?e aeiaaanoee iicie, a i?e cia/iiio ca?eueoaii? ?ici???a
oa ?iciianthaeaeaii? a aaio?aeueiiio iai?yieo eiioaeoo? c XII ia?aii,
a?aeoeneoth/e oa aeaoi?ioth/e eiai. A 24 c iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue aoa
a?aei?/aiee ??no iooeeie ia oe?ie?e iniia? ii an?e caaei?e iiaa?oi?
i??ai?aee ne?iiaai? e?noee. Aeey oaeeo iai?ia?ii oa?aeoa?ia iayai?noue
aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeeaeeueieo noaeei, ui iaaeoiaeyoue c iaieiieiai?
n?oee a ae?eyioe? aeoiaeiiai ?inoo iooeeie, iaoa?oaaiiy /a?aiieo ia?a?a
a ?o ii/aoeiaeo a?aeae?eao oa a ae?eyioe? aoiaeo ?o aei ioai??a /a?aio,
aeineoue /anoi ia? i?noea aeeth/aiiy iici/eiaeo a?oa??e aei ia?aio?ie
iooeeie.

I?e iai?ia?iiao neaoo, ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny aei aieiai? oeenoa?ie
iinoa (6 niino.), VI-VIII-IX-X /a?aii? ia?ae ?icoaoiaai? ia
caaeiuei-a?/i?e iiaa?oi? iooeeie, aai ??cei ?icoyaioo? ia
ieaeiuei-eaoa?aeueiiio ?? iiethn?. I?e caaeiueiio aa??aio? ?inoa
iai?ia?iie o ae?eyioe? aaeeeiai iioeee/iiai ioai?o (5 niino.), oey
iooeeia anooia? a eiioaeo c IX-X-XI ia?aaie c iaeii? /e c iaio noi??i.
I?e oeueiio IX-X ia?ae iiaeooue iooei aai i?oeii c’?aeioaaoeny
/eneaiieie a?aoii?aeaeueieie niaeeaie c iiaa?oi?th iooeeie. Iai?ia?iie,
ui aeoiaeyoue c caaei?o a?aeae?e?a iaiaoa iici/eo (35 niino.) ?
caoiieththoue ae?eyieo iiia?a/iiai neiona oa ceeaaiiy neion?a, cae/aeii
caeaaeththoue aa?oith iiaa?oi?noue i?aeoe? iici/ea. I?e oaeiio aa??aio?
?inoo iooeeia a eiioaeo c eaoaeaeueiith a?oiith ia?a?a ia anooia?.
Iai?ia?iie eiiaaen?oaeueii? iiaa?oi? iici/ea (9 niino.), ui
?iciianthaeaeothoueny a eaoa?aeueiiio iai?yieo (7 niino.) i?yiei /e
iai?yiei /eiiiaieeaathoue ia ii/aoeia? a?aeae?ee IX-X ia?a?a.
?iciianthaeaeoth/enue a iaae?aeueiiio iai?yieo (2 niino.), iooeeia
caoiaeeoue a ae?eyieo aaeeei? oeenoa?ie, caeaaeth? oa aeaoi?io?
aei?caeueio iiaa?oi?noue aeiaaanoiai iiceo.

Aca?iia?aeiioaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a c oieanoaaoiiith caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie.
A caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o oa ia?aaaaeiiai ?icoaooaaiiy oieanoaaoii
caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie, a?aeae?eaii 2 a?oie oai?eo: 1- ?icoaooaaiiy
iooeeie a ae?eyioe? iinoi-iici/eiaiai eooa oa iiaeeeaei
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi noi?aoaioi??aeueii (14 niino.), 2- ?icoaooaaiiy
iooeeie a IV oeoii/eo oa nieiaeueiei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi (9 niino.). I?e
aaeeeeo ?ici??ao iooeeie aiia aeiiaith? iinoi-iici/eiaee eoo oa aieeaa?
ia IX-X ia?ae, ci?uoth/e ?o ei??ioe? oiec. I?e oeueiio inoaii? aoee
u?eueii ca’ycai? c iiaa?oi?th iooeeie, a o 2-o niinoa?aaeaiiyo aiia ?o
ia?inoaea. O 2-o niinoa?aaeaiiyo aeyaeaii iacae/aeia ci?uaiiy ei??ioe?a
IX-X /a?aiieo ia?a?a: a iaeiiio — oia?aae oa aeiieco; o ae?oaiio —
iacaae oa oai?o. I?e ?icoaooaaii? iooeeie o IV oeoii/eo c iiaeeeaei ??
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi o o?aaoeaaee eaiae, oieanoaaoiia ioiiethaaea ccaaeo
oa c aie?a ieaei? iiaeee iici/ea ? ci?uoaaea a aaio?aeueiiio iai?yieo c
iaeii? /e c iaio noi??i ii/aoeia? a?aeae?ee IX-X ia?a?a. I?e
?iciianthaeaeaii? a eaoaeaeueiiio iai?yieo iooeeia anooia? a eiioaeo c
XI ia?aii, a oaeiae c caaei?ie ei??ioeyie N1-N2.

Aca?iia?aeiioaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a c iooeeiith y?aiiiai ioai?o. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae aca?iia?aeiioaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a c
aeiioniith iooeeiith, aeae?eaii /ioe?e a?oie oai?eo: 1-iooeeia
?icoaoiaaia o aa?aaaii?e ii?iaeiei? ? ia aeoiaeeoue ca ?? iaae? (2
niino.); 2-iooeeia ?icoaoiaaia a ae?eyioe? ieaeiuei? no?iee aa?aaaiii?
ii?iaeieie, aeiiaith? ?? oa ?oeio? ioi/oth/e no?oeoo?e (2 niino.);
3-iooeeia aeoiaeeoue c y?aiiiai aocea oa ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ii
ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? iniiae /a?aio a ae?eyieo ieaei?e iiaa?oi? i??ai?aee
ne?iiaai? e?noee (3 niino.); 4-iooeeia aeoiaeeoue c y?aiiiai aeiiono ?
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny a aeaio iai?yieao: ae?eyieo ciai?oiuei? iniiae
/a?aio, a oaeiae ?io?ae?ai?aeueii (4 niino.). Iaeiaio no?aaeaeathoue
IX-XII ia?ae i?e iooeeiao ia?oi? a?oie. Iooeeie ae?oai? a?oie iaea?eueo
u?eueii ca’ycai? c IX-X ia?aaie oa cia/ii iaio c XI ia?aii. Neeaaei?
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a a?aecia/ai? i?e iooeeiao 3 oa 4
a?oi, aea iiaiooai?aiiy ia?anoa? ei??ioe? ia?a?a oa aeeth/a? ?o aei
nai?? no?oeoo?e ia o?eueee a ae?eyioe? y?aiiiai ioai?o, a oaeiae
?io?ae?ai?aeueii a ii?iaeiei? caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie oa
aeno?ae?ai?aeueii a ae?eyioe? ciai?oiuei? iniiae /a?aio.

