AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Naiieeaiei Ieoaeei ?aaaiiae/

OAeE 621. 315

II?OAEE A?AeE?EOEO ?ICIIAe?EUe/EO I?eNO?I?A C AA?AIOIAAIEIE IIEACIEEAIE
AACA?AeEACIINO? oa AeIAAIA?*IINO?

05.23.01 – Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ioia ?aaai
Aaneeueiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, ?aeoi?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaiiaaeia Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/,
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?/oa?i Na?a?e
Oaaei?iae/, Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
TH. Eiiae?aothea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeiiy Ieaenaiae? Iaioaeaeiae/,
Iae??anueeee aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iee ?inoeooo, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa
? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a iaoaeaaeo ? aea?aa’yieo eiino?oeoe?e,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12.085.01 o Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I iaa/aeueiee
ei?ion, Cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “11” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani? A.A. Iaoa??iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Cia/io /anoeio iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a
i?aei?e?inoa aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae neeaaeathoue eiino?oeoe?? oa
onoaoeoaaiiy aenieiaieueoieo i?aenoaioe?e, o oiio /ene? – ii?oaee
a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a (A?I). Ia oaia??oi?e /an o NIAe
aenieoaoo?oueny a?ey 1 iei. oiii iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e ii?oae?a. O?eueee a
Oe?a?i? nii?oaeaeaii 5385 i?aenoaioe?e. I?e/iio o?aoeia c ieo
aenieoaoo?oueny i?ioyaii 30–60 ?ie?a, oiaoi ae/a?iaea ?ic?aooieiaee
oa?i?i neoaeae aai a?i aeecueeee aei cae?i/aiiy. Aeiiae aei
aaca?aeeaciino? ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a cia/ii aeu?, i?ae aei
aaca?aeeaciino? iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/?, oiio ui aaa??? ?
a?aeiiae ia i?aenoaioe?yo i?ecaiaeyoue aei cia/ii a?eueoeo caeoe?a.

Nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? ii?oae?a
a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a a Oe?a?i? ia i?iaiaeyoueny. Inoaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, i?enay/aia oaeineiiaethaaiith eiino?oeoeaii?
oi?ie ? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo ii?oae?a A?I, aeeiiaia a 1975 ?.

Oiio aeey caaacia/aiiy caaeaii? aaca?aeeaciino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?
iaiao?aeii aea/eoe oaeoe/i? i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aieeae;
ioe?ieoe aieea o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e oa oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ia i?oeiini? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiino?oeoe?e; oaeineiiaeeoe
o?aaeeoe?ei? ? ?ic?iaeoe iia? i?aeoiaee i?e i?iaeooaaii? ?
?aeiino?oeoe?? ii?oae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, i?iaaaeaieo ia
caiiaeaiiy I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie, ? aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oai ? 088-I
“?ic?iaea aaeocaaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a ii ianoaaeaiith ?
ia?a?aooieo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e” (1995 ?.) ? ? 64.08.005.5.7
“Aecia/aiiy aeiionoeiiai ciino iaoaeaaeo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e:
iaoiaee, ?ic?iaea i?eeaae?a” (1996 ?.).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
? aeiaaia?/iino? ii?oae?a A?I i?e i?iaeooaaii? oa ?aeiino?oeoe?? ca
?aooiie oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo oa eiino?oeoeaii? oi?ie. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ianoaaeaiiy oa aeeiiaia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio
A?I, ui aenieoaoothoueny;

i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai (IAeN) ii?oae?a;

aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aia e?iaoeea ?oeioaaiiy nenoai caoenieo iie?eoo?a
(eaeioa?aiaeo /EOI/, oeeieiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo /oeeie–EOI/) o caeaaeiino?
a?ae aa?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e;

ooi/iaia ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii a?o?o ? iaeaeaae?, io?eiai?
eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca iaeaeaaeieie oa a?o?iaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie;

?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo eiia??iino? aaca?aeeacii?
?iaioe ii?oae?a A?I ? i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
aaca?aeeaciino?;

aeeiiaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ii??aiyiiy ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoeaieo
??oaiue ii?oae?a A?I ? nenoai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe??
io?eiai? oae? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe:

aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey ioe?iee aieeao ?ici??o oa oi?ie iiaiooinoae
? ne?eaeaiue ia ia?a?iciiae?e coneeue o noa?aeiyo ii?oae?a c o?aooaaiiyi
oiia cae??ieaiiy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aei?noeinoae aeaiaio?a;

?aa?an?ei? iiaeae?, ui iienothoue aeiaaia?/i?noue eaeioa?aiaeo,
oeeieiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo iie?eoo?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
n??/aiiai aia?ae?eaeo oa o?eaaeino? caieiaeaiiy;

/enaeuei? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a aaca?aeeaciino? aeey ??ciiiai?oieo
eiino?oeoeaieo oi?i, nenoai aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a ? oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ii?oae?a A?I;

eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca iaeaeaaeieie oa a?o?iaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie,
aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo
iiaoi?thaaiino?;

eiino?oeoeaia ??oaiiy ii?oaeo A?I c iioeiaeueieie oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie
iieacieeaie ? aa?aioiaaieie iieacieeaie aaca?aeeaciino? oa
aeiaaia?/iino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue
aa?eoee aei ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioo I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie “Ii?oaee iaoaeaa?
? cae?ciaaoiii? a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a iai?oaith 35–330 eA.
Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee ii ianoaaeaiith”, a oaeiae aeei?enoai? i?e
i?iaaaeaii? ianoaaeaiue i?aenoaioe?e I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie.

?ic?iaeaii ea?oe ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii iaeneiaeuei?e
oaeaeeino? a?o?o, oaeaeeino? a?o?o i?e iaeaeaae?, oiauei? ? u?eueiino?
iaeaeaaeieo a?aeeeaaeaiue.

Cai?iiiiiaai? caniae i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? nii?oae (Iaoaioe
Oe?a?ie ? 7646A, ? 20581A) aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? ?ia?o ii
?aeiino?oeoe?? ia i?aei?e?inoaao AeAAE “Aeiiaoeueeiaeaia?ai” ? IAE
“Oe?aia?ai”. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaea? 520 oen. a?i.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. I?eaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii. Iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

iniaenoa o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiue, aei?iaoaaiue ?
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

?ic?iaea an?o iaoiaeee, aeai?eoi?a ? aeeiiaiiy /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a,
i?eaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??;

ii?aoethaaiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo iaoainoaioe?e ? iiaoaeiaa ea?o
?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie;

nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? iaoeiaee aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ioae?eaoe?yo ?c ni?aaaoi?aie caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiai?: eeaneo?eaoe?y
iaaeineiiaeinoae ? aecia/aiiy ?o a?aie/ieo cia/aiue [1]; /enaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a [2, 3, 6, 10]; eiino?othaaiiy oa
?ic?aooiie aeaiaio?a i?aeneeaiiy [7, 8].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iaae?ei?noue ?
aaciaea noa??th/eo nenoai aia?aaoeee” (Ee?a, 1995 ?.),
“Iaoaeeino?ieoaeuenoai – 96”, (Aeiiaoeuee – Iae??aea, 1996 ?.),
Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoaeaa? eiino?oeoe??”
(Ee?a – Ieeiea?a 1996 ?.), “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e”
(Aeiiaoeuee – Iae??aea, 1997 a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 10 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o, ui
a?aeaeaathoue ?? iniiaiee ci?no, o oiio /ene? aaeocaaee ii?iaoeaiee
aeieoiaio, ?icae?e iiiia?ao??, 2 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie, 6 noaoae o
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
i’youeio aeaa, iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e (158 iaeiaioaaiue) ? i’youeio aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia
ia 190 noi??ieao, o oiio /ene? 128 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 15
noi??iie nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, 25 iiaieo noi??iie c ?enoieaie ? oaaeeoeyie,
22 noi??iee aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIee CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aaoi?ii,
iieacai? ?oi? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y.

