Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo

Nae?y Ao?ai Oaeaiae/

OAeE 624.012.46+624.016.5

Iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe?? cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? c?
neeiieanoeeiaei ? noaeueiei a?ioaaiiyi

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.01 — aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??,

aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeenna?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? cae?ciaaoiiieo ? eai’yieo eiino?oeoee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa a Noooinuee?e eaai?aoi???
neeiieanoeeiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ?inoeoooo eini?/ieo nii?oae A?oceinueeiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe A?oc??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe , i?ioani? Ee?iia THe?e Aiaoie?eiae/,
Ee?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oai??? oa iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e;

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe , i?ioani? Ionoiaieoia Aieiaeeie? Iaaeiae/,
Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueii? iaoai?ee;

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe , i?ioani? Noi?iaeaiei Eaii?ae ?aaiiae/,
Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH. Eiiae?aothea,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e eiino?oeoe?e ?c iaoaea , aea?aaa ? ieanoian.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

— Oe?a?inueeee ciiaeueiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ? i?iaeoiee ?inoeooo c
oeea?eueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa (AAO «Ee?aCIAe?AI») Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo
Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa, a?o?oaeoo?e ? aeeoeiai? iie?oeee
(i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 13 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 13.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.820.02 Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i. Oa?e?a,
iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i.
Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 13 ea?oiy 1999 a.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, eaiae. oaoi. iaoe, aeioeaio
??iae ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo
oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e. Ca?eueooth/e
o??ueiino?ee?noue, aiii caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ia?ae?eooy aaeeeeo
i?ieueio?a ? canoinoaaiiy aenieii?oeii? noaeueii? a?iaoo?e. Aeei?enoaiiy
neeiieanoeeiai? aai ?ioeo aeae?a iaiaoaeaai? a?iaoo?e aac iiia?aaeiueiai
iai?oaeaiiy acaaae? iaoyaeeeai /a?ac ?? aenieo aeaoi?iaoeai?noue. I?ioa
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe??, ui aeioneathoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie
aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono???, aeoaea aia?ai?ie?, ui a oiiaao ?eieo,
aeao?oeeoo aia?ai?ano?n?a iaoiiaeth? ?oith aenieo aa?o?noue.

Na?eicio i?iaeaio i?aaenoaaeythoue aiea?oaaiiy iaiaoaeaai? a?iaoo?e, ??
caoeno a?ae aieea?a na?aaeiaeua aaoiio, canoinoaaiiy a iiiie?oieo,
noaoe/ii iaaecia/aieo eiino?oeoe?yo.

Iniaeea? o?oaeiiu? iaoiiaeth? a?aenooi?noue, iai?eeeaae, o A?oc??
ae?iaieoeoa, ye? aeioneathoue iaiaoaeaao ? aenieii?oeio noaeueio
a?iaoo?o aeey iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui iio?aao?
noai?aiiy iiaeo aoaeoeaieo aeae?a iaiaoaeaai? a?iaoo?e ? iaoiae?a ??
aeaioiaeaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iayaiei iiaeeeainoyi, a oaeiae
iaaia?ai?ieeo oeyo?a canoinoaaiiy noaeueii? a?iaoo?e eeano A-???, yea
aeionea?oueny iaoaeo?a?eieie i?aei?e?inoaaie A?oc?? oa Oe?a?ie,

o iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?yo.

Iayai?noue i?aei?e?inoa c aa?aneaieie na?aaeiaeuaie, a?aenooi?noue aace
ii aeaioiaeaiith eiino?oeoe?e, ui iathoue aenieo ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue,
ae?aeaeo?e/i? oa ?io? oe?ii? aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee, aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy a?o/eciyii? noaeueii? a?iaoo?e, i?aeaeuaia
aia?aiaeo?aoi?noue ? aa?o?noue iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a
aeeeoothoue iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue o cacia/aieo
iai?yieao.

Iaoa ?iaioe — noai?aiiy iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a ? nenoai
cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? c neeiieanoeeiaei ? noaeueiei a?ioaaiiyi,
?ic?iaea i?eioeei?a ?o eiino?othaaiiy ? ?ic?aooieo c o?aooaaiiyi
o?ce/ii? ? aaiiao?e/ii? iae?i?eiino?.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Noai?eoe naiicaaiea?aio neeiieanoeeiao a?iaoo?o, ui caaacia/o?
iiaeeea?noue iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e
i?e i?i?ioi? aia?aiaeo?ao.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe aeanoeaino? ?ic?iaeaii? neeiieanoeeiai?
a?iaoo?e.

