1

AEAAeAI?ss IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OA?IAEIEIA?? OA OIENEEIEIA??

AI?IAe?IA OAOssIA AAAeEI?AIA

OAeE.615.017:616.079:615.2/3.001.37

II??AIssEUeIEE AIAE?C AOAEOEAIINO? AIO?AETH, O?IO?EACIE?IO, NEE?AI?O,
OEAI?IO OA OIEINANO I?E O?AAEAIIssO IA*?IEE ??CIIAI AAIACO

(AENIA?EIAIOAEUeII-EE?I?*IA AeINE?AeAEAIIss)

14.03.05-oa?iaeieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia aOe?a?inuee?e oa?iaoeaaoe/i?e aeaaeai??

I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeaeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? OA?*AIEI Iaoae?y
Ay/aneaa?aia, Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.
I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith aano?iaioa?ieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Eiaaeaiei Aaeaioeia
Ieeiea?aia, ?inoeooo oa?iaeieia?? oa oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii caaaeueii? oieneeieia??

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? NA?IOeEOeUeEEE Aiaoie?e Noaieneaaiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, i.Ee?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaaOa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a oa?iaeieia??, I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 10 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 15
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.550.01 i?e
?inoeooo? oa?iaeieia?? oa oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (252057, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Aaeaia Iio`?, 14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oa?iaeieia?? oa oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (252057, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaeaia
Iio`?, 14).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “7” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 26.550.01

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
Aeaiiaa ?.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iei? a onueiio na?o? cia/ii ca?eueoeeinue /enei
oai?eo ia o?ii?/i? aaiaoeoe (OA) (Ni?einii N.I., 1998). Oea iia`ycaii c
iioe?aiei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi a??onieo aaiaoeo?a, iia??oaiiyi
aeieia?/iiai noaio, ceiaaeeaaiiyi e?ea?nueeeie caniaaie, aeeiaieai ?
o.ae. Oiio i?iaeaia aaeaeaaoii? ei?aeoe?? ii?ooaiue o oai?eo ia OA ?
aeooaeueiith a no/ani?e aaiaoieia??.

A?naiae aaiaoicaoenieo i?aia?ao?a iino?eii ca?eueoo?oueny ? ia?aae
e?ea?ai-aano?iaioa?ieiaii iinoa? i?iaeaia aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai
aaiaoii?ioaeoi?a i?e ??ciiiai?oieo caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee. Oey i?iaeaia
ua a?eueo oneeaaeith?oueny a ca`yceo c? neeaaeiith aeiiii?/iith
neooaoe??th a Oe?a?i?. A iiiaieeaoo?? no/anieo aaiaoicaoenieo cania?a
i?aaaeththoue i?aia?aoe caei?aeiiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye? ca oe?iith
iaaeinooii? aaaaoueii oai?ei, a a?o/eciyi? i?aia?aoe neeaaeathoue
anueiai 13 % a?ae on?o aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a, ca?a?no?iaaieo a Oe?a?i?.

A ca`yceo c ??ciiiai?oi?noth iaoiaaiaoe/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue
aei ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee, a oaeiae cia/iith aa??aaaeuei?noth
?o ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a, aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee i?aeoiae?a aei
aoaeoeaii? ? aacia/ii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa?iaeioa?ai?? o?aaeaiue
ia/?iee. Oiio aoei aeioe?eueiei i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a
noaiaea?oieo oiiaao aenia?eiaioo oa a ee?i?oe? iiaeo a?o/eciyieo
aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a, oaeeo ye aio?aeue ? o?io?eacie?i, a oaeiae
ni?anoaaeoe ?o aaiaoicaoeni? aeanoeaino? c aoaeoaie i?aia?ao?a, ye?
aeaaii canoiniaothoueny o iaaee/i?e i?aeoeoe? — oieinano ? oeai?io, a
oaeiae i?iaiae?coaaoe ? ii??aiyoe oa?iaeieia?/i? aoaeoe aeua aeacaieo
cania?a ?c nee?ai?ii, ia?oei a?o/eciyiei aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ii.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Oe?OA (? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0198O007008).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeueia oa ee?i?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai i?aia?aoo c
aaiaoii?ioaeoi?iith ae??th i?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo ia/?iee ??cii? ao?ieia??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii?
caaea/?:

1. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieo a?io?i?/ieo
iieaciee?a i?e iioeiaeaeaii? ia/?iee a aenia?eiaio? oa a ee?i?oe? c
iaoith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o aaiaoii?ioaeoi?o.

2. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ii? ae?? aio?aeth,
o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o, oieinano oa oeai?io ia ??cieo iiaeaeyo
oiene/iiai aaiaoeoo (Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaee, oao?aoeeee?iiaee,
aeeiaieueiee).

3. Aeaoe ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a i?e noaoioaeuei?e oa /anoeia?e ?acaeoe?? ia/?iee.

4. Ii??aiyoe aoaeoeai?noue aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o, oieinano
oa oeai?io i?e e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee oiene/iee aaiaoeo oa ?o
aieea ia ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiiy oa iieacieee ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ia
ia/?iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aoei i?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aaiaoicaoenii? ae?? aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io,
nee?ai?o, oieinano oa oeai?io a aenia?eiaio? a ?aeaioe/ieo oiiaao
aeine?aeo: ia iaeiaeiaeo iiaeaeyo, aeaeao oaa?ei, o iaeiaeiaeo
o?iiieia?/ieo oiiaao, o iaeiiio ?aaeei? aeicoaaiiy (AAe), ca iaeiaeiaeie
a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie. Oaeiae aia?oa aoei i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c aaiaoicaoenii? ae?? oeeo i?aia?ao?a o ee?i?/ieo oiiaao.

Aeyaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie ca aioeieenethaaeueiith oa
aioeoeeoie?oe/iith ae??th ? neioaoe/i? i?aia?aoe aio?aeue oa
o?io?eacie?i, a ia?oee a?o/eciyiee aaiaoii?ioaeoi? nee?ai? i?iyaea
iaeiaioo aaiioicaoenio ae?th ye a aenia?eiaio?, oae ? a ee?i?oe?.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii a aeine?ae? oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a ee?i?oe?, ui
i?aia?aoe oeai?i oa oieinan, ii?yae c oiea?aoe/iei aoaeoii, /eiyoue
ii?iae?coth/o ae?th ia iieacieee oeeoie?co oa noai ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy
e?i?ae?a, aea iinooiathoueny neioaoe/iei i?aia?aoai — aio?aeth oa
o?io?eacie?io.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oa aeyaeaii iaeiioeii?noue
ci?i a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a i?e aeei?enoaii? aeua ia?a?aoiaaieo
aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a a aenia?eiaio? oa ee?i?oe?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei iioeiaeueiiai
aeai?o a?o/eciyieo aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o,
oieinano, oeai?io i?e aaiaoeoao ??cii? ao?ieia??, a oaeiae aecia/eoe
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia ?o i?ecia/aiiy oa aca?iicai?ii?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae
i?ia?aeieo a?io?i?/ieo oa a?noiii?oieia?/ieo i?iya?a caoai?thaaiue
ia/?iee.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii — ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
io?eiai? aeai?, ye? eyaee a iniiao ?ino?oeoe?? aei iaaee/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy aio?aeth oa o?io?eacie?io, ui iathoue aeica?e ia iaaee/ia
canoinoaaiiy, oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai eenoa “N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia”.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaaeaaia?/io oa
i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ia eaoaae?ao iaaeeei-a?ieia?/iiai i?io?eth
Oe?OA, OAeIO, oaeoeueoao? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaaeeoeeie OAeO, Ee?anueei?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aoa cae?eniaiee
iaoaioii-?ioi?iaoe?eiee iiooe, i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e ca
oaiith aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? oe?e? oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee, a?aei?aoeueiaai? iiaeae?, ca?aeii c yeeie iniaenoi
aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaii noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo oa aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ioi?ieaii ?o o aeaeyae?
oaaeeoeue oa a?ao?e?a, noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaee ?iaioe. Noi?nii c
eaoaae?ith aano?iaioa?ieia?? oa ae??oioa?ai?? EIAII i?iaaaeaii ee?i?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aieeao aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a ia ia?aa?a o?ii?/iiai
aaiaoeoo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia Ia?oiio Oe?a?inueeiio
eiia?an? aano?iaioa?ieia?a (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995);
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 190-??//th eaoaae?e
oa?iaeieia?? OAeIO (i.Oa?e?a, 1995); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 75-??//th Oe?OA (i.Oa?e?a, 1996); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaae??oai? ieoaiiy aano?iaioa?ieia??”
(i.Oa?e?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 14 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, c ieo — 5 noaoae a oeaio?aeueieo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 1 — a
ca??oe? iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 7 oac aeiiia?aeae, 1 ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eenoie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia
155 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
iieno iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, 6 ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae.

?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 22 oaaeeoeyie oa 17 ?enoieaie. A?ae?ia?ao?y
i?noeoue 254 aeaea?aea, a oiio /ene? 58 ?iicaiieo.

.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Ia`?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
iaie aoei ia?aii aeey ii??aiyeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee 5 a?o/eciyieo
i?aia?ao?a, ye? iathoue aaiaoii?ioaeoi?io ae?th: aio?aeue, o?io?eacie?i,
nee?ai?, oeai?i, oieinan.