O aeaa? 1 aeeiiaiee aiae?c iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? nii?oae (?iaioe A.A. Aieio?ia, I.?. ?aeai?oeeia, I.N.
No?aeaoeueeiai, N.O. I?/oa?ia, A. Ang, M. Amin, C.A. Cornell, O.
Ditlevsen, E.J. Gumbel, A.M. Freudenthal, A.M. Hasofer, R. Levi, N.C.
Lind, M. Maier, F. Moses, W. Weibull ? ?i.); ?icaeyioo? no/ani?
i?eioeeie i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy noaeaaeo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo
eiino?oeoe?e (?iaioe E.A.Aa?aa, ?.I.Aooa??ia, I.I. Aeacoiiaa,
E.I.E?theiaa, I.?.Eo?iiniaa, I.?.?iiaiiaa, A.A.Neeueaano?iaa, A.?.
O?io?iiaa).

Niaoeeo?ea oai??? iaae?eiino? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e iieyaa? a oiio,
ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ni?eueio ae?th aeiaaeeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ?
aieea?a ia nenoaio c aeiaaeeiaeie i?oeiinieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A
oaia??oi?e /an iaoaiaoe/ii no?iaa ??oaiiy caaea/ iaae?eiino?
aoae?aaeueieo nii?oaeaeaiue iiaea aooe io?eiaii eeoa aeey iaaaee/ei?
e?eueeino? i?inoeo eiino?oeoe?e. Oiio aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
ii?oae?a a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a aeioe?eueia ?ic?iaea
iaaeeaeaieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo, ui a?aoiaothoue niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe
nii?oaee.

Iiaaae?ieo ii?oae?a A?I o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? a ia?oo /a?ao
aecia/athoue ee?iaoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ei?ic?eiee ciin aeaiaio?a.
Ia?aiao?e ?iciiae?e?a aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue iaeaeaaeii-a?o?iaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue aeey iaoainoaioe?e Oe?a?ie io?eiai? A.A.Ia?iaeiei ?
N.ss.Eiyaeaanueeith. I?ioa ii?iaoeai? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ?
eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? cai?iiiiiaai? ia aoee. Aea/aiiy ei?ic?eieo
i?ioean?a ? e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy nenoai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo noaeaaeo
eiino?oeoe?e i?iaiaeeeiny iaoeiaeie eieaeoeaaie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
A.A.Ae?iiaa, TH.E.Aieueaa?aa, A.?.Aieoa?aa, ?.A.Ai?ioiaa, A.?.E?e?ia,
?.?.Eioeia oa ?i. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui oiiae ? oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy
aeano?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a o caoenieo iie?eooyo ? a iaoae? ci?iththoueny a
aeoaea oe?ieeo iaaeao. O oie aea /an oaeaee?noue ?oeioaaiiy
aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e ye ooieoe?y
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e ia aoea aeine?aeaeaia.
Ia?niaeoeaieie i?aaenoaaeythoueny ?iaioe c aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
? aaca?aeeaciino? ii?oae?a A?I c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ? iaeiie/aieo aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo i?iaeoieo ??oaiue A?I iieaco?, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
??ciiiai?ooy oaeoi??a, ye? aecia/athoue eiino?oeoeaio oi?io ii?oae?a,
?oiy noaia i?eeia?oueny iaeiioeiiith ? ia? ?yae ?noioieo oea. ?inoeoooii
“A?ae?ii?iaeo” ?acii ?c “Oe?IAe?i?iaeonoaeueeiino?oeoe?y” ?ic?iaeai?
ii?oaee c o?oa, aea ?oi? canoinoaaiiy aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueia o?eueee
aeey eiiiaeoeciaaieo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy noaio ieoaiiy noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O aeaa? 2 aeeiiaia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio ? aea/aii aieea aeaoaeo?a ?
iioeiaeaeaiue ia ae?enio ?iaioo iaoaeaaeo ii?oae?a A?I. Iai?oeoe iniiai?
oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e ii?oae?a iiaeia o?eueee ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ianoaaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e, ye? aenieoaoothoueny.
Oiio aoea aeeiiaia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio a?eueo 400 ii?oae?a A?I
iai?oaith 35–750 eA ia i?aenoaioe?yo AeAAE “Aeiiaoeueeiaeaia?ai” ? IAE
“Oe?aia?ai”. Aeey oeueiai ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ianoaaeaiue,
ui aeeth/a? i?aai?caoe?th eiio?ieth oaoi?/iiai noaio ii?oae?a, ii?yaeie
i?iaaaeaiiy iaoo?iiai iaeyaeo, ooi/iaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ? aieea?a,
aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??aeo eiino?oeoe?e ? ioe?ieo oaoi?/iiai
noaio.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ianoaaeaiue aecia/ai? iniiai? aeaee iaaeineiiaeinoae
iaoaeaaeo ii?oae?a (?en.1), anoaiiaeaii i?e/eie ?oiuei? iiyae ? aeeiiaia
nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue.

I?e ioe?ioe? oaoi?/iiai noaio iniiaiei ? ieoaiiy i?i ae?enio iano/o
caeaoi?noue nii?oaee ? aieea ??ciiiai?oieo iaaeineiiaeinoae ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai (IAeN) ?? aeaiaio?a. Aeey aea/aiiy oeueiai
ieoaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy an?o oeiiaeo oeiieo ?
ina?aaeeiaeo ii?oae?a A?I 35–330 eA ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno
EE?A–Windows 5.0.3.

?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 1 . Iioeiaeaeoaai?noue iaoaeaaeo ii?oae?a
A?I 35–330 eA

Iioeiaeaeaiiy aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo ? ei?ic?eiee ciin: 1 – ?oeioaaiiy
caoeniiai iie?eooy; 2 – nooe?eueia ??aiii??ia ei?ic?y aeaiaio?a; 3 –
u?eeiia ei?ic?y c’?aeiaiue; 4 – i?noeaaa ei?ic?y ieaei?o /anoei ? aac
noiye?a; 5 – ?io? aeaee ei?ic??. Iaoai?/i? iioeiaeaeaiiy: 6 –
a?aeoeeaiiy ieaiiai-aenioiiai iieiaeaiiy ? iai?eionoei? aeaoi?iaoe??
eiino?oeoe?e; 7 – ne?eaeaiiy aeaiaio?a; 8 – a?ae?ea aeaiaio?a (ye
i?aaeei aiane?aeie ?oeioaaiiy caa?ieo ? aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue i?e u?eeii?e
ei?ic??); 9 – ?oeioaaiiy ooiaeaiaio?a; 10 – ciaioaiiy no??ee i?ia?no
i?iaiae?a; 11 – ?io?. Aeaoaeoe aeaioiaeaiiy oa iaoa??aeo  – 12

a)

a)

?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 2 . Ci?ia iai?oaeaiue o iaea?eueoa
iai?oaeaieo aeaiaioao 8-i?ieueioiiai ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA
i?e ??aiii??i?e iiaa?oiaa?e ei?ic??: a) iiyn aa?oiuei? naeoe?? noiyea;
a) ?ao?oea aa?oiuei? naeoe?? noiyea

