.

Порталы открытых распределительных устройств с гарантированными показателями безотказности и долговечности: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / М.Е. Са

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AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Naiieeaiei Ieoaeei ?aaaiiae/

OAeE 621. 315

II?OAEE A?AeE?EOEO ?ICIIAe?EUe/EO I?eNO?I?A C AA?AIOIAAIEIE IIEACIEEAIE
AACA?AeEACIINO? oa AeIAAIA?*IINO?

05.23.01 – Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ioia ?aaai
Aaneeueiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, ?aeoi?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaiiaaeia Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/,
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?/oa?i Na?a?e
Oaaei?iae/, Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
TH. Eiiae?aothea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

Aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeiiy Ieaenaiae? Iaioaeaeiae/,
Iae??anueeee aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iee ?inoeooo, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa
? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a iaoaeaaeo ? aea?aa’yieo eiino?oeoe?e,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12.085.01 o Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I iaa/aeueiee
ei?ion, Cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “11” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani? A.A. Iaoa??iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Cia/io /anoeio iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a
i?aei?e?inoa aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae neeaaeathoue eiino?oeoe?? oa
onoaoeoaaiiy aenieiaieueoieo i?aenoaioe?e, o oiio /ene? – ii?oaee
a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a (A?I). Ia oaia??oi?e /an o NIAe
aenieoaoo?oueny a?ey 1 iei. oiii iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e ii?oae?a. O?eueee a
Oe?a?i? nii?oaeaeaii 5385 i?aenoaioe?e. I?e/iio o?aoeia c ieo
aenieoaoo?oueny i?ioyaii 30–60 ?ie?a, oiaoi ae/a?iaea ?ic?aooieiaee
oa?i?i neoaeae aai a?i aeecueeee aei cae?i/aiiy. Aeiiae aei
aaca?aeeaciino? ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a cia/ii aeu?, i?ae aei
aaca?aeeaciino? iia?o?yieo e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/?, oiio ui aaa??? ?
a?aeiiae ia i?aenoaioe?yo i?ecaiaeyoue aei cia/ii a?eueoeo caeoe?a.

Nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? ii?oae?a
a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a a Oe?a?i? ia i?iaiaeyoueny. Inoaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, i?enay/aia oaeineiiaethaaiith eiino?oeoeaii?
oi?ie ? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo ii?oae?a A?I, aeeiiaia a 1975 ?.

Oiio aeey caaacia/aiiy caaeaii? aaca?aeeaciino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?
iaiao?aeii aea/eoe oaeoe/i? i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aieeae;
ioe?ieoe aieea o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e oa oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ia i?oeiini? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiino?oeoe?e; oaeineiiaeeoe
o?aaeeoe?ei? ? ?ic?iaeoe iia? i?aeoiaee i?e i?iaeooaaii? ?
?aeiino?oeoe?? ii?oae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, i?iaaaeaieo ia
caiiaeaiiy I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie, ? aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oai ? 088-I
“?ic?iaea aaeocaaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a ii ianoaaeaiith ?
ia?a?aooieo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e” (1995 ?.) ? ? 64.08.005.5.7
“Aecia/aiiy aeiionoeiiai ciino iaoaeaaeo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e:
iaoiaee, ?ic?iaea i?eeaae?a” (1996 ?.).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
? aeiaaia?/iino? ii?oae?a A?I i?e i?iaeooaaii? oa ?aeiino?oeoe?? ca
?aooiie oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo oa eiino?oeoeaii? oi?ie. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ianoaaeaiiy oa aeeiiaia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio
A?I, ui aenieoaoothoueny;

i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai (IAeN) ii?oae?a;

aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aia e?iaoeea ?oeioaaiiy nenoai caoenieo iie?eoo?a
(eaeioa?aiaeo /EOI/, oeeieiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo /oeeie–EOI/) o caeaaeiino?
a?ae aa?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e;

ooi/iaia ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii a?o?o ? iaeaeaae?, io?eiai?
eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca iaeaeaaeieie oa a?o?iaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie;

?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo eiia??iino? aaca?aeeacii?
?iaioe ii?oae?a A?I ? i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
aaca?aeeaciino?;

aeeiiaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ii??aiyiiy ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoeaieo
??oaiue ii?oae?a A?I ? nenoai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe??
io?eiai? oae? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe:

aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey ioe?iee aieeao ?ici??o oa oi?ie iiaiooinoae
? ne?eaeaiue ia ia?a?iciiae?e coneeue o noa?aeiyo ii?oae?a c o?aooaaiiyi
oiia cae??ieaiiy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aei?noeinoae aeaiaio?a;