Aio?aeue — eii?aeeiaoe?eia niieoea aethi?i?th c
N-(2,3-aeeiaoee)-oai?eaio?ai?eiaith eeneioith.

O?io?eacie?i — iio?aeia o?eacieo, ui i?noeoue n??eo oa ii?oie?i??ao
n?eue (3-iaoee-1,2,4-o?eacie?e-4-o?iioeoiai? eeneioe).

Nee?ai? — ia?oee aaiaoicaoeniee i?aia?ao a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
yeee i?noeoue o nai?io neeaae? iie?oaiieuei? niieoee oa ieneei?e/i?
eeneioe ?icoi?iioe ieyienoi?.

Oeai?i — nooee eiioeaio?ao oei?ia i?uaiiai, yeee i?noeoue noio
oeaaii?a.

Oieinan — ne?ii, aeaioiaeaiee c? caouaiiai aiaeiiai aeno?aeoo ieiae?a
oeioeie.

Oe? i?aia?aoe aoei ia?aii iaie c e?eueeio i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, oea
i?aia?aoe a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; ii-ae?oaa, aiie iathoue ??ci?
iaoai?cie aaiaoicaoenii? ae??; ii-o?ao?, ? ??cieie ca iioiaeaeaiiyi
(?ineeii? ? neioaoe/i?).

Ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo a?ae?a?aieo i?aia?ao?a i?iaiaeeee ia
iiaeaeyo Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiai, oao?aoeeee?iiaiai, (NNL4 aoaiie)
aaiaoeo?a, ?oai?? oa /anoeia?e ?acaeoe?? ia/?iee (Ae?iaiaic N.I. e
niaao., 1994).

Aeine?aeaeoaai? aaiaoii?ioaeoi?e aaiaeeee o e?eoaaeueiiio ?aaeei?
ia?i?aeueii a aeicao AAe50 (aio?aeue — 8 ia/ea, o?io?eacie?i — 22,5
ia/ea, oeai?i — 250 ia/ea, oieinan — 0,37 ia/100 a), nee?ai? a aeic?
AAe30 (25 ia/ea).

I?ney cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo, i?e an?o iiaeaeueieo iaoieia?yo, oaa?ei
aeaeai?ooaaee ? i?iaiaeeee caa?? e?ia? oa ia/?iee c iaoith ioe?iee
aaiaoicaoenii? ae?? i?aia?ao?a ca oa?iaeieia?/ieie, a?io?i?/ieie oa
a?noiii?oieia?/ieie iieacieeaie.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ianoaaeaii 116 oai?eo ia
o?ii?/iee oiene/iee aaiaoeo. I?iaiaeeeinue aea/aiiy a?io?i?/ieo i?ia
ia/?iee.

Aea/aiiy aeia/ia?iii? ae?? i?aia?ao?a a aenia?eiaio? i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeii I.I.Neaeoia oa A.I.Ie?eiee (1967).

Eiioeaio?aoe?th aeia/ieo eeneio oa oieanoa?eio aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii
E.E.A?aiaoaanueei? (1985), A.I.I??ioi?/aiei oa ni?aaao.(1978).

Aeai?iai?iio?ainoa?acio (AeAO) oa ania?oaoai?iio?ainoa?acio (AnAO)
aeoeai?noue ne?iaaoee e?ia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei oa oai?eo
aecia/aee ca?aeii Reitman S. oa Frankel S. (1956) oa
eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacio (EAeA) aeoeai?noue ca?aeii oi?o?eiaaiiio iaoiaeo
Sevela-Oivarek (1959) ca ?aaeoe??th c 2,4-ae?i?o?ioai?ea?ae?ic?iii.

Aea/aiiy aeoeaiino? eoaeii? oinoaoace (EO) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei oa oai?eo i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii
Bessey-Lowry-Brock (1940). Ai?no caaaeueiiai a?eea a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
aecia/aee ca a?o?aoiaith ?aaeoe??th (1973), caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a — ca
eieuei?iaith ?aaeoe??th c noeueoiaai?e?iiaei ?aaeoeaii (ca aeiiiiiaith
noaiaea?oieo iaai??a a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa).

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aea/aee ai?no a?e??oa?io oa
eiai o?aeoe?e ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoei iaoiaeii Jendrassik L. (1970);
-e?iii?ioa?ae?a ca oo?a?aeeiao?e/iei iaoiaeii Ao?ooaeia-Naiay (1976);
aeoeai?noue -aeooai?eo?ainiaioeaeace aecia/aeany ca aeiiiiiaith
aiae?caoi?a “AAAIOO” a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?; caaaeueiee a?eie ne?iaaoee ca
eaei?eiao?e/iei a?o?aoiaei iaoiaeii; aeueaoi?ie, aeiaoe?ie oa ?o
o?aeoe?? ca iaoiaeii aeaeo?ioi?aco ia iaia??; oeiieiao i?iao ca
iaoiaeeeith Iaeeaaaia (1944) a iiaeeo?eaoe?? Ooa?ai oa Iiia? (1949).

C iaaaaeie ia/?iee aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei aeaioiaeyee aiiiaaiaoe, a
yeeo aecia/aee eiioeaio?aoe?th iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo (IAeA) ca
iaoiaeii ?.Ae.Noaeueii? oa O.A.Aa?eoa?e? (1977), a oaeiae ae?eiaai ca
Eaiiii ? E?ooeai (1965).

Aeey aea/aiiy aia?aicaaacia/aiino? aaiaoioeeo?a o i?e?iniiaeuei?e
o?aeoe?? aecia/aee ai?no AOO ca?aeii c ?ino?oeoe??th, aeiaeaiith aei
oi?o?eiaaieo ee?i?/ieo iaai??a “Labsystem”.

Aea/aiiy ii?oieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e aaiaoioeeo?a i?iaiaeeeinue c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?noieia?/ieo i?eeii?a iaoiae?a na?oeiai? i?e?ineii??.

O an?o oai?eo i?iaiaeeeinue oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?a
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie ia OC-aia?ao? “Siemens” SL — 1. I?e ioe?ioe?
oeueo?acaoeiai? ea?oeie aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa???
Saunders .

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii?
noaoenoeee c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eoa??y “O“ No`thaeaioa ? eiao?oe??ioo
a??ia?aeiino? “?”.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

I?e aeai?? iiaeaeae caoai?thaaiue ia/?iee ie, ia?o ca ana, caaaeaee ia
nooi?iue aaeaeaaoiino? oeo ci?i a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei, ye? i?eoaiaii?
iaoieia?? ethaeeie. Ca?aeii aeaieo oaae.1 ci?ie
ooieoe?iiaeueii-a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a i?e iaoieia?? ia/?iee o ethaeeie
ei?aeththoue ?c ci?iaie, io?eiaieie a aenia?eiaio?, ui noaei i?eaiaeii
aeey aeno?aiieyoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

Iaei??th c iiaeaeae aino?iai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee, yea ca a?eueo?noth
ia?aiao??a iaaaaeo? a??oniee aaiaoeo o ethaeeie, ? Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaee
aaiaoeo. Ae-aaeaeoicai?i (2-ae?iene-2-ai?ii-Ae-aaeaeoica) ca nai?th
o?i?/iith no?oeoo?ith ? ai?iioeoe?ii, iio?aeiei Ae-aaeaeoice. Ae?y eiai
ia ia/?ieo iia`ycaia c aieeaii ia iai?i ioeeaioeae?a, ii?ooaiiyi
neioaco iae?iiieaeoe, cie?aia ?IE, c a?aeiia?aeiei aaeueioaaiiyi neioaco
a?eea, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo aaiaoeoo (Ei?aea I.I., 1998).
Caiaeueia ?aaeoe?y o ia?aio?i? ia/?iee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aee?iaith
aeaaaia?aoe??th, iioeiaeaeaiiyi i?oioiiae??e, i?ie?oa?aoe??th
aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio oa o?a?icii. Ii?yae c oeei o
oieneeiaeeiai?oe? Ae-aaeaeoicai?io cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?a? eiai
i?iieneaeaioia ae?y. Eeth/iaei iaoai?ciii iioeiaeaeaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a i?e
oeueiio ? aeoeaaoe?y ?aaeoe?e oa?iaioaoeaiiai IIE (Ae?iaiaic N.I. e
niaao.,1994).

Aeua iienai? i?ioeane i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny io?eiaieie iaie
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie i?e iiaeaethaaii? Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiai
aaiaoeoo, ca yeeie ??aaiue IAeA (aoi?eiiee i?iaeoeo e?iiia?ieneaeaoe??)
o aiiiaaiaoao ia/?iee i?aeaeuo?oueny o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei
iieacieeii o 3 ?ace. Ii?yae ?c aenieei ai?noii ia?aeenieo i?iaeoeo?a o
aiiiaaiaoao ia/?iee, ie aeyaeee oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? AeAO oa
EAeA a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o 2,8 oa 2,3 ?ace, a?aeiia?aeii. C?inoaiiy
aeoeaiino? aeaieo oa?iaio?a ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye ?acoeueoao aeoeaaoe??
i?ioean?a IIE, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy oeeoie?oe/iiai neiae?iio o
ia/?ioe? (Neaeoi I.I., Oiaiueei A.A.,1995; Galle P.R.,1997).