?ic?aooiee aeyaeee ?noioiee aieea ??aiii??ii? ei?ic?? ia ?ici?? coneeue
? iai?oaeaiue o noa?aeiyo eiino?oeoe?e (?en. 2). Ci?ia coneeue
iiynith?oueny ciaioaiiyi aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aoei?a aeaiaio?a
o i?ioean? ei?ic?eiiai ciino, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei “a?e nee” o nenoai?.
Ia?a?iciiae?e coneeue a aeaiaioao caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aei?noeinoae EA iiyn?a ? ?ao?oee, aei?noeino? aoceiaeo c’?aeiaiue, noaie
i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ? eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae nii?oaee. sse
i?aaeei, i?e ei?ic?eiiio ciin? coneeey ia?ao?eathoue ?c iaea?eueoa
iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a ia aeaiaioe iaioa iai?oaeaieo a?aiae eiino?oeoe??.
Ea?oeia ci?ie coneeue iaeiaeiaa aeey aoaeue-yeiai oeio ?ao?oee,
cai?iiiiiaaii? NIeI II–23–81*.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue ii?oae?a a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth
ne?eaeaiue a aeaiaioao eiino?oeoe??. Iniaeea?noue ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?? c
iiaiooeie aeaiaioaie iieyaa? a ia?a?iciiae?e? coneeue ?c aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noa?aeiy ia non?aei? aeaiaioe. O ?acoeueoao? /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
onoaiiaeaii, ui iiiaio o iiaiooiio aeaiaio? iiyna iiaeia aecia/eoe ca
oi?ioeith:

Mm = kI kf ksN0m f, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 1 )

aea kI – eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aei?noeino?
iiyno EIm (I(i2) oa ?ao?oee EId:

kI = 0,635+0,00584·EIm/EId; ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 2 )

kf – eiao?oe??io aieeao oi?ie ne?eaeaiiy (oaae. 1); ks – eiao?oe??io,
yeee o?aoiao? aeae niieo/aiiy iiyn?a ? ?ao?oee (i?e aei?noeiio
niieo/aii? ?ao?oee c iiynaie ks=1, i?e oa?i??iiio niieo/aii? ks=1,1);
N0m – iicaeiaaeiy neea, ia/eneaia ca iaaeaoi?iiaaiith noaiith, I; f –
?ici?? iiaiooino?, i

Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 1 – Eiao?oe??io aieeao oi?ie
ne?eaeaiiy kf

Oi?ia ne?eaeaiiy Ne?eaeaiiy a iaaeao iaei??? iaiae? Ne?eaeaiiy a iaaeao
aeaio iaiaeae

liiai.=1/2lyeaiaioa

kf 1,0 1,098 1,257 0,733

O aeaiaioao iiyna, ui i?eieeathoue aei iiaiooiai noa?aeiy, aeiaeaoeia?
caeiaeuei? iiiaioe neeaaeathoue 10(40% a?ae Mm (o caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiino?oeoeaii? noaie iii?e, oeio ? aei?noeino? ?ao?oee). Iiiaio a
noi?aeiiio aeaiaio? ?ao?oee:

Md = k Mm, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 3 )

aea k = 0,236-0,0173 EIm/EId+0,000338·(EIm/EId)2.

Cieaeaiiy iicaeiaaeiuei? neee a iiaiooiio aeaiaio? neeaaea? 2—25% o
caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ii?oaeo, iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ae??, ? i?noey
?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaioa. O oie aea /an a aeaiaioao non?aei?o (iaioa
iai?oaeaieo) a?aiae iiaeeeai ca?eueoaiiy N aei 30%.

Caeiaeueiee iiiaio o iiaiooiio aeaiaio? ?ao?oee aei??aith?:

Md = kcN0d f, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 4 )

aea kc – eiao?oe??io, yeee o?aoiao? aeae niieo/aiiy iiyn?a ? ?ao?oee oa
oi?io ne?eaeaiiy (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 2 – Eiao?oe??io kc

Iiaioo?noue O ieiuei? ?ao?oee C ieiueie ?ao?oee

Niieo/aiiy ?ao?oee c iiynaie oa?i??ia 1-1,37f-57,8f 2 1-4,56f-84,3f 2

aei?noea 0,580-7,00f+62,2f 2 0,458-2,5f

Iiiaio a aeaiaio? ?ao?oee noi?aeiiio aei iiaiooi? a ieiuei? ?ao?oee
(aeey aei?noeiai niieo/aiiy):

M2d = 0,4 Md. ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 5 )

Oaeoe/iee ?ici?? coneeue o ?iceinao i?e oa?i??iiio i?eieeaii?:

Nd = kcN0d, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 6 )

a i?e aei?noeiio i?eieeaii? Nd o 1,7—2,4 ?ace a?eueoa aeiaooeo kcN0d. A
?ioeo iaiaeyo aieea ne?eaeaiiy ia ci?io coneeue iacia/iee. ?noioiiai
aieeao ia IAeN iiyn?a iiaioo?noue ?ao?oee ia ?iaeoue.

?ic?aooieia? iai?oaeaiiy a iiaiooeo aeaiaioao iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 3. sse
aeaeii c ?enoiea noa?aei?, ui iathoue a?eueoee iiiaio iii?o iaioa
ni?eeiyoeea? aei iayaiino? ne?eaeaiue.

A?aeoeeaiiy ieaiiai-aenioiiai iieiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?? ??aeei
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai ia?aiai?oaeaiiy aeaiaio?a. Cae/aeii i?e
caaaeueiiio aeaei? aai e?ai? eiino?oeoe?? ci?ia coneeue neeaaea? ia
a?eueo ± 2% (aeey f/l=3/100).

?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 3 . Ci?ia iai?oaeaiue o iiaiooiio iiyn?
aa?oiuei? naeoe?? noiyea ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA

Aecia/aiiy ?aca?ao i?oeiino? nii?oaee ia iiaeeeaa aac o?aooaaiiy
ae?enii? ?iaioe aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee
caeaaei?noue ?ici??o coneeue o noa?aeiyo a?ae oiiae cae??ieaiiy
aeaiaio?a. sse i?aaeei, ??cieoey coneeue i?e ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e ?c
oa?i??iei i?eieeaiiyi ?ao?oee aei iiyn?a, ? ?ic?aooieo nenoaie c
aei?noeeie aoceaie, ia ia?aaeuo? 1(5%. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao coneeey
c?inoathoue aei 25% (?ao?oea o?aaa?ne ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 330 eA).
Iai?oaeaiiy a?ae aeiaeaoeiaeo iiiaio?a i?e ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?? c
o?aooaaiiyi ?icoeaio?iaee (cnoae) aaiiao?e/ieo inae ?icein?a ? iiyn?a o
ieiuei? ? c ieiueie ?ao?oee cae/aeii ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao ±5—15 IIa
(2–6% a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o). Aeey aoce?a, ui ia’?aeiothoue aaeeea
/enei aeaiaio?a, aeiaeaoeia? iai?oaeaiiy ((<40IIa (15% a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o). Ci?ia iicaeiaaeiuei? neee a iaea?eueoa iai?oaeaieo aeaiaioao iiyn?a iacia/ia. O aeaiaio?a ?ao?oee noiye?a (N<±2,5%, a a aeaiaioao ?ao?oee o?aaa?n (N<±5%. I?e/iio, /ei “i?oei?oa” niieo/ai? aeaiaioe, oei iaioa cia/ou?e aieea ?icoeaio?iaee inae. ?aca?ae iano/i? caeaoiino? ii?oae?a A?I, ui aenieoaoothoueny, iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? oaeiae o ?acoeueoao? ooi/iaiiy oaeoe/ieo a?o?iaeo ? iaeaeaaeieo iaaaioaaeaiue (aeea. ieae/a), iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae aeanii? aaae oaoiieia?/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, o?aooaaiiy oaeoe/ii? aaiiao??? i?iaiae?a. O aeaa? 3 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiaaia?/iino? aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a. ?nioth/? iaoiaee ioe?iee no?ieo neoaeae eaeioa?aiaeo iie?eoo?a ia aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe aeiaaia?/i?noue EOI aoae?aaeueieo iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e. Ia ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeey iieno oaeaeeino? ei?ic?? oeeieo a eiia?iiaaiiio iie?eoo?. Aeey aea/aiiy e?iaoeee ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy caoenieo iie?eoo?a aeeiiai? eiiieaeni? i?enei?ai? aei?iaoaaiiy /ioe?ueio nenoai eaeioa?aiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo iie?eoo?a, a oaeiae oeeieiaiai iie?eooy. Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany a eaia?ao aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu i?ioyaii 2 ?ie?a. Aeniiioaaeiny anueiai 855 c?ace?a c aioeei?ic?eieie iie?eooyie oa 1980 noaeaaeo c?ace?a aeey o?aooaaiiy oaeoi?o /ano. Aeiaaia?/i?noue eaeioa?aiaeo iie?eoo?a aeia?a iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyie ?aa?an?? aeaeo: , ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 7 ) aea X1, ... X3 – a?aeiia?aeii eiioeaio?aoe?y ieneaeo n??ee (SO2), a/(i2(noo); o?eaae?noue ia?aaoaaiiy oaciai? aieiae ia iiaa?oi? iie?eooy, /an/??e; oa ae aaeni?aoe?eii?, /an/??e; A, B, C, D – eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an?? (oaae. 3). Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 3 – Eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an?? ??aiyiue aeiaaia?/iino? EOI Eiao. Nenoaie aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a AE. no?ee + ae. no?ee AO-021+IO-115 OE-04e+OA-16 AE-02+AO-021+OA-124 ii noae? ii oeeieo ii noae? ii oeeieo ii noae? ii oeeieo ii noae? ii oeeieo A 194723 19711 418477 9613 70512 269206 55911 11443 B -1,0301 -0,9322 -1,0158 -0,9615 -1,0043 -0,9563 -0,9647 -1,0003 C -0,3765 -0,3525 -0,2699 -1,2480 -0,2647 -0,3076 -0,1662 0,006969 D -0,4904 -0,2884 -0,7361 -0,3261 -0,4529 -0,5523 -0,4953 -0,4547 A?oio ? iie?eaiee oa? iaiineeenue a aeaa oa?e oiaueiith 30 iei, oiaueia oa?o oeeieo – 80 iei. A?aeeaco EOI a?aeiia?aea? cia/aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai iieacieea caoenieo aeanoeainoae Ac=0,35. I?eae?eaia aia?a?y niiy/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy neeaaeaea 10 IAeae/(i2(noo), ui a?aeiia?aeaei oiiaai iii??iiai ee?iaoo. Aeeaeia ei?ic?eii? ii?acee oeeieo a oeeieiaiio iie?eoo? e?i?eii caeaae?oue a?ae /ano t: h = h1 t, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 8 ) aea h1 – oaeaee?noue ei?ic?eii? ii?acee oeeieo, iei/??e. Aeeaeia ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy oeeieiai? i?aeeiaeoe? a eiia?iiaaiiio iie?eoo? iiaea aooe iienaia ooieoe??th aeaeo: ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 9 ) aea tc – oa?i?i neoaeae EOI ia oeeieia?e i?aeeiaeoe?, ??e; c – iino?eia; h1c –oaeaee?noue ei?ic?eii? ii?acee oeeieo, iei/??e. Aaee/eie n, h1 e h1c iienothoueny ?aa?an?eieie caeaaeiinoyie aeaeo ( REF _Ref440543807 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ), eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an?? iaaaaeai? a oaae. REF _Ref440543824 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. . Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? iiaeaeae ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 0,78–0,96. Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 4 – Eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an?? ??aiyiue, ui iienothoue n, h1 e h1c Eiao. Nenoaie aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a Oeeie AE. no?ee + + ae. no?ee AO-021+IO-115 OE-04e+OA-16 AE-02+AO-021+OA-124 h1 cs h1s cs h1s cs h1s cs h1s A 0,0009007 0,01874 0,000152 2,184E-08 0,00103 0,1166 2,0E-07 1,9075 7,84A-15 B 1,0558 0,1860 0,8851 -0,2477 1,1037 0,1638 1,3297 0,0362 0,6365 C 0,1655 0,8960 0,4351 2,8318 0,4210 0,1886 0,2024 0,0779 2,8844 D 0,4336 0,5599 0,224 -0,2160 0,1732 0,3051 1,4237 -0,3942 1,1085 Io?eiai? ??aiyiiy iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e aeai?? iioeiaeueiiai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo oa i?ecia/aiiy oiaueie oeeieo a eiia?iiaaiiio ? oeeieiaiio iie?eoo? a caeaaeiino? a?ae caaeaieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??. O aeaa? 4 i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaca?aeeaciino? ii?oae?a A?I. Caaacia/aiiy iio??aii? iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e iaiiaeeeai aac aeinoia??ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ee?iaoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa aieeae, ye? ni?eeia? nii?oaea. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aaaaoi??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia iaoainoaioe?yo iieacaa, ui ee?iaoe/i? ia?aiao?e, i?eeiyo? a?aeiia?aeii aei NIeI ? IOY, ?