?aa?an?ei? iiaeae?, ui iienothoue aeiaaia?/i?noue eaeioa?aiaeo,
oeeieiaeo ? eiia?iiaaieo iie?eoo?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
n??/aiiai aia?ae?eaeo oa o?eaaeino? caieiaeaiiy;

/enaeuei? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a aaca?aeeaciino? aeey ??ciiiai?oieo
eiino?oeoeaieo oi?i, nenoai aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a ? oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ii?oae?a A?I;

eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? ca iaeaeaaeieie oa a?o?iaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie,
aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai ia??iaeo
iiaoi?thaaiino?;

eiino?oeoeaia ??oaiiy ii?oaeo A?I c iioeiaeueieie oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie
iieacieeaie ? aa?aioiaaieie iieacieeaie aaca?aeeaciino? oa
aeiaaia?/iino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue
aa?eoee aei ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioo I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie “Ii?oaee iaoaeaa?
? cae?ciaaoiii? a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a iai?oaith 35–330 eA.
Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee ii ianoaaeaiith”, a oaeiae aeei?enoai? i?e
i?iaaaeaii? ianoaaeaiue i?aenoaioe?e I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie.

?ic?iaeaii ea?oe ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii iaeneiaeuei?e
oaeaeeino? a?o?o, oaeaeeino? a?o?o i?e iaeaeaae?, oiauei? ? u?eueiino?
iaeaeaaeieo a?aeeeaaeaiue.

Cai?iiiiiaai? caniae i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? nii?oae (Iaoaioe
Oe?a?ie ? 7646A, ? 20581A) aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? ?ia?o ii
?aeiino?oeoe?? ia i?aei?e?inoaao AeAAE “Aeiiaoeueeiaeaia?ai” ? IAE
“Oe?aia?ai”. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaea? 520 oen. a?i.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. I?eaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii. Iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

iniaenoa o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiue, aei?iaoaaiue ?
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

?ic?iaea an?o iaoiaeee, aeai?eoi?a ? aeeiiaiiy /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a,
i?eaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??;

ii?aoethaaiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo iaoainoaioe?e ? iiaoaeiaa ea?o
?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie;

nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? iaoeiaee aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ioae?eaoe?yo ?c ni?aaaoi?aie caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiai?: eeaneo?eaoe?y
iaaeineiiaeinoae ? aecia/aiiy ?o a?aie/ieo cia/aiue [1]; /enaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a [2, 3, 6, 10]; eiino?othaaiiy oa
?ic?aooiie aeaiaio?a i?aeneeaiiy [7, 8].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iaae?ei?noue ?
aaciaea noa??th/eo nenoai aia?aaoeee” (Ee?a, 1995 ?.),
“Iaoaeeino?ieoaeuenoai – 96”, (Aeiiaoeuee – Iae??aea, 1996 ?.),
Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoaeaa? eiino?oeoe??”
(Ee?a – Ieeiea?a 1996 ?.), “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e”
(Aeiiaoeuee – Iae??aea, 1997 a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 10 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o, ui
a?aeaeaathoue ?? iniiaiee ci?no, o oiio /ene? aaeocaaee ii?iaoeaiee
aeieoiaio, ?icae?e iiiia?ao??, 2 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie, 6 noaoae o
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
i’youeio aeaa, iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e (158 iaeiaioaaiue) ? i’youeio aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia
ia 190 noi??ieao, o oiio /ene? 128 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 15
noi??iie nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, 25 iiaieo noi??iie c ?enoieaie ? oaaeeoeyie,
22 noi??iee aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIee CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aaoi?ii,
iieacai? ?oi? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y.

O aeaa? 1 aeeiiaiee aiae?c iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? nii?oae (?iaioe A.A. Aieio?ia, I.?. ?aeai?oeeia, I.N.
No?aeaoeueeiai, N.O. I?/oa?ia, A. Ang, M. Amin, C.A. Cornell, O.
Ditlevsen, E.J. Gumbel, A.M. Freudenthal, A.M. Hasofer, R. Levi, N.C.
Lind, M. Maier, F. Moses, W. Weibull ? ?i.); ?icaeyioo? no/ani?
i?eioeeie i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy noaeaaeo aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo
eiino?oeoe?e (?iaioe E.A.Aa?aa, ?.I.Aooa??ia, I.I. Aeacoiiaa,
E.I.E?theiaa, I.?.Eo?iiniaa, I.?.?iiaiiaa, A.A.Neeueaano?iaa, A.?.
O?io?iiaa).