I?e iiaeaethaaii? Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiai aaiaoeoo o uo??a iaie aoei
anoaiiaeaii ii?ooaiiy an?o eaiie i?ioeano aeia/iooai?aiiy oa
aeia/ia?aeae?eaiiy (oaae.1.). Aaaaeaiiy oaa?eiai aio?aeth,
o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o, oeai?io oa oieinano i?e Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiio
aaiaoeo? i?ecaaei aei cia/iiai iie?auaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
ia/?iee, yea i?iyaeeinue o cieaeaii? ?ioaineaiino? a?eueii?aaeeeaeueieo,
oeeoie?oe/ieo, oieanoaoe/ieo i?iya?a iioeiaeaeaiiy oa ii?iae?caoe??
??aiy iieaciee?a i?ioean?a iai?io ?a/iaei. Aioeieneaeaioia ae?y
aio?aeth, yeee iaeaea iiai?noth (97,6%) ii?iae?co? ??aaiue IAeA a
ia/?ioe? uo??a, ai/aaeaeue, iia`ycaia ?c caeaoi?noth ?ii?a aethi?i?th
anooiaoe a eiieo?aioi? a?aeiineie c ?iiaie cae?ca, ye? aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace (NAeA) (Ae?iaiaic N.I. oa
ni?aaao.,1994). A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai ciaioo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue
iaoa?iaioaoeaiiai a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
o/anoth ?ii?a cae?ca. E??i oiai, aioeieenethaaeueia ae?y aio?aeth iiaea
aooe coiiaeaia ciaioaiiyi aeoeaiino? NAeA, ui aaaea aei ciaioaiiy
ooai?aiiy aeoeaieo oi?i eenith i?e ieenethaaeueiiio oinoi?eethaaii?
noano?ao?a. Oe? ?ioeii? iaoai?cie ae?? aio?aeth oaeiae coiiaeththoue
aioeoeeoie?oe/io

Oaaeeoey 1

E?aoi?noue ci?i a?aeiinii ii?ie iniiaieo ooieoe?iiaeueii-a?io?i?/ieo
iieaciee?a ia/?iee ethaeeie oa

aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oaa?ei a caeaaeiino? a?ae ao?ieia?? aaiaoeoo

I?ei?oea: + neaai -, ++ na?aaeiuei -, +++ yne?aai ae?aaeai? ci?ie;
— i?aeaeuaiiy, — cieaeaiiy

ae?th, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ci?i noano?aoii? aeoeaiino?
?ioa?iaae?aio?a oeeeeo E?aana oa ?ia?aoaaiiy a?eueii?aaeeeaeueii?
aeano?oeoe?? iaia?aiieo no?oeoo? aaiaoioeeo?a. Ae?oaei iiiaioii o
oi?ioaaii? aioeoeeoie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino? aio?aeth ? i?eai?/aiiy
aeoeaiino? oeeeeiieneaaiace (OeIA-1) ca ?aooiie iaoaiaiiai? eeneioe, yea
aoiaeeoue aei eiai neeaaeo (Ae?iaiaic N.I. oa ni?aaao., 1994). Oeae
i?ioean aaaea aei ci?i ??aiy e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a eaneaaeo a?ao?aeiiiai?
eeneioe, ui ni?eyoeeai a?aeia?aaea?oueny ia oe?e?niino? iaia?ai
aaiaoioeeo?a (Eai?iaeaea? A.E.,1995).

Aaaaeaiiy aio?aeth ni?aaey? iiceoeaiee aoaeo ? ia aeia/inae?aoi?io
ooieoe?th ia/?iee, ui, i/aaeaeii, coiiaeaii cieaeaiiyi ??aiy
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ?ia?aoaaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ia?aeiiai oa?iaioo
oiea?aco — Na+, E+ -AOO-ace (Neaeoi I.I.,1995).

Iiceoeaiee aieea ni?aaey? aio?aeue ia noai aoaeaaiaeiiai iai?io
ia/?iee, ui iia`ycaii, ia iao iiaeyae, c? ci?iaie iai?oaeaiino?
aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioean?a o aaiaoioeeoao ia oii? cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
i?ioean?a IIE oa iie?auaiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy oinoi??eacii? nenoaie
i?e?inii ia/?iee (Iiaeuiiaa N.Ae., 1993).

?ioee iaoai?ci aaiaoicaoenii? ae?? o o?io?eacie?io, yeee i?aeaeuo?
aeoeai?noue aiaeiaaiiiai aioeieneaeaioiiai eiiiiiaioo aaiaoioeeo?a
(Ae?iaiaic N.I.,1995; Naeueieeiaa N.E.,1993), i?e/iio, iaea?eueoo
aeoeai?noue o?io?eacie?i aeyaey? a?aeiinii nenoaie aeooao?iio, ui
iaoiiaeth?oueny, ia iao iiaeyae, aeoeaaoe??th o?ioa?iaio?a nenoaie
oeaieiiiai aeeoaiiy oa iie?auaiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?iaio?a
iaioiciiiiioinoaoiiai oeeeeo (Aa?ai/aiei A.A. e niaao., 1995).

O iaoai?ci? aioeoeeoie?oe/ii? ae?? o?io?eacie?io aeae?eythoue eiai
caeaoi?noue cieaeoaaoe i?ioean aeaa?aaeaoe?? iaia?aiieo oinoie?i?ae?a o
aaiaoioeeoao ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ae?? ia ieo aeoeaieo
oi?i eenith. Iaeiae, ca aioeoeeoie?oe/iith aeoeaiinoth (61,3%)
o?io?eacie?i aeaui iinooia?oueny aio?aeth (70,3%) a oiiaao
Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiai aaiaoeoo

A oie aea /an, o?io?eacie?io i?eoaiaiia a?eueo ae?aaeaia aeia/ia?iia
aeoeai?noue (595,3 ia/100 a iane o?ea), i?ae aio?aeth (421 ia/100 a
iane o?ea), ui ai/aaeaeue iaoiiaeaii ia o?eueee aieeaii ia nenoaio
Na+-E+-AOO-ace, aea e aeoeaaoe??th 7 — oa 12 -aeae?ieneeac (Iiaeuiiaa
N.Ae., 1993, Iaea? E.-I., 1999).

Ae?aaeaiee aaiaoicaoeniee aoaeo i?e Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiio aaiaoeo?
niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae o oieinano. Aioeieenethaaeueia (51,4%) ?
iaia?aiicaoenia (65,2%) ae?y oieinano, iiaeeeai, coiiaeaia iayai?noth o
iueiai ye anei?a?iiai? eeneioe, oae ? a?ioeaaiii?ae?a (Neaeoi
I.I.,1995). Anei?a?iiaa eeneioa ? aioeieneaeaioii ? aaeueio? i?ioeane
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (Aa?ai/aiei A.A. e niaao.,
1995). A?ioeaaiii?aee, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oieinano, i?eeiathoue
o/anoue o i?ioeanao ieenethaaeueiiai oinoi?eethaaiiy ? ni?eythoue
ii?iae?caoe?? o?ainii?oo aeaeo?ii?a o aeeoaeueiiio eaioethao
i?oioiiae??e /a?ac nenoaio oeaa?icaeaaeieo aeaa?ae?iaaiac c ooai?aiiyi
nai?o?iiiiaiai ?aaeeeaeo oa ia?aoai?aiiyi eiai a?aeiiaeaiieo oi?i
(Neuoeia A.A.,1990; Erneux C.,1995). Oeae iaoai?ci ae??
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny io?eiaieie a ?acoeueoao? iaoiai aenia?eiaioo aeaieie
uiaei ?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioean?a IIE oieinanii. Iaia?aiii?ioaeoi?ia
aeoeai?noue oieinano, ai/aaeaeue, iaoiiaeaia caoenoii iaiane/aieo
aee?ieo eeneio ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie iaoa?iaioaoeaiiai
aioeieenethaaeueiiai caoenoo. Oae oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui anei?a?iiaa
eeneioa ? ia eeoa aioeieneaeaioii, a e i?iieneaeaioii: aiia eaaei
ieeneth?oueny ? ia?aoiaeeoue a aeaa?ae?ianei?a?iiao eeneioo, ca ?aooiie
yei? i?aeo?eiothoueny i?ioeane a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy (Neaeoi
I.I.,1995). Aioeoeeoie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue oieinano aiaeia?/ia aeoeaiino?
o?io?eacie?io ? aeaui iinooia?oueny aio?aeth. Oeai?io, ye ? ?ioei
aeine?aeaeoaaiei i?aia?aoai, oaeiae i?eoaiaiia aioeieenethaaeueia ?
iaia?aiinoaa?e?coth/a aeoeai?noue. Aioeieenethaaeueiee aoaeo oeai?io
(36,6%), iiaeeeai, iiynith?oueny iayai?noth a eiai neeaae?
a?ioeaaiii?ae?a c ?ooiiei i?ioiiii aiaeith, ui aeieo? iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie eaioethaiai? ?aaeoe?? a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy. Ca
aioeieenethaaeueiith aeoeai?noth oeai?i iinooia?oueny aio?aeth ia 61%,
o?io?eacie?io ia 34%, oieinano ia 14,8%. Oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui a?i
ae?? ia a?eueo i?ci?o noaae?yo a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy, a naia,
ia noaae?? ?icaaeoaeaeaiiy eaioethaa ?aaeoe??.