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oaeoe/ieo. A?o?ia? iaaaioaaeaiiy a cao?aeieo, i?aaeaiieo ? no?aeieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie /anoi ia?aaeuothoue ii?iaoeai? cia/aiiy. Oiaueia no?iee iaeaeaae? oaeiae iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe cia/aiiy, i?eeiyo? a ii?iao. U?euei?noue iaeaeaaeieo a?aeeeaaeaiue eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 50–900 ea/i3, oi?ia a?aeeeaaeaiue aeaeaea a?ae oeee?iae?e/ii?. Ii?iaoeaia oaeaee?noue a?o?o i?e iaeneiaeuei?e iaeaeaae? vnq neeaaea (0,12(0,8)vniao. I?e/iio aiae?c niieo/aiue iaeaeaaeieo ? a?o?iaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ia aeyaea ei?aeyoe?th i?ae vnq ? aaaith, ae?aiao?ii, u?euei?noth iaeaeaaeieo a?aeeeaaeaiue aai vniao. Eiao?oe??ioe aa??aoe?? ee?iaoe/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ca?eueoo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? ii?iaoeaiiai cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy aeaieo iaoainoaioe?e aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii ee?iaoe/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai (noai?ai? ea?oe ?aeiioaaiiy ii iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? a?o?o (?en. REF _Ref439756301 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ), oaeaeeino? a?o?o i?e iaeaeaae?, oiauei? ? u?eueiino? iaeaeaaeieo a?aeeeaaeaiue) ? iaea?aeaoe eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca a?o?iaei ? iaeaeaaeiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi (oaae. REF _Ref434755943 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ). I?eioeeiiai ?ioei oeyoii, ni?yiiaaiei ia caaacia/aiiy aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe nii?oaee, ? iaea?aeaiiy e?euee?niiai iieacieea iaae?eiino?. Noai?aiiy aia?aoo aeey /enaeueii? ioe?iee aaca?aeeaciino? aeicaiey? i?iaeooaaoe eiino?oeoe?? c aa?aioiaaiith iaae?ei?noth i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeo?aoao. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino? ii?oae?a A?I, yea aeei?enoiao? i?eioeeie noioanoe/ii? ?i?oaoe?? ? a?aoiao? oaeoe/io i?ieea?noue iaaaioaaeaiue, ci?io iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? c a?aii /ano, iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe??. Iaae?ei?noue nii?oaee (nenoaie aeuiai ??aiy) ioe?ith?oueny ia i?aenoaa? iaae?eiino? ?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ? aoce?a (nenoai ieaeiueiai ??aiy). Ca iieaciee aaca?aeeaciino? aeaiaioa i?eeiyoa eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe. ?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 4 . ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? a?o?o Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 5 – Eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? (f ca a?o?iaei ? iaeaeaaeiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ? ?oi? na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy ( Aeae iaaaioaaeaiiy Ee?iaoe/iee ?aeii (oaeaee?noue a?o?o, i/n (a?o?iaee oene, Ia) *enei iaoainoaioe?e a ?aeii? Ia??iae iiaoi?thaaiino? 50 150 500 (f ( (f ( (f ( A?o?iaa I, II (25(400**) 20 1,43 0,071 1,77 0,132 2,17 0,209 III (29(500) 51 1,46 0,940 1,81 0,177 2,25 0,284 IV (32(650) 74 1,51 0,147 1,93 0,279 2,42 0,465 V (36(800) 37 1,56 0,102 1,98 0,225 2,55 0,314 VI, VII (40(1000, 45(1250) 21 1,60 0,124 2,09 0,235 2,69 0,383 A?o?iaa i?e iaeaeaae? – 201 2,19 0,228 3,24 0,506 4,65 0,774 Iaeaeaaeia – 201 1,47 0,052 1,77 0,084 2,08 0,117 * ?ic?aooieia? ia??iaee iiaoi?thaaiino? i?eeiyo? a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e I?aeia?iaeii? aeaeo?ioaoi?/ii? eii?n??. **Ii?iaoeaia oaeaee?noue a?o?o ? a?o?iaee oene i?eeiyoi a?aeiia?aeii aei i. 2.5.22 ? oaae. 2.5.1 IOY aeey i?noeaaino? oeio A c ia??iaeii iiaoi?thaaiino? 10 ?ie?a ? 2-oaeeeiiei ?ioa?aaeii ona?aaeiaiiy. Aaca?aeeaci?noue ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ooieoe?y aeene?aoieo cia/aiue /ano. E?ie ca?eueoaiiy /ano (t i?eeiyoee oaeei, ui aei??aith? 1 ?ieo. Eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe aeaiaioa i?ioyaii T ?ie?a: ; ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 10 ) ; ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 11 ) St = Rt - (t, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 12 ) aea Pt – eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe aeaiaioa i?ioyaii t-oiai ?ieo; fSt – u?euei?noue ?iciiae?eo caiano i?oeiino? St aeaiaioa a t-i ?ioe?; Rt, (t – aeiaaeeia? aaee/eie, ui iienothoue a?aeiia?aeii ii?? iaoa??aeo aeaiaioa ? iai?oaeaiiy a aeaiaio?, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue cia/aiith /ano t. O ?ic?aooieo iia?othoue aeene?aoieie aeiaaeeiaeie aaee/eiaie (AeAA). Iai?oaeaiiy (t ? iaaeiaaeeiaith ooieoe??th aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei, ui iienothoue coneeey a aeaiaio? N, Mx, My, Qx, Qy ? noioanoe/ieo i?ioean?a, ui caaeathoue aaiiao??th ia?aoeio aeaiaioa At, Wnmint, St, It, Ixnt oa Iynt. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy AeAA noia?ieo coneeue N, Mx, My, Qx, Qy o t-io ?ioe? ia iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?iciiae?ee ??/ieo iaeneioi?a iaaaioaaeaiue iaea?aeothoue AeAA iaaaioaaeaiue, a iio?i ia/eneythoue AeAA coneeue a aeaiaio? aeey eiaeiiai oeio iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey oeueiai coneeey (N, Mx, My, Qx, Qy) a aeaiaio? iaaaaeai? o aeaeyae?: , ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 13 ) aea f – iiia? iaaaioaaeaiiy; nf – /enei iaaaioaaeaiue; (f – eiao?oe??io, ui i?eeia? cia/aiiy 1, yeui f-oa iaaaioaaeaiiy a aiae?ciaaiiio ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aaeei? a?aei?ii? a?ae ioey ? aei??aith? 0, yeui iaaaioaaeaiiy aei??aith? 0; Nf – coneeey a aeaiaio? a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy f: ; ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 14 ) kNf,p=Np/Fp, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 15 ) aea Np – ?ic?aooieiaa coneeey a aiae?ciaaiiio aeaiaio? a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy Fp (?ic?aooieia? coneeey ia/eneththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeiia?aeieo i?ia?aiieo cania?a); Ff – aeayea cia/aiiy AeAA f-oiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae iaoiiaeaiee oei, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae aeanii? aaae eiino?oeoe?e, i?iaiae?a ? onoaoeoaaiiy, iaeaeaaei? ? a?o?ia? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciiiai?oieie ooieoe?yie ?iciiae?eo. O ?acoeueoao? oi?iothoue aeene?aoi? aeiaaeeia? aaee/eie noia?ieo coneeue a?ae aoaeue-yeiai /enea iaaaioaaeaiue. Ine?eueee ia?aa?? on?o cia/aiue coneeue a?ae on?o iaaaioaaeaiue iio?aao? aaeeeeo aeo?ao iaoeiiiai /ano ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? ia/eneaiue i?iaaaeeoueny nei?i/aiiy /enea aeaiaio?a AeAA (?en. REF _Ref439342331 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ). Aaiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aoeio noa?aeiy At, Wnmint, St, It, Ixnt oa Iynt o ?ic?aooieiaee iiiaio /ano t aecia/athoueny ii/aoeiaeie cia/aiiyie ?ici???a ia?aoeio aeaiaio?a, ui iienothoueny u?eueiinoyie ?iciiae?eo fh1(h1)...fhn(hn), ? ei?ic?eieie ao?aoaie ia ?ic?aooieiaee iiiaio /ano (ia/eneththoueny aeoiaey/e c oiaueie oa?o iaoaeo hkt, yeee i?iei?iaeoaaa, ui iieno?oueny aeiaaeeiaei i?ioeanii fk(hk,t)). Ia?aiao?e i?ioeano fk(hk,t) aeae?athoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aa?