3. Cai?iiiioaaoe aoaeoeai? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? neeiieanoaaoiii?
eiino?oeoe?? cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo aeae?a neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e.

4. ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?? c aaaaoiaoaiiei iaoyaoaaiiyi neeiieanoeeiai?
a?iaoo?e ? iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy eiai ia?aiao??a.

5. Noai?eoe iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? neeiieanoaaoiii? eiino?oeoe??
cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? c ciai?oi?i ? aioo??oi?i neeiieanoeeiaei
a?ioaaiiyi, ui iie?ia?eco?oueony aaciina?aaeiuei o ae?ia?.

6. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe ?iaioo cai?iiiiiaaieo iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e i?e ae?? iaoai?/ieo,
aeaeo?e/ieo ? ee?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a.

7. ?ic?iaeoe eiia?iiaai? eiino?oeoe?? c neeiieanoaaoiiiieo ?
neeiieanoeeiaeo aeaiaio?a.

8. ?ic?iaeoe eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? cae?ciaaoiii?
eiino?oeoe?? caaiaenueeiai aeaioiaeaiiy cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? ?
nenoaio ?o iaoeniaiiy.

9. Noai?eoe nenoaio aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy a?iaoo?e aac
aeei?enoaiiy aia?ai?ieeo aenaaeaeaieo aie?aie.

10. I?iaanoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ioe?iee iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy a?iaoo?e eeano A-III a eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
eiino?oeoe?yo.

11. Iiaoaeoaaoe i?eioeeie ?ic?aooieo ?ic?iaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e c
o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii? iae?i?eiino? oa iniaeeainoae ?o ?iaioe a oe?eiio.

12. Ai?iaaaeeoe ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe.

Iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe neeaaeathoue:

— ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie noai?aiiy neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e, anoaiiaeai?
caeiiii??iino? ?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e ei?ioei/ani?e ? o?eaae?e ae??
iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie eiino?othaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
aeaiaio?a c? neeiieanoeeiaith a?iaoo?ith, ui ia? iaoeueia?, aiea?i?
cae?i/aiiy;

— ?ic?iaeaia aaaaoiaoaiia iaoyaoaaiiy a?iaoo?e iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
neeiieanoaaoiiieo caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a ? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo eiai
ia?aiao??a;

— iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ao?ao iai?oaeaiue a a?iaoo?? cai?iiiiiaaieo
neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e;

— i?eioeei iaea?aeaiiy iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a cieaeaii?
aia?aiaeo?aoiino? c? neeiieanoeeiaith ciai?oiueith ? aioo??oiueith
a?iaoo?ith, ui iie?ia?eco?oueny a eiino?oeoe?yo , ? ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoaeoeaiino? iaoeniaiiy;

— cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe iai?aaeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaieo eiia?iiaaieo
eiino?oeoe?e c? neeiieanoeeiaeo ? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
neeiieanoaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a;

— aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy a?iaoo?e
eeano A-III o eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?yo;

— i?eioeeie cieaeaiiy aia?aiaeo?aoiino? eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e caaiaenueeiai aeaioiaeaiiy;

— cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?aooieo ?ic?iaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e c
o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii? iae?i?eiino? oa iniaeeainoae, iaoiiaeaieo
canoiniaaieie niiniaaie ?oiueiai iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?ic?iaeai? iia? aeaee
a?iaoo?e, niiniae ?o iaea?aeaiiy, iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe??
ia ?o iniia?, nenoaie ci?oeiaiiy, ?ic?iaeaiee ?ic?aooieiaee aia?ao
a?aee?eaathoue oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? caaaeaiiy aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae ye
niaoe?aeueiiai, oae ? ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o c? cieaeaiith aeo?aoith
aia?aaoe/ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, aenieei nooiaiai
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??, ca?eueoaieie i?ieueioaie ? n?oeaie eieii, ui
caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy a?eueieo ieiu ?c aio/eei, o?ainoi?io?iei
ieaioaaiiyi.