Niaoeeo?ea oai??? iaae?eiino? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e iieyaa? a oiio,
ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ni?eueio ae?th aeiaaeeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ?
aieea?a ia nenoaio c aeiaaeeiaeie i?oeiinieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A
oaia??oi?e /an iaoaiaoe/ii no?iaa ??oaiiy caaea/ iaae?eiino?
aoae?aaeueieo nii?oaeaeaiue iiaea aooe io?eiaii eeoa aeey iaaaee/ei?
e?eueeino? i?inoeo eiino?oeoe?e. Oiio aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
ii?oae?a a?aee?eoeo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a aeioe?eueia ?ic?iaea
iaaeeaeaieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo, ui a?aoiaothoue niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe
nii?oaee.

Iiaaae?ieo ii?oae?a A?I o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? a ia?oo /a?ao
aecia/athoue ee?iaoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ei?ic?eiee ciin aeaiaio?a.
Ia?aiao?e ?iciiae?e?a aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue iaeaeaaeii-a?o?iaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue aeey iaoainoaioe?e Oe?a?ie io?eiai? A.A.Ia?iaeiei ?
N.ss.Eiyaeaanueeith. I?ioa ii?iaoeai? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ?
eiao?oe??ioe iaae?eiino? cai?iiiiiaai? ia aoee. Aea/aiiy ei?ic?eieo
i?ioean?a ? e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy nenoai aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo noaeaaeo
eiino?oeoe?e i?iaiaeeeiny iaoeiaeie eieaeoeaaie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
A.A.Ae?iiaa, TH.E.Aieueaa?aa, A.?.Aieoa?aa, ?.A.Ai?ioiaa, A.?.E?e?ia,
?.?.Eioeia oa ?i. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui oiiae ? oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy
aeano?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a o caoenieo iie?eooyo ? a iaoae? ci?iththoueny a
aeoaea oe?ieeo iaaeao. O oie aea /an oaeaee?noue ?oeioaaiiy
aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a aeaeo?iia?aaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e ye ooieoe?y
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?e ia aoea aeine?aeaeaia.
Ia?niaeoeaieie i?aaenoaaeythoueny ?iaioe c aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
? aaca?aeeaciino? ii?oae?a A?I c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ? iaeiie/aieo aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo i?iaeoieo ??oaiue A?I iieaco?, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
??ciiiai?ooy oaeoi??a, ye? aecia/athoue eiino?oeoeaio oi?io ii?oae?a,
?oiy noaia i?eeia?oueny iaeiioeiiith ? ia? ?yae ?noioieo oea. ?inoeoooii
“A?ae?ii?iaeo” ?acii ?c “Oe?IAe?i?iaeonoaeueeiino?oeoe?y” ?ic?iaeai?
ii?oaee c o?oa, aea ?oi? canoinoaaiiy aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueia o?eueee
aeey eiiiaeoeciaaieo ?iciiae?eue/eo i?eno?i?a.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy noaio ieoaiiy noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O aeaa? 2 aeeiiaia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio ? aea/aii aieea aeaoaeo?a ?
iioeiaeaeaiue ia ae?enio ?iaioo iaoaeaaeo ii?oae?a A?I. Iai?oeoe iniiai?
oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e ii?oae?a iiaeia o?eueee ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ianoaaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e, ye? aenieoaoothoueny.
Oiio aoea aeeiiaia ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio a?eueo 400 ii?oae?a A?I
iai?oaith 35–750 eA ia i?aenoaioe?yo AeAAE “Aeiiaoeueeiaeaia?ai” ? IAE
“Oe?aia?ai”. Aeey oeueiai ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ianoaaeaiue,
ui aeeth/a? i?aai?caoe?th eiio?ieth oaoi?/iiai noaio ii?oae?a, ii?yaeie
i?iaaaeaiiy iaoo?iiai iaeyaeo, ooi/iaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ? aieea?a,
aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??aeo eiino?oeoe?e ? ioe?ieo oaoi?/iiai
noaio.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ianoaaeaiue aecia/ai? iniiai? aeaee iaaeineiiaeinoae
iaoaeaaeo ii?oae?a (?en.1), anoaiiaeaii i?e/eie ?oiuei? iiyae ? aeeiiaia
nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeaoaeo?a ? iioeiaeaeaiue.

I?e ioe?ioe? oaoi?/iiai noaio iniiaiei ? ieoaiiy i?i ae?enio iano/o
caeaoi?noue nii?oaee ? aieea ??ciiiai?oieo iaaeineiiaeinoae ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai (IAeN) ?? aeaiaio?a. Aeey aea/aiiy oeueiai
ieoaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy an?o oeiiaeo oeiieo ?
ina?aaeeiaeo ii?oae?a A?I 35–330 eA ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno
EE?A–Windows 5.0.3.