Iaia?aiicaoeniee aoaeo oeai?io (57%) oaeiae aoa ieae/ee ii??aiyii c
aio?aeai ia 13,3%, o?io?eacie?iii — ia 5%, oieinanii — ia 9%. A?i
iaoiiaeaiee iayai?noth o neeaae? oeai?io oeaaiiieiaeo ? oeaaiiiaeo
niieoe, -neoinoa?eio, ea?ioeii?ae?a, ye? caaacia/othoue ia o?eueee
noaa?e?caoe?th iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?, a e iie?auothoue oiea?aoe/i?
i?ioeane (Neuoeia A.A.,1990).

Io?eiai? aeai? ocaiaeaeothoueny c no/anieie oyaeaiiyie i?i iaoai?cie,
ye? coiiaeththoue oaeaee?noue aeia/ioieo (Na?aoeeia A.N., Neaeoi
I.I.,1991). Ca aieeaii ia i?ioeane oiea?aco oeai?i iacia/ii
iinooia?oueny oieinano. A oie aea /an ? ? a?aei?ii?noue o iaoai?ci? ae??
oieinano ? oeai?io: oeai?i i?aeaeuo? e?euee?noue aeia/?, iaeiae ciaioo?
?? aonoeio, a oieinan a?eueo aieeaa? ia nenoaio Na+-E+-AOO-ac (Ae?iaiaic
N.I. e niaao., 1995). E??i oiai, iao? i?eiouaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ye
?o aieeaii ia noaa?e?coth/o aeanoea?noue aeia/?, oae ? ?acoeueoaoii
aeine?aeaeaiue aia?aicaaacia/aiiino? aaiaoioeeo?a.

C on?o i?aia?ao?a, ye? aea/aeeny iaie, nee?ai? aeyaea iaeiaioo
aioeieneaeaioio (13,1%) ? iaia?aiinoaa?e?coth/o (25,3%) aeoeai?noue.
Aeai? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/aoue, ui iaoai?ci aioeieenethaaeueii? ae??
nee?ai?o iieyaa? a caeaoiino? i?eai?/oaaoe Fe2+-anei?aaocaeaaeio
a?ia?e?iiia?ieneaeaoe?th, iiaeeeai, o ca`yceo c ?ia?aoth/ith ae??th ia
enaioeiieneaeaco (Neaeoi I.I., Oiaiueei A.A., 1995). Iaeiae, i?e
Ae-aaeaeoicai?iiaiio aaiaoeo? iaea?eueo aeoeao?oueny oa?iaioaoeaia IIE
(Ei?aea I.I., 1998), ia yea nee?ai? ae?? ia oae ae?aaeaii, ui,
ai/aaeaeue, iiynith? iaaenieee aioeieenethaaeueiee aoaeo nee?ai?o,
iaea?aeaiee a iaoeo aeine?aeao. A iniia? iaia?aiicaoenii? ae?? nee?ai?o
eaaeeoue caeaoi?noue a?ioeaaiii?aeiiai eiiieaeno noaa?e?coaaoe ee?oeii?
? noaee?oeii? iaia?aie (Neaeoi I.I. e niaao., 1995).

Iecueea aioeieenethaaeueia aeoeai?noue nee?ai?o, iiaeeeai, coiiaeth?
eiai iaaenieo aeia/ia?iio aeoeai?noue, aaeaea ?ioaineo?eaoe?y A?I
i?eai?/oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy Na+-E+-AOO-ace (Iaea? E.-I., 1999), yea ?
i?ia?aeiei aeaiaioii oiea?aco. E??i oiai, aeaye? aaoi?e a nai?o i?aoeyo
aeacothoue ia caeaoi?noue nee?ai?o ciaiooaaoe aeoeai?noue
Na+,E+-AOO-ace, yea a?ae?a?a? i?ia?aeio ?ieue o i?ioean?
aeia/ia?aeae?eaiiy (Aaeionia TH.A. e niaao.,1993).

I?e aeeiaieueiiio aaiaoeo? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy (oaae.1.)
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee a?aeiia?aeathoue aeaiei, ye? io?eiai?
?ioeie aaoi?aie (Neaeoi I.I., 1995).

Oae, a iaoeo aeine?aeao a?aecia/aany ca`ycie i?ae ai?noii ia?aeenieo
i?iaeoeo?a oa ??aiai AeAO.

Ianooiiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi nooiaiy ae?aaeaiino? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano
o ia/?ioe? i?e iaeii/aniiio aaaaeaii? aoaiieo oa oao?aoei?iaoaio ?
i?eai?/aiiy aeia/iooai?thth/i? ? aeia/iaeae?eueii? ooieoe?? i?aaio,
a?iii?ioa?iai?y, a?iioieanoa?eiai?y.

An? aeua aeacai? ci?ie a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a, i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
i?e?ineii?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, ? iane?aeeii oi?ioaaiiy o oaa?ei
aino?iai aeeiaieueiiai aaiaoeoo.

I?e e?eoaaii? oaa?ei c aaiaoeoii aeacaiiai aaiaco oae naii ye ? i?e
aino?iio o?aaeaii? ia/?iee Ae-aaeaeoicai?iii, aeine?aeaeoaai? i?aia?aoe
aeyaeee iaiaeiaeiao aaiaoicaoenio ae?th. Iaeneiaeueio aioeieenethaaeueio
aeoeai?noue oa caeaoi?noue iiia?aaeaeoaaoe oeeoie?c aeyaeee aio?aeue ?
o?io?eacie?i, i?i?iaeueio — nee?ai?. Oey ??cieoey, ia iao iiaeyae,
iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?aia?aoe aio?aeue ? o?io?eacie?i a?eueoith
i??ith aieeaathoue ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy IAAe+/IAAeO*I. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cieaeaiiy iaeiie/aiiy aoeaoaeueaeaa?aeo ? iioei?caoe??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy IAAe+-caeaaeieo aeaa?ae?iaaiac ia/?iee, ui ciaioo?
iioeiaeaeoth/ee aieea aoeaoaeueaeaa?aeo oa eiai iaoaaie?o?a ia
aaiaoioeeoe, aaeaea iiaeeeaino? aeeiaieueaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? nenoaie
e?i?oiaai? ai?noii IAAe (Ooeoaeei A.E., 1993).

O?io?eacie?i, caaaeyee nai?io aieeao ia IAAe+-caeaaeia IIE, ciaioo?
?ioaineai?noue a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy a ia/?ioe? ia 39,3%, a
aio?aeue — ia 42%. Iiaeeeai, oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui aio?aeue aieeaa? ia
NAeA oa i?e?iniiaeueio aoaiieieenethaaeueio nenoaio (IAIN). Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui ieeneaiiy aoaiieo eaea c aeei?enoaiiyi IAAeO ?
I2I2 (Ooo?yineee A.A. e niaao., 1990). Inoaii?e, a oiiaao ?iaeoeiaaiiai
IIE, iiaea anooiaoe a ?aaeoe?? a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy ia ia?o?e
oa ae?oa?e noaae?yo.

I?e aeeiaieueiiio aaiaoeo? o?io?eacie?i caeia? ae?oaa i?noea ca
aioeieenethaaeueiiiei aoaeoii ii??aiyii c on?ia ?ioeie i?aia?aoaie
ca?aeii io?eiaiei ?acoeueoaoai. Ia iao iiaeyae, oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui
o?io?eacie?i ca?eueoo? aia?aicaaacia/ai?noue ee?oei ia/?iee, a
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? aaeaiiceiaeeoinoaoo aeoeao? i?oioiiae??aeueia
IAAe*I — ?aieeneaiiy aoaiieo ?, oaeei /eiii, ciaioo?oueny nooi?iue
iioeiaeaeoth/i? ae?? aeoeaieo oi?i eenith (AOE) ia ia/?ieo
(Ooeoaeei A.E., 1993).

Oieinan (aioeieenethaaeueia aeoeai?noue 42,1%), ca ?aooiie a?aeiiaeaiiy
o?iiiiaeo oi?i oaiieueieo niieoe, i?aeaeuo? aioeieenethaaeuei?
aeanoeaino? anei?a?iiai? eeneioe ?, oei naiei, ?ia?ao? i?ioeane
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy (Neeoeia A.A.,1990), aea ia iano?eueee
ae?acii, ye o?io?eacie?i ? aio?aeue.

Oeai?i, aioeieenethaaeueia aeoeai?noue yeiai aei??aith? 35,7%, aeyaea
naith aaiaoicaoenio ae?th i?e aino?iio aeeiaieueiiio aaiaoeo? caaaeyee
aieeao ia nenoaio oeaaiiiaeo ioeeaioeae?a oa iie?oaiieueieo niieoe, ae?y
yeeo aoea iienaia ?ai?oa.

Iaeiaioa aioeieenethaaeueia aeoeai?noue aoea o nee?ai?o (23,4%),
ine?eueee a?i ia ia? a nai?io neeaae? no?oeoo?, caeaoieo aai ca`ycoaaoe
AOE, aai aeieoaaoe eaioethae ieeneaiiy.

Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei, c oi/ee ci?o aieeao ia aia?aaoe/i? i?ioeane a
aaiaoioeeoao, ? aeei?enoaiiy oeai?io. Iath/e aeinoaoiuei aenieo
aioeieenethaaeueio oa aioeoeeoie?oe/io aeoeai?noue, oeai?i i?aeoe/ii
ii?iae?coaaa ai?no AOO ? ae?eiaaio.

Ie??i oiene/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue ia/?iee, na?aae caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a
aaiaoia?e?a?ii? nenoaie, inoaii?i /anii, cia/ia i?noea caeiathoue
aaiaoeoe, ye? ? iane?aeeii aaeeaaiiy e?e?a (Ae?iaiaic N.I. e
niaao.,1994, Oa?/aiei I.A.,1998).

Iaeiei c iae?aaoieo aaiaoioiene/ieo e?ea?nueeeo cania?a ? oao?aoeeee?i.
Oaeoi?ii, e?i?ooth/ei i?ecia/aiiy eiai a iaaee/i?e i?aeoeoe?, ? i?iya
aaiaoioiene/ii? ae??. Iaoai?ci iaaaoeaiiai aieeao oao?aoeeee?io ia
ia/?ieo aeinoaoiuei neeaaeiee ? ??ciiiai?oiee. A aaiac? o?aaeaiiy
aeae?ey?oueny aeoeaaoe?y a?eueii?aaeeeaeueieo i?ioean?a (Aaaai I.TH.,
1991), caeaoi?noue aeieoaaoe oa?iaioaoeai? nenoaie iaoaeii?ioa?i?a
(Aaaan Iaoaeaeoa ssne?, 1997), ii?oooaaoe neioac a?eea ia ?eainiiao oa
?ioa (Neaeoi I.I., 1995).

Aieea i?aia?ao?a, ui aea/aeeny, ia a?ineioaoe/i? i?ioeane a ia/?ioe?
i?e oao?aoeeee?iiaiio aaiaoeo? aoa iaiaeiaeiaei. Iaea?eueoee aoaeo ia
i?ioeane neioaco AOO ? a?eea aeyaea aio?aeue, a iaeiaiueoee — nee?ai?.
Oea iia`ycaii ?c caeaoi?noth aio?aeth caoeuaoe eiiiiiaioe oinoie?i?ae?a
a?ae ieeneaiiy ? iie?auoaaoe iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane (Ae?iaiaic N.I. e
niaao.,1994). Aeine?aeaeoaai? i?aia?aoe a?ae??ciythoueny ye ca
iaoai?ciii aioeieenethaaeueii? ae??, oae ? ca aieeaii ia i?ioeane
naiiaaiaco. Iaea?eueoo aioeieenethaaeueio aeoeai?noue a iaoeo aeine?aeao
aeyaea aio?aeue (74,5%), ieae/o — o?io?eacie?i (65,8%) ? nee?ai?
(51,7%). Aea aioeoeeoie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue ciaioo?oueny, a iine?aeiaiino?
a?ae aio?aeth (70,2%) ? o?io?eacie?io (62,6%) aei oeai?io (22%), ui
iia`ycaii c ??cieie aca?iiae?yie e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a a ?aoeaioi?iiio
iaoai?ci? ? a i?aai?ci? a oe?eiio (Ae?iaiaic N.I., Naoa?iaa N.E., 1993).

Ca nooiaiai aieeao ia ae?eiaaineioaoe/i? i?ioeane a ia/?ioe? a?eueo
ae?aciee aoaeo aeyaeee aio?aeue ? o?io?eacie?i, ca aieeaii ia
oaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy AOO — aio?aeue ? oeai?i, ca aieeaii ia e?i?aeiee
niaeo? aaiaoioeeo?a — oieinan. Oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui aio?aeue, a
a?eueo?e i???, i?ae oeai?i ? oieinan, ci?ith? oaeaee?noue oeeoie?oe/ieo
?aaeoe?e a?eie-noano?aoiiai a?ae?ie?co ? iie?auo? neioaoe/i? i?ioeane o
aaiaoioeeoao.

A iniia? i?ioaeoi?ii? ae?? o?io?eacie?ia i?e oao?aoeeee?iiaiio aaiaoeo?
eaaeeoue eiai caeaoi?noue ?iaeoeoaaoe aiaeiaaiio aioeieenethaaeueio
nenoaio, yea a iiaeaeueoiio anooia? a ?aaeoe?? IIE ? aaeueio?
e?iiia?aeenio aeano?oeoe?th aaiaoioeeo?a (Naeueieeiaa N.E., 1995).

Aeey ?ioeo i?aia?ao?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeenue, io?eiai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ia ? noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ieie.

C on?o i?aia?ao?a, ui aea/aeenue i?e oao?aoeeee?iiaiio aaiaoeo?,
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei ca aieeaii ia a?eeiaee oa e?i?aeiee iai?i, a oaeiae
ia noai aia?aicaaacia/aiiino? aaiaoioeeo?a ? aio?aeue ? oieinan, ?io? —
aai iinooiaeeny, aai aoee ia ??ai? iieaciee?a eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei.

Ca aieeaii ia aeia/inae?aoi?io ooieoe?th ia/?iee oieinan ? oeai?i
i?iyaeee aeuo, ii??aiyii c ?aooith aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?aia?ao?a,
aeoeai?noue.

Iecueeee aeia/inae?aoi?iee aoaeo aio?aeth iiaea aooe iia`ycaiee ?c
caeaoi?noth iaoaiaiao?a ae?yoe ia nenoaio NAeA, yea a oiiaao
oao?aoeeee?iiaiai aaiaoeoo ciaoiaeeoueny a i?eai?/aiiio noai?, ui
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ye ia oieaoi- ? oieanoa?eineioaoe/io ooieoe??, oae ?
ia i?ioeane oiea?aco (Na?aoeeia A.N., 1991).

?oai?/ia iioeiaeaeaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeoeaaoe??th
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy. Oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui aiane?aeie
“aeo?eaiiy” aeaeo?ii?a, a aeaeo?iiii-o?ainii?oiiio eaioethao
i?oioiiae??e i?aeaeuo?oueny ieeneaiiy noano?ao?a. I?e oeueiio
a?aei?/a?oueny i?e??no OAE- caaa?aeaieo i?iaeoeo?a (IAeA). I?e iineeaii?
?oai?? ??cei iineeth?oueny a?ae?ie?c iaia?aiieo oinoie?i?ae?a, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaeiie/aiiy e?cioinoaoeaeeeoie?io c ianooiiei
?ia?aoaaiiyi aeoeaiino? AOO-ace a ia/?ioe? (Eaieiaeaea? A.E.,1995).
Aeacai? ci?ie i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeinoia??iiai ciaioaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai
noano?aoo a aaiaoioeeoao (ae?eiaaio) oa iioeiaeaeaiiy a?eeiaiai ?
e?i?aeiiai iai?io.

??cieoey a ei?aaoth/iio aieeaia? i?aia?ao?a, ye? aea/aeenue, a oiiaao
?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee coiiaeaia ?o ??cieoeath a iaoai?ci? ae??.
O?io?eacie?i c on?o i?aia?ao?a, ui ii??aithaaeenue, aeyaea iaea?eueoo
aioeieenethaaeueio (59,9%) ? iaia?aiii?ioaeoi?io (57,3%) aeoeai?noue.
Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui o?io?eacie?i i?aeaeuo? ?acenoaioi?noue oeaiei aei
a?iiene/iiai noaio a ?acoeueoao? aei?noei? iaia?aiinoaa?e?caoe??. A?i
ciaioo? a?ae?ie?c iaia?aiieo oinoie?i?ae?a ?, oei naiei, iaiaaeo?
?ioaineai?noue IIE, aea iaei aieeaa? ia aia?aineioaoe/i? i?ioeane.

Aioeieneaeaioia aoaeoeai?noue aio?aeth i?e ?oai?? ia/?iee, ii??aiyii c
o?io?eacie?iii, aoea aeaui ieae/ith (54%). Oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui, a
oiiaao ?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy, ieeneaiiy /anoeie noano?aoo i?ioiaeeoue ia
ii IAAe-caeaaeiiio oeyoo, a /a?ac ?aca?aio noeoeeiaocaeaaeio nenoaio
(Aeeaiei E.A., 1989). Iaeiae, aio?aeue aeieo? NAeA, ui ciaioo?
oe?ii?noue inoaiiueiai oeyoo ieeneaiiy ? ni?ey? ?inoo i?ioean?a
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy. A oie aea /an, ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
aeoeaiino? iaia?aiieo oinoie?iac ? oeeeeiieneaaiac, aio?aeue cieaeo?
aeoeai?noue oeeoie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a (Naoa?iaa O.N., 1993).