A 10 niinoa?aaeaiiyo i?ae /an iia?aoe?e ia?aaeaa/ath/eo aeaeaeaiiy
iaa??iii VIII ia?ao, aeyaeeinue, ui iooeeia aeoiaeeoue ia c aeonoe/iiai,
a c IX, X aai XI ia?ao. Ni?eueiei aeey ieo aoei ?icoaooaaiiy a ae?eyioe?
y?aiiiai ioai?o. A on?o oeeo aeiaaeeao iooeeia ?icoaoiaoaaeanue a
noaa?aoii?aeaeueiii? i?inoi??, ioi/oaaea c on?o aie?a oa ai?uoaaea aei
nai?? ia?aio?ie IX-X oa noiaao? XI ia?a?a oae, ui a?aeae?eeoe ?o
ei??ioe? c ?a/iaeie iaa??iiie ( a ioiae ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe i?noea
aeoiaeiiai ?inoo iooeeie) ia aoei iiaeeeaei. O aeaio c iaoeo
niinoa?aaeaiue iooeeia ?iciianthaeaeoaaeanue a aeno?ae?ai?aeueiiio
iai?yieo. A?eueo aocueea /anoeia iooeeie, ioi/oaaea onth eaoaeaeueio
a?oio ia?a?a (IX-XII) ? ?iciianthaeaeoaaeanue a ia?aaei? a?aeae?ee
y?aiiiai ioai?o, cia/ii ?icoe?thaaea inoaii?e ? ?iciianthaeaeoaaeany a
ae?eyieo ieaeiuei? iiaa?oi? i??ai?aee ne?iiaai? e?noee.

INIAEEAINO? AEAeAEAIIss IICAIICEIAEO IOOEEI

CAAeIUeI? *A?AIII? ssIE

I?e iaa??iiiao VIII ia?ao na?aaei?o ?ici???a c ia?aaaaeii i?aeueiei aai
iaae?aeueiei iai?yieii ?inoo iooeeie, ia ia?oiio aoai? iia?aoe??
cae?enith?oueny a?aeae?eaiiy ei??ioe?a IX-XI ia?a?a oa a?eie caaeiuei?
ieaeiuei? iici/eiai? a?oa??? a?ae iiaiooai?aiiy. I?e iaae?aeueiiio
aa??aio? ?inoo iaa??iiie i?ney a?aeae?eaiiy IX-XI ia?a?a oa
?io?aeainoey?iiai aeaeaeaiiy iooeeie, i?iiiio?oueny i?iaaaeeoe
iiaeaeueoa a?aeae?eaiiy iiaiooai?aiiy a?ae aieiai? iiaa?oi? aeiaaanoiai
iiceo oa iinoa. I?e oae?e iine?aeiaiino? aaea?oueny iaeneiaeueii
a?aeae?eeoe oa caa?aaoe a?oa??aeueio oa ??cei a?ia?o?ioiaaio aaiicio
n?oue noiaao?a iiceo. I?e ia?aaaaeii eaoaeaeueiiio iai?yieo ?inoo
iaa??iiie na?aaei?o ?ici???a ia?oei aoaiii ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe
?io?aeainoey?ia aeaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiiy. I?ney oeueiai ne?ae anoaiiaeoe
iniaeeaino? aca?iia?aeiinei IX-XI ia?a?a c iiaa?oi?th iooeeie, oa a
aeiaaeeo iooeiai ca’yceo a?aeae?eeoe ?o a?ae iiaiooai?aiiy. I?e a?eueo
o?nieo aca?iia?aeiineiao ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a c
iaa??iiiith ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe aeaeaeaiiy aa?oi?o oa iaae?aeueieo
a?aeae?e?a iooeeie ? o?eueee ia inoaii?o aoaiao a?aeae?eyoe a?ae ia?
IX-XI ia?ae. I?e iaa??iiiao VIII ia?ao aaeeeeo ?ici???a c iaoith
i?i?iaeueii? o?aaiaoecaoe?? IX-XI ia?a?a ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeiaea?aeoaaoeny
ne?aeoth/i? iine?aeiaiino? aeaeaeaiiy iooeeie. Ia?oei aoaiii
i?iaaaeeoueny a?aeae?eaiiy ciai?oi?o a?aeae?e?a i?aeoeue iici/ea a?ae
caaeiuei? iiaa?oi? iooeeie. I?iaiaeeoe eiai ne?ae c iniaeeaith
iaa?aaei?noth o ca’yceo c iiaeeeaei iioeiaeaeaiiyi ?icoyaiooeo oa
aeaeici?iaiieo ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a ia caaei?e iiaa?oi?
iiaiooai?aiiy. Oe? ei??ioe? a?aeae?eythoue a?ae iooeeie oa i?iaaaeyoue
?io?aeainoey?ia aeaeaeaiiy iaa??iiie. A aeiaaeeo ?o a?aenooiino? ia
caaeiueiio iiethn?, iooeeio ciaioothoue o ?ici??ao oiaoeoth/e ?? c
??cieo iai?yie?a oa eeoa i?ney iiyae ?aca?aiiai i?inoi?o ia inoaii?o
aoaiao ao?o/aiiy ci?uothoue c eainoee IX-XI ia?ae, caaeith ieaeith
a?oa??th iici/ea oa ?? a?eee.

I?e iai?ia?iiao c aeoiaeiei i?noeai ?inoo a ae?eyioe? y?aiiiai ioai?o
aoai a?aeae?eaiiy eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a a?ae iooeeie i?iaiaeeoueny a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeneieaoe?? ei??ioe?a. Oae, o aeiaaeeao ?icoaooaaiiy
IX-XI ia?a?a ia caaei?e iiaa?oi? iooeeie aiie a?aeae?eythoueny aaea ia
ia?oeo aoaiao ao?o/aiiy, a ci?uaiiy c iooeeie ne?ae i?iaaaeeoe i?ney
/anoeiaiai aeaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiiy. O aeiaaeeao, eiee eaoaeaeueia a?oia
ia?a?a ia caaei?e iiaa?oi? iooeeie ia aeyaeaia, ne?ae ii/eiaoe
aeaeaeaiiy iai?ia?iie c aa?oiueiai oa iaae?aeueiiai a?aeae?e?a. A
iine?aeoth/iio iaaaee/eeie ii?oe?yie i?iaaaeyoue aeaeaeaiiy
oeaio?aeueieo a?aeae?e?a iooeeie, a?aeae?eythoue iiaiooai?aiiy a?ae
aeiaaanoiai iiceo ? eeoa ia inoaii?o aoaiao a?aeae?eythoue ei??ioe?
eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a oa aeaeaeythoue iooeeio a ae?eyioe? y?aiiiai
ioai?o. I?e ?ioeo aa??aioao iai?ia?ii caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie iniaeeaino?
a?aeae?eaiiy eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a a?ae iooeeie iaaaaeothoue oaeia?
i?e ??cieo aa??aioao ?inoo iaa??iii VIII ia?ao.