?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 1 . Iioeiaeaeoaai?noue iaoaeaaeo ii?oae?a
A?I 35–330 eA

Iioeiaeaeaiiy aioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo ? ei?ic?eiee ciin: 1 – ?oeioaaiiy
caoeniiai iie?eooy; 2 – nooe?eueia ??aiii??ia ei?ic?y aeaiaio?a; 3 –
u?eeiia ei?ic?y c’?aeiaiue; 4 – i?noeaaa ei?ic?y ieaei?o /anoei ? aac
noiye?a; 5 – ?io? aeaee ei?ic??. Iaoai?/i? iioeiaeaeaiiy: 6 –
a?aeoeeaiiy ieaiiai-aenioiiai iieiaeaiiy ? iai?eionoei? aeaoi?iaoe??
eiino?oeoe?e; 7 – ne?eaeaiiy aeaiaio?a; 8 – a?ae?ea aeaiaio?a (ye
i?aaeei aiane?aeie ?oeioaaiiy caa?ieo ? aieoiaeo c’?aeiaiue i?e u?eeii?e
ei?ic??); 9 – ?oeioaaiiy ooiaeaiaio?a; 10 – ciaioaiiy no??ee i?ia?no
i?iaiae?a; 11 – ?io?. Aeaoaeoe aeaioiaeaiiy oa iaoa??aeo  – 12

a)

a)

?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 2 . Ci?ia iai?oaeaiue o iaea?eueoa
iai?oaeaieo aeaiaioao 8-i?ieueioiiai ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA
i?e ??aiii??i?e iiaa?oiaa?e ei?ic??: a) iiyn aa?oiuei? naeoe?? noiyea;
a) ?ao?oea aa?oiuei? naeoe?? noiyea

?ic?aooiee aeyaeee ?noioiee aieea ??aiii??ii? ei?ic?? ia ?ici?? coneeue
? iai?oaeaiue o noa?aeiyo eiino?oeoe?e (?en. 2). Ci?ia coneeue
iiynith?oueny ciaioaiiyi aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aoei?a aeaiaio?a
o i?ioean? ei?ic?eiiai ciino, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei “a?e nee” o nenoai?.
Ia?a?iciiae?e coneeue a aeaiaioao caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aei?noeinoae EA iiyn?a ? ?ao?oee, aei?noeino? aoceiaeo c’?aeiaiue, noaie
i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ? eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae nii?oaee. sse
i?aaeei, i?e ei?ic?eiiio ciin? coneeey ia?ao?eathoue ?c iaea?eueoa
iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a ia aeaiaioe iaioa iai?oaeaieo a?aiae eiino?oeoe??.
Ea?oeia ci?ie coneeue iaeiaeiaa aeey aoaeue-yeiai oeio ?ao?oee,
cai?iiiiiaaii? NIeI II–23–81*.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue ii?oae?a a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth
ne?eaeaiue a aeaiaioao eiino?oeoe??. Iniaeea?noue ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?? c
iiaiooeie aeaiaioaie iieyaa? a ia?a?iciiae?e? coneeue ?c aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noa?aeiy ia non?aei? aeaiaioe. O ?acoeueoao? /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
onoaiiaeaii, ui iiiaio o iiaiooiio aeaiaio? iiyna iiaeia aecia/eoe ca
oi?ioeith:

Mm = kI kf ksN0m f, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 1 )

aea kI – eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aei?noeino?
iiyno EIm (I(i2) oa ?ao?oee EId:

kI = 0,635+0,00584·EIm/EId; ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 2 )

kf – eiao?oe??io aieeao oi?ie ne?eaeaiiy (oaae. 1); ks – eiao?oe??io,
yeee o?aoiao? aeae niieo/aiiy iiyn?a ? ?ao?oee (i?e aei?noeiio
niieo/aii? ?ao?oee c iiynaie ks=1, i?e oa?i??iiio niieo/aii? ks=1,1);
N0m – iicaeiaaeiy neea, ia/eneaia ca iaaeaoi?iiaaiith noaiith, I; f –
?ici?? iiaiooino?, i

Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 1 – Eiao?oe??io aieeao oi?ie
ne?eaeaiiy kf

Oi?ia ne?eaeaiiy Ne?eaeaiiy a iaaeao iaei??? iaiae? Ne?eaeaiiy a iaaeao
aeaio iaiaeae

liiai.=1/2lyeaiaioa

kf 1,0 1,098 1,257 0,733

O aeaiaioao iiyna, ui i?eieeathoue aei iiaiooiai noa?aeiy, aeiaeaoeia?
caeiaeuei? iiiaioe neeaaeathoue 10(40% a?ae Mm (o caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiino?oeoeaii? noaie iii?e, oeio ? aei?noeino? ?ao?oee). Iiiaio a
noi?aeiiio aeaiaio? ?ao?oee:

Md = k Mm, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 3 )

aea k = 0,236-0,0173 EIm/EId+0,000338·(EIm/EId)2.