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e, eeano noae? ? eiino?oeoeaii? oi?ie aeaiaioa. Ia i?aenoaa? fh1(h1)...fhn(hn) ? fk(hk,t) iaea?aeothoue AeAA aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?a??ca noa?aeiy aeey eiaeiiai ?ieo t. Iio?i ia/eneththoue aeene?aoi? aeiaaeeia? aaee/eie (t ? St. U?euei?noue ?iciiae?eo fSt(St) i?aeae?a?oueny ca cia/aiiyie AeAA St. ?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 5 . Noaia iaea?aeaiiy AeAA noia?iiai coneeey a aeaiaio? Ns aeey ?ieo t sseui eiino?oeoe?th ?icaeyaeaoe ye nenoaio iine?aeiaii-ia?aeaeueii niieo/aieo aeaiaio?a, oi eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?? iiaea aooe aecia/aia ca oi?ioeith: , ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 16 ) aea m – /enei iine?aeiaii niieo/aieo i?aenenoai; r0 – ocaaaeueiaiee eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?aenenoai, ui a?aoiao? noioanoe/io caeaaei?noue iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a nenoaie; max[Pss(T)] – cia/aiiy eiia??iino? aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe aeaiaioa c iaeneiaeueiei ??aiai iaae?eiino? i?ioyaii T ?ie?a; Pse(T) – eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe aeaiaioa e i?ioyaii T ?ie?a; n – e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a o i?aenenoai?. Ia iniia? aeeeaaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aia ia iia? Pascal oa aeeiiai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaae?eiino? ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a ii?oae?a A?I. ?ic?aooiie iieacaa, ui noa?aei?, o yeeo iai?oaeaiiy aeecuee? aei ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o (ieaei? noa?aei? iiyn?a noiye?a, iiyne o?aaa?n, aeaiaioe ?ao?oee, ui ni?eeiathoue aaeee? iiia?a/i? neee) iathoue eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny cia/ii a?ae iaeeieoe? (?en. REF _Ref440646330 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ). Oae? aeaiaioe a ia?oo /a?ao aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noue eiino?oeoe??, ii ?oi?e iiaaae?ioe? a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? iiaeia noaeeoe i?i noai eiino?oeoe?? a oe?eiio. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ? iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e, ui i?aoeththoue a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao, cacia/ai? aeaiaioe iathoue iio?aao a iniaeeai ?aoaeueiiio aioeei?ic?eiiio caoeno?. ?noioii aieeaa? ia iaae?ei?noue eiino?oeoe??, ui i?aoeth? a aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, eiino?oeoeaia oi?ia aeaiaio?a ? oei aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo. Iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieie oi?iaie ia?a??ca c iiaeyaeo ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? eiino?oeoe?? ? i?io?e? c iaeiaioei a?aeiioaiiyi ieiu? ia?a??ca aei eiai ia?eiao?a (caieioo? i?io?e?, aeaiaioe e?oaeiai aai eaaae?aoiiai ia?aoeio). a) a) a) a) ?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 6 . Eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe: a – ( 90(7 aeey ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a aoiinoa?e (1 – ei?ic?y noae? oe?eeii aeeeth/aia; 2 – na?aaeiueiaa?aneaia aoiinoa?a, aioeei?ic?eia iie?eooy – Zn 180 iei + AO-021 + IO-115; 3 – oa ae, iacaoeuaia oeeieiaa iie?eooy oiaueiith 240 iei; 4 – iaaa?aneaia aoiinoa?a, Zn 40 iei + AO-021 + IO-115, 5 – oa ae, iacaoeuaia oeeieiaa iie?eooy oiaueiith 240 iei; 6 – oa ae, AO-021 + IO-115); a – (90(7 aeey ??ciiiai?oieo ??ai?a iai?oaeaiiy (1 – (=0,3Ry; 2 – (=0,6Ry; 3 – (=0,9Ry); a – ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a ia?aoei?a, (=0,9Ry (1 – e?oaea noaeue (20; 2 – o?oa/anoee ia?aoei 89(4; ii?oae 3 – (90(7; 4 – ( 50(4); a – eiino?oeoe?? a oe?eiio (1 – ii?oae A?I 110 eA, ei?ic?y noaee oe?eeii aeeeth/aia; 2 – A?I 110 eA, eiino?oeoe?? c eooe?a; 3 – oa ae, /ioe?ea?aii? c o?oa; 4 – oa ae, o?ea?aii? c o?oa). O ?ic?aooieo i?eeiyoi, ui eiia?iiaaia ? oeeieiaa iie?eooy a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? ia a?aeiiaeth?oueny, EOI a?aeiiaeth?oueny 1 ?ac ca 7 ?ie?a. Ia ?en. a–a i?ioean iieacaiee aeey eiino?oeoe?e ?c eiia?iiaaiei iie?eooyi Zn 180 iei + AO-021 + IO-115 O aeaa? 5 aeeiiaia iioei?caoe?y aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ?ao?o/anoiai o?ea?aiiiai ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA ?c o?oa/anoeo aeaiaio?a (?en.  REF _Ref439931467 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ) ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo Iaeaea?a–I?aea. Caaea/a iioei?caoe?? caaaeaia aei i?i?i?caoe?? iane eiino?oeoe?? i?e caaeai?e iai?oc? A?I, noai? ? ?ici??o ciai?oi?o iaaaioaaeaiue, ia?aiao?ao aenieoaoaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua ? oei? ia?aoei?a aeaiaio?a. Aa??thaaeeny aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e noiye?a (a, b) ? o?aaa?ne (c). ?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 7 . Iioeiaeueia eiino?oeoeaia noaia ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo ?aa?an?eieo iiaeaeae aeiaaia?/iino? nenoai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a iioeiaeueii? oa oeiiai? eiino?oeoe?? ii?oaeo ?c ??ciiiai?oieie caoenieie iie?eooyie. I?e ii??aiyii? aa??aio?a oiaueia oeeieiaiai iie?eooy aeaiaio?a i?ecia/aeany aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae ii?oaeo, aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua ? oa?i?io neoaeae eiino?oeoe??. Aecia/aiiy aa?oino? eiino?oeoe?? i?iaiaeeeiny c o?aooaaiiyi caaiaenueeeo aeo?ao, o?ainii?ooaaiiy, iiioaaeo oa aenieoaoaoe?? i?ioyaii 50 ?ie?a. O ?ic?aooieo aeei?enoaia nenoaia oe?i, ui neeaeany a Oe?a?i? ia aeaiee /an. a) a) a) a) ?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 8 . Aa?oino? ii?oae?a A?I ?c ??ciiiai?oieie nenoaiaie aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a c o?aooaaiiyi aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao a) iii??ii aieiaa iaaa?aneaia aoiinoa?a, eiino?oeoe?y c eooe?a (iana 6,4 o); a) oa ae, eiino?oeoe?y c o?oa (?ao?oee ?c noae? e?oaeiai ia?aoeio; iana 4,3 o); a) iii??ii aieiaa aa?aneaia aoiinoa?a, eiino?oeoe?y c eooe?a; a) oa ae, eiino?oeoe?y c o?oa; 1 – Oeeieiaa iie?eooy; 2 – Zn + cae?ciee no?ee + cae?ciee no?ee; 3 – Zn +AO-021 + IO-115; 4 – Zn + OE-04e + OA-16; 5 – Zn +AE-02 + AO-021 + OA-124; 6 – Cae?ciee no?ee + cae?ciee no?ee; 7 – AO-021 + IO-115; 8 – OE-04e + OA-16; 9 – AE-02 + AO-021 + OA-124. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?eueee a noo?e ? iii??ii-aieia?e iaaa?aneai?e aoiinoa?? aeiiii?