O?ao? i?noea ca aioeieneaeaioiith ? iaia?aiinoaa?e?coth/ith ae??th i?e
?oai?? caeia? nee?ai?, yeiio aeaui iinooia?oueny oeai?i ? oieinan.
Ni?eueiei o iaoai?ci? ae?? ?ineeiieo aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a ? iayai?noue a ?o
neeaae? oeaaiiii?ioa?ae?a, aaiaoicaoenio ae?th yeeo aoei iienaii ?ai?oa.
I?e oeueiio aeoeai?noue ?ineeiieo aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a iacia/ii
a?ae??ciy?oueny iaeia a?ae iaeii?. Ca aieeaii ia
aia?aicaaacia/aii?noue aaiaoioeeo?a, aeoeai?noue ?ineeiieo
aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a cia/ii ia?aaeuo? oaeo o neioaoe/ieo i?aia?ao?a.

Oieinan iinooia?oueny oeai?io, aea ia?aaa?oo? nee?ai? ca caeaoi?noth
ei?aaoaaoe no?oeoo?ii-iaoaaie?/i? ii?ooaiiy, ye? aeieeee i?e ?oai??.
Iiaeeeai, oea iia`ycaii c oei, ui i?e o?aaeaii? iineeth?oueny ia?ao?ae
anei?a?iiai? eeneioe a aeaa?ae?ianei?a?iiao oa ae?eaoiaoeiiiao e?neioe,
ye? i?iyaeythoue i?iieneaeaioi? aeanoeaino?. Oiio aioeieenethaaeueia (?
iia`ycaia c iath iaia?aiii?ioaeoi?ia) ae?y oieinano i?aaeth?oueny.

Nee?ai? aeyaea iaeiaioee aieea ia ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a IIE ?
oeeoie?co i?e ?oai?/iiio o?aaeaii? ia/?iee. Ia iao iiaeyae, oea
iia`ycaii c oei, ui iniiaiee aoaeo nee?ai?o iaia?aiii?ioaeoi?iee, a
aioeieenethaaeueia ae?y ? aoi?eiiith (Neaeoi I.I., 1995).

Aei /enea iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo iaoieia?e aaiaoia?e?a?ii?
nenoaie, e??i oiene/ieo, e?ea?nueeeo oa ?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiue ia/?iee,
a?aeiinyoue o?aaiaoe/i? iioeiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?iyaeythoueny, e??i
ee?i?/ieo neiioii?a, oaeeie a?io?i?/ieie neeaaeiaeie o?aaeaiiy ye
oeeoie?oe/iee neiae?ii, aeoeaaoe?y IIE (Ae?iaiaic N.I.,1994).

Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueoee aieea
ia a?eieneioaoe/i? i?ioeane i?e /anoeia?e aaiaoiaeoii?? aeyaea
o?io?eacie?i. Aaaaeaiiy o?io?eacie?io noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?enei?aiiyi
neioaco AOO ? ae?eiaaio. Oe? aoaeoe o?io?eacie?io coiiaeai? oei, ui
inoaii?e ciaioo? eaoaaie?ci a?ee?a ? aeyaey? noeioethth/ee aieea ia ?o
neioac o aaiaoioeeoao. E??i oiai, ?nio? i?eiouaiiy, ui o?io?eacie?i
caeaoiee aieeaaoe ia nenoaio aiae?iaaicaeaaeieo ?aoeaioi??a ii oeio ae??
i?aia?ao?a aiae?inoaiiaiai ?yaeo (Naeueieeiaa N.E., 1994).

Aio?aeue i?e /anoeia?e aaiaoiaeoii?? iacia/ii iinooia?oueny (ia
15%-17%) o?io?eacie?io ca an?ia aeine?aeaeaieie iieacieeaie. Oea,
ai/aaeaeue, coiiaeaii oei, ui aio?aeue i?e ?acaeoe?? 2/3 ia/?iee
aenooia? a ?ie? ei?aeoi?a iaoaaie?/ieo ci?i a i?aai?, aea ia ni?e/eiy?
aiaaie?/iee aoaeo (Neeoeia A.A., 1993).

Oaeei /eiii, aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?e
aeai?? aaiaoii?ioaeoi?a iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia eeoa iicieia?/iee
oa?aeoa? caoai?thaaiiy, a e i?ia?aei? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee.

Oae, yeui i?e iaoieia?? ia?aaaaeathoue neiae?iie oeeoie?co, aeoeaaoe??
IIE, i?eai?/aiiy ae?eiaaineioaoe/ii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee, iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieie i?aia?aoaie ? o?io?eacie?i ? aio?aeue, i?e ae?aaeaiiio
oieanoac? — oieinan, o ?ac? ii?ooaiiy noaa?e?coth/eo aeanoeainoae aeia/?
— nee?ai?. Ca aieeaii ia aia?aaoe/i? i?ioeane a ia/?ioe? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieie caniaaie ? oeai?i ? o?io?eacie?i, a oie /an ye ca aieeaii ia
e?i?aeiee iai?i oaei? caeaaeiino? aeyaeoe ia aaeaeiny (oaae.2) Oaaeeoey
2

Aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia aoaeoeai?noue aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o,
oeai?io oa oieinano i?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo o?aaeaiiyo ia/?iee uo??a ca
aieeaii ia i?ia?aei? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee

I?ei?oea: A — aio?aeue; O — o?io?eacie?i; N — nee?ai?; O —
oeai?i; O — oieinan.Oaeiae iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii ee?i?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeeo aea/aany aieea aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o
oa oeai?io ia aeeiai?eo ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie caoai?thaaiiy ? iieacieee
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ia ia/?iee i?e o?ii?/iiio oiene/iiio aaiaoeo? (OOA)
(aeeiaieueiee, aiane?aeie i?eeiio e?e?a). I?ae iaoei iaaeyaeii
ciaoiaeeeinue 116 oai?eo ia OOA, ye? e?eoaaeenue a aano?iaioa?ieia?/iiio
oa oa?aiaaoe/iiio a?aeae?eaii? o ca`yceo c iia??oaiiyi noaio. I?e
iaaeoiaeaeaii? a ee?i?eo an? oai?? nea?aeeeenue ia caaaeueio neaae?noue,
cieaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ii?ooaiiy nio, aiaoeoo, oaeaeeo
aoiiethaai?noue, ioaeioo, iiyao e?iaioa/? ynai (14 in?a — 13,5%).

Ia`aeoeaiee iaeyae aeyaea iayai?noue noa?eoa?e/iino? neea? oa neeciai?
iaieiiee ?ioiai? ii?iaeieie a 18 oai?eo (15,5%), ae?ae?noue oe??e a 21
oai?iai (18%).

Iaeueiaoi?ii ca?eueoaiiy ia/?iee aoei aeyaeaii o 93 oai?eo (80,2%) —
aiia aenooiaea ieae/a ?aaa?iiai e?ath ia 2-2,5 ni ? iaea ??aiee e?ae,
aoea /ooeeaa i?e iaeueiaoe??, neiioii I?oia?a aeyaeany iiceoeaiei o 76
(65,5%), neiioii Ea?a — o 63 (54,3%) oai?eo..

I?ae aieeaii e?eoaaiiy ??cieie aaiaoii?ioaeoi?aie o an?o oai?eo
a?aei?/aeinue iie?auaiiy caaaeueiiai noaio, cieeiaiiy aai cia/ia
ciaioaiiy neaaeino?, noiiethaaiino?, ii?iae?coaaany nii, aiaoeo, o
a?eueoino? oai?eo cieeei ii/oooy aeeneiioi?oo, ooiee a?eue o i?aaiio
i?ae?aa??`?, ioaeioa.

Oaeei /eiii, an? cai?iiiiiaai? aaiaoii?ioaeoi?e iaee iiceoeaiee aieea
ia ia?aa?a o?ii?/iiai aaiaoeoo.

A?eueo nooo?aee aieea ia iciaee iaei? ia/?ieiai? iaaeinoaoiino? iaee
o?io?eacie?i, aio?aeue oa, a iaio?e i???, nee?ai? oa oeai?i. Aieueiaee
oa aeeniaine/iee neiae?iie aoee e?ea?aeiaai? /e cia/ii ciaioeeenue o
oai?eo, ye? io?eioaaee aio?aeue oa oeai?i, oa, a iaio?e e?eueeino?
aeiaaee?a, o oai?eo, ye? io?eioaaee nee?ai? oa o?io?eacie?i.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?iee ioe?ithaaany ca iieacieeaie
oeeoie?oe/iiai, iacaio?iaeueii-caiaeueiiai neiae?iio, ??aiai caaaeueiiai
a?e??oa?io oa eiai o?aeoe??, oieanoa?eio oa -e?iii?ioa?ae?a aei ? i?ney
e?eoaaiiy.

I?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? a ee?i?eo o an?o oai?eo niinoa??aaeenue ii?ooaiiy
??aiy oa?iaio?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue oeeoie?c aaiaoioeeo?a: AeAO, AnAO,
-AO.

Aeoeaiinoue AeAO, AnAO a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aeinyaaea 1,48 0,2 iiieue/e
oa 0,96 0,05 iiieue/e, a?aeiia?aeii. A?aei?/aeinue i?aeaeuaiiy
iieaciee?a caaaeueiiai, i?yiiai oa iai?yiiai a?e??oa?io, a oaeiae — AO
aei 99,7 6,25 ieiieue/aiae o 83 in?a (71,6%) (oaae.3.).

Caaaeueiee a?eie aecia/aany a iaaeao ii?iaeueieo iieaciee?a, iaeiae
niinoa??aaeinue i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a aeiaoe?iiai? o?aeoe?? aei 25,3
1,2 o 45 oai?eo (38,8 %) (oaae.3.).