Cieaeaiiy iicaeiaaeiuei? neee a iiaiooiio aeaiaio? neeaaea? 2—25% o
caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ii?oaeo, iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ae??, ? i?noey
?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaioa. O oie aea /an a aeaiaioao non?aei?o (iaioa
iai?oaeaieo) a?aiae iiaeeeai ca?eueoaiiy N aei 30%.

Caeiaeueiee iiiaio o iiaiooiio aeaiaio? ?ao?oee aei??aith?:

Md = kcN0d f, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 4 )

aea kc – eiao?oe??io, yeee o?aoiao? aeae niieo/aiiy iiyn?a ? ?ao?oee oa
oi?io ne?eaeaiiy (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey SEQ t \* MERGEFORMAT 2 – Eiao?oe??io kc

Iiaioo?noue O ieiuei? ?ao?oee C ieiueie ?ao?oee

Niieo/aiiy ?ao?oee c iiynaie oa?i??ia 1-1,37f-57,8f 2 1-4,56f-84,3f 2

aei?noea 0,580-7,00f+62,2f 2 0,458-2,5f

Iiiaio a aeaiaio? ?ao?oee noi?aeiiio aei iiaiooi? a ieiuei? ?ao?oee
(aeey aei?noeiai niieo/aiiy):

M2d = 0,4 Md. ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 5 )

Oaeoe/iee ?ici?? coneeue o ?iceinao i?e oa?i??iiio i?eieeaii?:

Nd = kcN0d, ( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 6 )

a i?e aei?noeiio i?eieeaii? Nd o 1,7—2,4 ?ace a?eueoa aeiaooeo kcN0d. A
?ioeo iaiaeyo aieea ne?eaeaiiy ia ci?io coneeue iacia/iee. ?noioiiai
aieeao ia IAeN iiyn?a iiaioo?noue ?ao?oee ia ?iaeoue.

?ic?aooieia? iai?oaeaiiy a iiaiooeo aeaiaioao iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 3. sse
aeaeii c ?enoiea noa?aei?, ui iathoue a?eueoee iiiaio iii?o iaioa
ni?eeiyoeea? aei iayaiino? ne?eaeaiue.

A?aeoeeaiiy ieaiiai-aenioiiai iieiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?? ??aeei
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai ia?aiai?oaeaiiy aeaiaio?a. Cae/aeii i?e
caaaeueiiio aeaei? aai e?ai? eiino?oeoe?? ci?ia coneeue neeaaea? ia
a?eueo ± 2% (aeey f/l=3/100).

?en. SEQ f \* MERGEFORMAT 3 . Ci?ia iai?oaeaiue o iiaiooiio iiyn?
aa?oiuei? naeoe?? noiyea ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 110 eA

Aecia/aiiy ?aca?ao i?oeiino? nii?oaee ia iiaeeeaa aac o?aooaaiiy
ae?enii? ?iaioe aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee
caeaaei?noue ?ici??o coneeue o noa?aeiyo a?ae oiiae cae??ieaiiy
aeaiaio?a. sse i?aaeei, ??cieoey coneeue i?e ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e ?c
oa?i??iei i?eieeaiiyi ?ao?oee aei iiyn?a, ? ?ic?aooieo nenoaie c
aei?noeeie aoceaie, ia ia?aaeuo? 1(5%. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao coneeey
c?inoathoue aei 25% (?ao?oea o?aaa?ne ina?aaeeiaiai ii?oaeo A?I 330 eA).
Iai?oaeaiiy a?ae aeiaeaoeiaeo iiiaio?a i?e ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?? c
o?aooaaiiyi ?icoeaio?iaee (cnoae) aaiiao?e/ieo inae ?icein?a ? iiyn?a o
ieiuei? ? c ieiueie ?ao?oee cae/aeii ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao ±5—15 IIa
(2–6% a?ae ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o). Aeey aoce?a, ui ia’?aeiothoue aaeeea
/enei aeaiaio?a, aeiaeaoeia? iai?oaeaiiy ((

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