A?aeae?eaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a a?ae iooeeie i?e oieanoaaoiiao caaeiuei?
/a?aiii? yie ii iniaeeainoyi aeeneieaoe?? ei??ioe?a oa aca?iica’yceo ?o
c iooeeiith i?iaiaeeoueny oae naii, ye ? i?e iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiiyo i?e
??cieo aa??aioao ?inoo iai?ia?ii.

A niinoa?aaeaiiyo c aeiionieie iooeeiaie iniiae /a?aio a?aeae?eaiiy
eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a, i?e ?icoaooaaii? iiaiooai?aiiy a e?noeiaeo
no?oeoo?ao i??ai?aee ne?iiaai? e?noee, i?iaiaeeoueny ia inoaii?o aoaiao
iia?aoe?? i?ney aeaeaeaiiy iooeeie c aa?aaaiii? ii?iaeieie oa
a?aeae?eaiiy iaa?no?aeueieo noaeei. A?aeae?eaiiy iooeeie a?ae ia?a?a
ii/eiathoue c aeno?ae?ai?aeueii? /anoeie iiaiooai?aiiy (aeiiaithth/i?
ii?iaeieio aioo??oiuei? y?aiii? aaie), iaio u?eueii ca’ycaiii? c
ioi/oth/eie no?oeoo?aie, aea ei??ioe? eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a eaaei
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe. Iinooiiai i?ae?eiath/enue aeua aei ae?eyiee ia?oaeiiai
y?aiiiai ioai?o, ii/eiathoue aeae?eyoe iooeeio a y?aiiiio eaiae?. O
aeiaaeeo ?iciianthaeaeaii? y?aiiiai aeiiono aei ii?iaeieie caaeiuei?
/a?aiii? yie, aeaeaeaiiy iooeeie oa aoaie a?aeae?eaiiy ei??ioe?a IX-XII
ia?a?a a?ae ia? oae naii, ye ? i?e i?e?io??o?a?/iiio aeaeaeaii?
iai?ia?ii caaeiuei? iiaa?oi? i??ai?aee ne?iiaai? e?noee oa neaoo.

Neeaaeiino? c ?aeaioeo?eoaaiiyi IX-X-XI ia?a?a i?e iaa??iiiao a
ae?eyioe? iioe?aiiai y?aiiiai ioai?o, iaa?oioiaoaaei iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy nii/aoeo aeaeaeaiiy aa?oiueiai oa iaae?aeueiiai a?aeae?e?a
iaa??iiie c a?aeae?eaiiyi inoaoiueiai a?ae aeiaaanoiai iiceo oa ni?iaaie
iiooeo ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie. I?e a?aeae?eaii? IX-X-XI ia?a?a
a?ae iooeeie ( ia ??ci?e a?aenoai? a?ae i?noey ?o aeoiaeo), i? a iaeiiio
niinoa?aaeaii? ia aaeaeiny ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe ia?ae iaie y?aiiiai ioai?o,
oiio a ca’yceo c iaaaciaeith ?o o?aaioaaiiy i?iaaaeeeinue o?eueee
noaoioaeueia aeaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiue.

II?OOAIIss OOIEOe?? IX-XII IA?A?A O OAI?EO C

IA?ANOIAAO?IAEIE IOOEEIAIE CAAeIUeI? *A?AIII? ssIE

Aeiiia?aoe?ei? ii?ooaiiy. Iniaeeaino? oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/iiai
?icoaooaaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a a caaei?e /a?aii?e yi? i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai,
ui i?e ?ino? iooeeie ia?anoiaao?iai? eieae?caoe??, a caeaaeiino? a?ae
i?noey aeo?aeiiai ?inoo oa caeaa?eueoiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
iiaiooai?aiiy, ia iaaiiio aoai? caoai?thaaiiy ii/eiathoue i?iyaeyoeny
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a. Aeenooieoe?y IX-XII
ia?a?a a?aecia/aia aei iia?aoe?? o 312 oai?eo (45,9%).

O?aaeaiiy IX-X ia?a?a aeyaeaii o 299 niinoa?aaeaiiyo (44%). Oe?
ii?ooaiiy aoee ia?aaaaeii o a?oie oai?eo c aaeeeeie ?ici??aie iooeei,
aea iiaiooai?aiiy aeiiaithaaei aanue iinoi-iici/eiaee eoo aieeaath/e ye
ia ei??ioe? IX-XII ia?a?a, oae ? ia ieaei? a?aeae?ee noiaao?a iiceo.
Aiae?c niinoa?aaeaiue c ee?i?/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaa?oiooaaa aeae?eaiiy
/ioe?ueio a?oi oai?eo. O ia?o?e (368 niino.; 54%) ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a ia aeyaeaii (aacneiioiiiee a?a). O
ae?oa?e (72 niino.; 10,6%) niinoa??aaeiny ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?e IX-XII
ia?a?a eaaeiai nooiaith: iiia?ai?iia ii?ooaiiy eiaoaiiy i?e i?eeiyoo?
oaa?aei? ?aee, c iai?e?iiei ii/oooyi «a?oaeee» o ai?e?. O?eaae?noue oeeo
ii?ooaiue aa??thaaea a?ae 6 aei 12 i?nyoe?a (a na?aaeiueiio 3 i?n.). O
o?ao?e (64 niino.; 9,4%) iii??ii ae?aaeai?: iino?ei? nea?ae oai?eo ia
o?oaeiiu? i?e i?eeiyoo? ??aeeie oa oaa?aei? ?ae?; i?e ianoaaeaii? —
aneiao??y a iai?oaeaii? i’yeiai i?aeiaa?iiy, c iacia/iei a?aeoeeaiiyi
uvula a a?e i?ioeeaaeiee eieae?caoe?? iooeeie, cieaeaiiy /ooeeaino? ia
ei?ai? yceea ia aioe? o?aaeaiiy. O?eaae?noue oeeo ii?ooaiue aoea a?ae
iaeiiai oeaeiy aei 3-o i?nyoe?a (a na?aae. 2 i?n.). O /aoaa?o?e a?oi?
(176 niino.; 26%) cia/i?: ii?ooaiiy aieino (aeenoii?y) oa cia/i?
?iceaaee eiaoaiiy c ani??aoe??th ??aeeie oa eaoaiiae?aii? ?ae?, a?oaei
ia?acii i’yeiai i?aeiaa?iiy, ?iceaaeaie /ooeeaino? ia caaei?e 1/3
iiaa?oi? yceea oa aieiai? no?iee aeioee, a?aeoeeaiiyi uvula a a?e,
i?ioeeaaeiee iiaiooai?aiith. Oai?? oe??? a?oie iae/ano?oa iinooiaee a
ee?i?eo i?ney iauiaeaaii ia?aianaiii? iiaaiii??. I?e niiaoe/iiio
ianoaaeaii? o aeayeeo c ieo (28 niino.) ciaeaeai? yaeua o?ii?/iiai
a?iio?oo aai iiaaiii??. Aeenooieoe?y aeiaeaoeiaiai ia?ao niinoa??aaeanue
a aeiiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? cia/ii ??aeoa (12 niino.) oa i?aeoe/ii o
an?o aeiaaeeao (9 niino.) ii?aeioaaeinue c ooieoe?iiaeueieie ii?ooaiiyie
IX-X ia?a?a. Ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? i?ae’yceeiaiai ia?ao a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a (34 niino.) ii?aeioaaeinue aeenooieoe??th IX-X ia?a?a ? cia/ii
??aeoa (10 niino.) naiino?eii. Neaaei aai iii??ii ae?aaeai? ii?ooaiiy
XII ia?ao aeyaeai? o 39 oai?eo, cia/i? a 5 aeiaaeeao. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
?ici???a iooeeie ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a ?iciiae?eai?
oaeei /eiii (aeea. oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