I?ae aieeaii e?eoaaiiy aio?aeai, o?io?eacie?iii, nee?ai?ii oa oeai?iii
o an?o oai?eo iaea i?noea iiceoeaia aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a.

Ia ii?iae?caoe?th iieaciee?a oeeoie?co cia/i?oee aieea iaa aio?aeue.

Oaaeeoey 3

Aeeiai?ea a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee

aaiaoeo aei ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy

IieacieeeAei e?eoaaiiyI?ney e?eoaaiiy
aio?aeaio?io?eaci-e?iiioeai?iiinee?ai?iiAeAO,
iiieue/e1,480,20,720,1*0,840,2*0,950,60,960,4AnAO,
iiieue/e0,960,050,620,04*0,720,160,740,180,690,12*-AOI,
iiieue/aiae99,76,2568,035,8*72,84,6*78,24,8*71,66,7*Caaaeueiee
a?e??oa?i, ieiieue/e26,90,622,50,68*20,40,4*24,30,52*22,80,7*I?yiee
a?e??oa?i, ieiieue/e6,680,726,020,535,590,475,420,55,120,63Iai?yiee
a?e??oa?i, ieiieue/e20,220,516,480,31*14,80,6*18,90,6817,70,48*Eoaeia
oinoaoaca, iiieue/ne28412,526418,325912,826313,526514,3-e?iii?ioa?aee,
iae.39,825,631,72,834,34,333,43,832,43,5Caaaeueiee a?eie, a/e
71,86,974,15,875,86,070,56,170,25,7Aeueaoi?i,
a/e38,03,842,74,044,63,939,54,140,33,7
1-aeiaoe?i,%3,60,44,20,34,10,44,00,54,10,4 2-
aeiaoe?i,%9,40,789,20,818,80,799,00,809,00,84
-aeiaoe?i,%10,41,410,81,510,51,910,71,510,21,4-aeiaoe?i,%25,31,222,22,82
1,32,924,22,923,52,6Oeiieiaa i?iaa,iae.5,81,44,61,54,21,64,91,54.61,7

I?ei?oea: *?0,05 — aeinoia??ii uiaei iieaciee?a iae?eiaaieo oai?eo

Aeei?enoaiiy o?io?eacie?io nooo?ai aieeioei ia ??aaiue a?e??oa?io o
oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aaiaoeo. Ii?iae?caoe?y a?eeiaiai iai?io
niinoa??aaeanue o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a o oai?eo, ye? oaeiae io?eioaaee
o?io?eacie?i (oaae.3.).

Oaeei /eiii, aenia?eiaioaeuei? ? ee?i?/i? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
an? a?o/eciyi? aaiaoii?ioaeoi?e, ye? aea/aeenue a aeai?e ?iaio?, iathoue
aaiaoicaoenio aeoeai?noue, iaeiae ?o canoinoaaiiy iiaeiii aooe
?aaeaiaioiaaii ee?i?/ii-a?io?i?/ieie iciaeaie caoai?thaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. I?e ii??aiyeueiiio aiae?c? aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ii? aeoeaiino? aio?aeth,
o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o, oieinano oa oeai?io a aenia?eiaio? anoaiiaeaii,
ui i?e ??cieo iaoieia?yo ia/?iee, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ia?aaaaeii
neiae?iiii oeeoie?co, aeoeaaoe??th IIE, i?eai?/aiiyi ae?eiaaineioaoe/ii?
ooieoe?? ia/?iee, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie i?aia?aoaie aoee o?io?eacie?i ?
aio?aeue, i?e ae?aaeaiiio oieanoac? — oieinan, o ?ac? ii?ooaiiy
noaa?e?coth/eo aeanoeainoae aeia/? — nee?ai?, ca aieeaii ia aia?aaoe/i?
i?ioeane a ia/?ioe? — oeai?i, aio?aeue ? o?io?eacie?i.

2. Ia iiaeaeyo oiene/iiai aaiaoeoo ca iieacieeaie aioeieneaeaioii? oa
iaia?aiinoaa?e?coth/i? ae?? aio?aeue oa o?io?eacie?i i?iyaeee aeu?,
ii??aiyii c ?ioeie caniaaie, e?eoaaeuei? aeanoeaino?.

3. I?e aenia?eiaioaeuei?e /anoeia?e ?acaeoe?? oa noaoioaeuei?e ?oai??
ia/?iee o?io?eacie?i oa aio?aeue ca aioeieneaeaioiith oa
aioeoeeoie?oe/iith aoaeoeai?noth ia?aaaaeathoue i?aia?aoe ?ineeiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

4. Na?aae aeine?aeaeaieo oa?iaeieia?/ieo cania?a aio?aeue, o?io?eacie?i,
oeai?i, oieinan oa nee?ai? — inoaii?e i?iyaea iaeieae/o
aaiaoii?ioaeoi?io ae?th ye a aenia?eiaio?, oae ? a ee?i?oe?.

5. Aeyaeaii a aeine?ae? oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a ee?i?oe?, ui i?aia?aoe
oeai?i oa oieinan ii?yae c oiea?aoe/iei aoaeoii /eiyoue iaaio
ii?iae?coth/o ae?th ia iieacieee oeeoie?co aaiaoioeeo?a oa noai
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, aea iinooiathoueny neioaoe/iei
i?aia?aoai — aio?aeth oa o?io?eacie?io.

6. O oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee oiene/iee aaiaoeo iaeaoaeoeai?oeie ca aieeaii
ia ee?i?/i? iciaee (aieueiaee oa aeeniaice/iee neiae?iie) ? aio?aeue oa
oeai?i, a iaea?eueoo ii?iae?coth/o ae?th ia a?io?i?/i? iieacieee
(neiae?ii oeeoie?co, ??aaiue a?e??oa?io, iieacieee a?eeiaiai iai?io)
iathoue neioaoe/i? aaiaoii?ioaeoi?e: aio?aeue oa o?io?eacie?i.

Ia?ae?e ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Iioaioeththaaiiy aaiaoicaoenieo aeanoeainoae ?a/iaei /ni?aaao.
N.I.Ae?iaiaic, A.A.Neeoeia, I.A.AEo?aaaeue, E.Oaeaea? //Oa?iaeieia?y:
?noi??y, ?icaeoie, aeinyaiaiiy: ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.-Oa?e?a,
OAeIO.-1995.-N.49-53.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeae aeai?o
aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a /ni?aaao. N.I.Ae?iaiaic //E?ee.- 1998. —
?5.-N.32-35.

3. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia ?anoeoaeueiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey /niaao. N.I.Ae?iaiaic, O.E.Enaeiaa, O.I.Aa?iee
//O?oioa?ai?y a Oe?a?i?.-1998.- ?2(3).-N.13-17.

4. Aeueoa?iaoeaa auai?a aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia a oneiaeyo oiene/aneiai
aaiaoeoa e /anoe/iie ?acaeoeee ia/aie /niaao. N.I.Ae?iaiaic,
E.A.Aea?eiaaeaaaeue, A.A.AEo?aaaeue //I?iaeci?.-1998. — ?18.-N.29-30.

5. Ianoi ?anoeoaeueiuo aeae/aaiiiuo i?aia?aoia oeaieia e oieinana a
?yaeo aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia //I?iaeci?.-1998. — ?22.-N.46.

6. Nia?aiaiiua aaiaoii?ioaeoi?u a eiiieaeniii ea/aiee aieueiuo
o?iie/aneei aaiaoeiii /niaao. I.A.Oa?/aiei //I?iaeci?.-1999.-
?5.-N.44-45.

7. Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaiiai e?iini
iaeueiiai oa?iaeieia?/iiai i?aia?aoo a aaiaoieia?? /ni?aaao.
N.I.Ae?iaiaic, A.A.Neeoeia, I.A.AEo?aaaeue, A.I.Einoi/ea //Iiaia a
aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiee caaieaaaiee i?aaiia ieuaaa?aiey: Oac. aeii. ?ani.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio., 14-15 a?oaeiy 1994.- Oa?e?a.-N.151.

8. Iioaioee?oaaiiy aaiaoicaoenieo aeanoeainoae ?a/iaei /ni?aaao.
N.I.Ae?iaiaic, A.A.Neeoeia, I.A.AEo?aaaeue, E.Oaeaea? //Oac. aeii. 1
Oe?. eiia?. aano?iaioa?ieia?a, 19-21 aa?aniy
1995.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.-N.113.

9. Eeieea — ia?niaeoeaiue aaiaoii?ioaeoi? /niaao. A.N.A?eai?ueaaa,
A.A.AEo?aaaeue, //?in. aeo?iae aano?iyioa?ieiaee, aaiaoieiaee e eiei-
i?ieoieiaee.-1995.-O.V, ?3.-N.67 (oac. aeiee. 1-e aano?iyioa?ieiae/aneie
iaaeaee, N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995a.).

10. Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io,
oeai?io, nee?ai?o, oieinano i?e aino?iio aaiaoeo? /ni?aaao.
I.A.AEo?aaaeue //Aeinyaiaiiy no/anii? oa?iaoe?? — a iaaee/io i?aeoeeo:
Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio., i?enay/. 75-??//th
Oe?OA.-Oa?e?a.-1996.-N.257

11. Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oa?iaeieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? e?ie?ao i?e
iiaeaeueieo o?aaeaiiyo ia/?iee /ni?aaao. I.A.AEo?aaaeue, A.N.A?eai?`?aa,
E.Oaeaea?, //Aeinyaiaiiy no/anii? oa?iaoe?? — a iaaee/io i?aeoeeo:
Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio., i?enay/. 75-??//th
Oe?OA.-Oa?e?a.-1996.-N.288.

12. Iainiiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai auai?a aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia /niaao.
N.I.Ae?iaiaic, E.A.Aea?eiaaeaaaeue, A.A.AEo?aaaeue, E.A.*o?eeiaa,
E.I.*a?aiae //*aeiaae e eaea?noai: oac. aeiee. ?in. iaoe. eiia?. 8-12
ai?aey 1997a., Iineaa.-I.: ?Oe “Oa?iaaeeioi”, 1997.-N.42.

13. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea neeeai?a, oeaieia, oieinana, aio?aey e
oeio?eacieeia //Aeinyaiaiiy oa iaae??oai? ieoaiiy aano?iaioa?ieia??:
Iaoa??aee iaoe. i?aoeue ?ani. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. 7-8 ea?oiy
1998?.-Oa?e?a.-N.27.

14. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia /niaao.
N.I.Ae?iaiaic, E.A.Aea?eiaaeaaaeue // Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie ? 152-98,
1998.

AIIOAOe??

Ai?iae?ia O.A. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aio?aeth,
o?io?eacie?io, nee?ai?o, oeai?io oa oieinano i?e o?aaeaiiyo ia/?iee
??ciiai aaiaco (aenia?eiaioaeueii — ee?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.05 — oa?iaeieia?y .- ?inoeooo oa?iaeieia?? oa
oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii oa ee?i?/ii iaa?oioiaaia aeueoa?iaoeaa
aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a ? ae??oaii ieoaiiy ?o aca?iicai?iiino?
i?e ??ciiiai?oieo caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee.

Ia iniia? oa?iaeieia?/ieo, ee?i?/ieo, a?io?i?/ieo, a?noiii?oieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe??
aaiaoicaoenii? ae?? aio?aeth, o?io?eacie?io, oeai?io, oieinano oa
nee?ai?o.

Aeyaeaii a aeine?ae? oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a ee?i?oe?, ui i?aia?aoe oeai?i
oa oieinan ii?yae c oiea?aoe/iei aoaeoii /eiyoue ii?iae?coth/o ae?th ia
iieacieee oeeoie?co oa noai ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, aea
iinooiathoueny neioaoe/iei i?aia?aoai — aio?aeth oa o?io?eacie?io.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaiaoii?ioaeoi?e, aioeieneaeaioia oa iaia?aiicaoenia
aeoeai?noue, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c.

Ai?iaeeia O.A. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe aio?aey,
oeio?eacieeia, neeeai?a, oeaieia e oieinana i?e ii?aaeaieyo ia/aie
?acee/iiai aaiaca (yenia?eiaioaeueii-eeeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.05 — oa?iaeieiaey. — Einoeooo oa?iaeieiaee
e oieneeieiaee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia yenia?eiaioaeueiiio e eeeie/aneiio iainiiaaieth
auai?a iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai i?aia?aoa n aaiaoii?ioaeoi?iui aeaenoaeai
i?e ii?aaeaieyo ia/aie ?acee/iie yoeieiaee.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eco/aaiuo i?aia?aoia (aio?aeue,
oeio?eacieei, neeeai?, oeaiei, oieinan) i?iaiaeeeny a oneiaeyo
yenia?eiaioa (Ae-aaeaeoicaieiiaue, aeeiaieueiue, oao?aoeeeeeiiaue
aaiaoeo, ?acaeoeey 2/3 ia/aie, noaoioaeueiay eoaiey i?aaia) e a eeeieea
(o?iie/aneea aaiaoeou ?acee/iie yoeieiaee).

Ioeaieo aaiaoicaueoiiai aeaenoaey i?aia?aoia i?iaiaeeee ii neaaeothuei
aeioeie/aneei iieacaoaeyi: niaea?aeaiea a nuai?ioea e?iae
aeaieiaieiio?ainoa?acu, ania?oaoaieiio?ainoa?acu, eaeoaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu,
-aeooaieeo?ainiaioeaeacu, -eeiii?ioaeaeia, iauaai aaeea, iaueo eeieaeia,
uaei/iie oinoaoacu; a ia/aie — iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaaeaea, AOO,
aeeeiaaia, ii?aaeaeyee nei?inoue nae?aoeee aeae/e iiae aicaeaenoaeai
i?aia?aoia e niaea?aeaiea a iae aeae/iuo eeneio e oieanoa?eia.

Eco/aiea ii?oieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u aaiaoioeeoia yneia?eiaioaeueiuo
aeeaioiuo i?iaiaeeee n eniieueciaaieai aenoieiae/aneeo i?eaiia iaoiaeaie
naaoiaie iee?ineiiee.

Eae iieacaee iaoe enneaaeiaaiey i?e anao iiaeaeueiuo ii?aaeaieyo ia/aie
aaaeoueie aeioeie/aneeie neiioiiaie auee oeeoieeoe/aneee,
oieanoaoe/aneee e aeoeaaoeey naiaiaeii-?aaeeeaeueiuo aeano?oeoeaiuo
i?ioeannia.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e iiaeaeueiie iaoieiaee ia/aie ii aioeieneaeaioiie e
iaia?aiinoaaeeece?othuae aeoeaiinoe i?aia?aou iiaeii ?aniieiaeeoue ii
oiaiueoaieth aeoeaiinoe a neaaeothuee ?yae:

Ae-aaeaeoicaieiiaue aaiaoeo — aio?aeue oeio?acieei oieinan oeaiei
neeeai?;

oao?aoeeeeeiiaue aaiaoeo — aio?aeue oeio?eacieei neeeai? oeaiei
oieinan;

aeeiaieueiue aaiaoeo — aio?aeue oeio?eacieei oieinan oeaiei neeeai?;

?acaeoeey 2/3 ia/aie — oeio?eacieei aio?aeue neeeai? oieinan oeaiei;

noaoioaeueiay eoaiey — oeio?eacieei aio?aeue oeaiei oieinan neeeai?.

Yenia?eiaioaeueii e eeeie/anee aeieacaii, /oi aio?aeue, oeio?acieei,
oeaiei e oieinan ii aieueoeinoao yooaeoia i?aauoatho aeoeaiinoue ia?aiai
ioa/anoaaiiiai aaiaoii?ioaeoi?a neeeai?a.

Auyaeaii a yenia?eiaioa e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiii a eeeieea, /oi i?aia?aou
oeaiei e oieinan ia?yaeo n oiea?aoe/aneei aeaenoaeai ieacuaatho
ii?iaeecothuaa aeaenoaea ia iieacaoaee oeeoieeca e ninoiyiea ia?aeeniiai
ieeneaiey eeieaeia, ii onooiatho neioaoe/aneei i?aia?aoai — aio?aeth e
oeio?eacieeio.

?acoeueoaou eeeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iieacaee, /oi i?e o?iie/aneii
aaiaoeoa iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia i?eciaee iaeie ia/aii/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e iieacaoaee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?ia ia/aie eiatho
neioaoe/aneea aaiaoii?ioaeoi?u — aio?aeue e oeio?eacieei, ii aeeyieth ia
o?iaaiue aeee?oaeia e aaeeiaue iaiai iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui aue
oeio?eacieei, a ia i?ioeannu oeeoieeca — aio?aeue.

Ii niiniaiinoe oiaiueoaoue aieaaie e aeeniaine/aneee neiae?iiu o
aieueiuo o?iie/aneei aaiaoeoii iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie auee aio?aeue e
oeio?eacieei.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou eaaee a iniiao eino?oeoeee e iaaeeoeeineiio
eniieueciaaieth aio?aey e oeio?eacieeia, eioi?iaoeeiiiiai eenoea
“N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aaiaoii?ioaeoi?ia”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaiaoii?ioaeoi?u, aioeieneaeaioiay e iaia?aiica ueoiay
aeoeaiinoue, n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec.

Borodina O.V. The comparative analysis of anthral, thiotriasolin,
flamin, cholosas and silibor effectiveness for treatment liver defeats
of various genesis (experimental — clinical researches). — The
Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
medical sciences on a speciality 14.03.05 — pharmacology. — Institute of
pharmacology and toxycology of Academy of Medical Sciences of
Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

First time alternative of use of hepatoprotectors was experimentally
based and problem of their interchangeability for treatment various
liver diseases also was decided.

In the base of pharmacological, clinical, biochemical,
hystomorphological research methods the comparison of mechanisms of
anthral, thiotriasolin, flamin, cholosas and silibor hepatoprotective
activity was conducted.

As detected in experiment and confirmed in clinic flamin and cholosas
have choleretic activity and also can normalize indexes of cytolysis
and condition of peroxyde oxidation of lipids, but these preparations
concede to synthetic preparations — anthral and thiotriasolin.

Key words: hepatoprotectors, antioxydant and membranoprotective
activity, comparative analysis.

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