/ii aea?aeia canoinoaaiiy eaeioa?aiaeo iie?eoo?a (cae?ciee no?ee, AO-0119+IO-115) a ?ioeo na?aaeiaeuao aoaeoeaia oeeieiaa aai eiia?iiaaia iie?eooy. I?e/iio c? ca?eueoaiiyi aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua ia?aaaaa oeeieiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo iie?eoo?a ca?eueoo?oueny (?en. REF _Ref440545161 \h \* MERGEFORMAT Ioeaea! Enoi/iee nnueee ia iaeaeai. ). I?e iaeiaeia?e aa?oino? oeeieiaiai ? eiia?iiaaiiai iie?eooy iaae?ei?noue inoaiiueiai aeua. INIIAI? AENIIAEE *enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai ii?oae?a A?I iieacaee, ui ??aiii??iee ei?ic?eiee ciin aeeaeiith aei 1 ii aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy iai?oaeaiue a aeaiaioao iiyn?a aei 45%, a a aeaiaioao ?ao?oee – aei 90%. Aeey ia/eneaiiy coneeue a eiino?oeoe?yo c iiaiooeie noa?aeiyie cai?iiiiiaai? aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino?, ui a?aoiaothoue ?ici?? ? oi?io iiaiooino?, aeae cae??ieaiiy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aei?noeinoae aeaiaio?a. O?aooaaiiy oiia cae??ieaiiy ? ?icoeaio?iaee noa?aei?a eiino?oeoe?? o aoceao aeicaiey? ooi/ieoe iai?oaeaiiy a aeaiaioao a iaaeao 5–15 IIa. I?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a onoaiiaeaii, ui oa?i?i neoaeae eaeioa?aiaeo iie?eoo?a ia noaeaa?e ? oeeieia?e i?aeeiaeoe? aeia?a iieno?oueny iieaciaeie ?aa?an?eieie ??aiyiiyie, ye? a?aoiaothoue aa?aneai?noue na?aaeiaeua oa o?eaae?noue oaciaiai ? aaeni?aoe?eiiai caieiaeaiiy. Aeeaeia ei?ic?eii? ii?acee oeeieo a eiia?iiaaiiio ? oeeieiaiio iie?eoo? ai?ieneiiaaia iie?iiiaie ia?oiai nooiaiy, eiao?oe??ioe yeeo ia/eneththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith iieaciaeo ??aiyiue. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy aeaieo 203 iaoainoaioe?e, io?eiaieo ca 30–50 ?ie?a niinoa?aaeaiue, iiaoaeiaai? ea?oe ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii ee?iaoe/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ? io?eiai? eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca a?o?iaeie ? iaeaeaaeieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo iiaoi?thaaiino?. *enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe nooi?iue aieeao eiino?oeoeaieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a ia aaee/eio eiia??iino? aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe ii?oae?a A?I. O caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? aieea?a, aeaeo aioeei?ic?eiiai iie?eooy ? oiia aenieoaoaoe?? eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe ii?oae?a /a?ac 50 ?ie?a aenieoaoaoe?? neeaaea? 0,75–0,95. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiino?oeoeaio noaio ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA ?c o?ea?aiieie ?ao?o/anoeie naeoe?yie c o?oa, ui aeicaiey? cieceoe aa?o?noue nii?oaee ia 15–35% o ii??aiyii? c oeiiaei ??oaiiyi. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co iieacaia ia?aaaaa ii?oae?a ?c eiia?iiaaieie ? oeeieiaeie caoenieie iie?eooyie. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? aaeocaaiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioo I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie “Ii?oaee iaoaeaa? ? cae?ciaaoiii? a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a iai?oaith 35–330 eA. Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee ii ianoaaeaiith”, a oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeai? i?e ioe?ioe? oaoi?/iiai noaio ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aenieiaieueoieo i?aenoaioe?e AeAAE “Aeiiaoeueeiaeaia?ai” ? IAE “Oe?aia?ai”. NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe?? Ii?oaee iaoaeaa? oa cae?ciaaoiii? a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a iai?oaith 35 – 330 eA. Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee c ianoaaeaiiy/ Ai?ioia ?.A., Oaiiaaeia N.I., Iie/aiia A.I., Naiieeaei I.?., Iac?i ss.A. – E.: “Aia?aii?ia?an”, 1996. – 46 n. Oaiiaaeia N.I., Naiieeaiei I.A. Ioeaiea iaaeaaeiinoe yeaeo?inaoaauo eiino?oeoeee// Iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe yeaeo?inaoaauo eiino?oeoeee. – E.: Oaoieea, 1997. – N. 20–58. Ai?ioia A. A., Oaiiaaeia N. I., Naiieeaiei I. A. Ioeaiea iaaeaaeiinoe noaeueiuo yeaeo?inaoaauo eiino?oeoeee// Ecaanoey aocia. No?ieoaeuenoai. – 1996. – ? 11. – N. 16–22. Naiieeaiei I.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey aeaoaeoia e iia?aaeaeaiee ia iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea ii?oaeia I?O// Aanoiee AeiiAANA, Iaeaaaea. – 1998. – ?4. – N. 17–22. Naiieeaiei I.A. Ioeaiea aeieaiaa/iinoe eiiaeie?iaaiiuo iie?uoee// Aanoiee AeiiAANA, Iaeaaaea. – 1998. – ?4. – N. 16–17. Ai?ioia A. A., Oaiiaaeia N. I., Naiieeaiei I. A. Iaoiae ?an/aoa iaaeaaeiinoe noaeueiuo yeaeo?inaoaauo eiino?oeoeee// O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Iaoaeeino?ieoaeuenoai – 96” (Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey). – Oii 1. – Aeiiaoee. – 1996. – N. 31–36. Ai?ioia A. A., Oaiiaaeia N. I., Aaeaaa N. I., Naiieeaiei I. A., Iacei ss. A. Enneaaeiaaiea ei??iceiiiuo i?ioeannia iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee AE e I?O// Iaoiaee/aneea aii?inu enneaaeiaaiey iaaeaaeiinoe aieueoeo nenoai yia?aaoeee. – E.: “Ciaiea”, 1995. – Aui. 47. – N. 35–41. Iaoaio 7646A Oe?a?ie, IIE A 02 D 37/00. Niin?a i?aeneeaiiy iii?e/ Oaiiaaeia N.I., Ai?ioia ?.A., Iaoa??iei A.O., Naiieeaiei I.?. (Oe?a?ia). – ? 1789597; Caya. 24.05.95; Iioae. 26.12.95. Athe. ? 4. Iaoaio 20581A Oe?a?ie, IIE A 02 D 37/00. Niin?a i?aeneeaiiy noiyea/ Oaiiaaeia N.I., Naiieeaiei I.?., Iao?e/aiei A.A., (Oe?a?ia). – ? 97063121; Caya. 25.06.97; Iioae. 15.07.97. Gorokhov Ye.V., Shapovalov S.N., Samoylenko M.Ye. A Method of Estimation the Air Power Transmission Line Supports Reliability// O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee” – Oii 2. – Aeiiaoee. – 1997. – N. 51–58. Aiioaoe?y Naiieeaiei Ieoaeei ?aaaiiae/. Ii?oaee a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a c aa?aioiaaieie iieacieeaie aaca?aeeaciino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.01 – aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? ? nii?oaee, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, Iae??aea, 1999. Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? /eiieee, ui aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noue ii?oae?a a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ianoaaeaiiy ii?oae?a. Iaoaiaoe/ii iienaiee aieea aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ii?oaeo A?I. Io?eiaii ?aa?an?ei? iiaeae?, ui iienothoue aeiaaia?/i?noue eaeioa?aiaeo, oeeieiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo iie?eoo?a. Ooi/iaii ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii ee?iaoe/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ? io?eiai? eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca a?o?iaeie ? iaeaeaaeieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo iiaoi?thaaiino?. Anoaiiaeaii e?euee?ni? cia/aiiy eiia??i?noue aaca?aeeacii? ?iaioe ii?oae?a A?I. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiino?oeoeaio noaio ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA ?c o?ea?aiieie ?ao?o/anoeie naeoe?yie c o?oa. Aeeiiaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo nenoai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?oae a?aee?eoiai ?iciiae?eue/iai i?eno?ith, aaca?aeeaci?noue, aeiaaia?/i?noue, aioeei?ic?eiee caoeno, iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai. Aiiioaoeey Naiieeaiei Ieoaee Aaaaiueaae/. Ii?oaeu ioe?uouo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa n aa?aioe?iaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie aacioeaciinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.01 – no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, Aeiiaanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u, Iaeaaaea, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ii?oaeia ioe?uouo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa (I?O) a i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ?aeiino?oeoeee. Ii ?acoeueoaoai ianeaaeiaaiee 400 ii?oaeia I?O ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua aeaeu ianiaa?oainoa iaoaeee/aneeo ii?oaeia, onoaiiaeaiu i?e/eiu eo iiyaeaiey e auiieiaia nenoaiaoecaoeey aeaoaeoia e iia?aaeaeaiee. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ianeaaeiaaiey e aeeaaiinoeee yenieoaoe?oaiuo eiino?oeoeee. *eneaiii enneaaeiaaia aeaenoaeoaeueiay ianouay niiniaiinoue nii?oaeaiee e aeeyiea ?acee/iuo aeaoaeoia e iia?aaeaeaiee ia iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea yeaiaioia ii?oaeia. Ii?aaeaeaiii, /oi o/oao oneiaee cae?aieaiey e ?anoeaio?iaee noa?aeiae eiino?oeoeee a oceao iicaieyao ooi/ieoue iai?yaeaiey a yeaiaioao a i?aaeaeao 5–15 IIa. ?aaiiia?iue ei??iceiiiue eciin aeoaeiie aei 1 ii aucuaaao oaaee/aiea iai?yaeaiee a yeaiaioao iiynia aei 45%, a a yeaiaioao ?aoaoee – aei 90%. Aeey au/eneaiey oneeee a eiino?oeoeeyo n iiaioouie noa?aeiyie i?aaeeiaeaiu aiaeeoe/aneea caaeneiinoe, o/eouaathuea aaee/eio e oi?io iiaiooinoe, aeae cae?aieaiey e niioiioaiea aeanoeinoae yeaiaioia. I?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee eeiaoeee ?ac?ooaiey aioeei??iceiiiuo iie?uoee. Iieo/aiu ?aa?anneiiiua iiaeaee, iienuaathuea n?ie neoaeau eaeie?ani/iuo iie?uoee ia noaeueiie e oeeieiaie iiaeeiaeea a caaeneiinoe io aa?anneaiinoe n?aaeu e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe oaciaiai e aaeni?aoeeiiiiai oaeaaeiaiey. Aeey iienaiey aeoaeiu ei??iceiiiiai ii?aaeaiey oeeiea a eiiaeie?iaaiiii e oeeieiaii iie?uoee eniieueciaaiu iieeiiiu ia?aie noaiaie. Eiyooeoeeaiou iieeiiiia au/eneythony n iiiiuueth iieacaoaeueiuo o?aaiaiee ?aa?annee. ?acoeueoaou noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo 203 iaoainoaioeee iicaieeee ooi/ieoue ?aeiie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu ii eeeiaoe/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai (nicaeaiu ea?ou ?aeiie?iaaiey ii iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoe aao?a, nei?inoe aao?a i?e aieieaaea, oieueia e ieioiinoe aieieaaeiuo ioeiaeaiee). Iieo/aiu eiyooeoeeaiou iaaeaaeiinoe ii aao?iaui e aieieaaeiui iaa?oceai a caaeneiinoe io eo ?an/aoiiai ia?eiaea iiaoi?yaiinoe. I?iaaaeaiu /eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiea aacioeaciinoe ii?oaeia I?O. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a caaeneiinoe io ia?aiao?ia i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo iaa?ocie e aicaeaenoaee, aeaea aioeei??iceiiiiai iie?uoey e oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee aa?iyoiinoue aacioeaciie ?aaiou ii?oaeia I?O /a?ac 50 eao yenieoaoaoeee eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 0,75–0,95. I?aaeeiaeaia iiaay eiino?oeoeaiay noaia ?aoao/aoiai y/aeeiaiai ii?oaea I?O 110 eA n o?aoa?aiiuie naeoeeyie ec o?oa. N iiiiuueth iaoiaea Iaeaea?a-Ieaea auiieiaia iioeiecaoeey aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia ii?oaea ii e?eoa?eth iannu. Iiaay eiino?oeoeaiay noaia iicaieyao nieceoue noieiinoue ii?oaea ia 15–35% ii n?aaiaieth n oeiiaui ?aoaieai. Ia iniiaaiee enneaaeiaaiee aeieaiaa/iinoe nenoai aioeei??iceiiiie caueou i?iaaaeai aiaeec oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae eiino?oeoeee ii?oaeia I?O n ?acee/iuie caueoiuie iie?uoeyie. Iieacaii i?aeiouanoai ii?oaeia n eiiaeie?iaaiiuie e oeeieiauie iie?uoeyie ii n?aaiaieth n ie?aoeaaaiuie eiino?oeoeeyie. N oaaee/aieai aa?anneaiinoe yenieoaoaoeeiiiie n?aaeu yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io i?eiaiaiey oeeieiauo e eiiaeie?iaaiiuo iie?uoee aic?anoaao. ?acoeueoaou iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee eniieueciaaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea io?aneaaiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa Ieiyia?ai Oe?aeiu “Ii?oaeu iaoaeee/aneea e aeaeaciaaoiiiua ioe?uouo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa iai?yaeaieai 35–330 eA. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii ianeaaeiaaieth”, a oaeaea aiaae?aiu i?e ioeaiea oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey e ?aeiino?oeoeee aunieiaieueoiuo iiaenoaioeee AAYE “Aeiiaoeeiaeyia?ai” e IYE “Oe?yia?ai”. Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?oae ioe?uoiai ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai ono?ienoaa, aacioeaciinoue, aeieaiaa/iinoue, aioeei??iceiiiay caueoa, iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea. Abstract Michael Eugenievich Samoylenko. Portals of external switch-gears with guaranteed reliability and longevity. – Mnuscript. The Thesis for Engineering Sciences Candidate’s Degree Competition Speciality 05.23.01 – Engineering Structures, Buildings and Constructions. – The Donbas State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine, Makeyevka, 1999. The examination methods for external switch-gear portals were developed and a technical state of high-voltage substation portals was assessed. An analytical description for influence of defects and damages on stressed-strained state of the portal structure elements was made. There were received regression models of the second order describing durability of varnish and paint, zinc and combined coatings. Territorial division of the Ukraine into regions according to climatic characteristics was specified; coefficients of reliability with respect to wind and ice-crust loads differentiated depending on the calculated period of recurrence were received. Quantitative values of probability for trouble-free service of external switch-gear portals were established. There was proposed a design diagram for portals of 110 kV external switch-gears with trihedral pipe grate sections. A feasibility study was made for various systems of anticorrosive protection. Key words: Portal of an external switch-gear, reliability, longevity, anticorrosive protection, stressed-strained state. PAGE 8

Похожие записи