*anoioa aeenooieoe?? IX-XII ia?a?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a iooeeie

?ici?? iooeeie Anueiai niinoa?aaeaiue C ieo c ii?ooaiiyi IX-XII ia?a?a

2-2,9 ni 14 3 (21,4%)

3-3,9 ni 118 35 (29,7%)

4-4,9 ni 284 119 (41,9%)

5-5,9 ni 216 131 (60,6%)

6 e > ni 48 24 (50%)

Anueiai 680 312 (45,9%)

I?ae /an iia?aoe?e o 63 (9,3%) c 680 niinoa?aaeaiue ia aoai?
a?aeae?eaiiy iooeeie a?ae ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a oa
aeiaaanoiai iiceo niinoa??aaeiny oneeaaeiaiiy: ianoaa?euei?noue
a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo (27 niino.), c ieo o 6 aeiaaeeao niinoa??aaeiny
??cea i?aeianaiiy oeneo, o 10 — iaae?iiy AO oa a?aaeeea?ae?y; a?eoi?y
aac cia/iiai eieeaaiiy oeneo o 36 niinoa?aaeaiiyo. Aei iia?aoe?? oey
a?oia oai?eo o 12 aeiaaeeao iaea ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy IX-XII
ia?a?a.

I?iyaa aeenooieoe?? IX-XII ia?a?a a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?
caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaeeainoae aca?iia?aeiioaiue ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii?
a?oie ia?a?a c iiaiooai?aiiyi oa nooiaith o?aaiaoecaoe??
ia?aiai-noaeeiieo no?oeoo? i?ae /an ao?o/aiiy. *ei a?eueo u?eueii
ca’ycai? IX-XII ia?ae c iooeeiith, oei aeua ?ecee iioeiaeaeaiiy ?o
ei??ioe?a ? ye iane?aeie- i?neyiia?aoe?eii? aeenooieoe?? eaoaeaeueieo
ia?a?a. I?i oea na?ae/eoue e oie oaeo, ui o a?oi? oai?eo aea ia aoei
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?e IX-XII ia?a?a, u?eueiee ca’ycie
ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a c iooeeiith ia iia?aoe?? a?aei?/aany
o 58 (14%) oai?eo; o a?oi?, aea ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy i?ney
iia?aoe?? a?aei?/aeeny (?o ae?aaeai?noue aoea ??ciiai nooiaith) —
u?eueiee ca’ycie iooeeie c ei??ioeyie niinoa??aaany o 91 (34,3%)
oai?iai. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai noathoue oaeiae eaoaeuei? aeiaaeee,
aea iaea i?noea aeiooaia o?aaiaoecaoe?y i?ae /an iia?aoe??
?io?ae?ai?aeueii? ii?oe?? IX oa /anoee ei??ioe?a X ia?ao. Iaeiae oea ia
?aeeia i?e/eia aeenooieoe?? ia?a?a. A aeayeeo aeiaaeeao o?aaiaoecaoe?y
i?e a?aeae?eaii? IX-X ia?a?a a?ae iooeeie ia i?iyaeeiny ?o ii?ooaiiyi a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, oa a i?ioeeaaei?noue oeei niinoa?aaeaiiyi
aoea a?oia oai?eo aea ei??ioe? aoee eaaei a?aeae?eai? a?ae
iiaiooai?aiiy, i?ioa i?neyiia?aoe?eia oa/?y oneeaaeieeanue aoeueaa?iei
neiae?iiii. Aeiaeaoeiaeie oaeoi?aie ui ni?eythoue aeenooieoe?? IX-XII
ia?a?a ? ii?ooaiiy a?oa??aeueiiai oa aaiiciiai e?iaiia?ao o noiaao?iaeo
a?aeae?eao iiceo, a oaeiae ii?ooaiiy oe?einiino? i?aeueii? n?oee
ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a. Oae o a?oi? oai?eo aac i?neyiia?aoe?eii?
aeenooieoe?? IX-XII ia?a?a iaea i?noea eiaaoeyoe?y noaeei (c o?aooaaiiyi
iaiao?aeiino?) o 66 (15,9%) oai?eo, a o a?oi? aea ii?ooaiiy i?iyaeeeny —
o 220 (83%). Noaeeiiee oaeoi? o ?icaeoeo i?neyiia?aoe?eii? aeenooieoe??
eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a iiaea aooe i?aeoaa?aeaeai ua e oei, ui
ii?ooaiiy aeieeaee ia caaaeaee iae?aco i?ney ao?o/aiiy, a iae/ano?oa
/a?ac 1-4 aei?, oa noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue iiaeeaeaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ii?ooaiue ?ioeo ia?a?a oa neiioiiaoeeith o?aaeaiiy noiaao?a iiceo (aei
i?eaiiaeaiiy na?aeiiino? oa eaoaeueieo aeiaaee?a). I?i oea na?ae/eoue ?
oa, ui c 266 niinoa?aaeaiue o oai?eo c na?oeaai-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th a
119 aeiaaeeao (44,7%) aoee aeyaeai? i?neyiia?aoe?ei? ii?ooaiiy
eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a, a o 147 niinoa?aaeaiiyo (55,3%) ?o ia
ciaeaeaii. O ia?o?e a?oi? (aea aeyaeai? ii?ooaiiy) a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? iiia?ei 42 oai?eo, o ae?oa?e — 4 (2,7%). Nooi?iue
o?aaiaoecaoe?? ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a i?ae /an iia?aoe?? o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ye ia?oi? (37 niino.), oae ? ae?oai? a?oie (4
niino.) aoea i?i?iaeueiith.

O oai?eo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiith aeenooieoe??th eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a o 31
aeiaaeeo ei??ioe? IX-XII ia?a?a /a?ac u?eueiee ca’ycie c iooeeiith oae ?
ia aoee a?aeae?eai? a?ae inoaiiuei? i?ae /an aaaaoi?aciaeo ni?ia; o 174
oai?eo aiie aoee iooei ca’ycai? c iiaiooai?aiiyi; a o 60 iaee u?eueiee
ca’ycie, aea a?ae iooeeie a?aeae?eai?. O 148 aeiaaeeao a?aei?/aeany
i?neyiia?aoe?eia aeenoii?y. O 54 (36%) oai?eo aeenoii?y niinoa??aaeanue
ia oii? ii?ooaiue IX-X ia?a?a eaaeiai nooiaith, oa o 94 (64%) oai?eo c
iii??iith oa cia/iith aeenooieoe??th. sseui ia?oa a?oia oai?eo
ciaoiaeeeanue ia naiino?eiiio canoinoaaii? ?aee, oi ae?oaa io?eioaaea
ciiaeiaa aiaeoaaiiy. Iaciaano?aeueiee ciiae canoiniaoaaee c 1-4 aeiy
i?ney iia?aoe??. A oeeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo iiaeia aoei a?aeie?aieoe aea?
a?oie oai?eo: iaeia (136 niino.) — io?eioaaea iino?eia aiaeoaaiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith ciiaea c iiiaioo eiai onoaiiaeaiiy ? aeiaaio?eaae?noue
oaeiai aiaeoaaiiy aoea a na?aaeiueiio 7 aei?a; ae?oaa (20 niino.) — c
ia??iaee/iei aeoyaiaiiyi ciiaeo aei 1-3 aei?a, oa naiino?eiei
canoinoaaiiyi ?aee, iaeiae iiiiaiei aeei?enoaiiyi ciiaeiaiai aiaeoaaiiy
/a?ac ii?ooaiiy eiaoaiiy. I?neyiia?aoe?eia ani??aoe?eia iiaaiii?y aoea o
52 oai?eo (c ieo 19 ciaoiaeeeenue ia ciiaeiaiio aiaeoaaii? ii/eiath/e c
1-13 aeiy i?ney ao?o/aiiy ia i?ioyc? i?eaeecii 14 aei?a). ?aa?an
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue ianoaaaa o ??ci? no?iee i?ney iia?aoe??.

Aeiaaeee o?aaiaoe/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie
niinoa??aaeenue o 11 oai?eo c iaa??iiiith VIII ia?ao (o 3-o c ieo aoa
iioeiaeaeaaeaeai o?eueee IX ia?a, on? oe? oai?? caaeioee i?ney iia?aoe??
o ??ci? no?iee), o iaeiiai oai?iai c aeiioniith iooeeiith (aeayeee
?aa?an neiioiiaoeee a?aei?/aany ia i?ioyc? 26 aei?a), oa o iaeiiai
oai?iai c iiiaeeiieie iaa??iiiaie aeno?ae?ai?aeueii? eieae?caoe??
(ii?ooaiiy oo?eiothoueny ia i?ioyc? 1,5 ?ie?a i?ney ao?o/aiiy).
Iioeiaeaeaiiy o?eueee XI ia?aa aoei o 2-o oai?eo c iiiaeeiieie
iaa??iiiaie oa 5 c iai?ia?iiith. Aeenooieoe?y aeiaeaoeiaiai ia?aa
??ciiai nooiaith i?iyae oo?eio?oueny o oeeo oai?eo ia i?ioyc? o?eaaeiai
ia??iaeo i?ney ao?o/aiiy. XII ia?a aoa iioeiaeaeai o iaeiiai oai?iai c
iaa??iiiith oeueiai ia?aa (ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy oo?eiothoueny aanue
/an i?ney iia?aoe??).

I?neyiia?aoe?eiee eieei-aeaiue o oai?eo aac ii?ooaiue ooieoe??
eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a neeaaeaa a?ae 11 aei 44 aei?a (o na?aae. 21),
i?e ?icaeoeo aeenooieoe?? IX-XII ia?a?a a?ae 10 aei 77 aei?a (o na?aae.
30).

Iniiai? iai?yiee i?io?eaeoeee ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue IX-XII ia?a?a:

I?iaaaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ii? aeiiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee oai?ei, iniiaiith
iaoith yei? ? caoeno iiceo a?ae a?iien?? oa ei?aeoe?y
?aaaia?aoi?ii-?aia?aoeaieo i?ioean?a c iiaeeeaei iie?auaiiyi
ae?yeueiino? iae?ii?a, a ne?ae ? ciaioaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue
eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a.

I?iaaaeaiiy i?e?io??o?a?/ieo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ca niaoe?aeueii
?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith, yea caaacia/o? i?i?iaeueio o?aaiaoecaoe?th
ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo noaeei
iinoi-iici/eiaiai eooa.

I?e ?icaeoeo, aai ca?eueoaii? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii?
a?oie ia?a?a o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoiaaiaoe/ii? oa?ai?? cea?iaaii? ia onoiaiiy oaeoi??a ni?e/eiyth/eo aei
aeenooieoe?? oa ?icaeoeo noiooi?o oneeaaeiaiue.

Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a aeicaieeei ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o
5 ?ie?a iie?aueoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy, ciaiueoea
e?euee?noue oai?eo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiith aeenooieoe??th eaoaeaeueii?
a?oie ia?a?a o 1,5 ?ac?a oa ciecea o 1,7 ?ac?a i?neyiia?aoe?eio
eaoaeuei?noue.

AENIIAEE

Iicaiiceia? ia?anoiaao?ia? iooeeie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie o 45,9%
aeiaaee?a aeeeeeathoue aeenooieoe?th IX-XII ia?a?a.

Anoaiiaeai? /ioe?e aa??aioe aca?iia?aeiioaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie
/a?aiieo ia?a?a c iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie aeey
ae??oaiiy iiaeaeueoeo caaaeaiue: 1-c ia?aaaaeiei ci?uaiiyi ?o ei??ioe?a
aaio?aeueii; 2-eaoaeaeueii; 3-aei?caeueii; 4-?icoaooaaiiyi ei??ioe?a
ona?aaeai? iooeeie.

Oa?aeoa?ia iniaeea?noue iaa??iii VIII ia?ao na?aaei?o ?ici???a c
eaoaeaeueiei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi, oa iaa??iii aaeeeeo ?ici???a (a?eueo
3,5 ni)- ia?aaaaeia ci?uaiiy ei??ioe?a IX-XI ia?a?a o eaoaeaeueiiio
iai?yieo, a oaeiae cia/i? ci?ie oiiia?ao?? ioi/oth/eo eaoaeaeuei? ia?ae
a?oa??aeueieo oa aaiicieo noaeei.

Oa?aeoa?ia iniaeea?noue iai?ia?ii a ae?eyioe? neaoa, caaeiuei? iiaa?oi?
i??ai?aeee ne?iiaai? e?noee, a oaeiae oieanoaaoii iinoi-iici/eiaiai eooa
— ci?uaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a o ??cieo iai?yieao, aai ia?inoaiiy ei??ioe?a
iiaiooai?aiiyi. Iaea?eueo u?eueiee ca’ycie IX-XII ia?a?a c iooeeiith ?c
cia/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th oa aeeneieaoe??th ei??ioe?a, aeeth/aiiyi ?o aei
e?noeiaeo no?oeoo? i??ai?aee ne?iiaai? e?noee iii?/ai? i?e iiaiooai?aii?
a ae?eyioe? y?aiiiai ioai?o, ui iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?aeueii?
iaoiaeeee aeaeaeaiiy oeeo iooeei.

C o?aooaaiiyi ee?i?/ieo iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue IX-XII
ia?a?a aeae?eaii 4 a?oie oai?eo: 1-aac ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue; 2- c
ii?ooaiiyi ooieoe?e IX-XII ia?a?a eaaeiai nooiaith; 3- ?c iii??ii
ae?aaeaiei ?iceaaeii eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a; 4-cia/iith aeenooieoe??th.

Oai?? aac ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue oa cia/iith aeenooieoe??th IX-XII
ia?a?a, a oaeiae ?c noiooiueith na?oeaai-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th
a?aeianai? aei a?oie iaea?eueoiai ?eceeo i?neyiia?aoe?eieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue IX-XII ia?a?a, ui iio?aao? niaoe?aeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo ia on?o aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

C iaoith i?i?iaeueii? o?aaiaoecaoe?? ei??ioe?a IX-XII ia?a?a aeaeaeaiiy
iooeei ia no/aniiio ??ai? iiaeiii i?iaaaeeoenue o?eueee c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?e?io??o?a?/ii? oaoi?ee oa aaeaeaaoiiai o??o?a?/iiai aeinooia, c
o?aooaaiiyi on?o aa??aio?a i?e?ioiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?ae
ia?aaie oa iooeeiith. Iniaeeaa i?aaiaiiy iiaeiii aooe nea?iaaia ia
caa?aaeaii? a?oa??aeueieo ? aaiicieo noaeei iinoi-iici/eiaiai eooa, a
oaeiae i?aeueii? n?oee ei??ioe?a eaoaeaeueii? a?oie ia?a?a.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui canoinoaaiiy
niaoe?aeueii? aeiiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee o oai?eo c iicaiiceiaeie
iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie, oa aeaeaeaiiy iiaiooai?aiue c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o aca?iia?aeiioaiue c eaoaeaeueiith a?oiith ia?a?a
aeicaieeei ciaioeoe a 1,5 ?ac?a e?euee?noue oai?eo c i?neyiia?aoe?eiith
aeenooieoe??th IX-XII ia?a?a, cieceoe i?neyiia?aoe?eio eaoaeuei?noue a
1,7 ?ac?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

O?io ?.I., Oaiaaa I.E., Aoaeeia A.A. » Iee?ioe?o?ae/aneay aiaoiiey
iaieiaeiiu caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee». Ee?a, «Ee?i. O??o?a?y», 1993, ?7-8,
n.49-52.

O?io ?.I., Oaiaaa I.E., Aoaeeia A.A. «I?e/eiu ia?ooaiey
aeeciaiii-aaaeiuo ooieoeee i?e oe?o?ae/aneii ea/aiee aiaiicaiaie
ia?anoaieiaie iiooiee caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee». Ee?a, «Ee?i. O??o?a?y»,
1998, ?2, n.28-29.

Nooei TH.I., Caaieioiee Ae.?., O?io ?.I., Ai?enaiei I.I., Aoaeeia A.A.,
N?aaiye ?.A. Iniaeeaino? ae?aaiinoeee ? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
iooeeiaie iniiae /a?aia. AEo?iae aooieo, iiniaeo ? ai?eiaeo oai?ia,
Ee?a- «I?ina?oa», 1999, ?2, n.1-6.

Oaiaaa I.E., O?io ?.I., Aoaeeia A.A., Eenyiue A.I. » Iee?ioe?o?ae/aneay
aiaoiiey oieanoaaoiiu caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee». Ee?a, «Ee?i. O??o?a?y»,
1999, ?2, n.40-42.

O?io ?.I., Oaiaaa I.E., Aoaeeia A.A., Iieuaiei I.I. «Iee?ioe?o?ae/aneay
aiaoiiey iiooiee i?aaeaeaa?ii-oeeoeiaiai ia?aa aieueoiai ?acia?a». Ee?a,
«Ee?i. O??o?a?y», 1999, ?2, n.38-40.

Caaieioiee Ae.?., Nooei TH.I., O?io ?.I., Ai?enaiei I.I., Aoaeeia A.A.
«O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aeiionieie iooeeiaie iniiae /a?aio».
«AEo?iae aooieo, iiniaeo ? ai?eiaeo oai?ia», 1997, ?3, n.75-76.

Eenyiue A.I., Aoaeeia A.A. Iniaaiiinoe oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey
yieaea?iieaeiuo iiooieae caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee. II — ee c’?cae
iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie. Iaeana. 14-18 aa?aniy 1998, Atheaoaiue
Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? iae?io??o?a?a, Aei.5, Ee?a, 1998, n.135-136.

O?io ?.I., Oaiaaa I.E., Aoaeeia A.A., Iieuaiei I.I., Eenyiue A.I.
I?e/eiu e iaoaieciu ia?ooaiee aeeciaiiiaaaeiuo ooieoeee i?e
oe?o?ae/aneii ea/aiee aiaiicaiauo ia?anoaieiauo iiooieae caaeiae
/a?aiiie yiu. II — ee c’?cae iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie. Iaeana. 14-18
aa?aniy 1998, Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? iae?io??o?a?a, Aei.5,
Ee?a, 1998, n.117-118.

Aoaeeia A.A. «Iiuo ea/aiey aieueiuo n iaa?eiiiie VIII ia?aa aieueoeo
?acia?ia (iniaaiiinoe eeeie/aneie ea?oeiu). AEo?iae aooieo, iiniaeo ?
ai?eiaeo oai?ia (aeiaeaoie aei ?3), Ee?a- «I?ina?oa», 1999, n.300-303.

Oaiaaa I.E., O?io ?.I., Aoaeeia A.A., Nooei TH.A., Ai?enaiei I.I.,
N?aaiye E.A. «Iiuo oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey aieueiuo n iaa?eiiiie y?aiiiai
ioaa?noey». AEo?iae aooieo, iiniaeo ? ai?eiaeo oai?ia (aeiaeaoie aei
?3), Ee?a — «I?ina?oa», 1999, n.484-487.

Cicoey TH.I., O?io ?.I., Aeieaiaa I.?., Ii?uaiei I.I., Aoaeeia A.A.
«Iaoeeo?aoeee — iiaee /eiiee o i?aeaioiaoe? oai?eo c ia?anoiaao?iaeie
iooeeiaie aei iia?aoe??». Ia?oee c’?cae iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie /24-26
eenoiiaaea 1993 ?./ Oac. aeii. — Ee?a, 1993, n170-171.

Aoaeeia A.A. «Aeeiai?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/iiai oanooaaiiy o iae?io??o?a?/ieo oai?eo c ii?ooaiiyi
ooieoe?e IX-X ia?a?a». -A ei.: «Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??»,
Oa?e?a, 1996, oii ?4, Aei. 3 (10), n.401-402.

N?aaiye E.A., Nooei TH.A., Caaieioiue Ae.E., Ai?enaiei I.I., Aoaeeia
A.A., O?io ?.I. Iniaaiiinoe aeeaaiinoeee e oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey
iiooieae iniiaaiey /a?aia. A ei.-: «Iaoa??aee tha?eaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/aii? 100-??//th aeaeaoiiai
a/aiiai i?io. I.N.Eieii?e/aiei, 30 aa?aciy-2 ea?oiy, 1998, Ee?a,
n.624-632.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aoaeeia A?eoi? Aai?ai?iiae/

Ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?e eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a oa ?o
i?io?eaeoeea i?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? iicaiiceiaeo iooeei caaeiuei?
/a?aiii? yie.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.05- iae?io??o?a?y. -?inoeooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i.
aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa. -Aeaaeai?y iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie. -Ee?a. -1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y a?oioo?oueny ia aiae?c? 680 niinoa?aaeaiue oai?eo c
iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie (iaa??iiie, iai?ia?iie,
oieanoaaoiie, aeiioni? iooeeie), oa i?enay/aia aea/aiith
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue eaoaeaeueii? a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a ia ??cieo
aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? i?e?ioiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei eaoaeaeueii?
a?oie /a?aiieo ia?a?a c ia?anoiaao?iaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii?
yie, a caeaaeiino? a?ae yeeo ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeaeaeaiiy oeeo
iiaiooai?aiue c iaoith i?i?iaeueiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy IX-XII ia?a?a.

Aecia/ai? a?oie oai?eo c ??cieie aa??aioaie ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue
IX-XII ia?a?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeenooieoe?y eaoaeaeueieo ia?a?a a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaeeainoae
aca?iia?aeiioaiue ei??ioe?a IX-XII ia?a?a c iooeeiith, o?aaiaoecaoe??
ia?aiai-noaeeiieo no?oeoo? i?ae /an ao?o/aiue, ii?ooaiiy a?oa??aeueiiai
oa aaiiciiai e?iaiia?ao a noiaao?iaeo a?aeae?eao iiceo.

Canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueii? aeiiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee o oai?eo c
iicaiiceiaeie iooeeiaie caaeiuei? /a?aiii? yie, oa aeaeaeaiiy
iiaiooai?aiue c o?aooaaiiyi ?o aca?iia?aeiioaiue c eaoaeaeueiith a?oiith
ia?a?a aeicaieeei ciaioeoe a 1,5 ?ac?a e?euee?noue oai?eo c
i?neyiia?aoe?eiith aeenooieoe??th IX-XII ia?a?a, cieceoe
i?neyiia?aoe?eio eaoaeuei?noue a 1,7 ?ac?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eaoaeaeueia a?oia ia?a?a, ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy,
caaeiy /a?aiia yia, iicaiiceia? iooeeie, o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aoaeeia Aeeoi? Aaieaieiiae/. Ia?ooaiey ooieoeee eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu
/a?aiiuo ia?aia e eo i?ioeeaeoeea i?e oe?o?ae/aneii ea/aiee aiaiicaiauo
iiooieae caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.05 — iae?ioe?o?aey. -Einoeooo
iae?ioe?o?aee ei. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?aeiu, -Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iniiauaaaony ia aiaeeca 680 iaaethaeaiee aieueiuo n
aiaiicaiauie iiooieyie caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee (iaa?eiiiu-486,
iaieiaeiiu-160, oieanoaaoiiu-23, aeiioniua iiooiee-11) e iinayuaia
eco/aieth ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ia?ooaiee eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu /a?aiiuo ia?aia
ia ?aciuo yoaiao oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey. Aeenooieoeey IX-XII ia?aia
ioia/aia aei iia?aoeee o 312 aieueiuo (45,9%).

Ia aieueoii oaeoe/aneii iaoa?eaea ?ac?aaioaiu iniaaiiinoe
iee?ioiiia?aoe/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee eaoaeaeueiuo ia?aia n
ia?anoaieiauie iiooieyie caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee. Iaeaieaa neiaeiua
acaeiiioiioaiey IX-XII ia?aia n iiooieueth iaia?oaeaiu i?e iaieiaeiia n
enoiaeiui ianoii ?inoa a iaeanoe caaeiae iiaa?oiinoe ie?aieaeee aeni/iie
einoe, a oaeaea i?e iaa?eiiia eee aeiioniie iiooiee a iaeanoe y?aiiiai
ioaa?noey. Onoaiiaeaiu /aou?a aa?eaioa acaeiiioiioaiee eaoaeaeueiie
a?oiiu /a?aiiuo ia?aia n aiaiicaiauie iiooieyie caaeiae /a?aiiie yiee:
1- n i?aeiouanoaaiiui niauaieai eo ei?aoeia aaio?aeueii; 2- eaoaeaeueii;
3- aei?caeueii; 4- ?aniieiaeaieai ei?aoeia aioo?e iiooieaaie ia?aioeiu.

Auaeaeaiu a?oiiu aieueiuo n ?aciuie aa?eaioaie ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
ia?ooaiee IX-XII ia?aia: 1-aac ia?ooaiee eee aanneiioiiiia oa/aiea; 2-
ia?ooaiey ooieoeee IX-XII ia?aia eaaeie noaiaie; 3- oia?aiii-au?aaeaiiua
?anno?ienoaa eaoaeaeueiuo ia?aia; 4- au?aaeaiiay aeenooieoeey. Aieueiua
iineaaeiae a?oiiu ia?aaeei iinooiaee a eeeieeo n yaeaieyie o?iie/aneiai
a?iioeoa iinea ia?aianaiiie anie?aoeeiiiie iiaaiiiee.

Ia iniiaaiee oiiia?aoi-aiaoiie/aneeo aa?eaioia acaeiiioiioaiee IX-XII
ia?aia n aiaiicaiauie iiooieyie, ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea oaeaeaiey yoeo
iiaiia?aciaaiee n oeaeueth ieieiaeueiie o?aaiaoecaoeee ei?aoeia
eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu ia?aia, eo ieaeueiie naoe, a oaeaea iaaeno?aeueiuo
ninoaeia iinoi-iicaea/eiaiai oaea.

Ai a?aiy iia?aoeee o 63 aieueiuo (9,3%) ia yoaia ioaeaeaiey iiooiee io
ei?aoeia eaoaeaeueiie IX-X /a?aiiuo ia?aia e i?iaeieaiaaoiai iicaa
ioia/aeenue ineiaeiaiey: ianoaaeeueiinoue a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey,
a?aaeeea?aeey. O 12 aieueiuo yoie a?oiiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?ooaiey
eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu ia?aia iaaethaeaeenue aua aei iia?aoeee.

Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia oe?o?ae/aneeo aiaoaoaeuenoa iaia?oaeee, /oi
aeenooieoeey eaoaeaeueiuo ia?aia a iineaiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea caaeneo
io iniaaiiinoae acaeiiioiioaiee ei?aoeia IX-XII ia?aia n iiooieueth e
noaiaie o?aaiaoecaoeee ninoaeenoi-ia?aiuo no?oeoo? a ia?eiae
aiaoaoaeuenoaa. *ai aieaa oanii naycaiu IX-XII ia?au n iiooieueth, oai
auoa ?ene eo iia?aaeaeaiey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e iineaiia?aoeeiiiie
aeenooieoeee eaoaeaeueiuo ia?aia. Oae a a?oiia aieueiuo, aaea ia auei
iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?ooaiey ooieoeee IX-XII ia?aia, oaniay naycue
ei?aoeia eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu /a?aiiuo ia?aia ia iia?aoeee iaia?oaeaia o
58 (14%) aieueiuo; a a?oiia, aaea ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?ooaiey iinea
iia?aoeee i?iyaeeenue a ?aciie noaiaie au?aaeaiiinoe, oaniay naycue
iiooiee n ei?aoeaie iaaethaeaeanue o 91 (34,3%) aieueiiai.

Iniaaiiinoe acaeiinayce iiooiee n ei?aoeaie IX-XII ia?aia ia
aaeeinoaaiiay i?e/eia eo aeenooieoeee. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
o?aaiaoecaoeey IX-XII ia?aia i?e ioaeaeaie io iiooiee ia i?iyaeeanue eo
aeenooieoeeae a iineaiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea, a oi aea a?aiy a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoei iaaethaeaieyi auea a?oiia aieueiuo, aaea
ei?aoee eaoaeaeueiuo ia?aia eaaei ioaeaeaiu io iiaiia?aciaaiey, ii
iineaiia?aoeeiiiia oa/aiea ineiaeieeinue aoeueaa?iui neiae?iiii.
Aeiiieieoaeueiuie oaeoi?aie niinianoaothueie aeenooieoeee eaoaeaeueiuo
ia?aia yaeythony ia?ooaiey a?oa?eaeueiiai e aaiiciiai e?iaiia?auaiey a
noaieiauo ioaeaeao iicaa. A a?oiia aieueiuo aac iineaiia?aoeeiiiie
aeenooieoeee eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu ia?aia i?iaaaeaia eiaaoeyoeey e?oiiuo
aaoaae iaaeno?aeueiuo ninoaeia (n o/aoii iaiaoiaeeiinoe) o 66 (15,9%)
aieueiuo; a a a?oiia, aaea ia?ooaiey i?iyaeeenue- o 220 (83%).
Ninoaeenoue oaeoi? a aicieeiiaaiee iineaiia?aoeeiiiie aeenooieoeee
eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu ia?aia iiaeoaa?aeaeai e oai, /oi ia?ooaiey
i?iyaeyeenue /aua /a?ac 1-4 nooie iinea aiaoaoaeuenoa e
nii?iaiaeaeaeenue oaeoaeaieai ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ia?ooaiee ae?oaeo ia?aia,
a oaeaea neiioiiaoeeie ii?aaeaiey noaiea iicaa aieioue aei oaiaoaiey
niciaiey e eaoaeueiuo enoiaeia.

Aiaeec i?e/ei i?eaiaeyueo e iineaiia?aoeeiiiie aeenooieoeee eaoaeaeueiuo
ia?aia iicaieee ioianoe aieueiuo aac ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ia?ooaiee e n
au?aaeaiiie aeenooieoeeae IX-XII ia?aia, a oaeaea n niioonoaothuae
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie iaoieiaeae e a?oiia iaeaieueoaai ?enea
iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ia?ooaiee eaoaeaeueiie a?oiiu
ia?aia. Yoa a?oiia aieueiuo ioaeaeaaony a i?iaaaeaiee niaoeeoe/aneie
aeiiia?aoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee, niaoeeaeueiii iiaeoiaea e aaaeaiee
iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea. Aiaeec aeoaeueiuo ia?ooaiee iicaieee
auaeaeeoue o?e aa?eaioa ineiaeiaiiiai oa/aiey iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai
ia?eiaea.

?ac?aaioaiiua ia?ii?eyoey oeo/oeee ?acoeueoaou oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey
oiaiueoea ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?ooaiey eaoaeaeueiuo ia?aia a 1,5 ?ac e
niecea a 1,7 ?ac iineaiia?aoeeiiioth nia?oiinoue.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaoaeaeueiay a?oiia ia?aia, ooieoeeiiaeueiua
ia?ooaiey, caaeiyy /a?aiiay yiea, aiaiicaiaua iiooiee, oe?o?ae/aneia
ea/aiea.

ABSTRACT

Gudkov Victor Veniaminovich

Functional disorder of caudal group of cranial nerves and its
prophylaxis in surgical treatment of extracerebral posterior fossa
tumors

A dissertation to compete for a Candidate of Medical Sciences academic
degree in speciality 14.01.05. — Neurosurgery. Acad. A.P. Romodanov
Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is based on the analysis of 680 patients with
extracranial tumors located in the posterior fossa (neurinomas,
meningiomas, cholesteatomas, glomus tumors), and studies functional
disorders of caudal group of cranial nerves at different steps of
surgical treatment.

On the basis of a good body of evidence, the specific features of a
microtopographic relationship between the caudal nerves and paratruncal
tumors of posterior fossa have been revealed. The patients with various
functional disorders of the IX — XII nerves have been selectively
groupped.

With regard for topographo- anatomic variations of the relationship
between the IX — XII nerves and extracranial tumors, the technique to
remove the latter has been designed.

The analysis of surgical results showed the dysfunction of caudal nerves
in the follow-up as being dependent on the relationship between the
roots of IX-XII nerves and a tumor as well as on the degree of
intraoperative traumatization of neurovascular structures. Additional
factors to promote caudal nerves dysfunction were the disorders of
arterial and venous circulation in the cerebral truncal regions. The
analysis of vital disorders enabled 3 variants of a complicated
posroperative period to be identified.

The measures suggested in the sdudy made it possible to improve surgical
results thereby decreasing functional disorders of caudal nerves by 1.5
times and postoperative mortality rate by 1.7 times.

Key words: caudal group of nerves, functional disorders, posterior
fossa, extracranial tumors, surgical treatment.

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