Iniaenoi io?eiai? aeena?oaioii ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— iiaee oei neeiieanoaaoiiieo iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e c?
noa?aeiaaith naiicaaiea?iith a?iaoo?ith, yea ia eiioaeoo? c aaoiiii;

— iia? aeaee neeiieanoeeiai? naiicaaiea?aii? a?iaoo?e ? iaaia?ai?ie?
niiniae ?? iaea?aeaiiy;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ?iaioe cai?iiiiiaaii?
a?iaoo?e i?e ei?ioei/ani?e ? o?eaae?e ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— aeai? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e;

— niin?a aaaaoiaoaiiiai iaoyaoaaiiy neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e ? iaoiaeeea
?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a cacia/aiiai iaoyaoaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeai? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? aaoiii? aeaiaioe c ciai?oi?i
neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi, yea iaea?aeo?oueny niiniaii iaiioee ?
eiioaeoiiai oi?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae eiino?oeoe?? c eiia?iiaaiei a?ioaaiiyi;

— aeai? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaioe aeaiaio?a ?c ciai?oi?i
neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi i?e aieea? iaoai?/ieo, aeaeo?e/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ? ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua;

— eiia?iiaai? eiino?oeoe?? ia iniia? neeiieanoaaoiiieo ? neeiieanoeeiaeo
aeaiaio?a;

— aia?aicaa??aath/a nenoaia iaoai?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy a?iaoo?e eeano A-???
ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaieo onoaiiaie, aac aeei?enoaiiy aenaaeaeaieo
aie?aie;

— aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy a?iaoo?e
eeano A-??? a eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?yo;

— eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? cae?ciaaoiii? eiino?oeoe?? cieaeaii?
aia?aiaeo?aoiino? caaiaenueeiai aeaioiaeaiiy;

— i?eioeeie ?ic?aooieo ?ic?iaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino? oa iniaeeainoae ?o ?iaioe;

— aeai? i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? IEIE-98
«I?inoi?ia? eiino?oeoe?? a iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? ? i?e ?aeiino?oeoe??
aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae» (Iineaa, 1998 ?.), I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo
«Oaeineiiaeaiiy aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, oaoiieia?e, iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e o iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao» (i. Noie, 1994 ?.),
«I?iieneia?noue aoaeiaoa??ae?a ? aoae?iaeono??y, aia?ai- ?
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei» (i. A?eai?iae, 1997
?.), «?iaeaia?i? i?iaeaie no/aniiai aaoiio ? cae?ciaaoiio» (i. I?inuee,
1997 ?.), 5-?e Eiioa?aioe?? I?ae?aa?iiaeueii? anioe?aoe??
»Cae?ciaaoii»(Iineaa, 1998 ?.), Ananithciiio nai?ia?? Eii?n?? c
iaoiae?a ? cania?a ioe?iee noaio e?oiieo ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae AI N?N?, ui
aoaeothoueny ? aenieoaoothoueny (?iao?? AAN, 1986 ?.), Oe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: «Canoinoaaiiy ieanoian o aoae?aieoeoa? ?
i?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa?» (i.Oa?e?a, 1986…1996 ?.), »
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie no/aniiai cae?ciaaoiio» (i. Ee?a, 1996 ?.),
nan?? O?I (i. Oa?e?n?, 1988 ?.); iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo OAeOOAA (i.
Oa?e?a, 1985… 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o 49 ?iaioao, a oiio
/ene? a iaei?e iiiia?ao??.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 10 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nienea e?oa?aoo?e ?c 237 iaeiaioaaiue, aeiaeaoea. Aiia
aeeth/a? 265 noi??iie iniiaiiai iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 159 ?enoie?a, 21
oaaeeoeth.

Aaoi? ue?i aaey/iee nai?i iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioai — aeieoi?ai oaoi?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?ai Iaaecia??aoa?e? A.A. oa Oaa?io I.E.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ?icae?e? 1, i?enay/aiiio aiae?co noaia i?iaeaie, a?aecia/a?oueny, ui
iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy ciaeoei oe?iea canoinoaaiiy o a?o/eciyiiio ?
caei?aeiiiiio aoae?aieoeoa?, noai?aia oe?iea ia?aaea i?aei?e?inoa
aoae?iaeono???, ui aeionea? ??ciiiai?oi? oeie ca??ieo iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e.

O ?ic?iaeo niinia?a iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy ? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo, o
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiiai oeio eiino?oeoe?e i?e ??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeeiao
aieea?a, ioe?ieo ao?ao iai?oaeaiue aiane?aeie iiaco/ino?, onaaeee
aaoiio, ?aeaenaoe?? a?iaoo?e oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a aianee cia/iee aianie
Aeaenaiae?ianueeee N.A., Aa?aoeeia A.ss., Aa?aee/aanueeee A.?.,
Aaicae?a A.A., Aieeoaa I.A., Aeieo???a N.A., Caa???a E.N., E?c???y A.A.,
Iaaeaoyi N .A., Ia?ea?ia I.I., Iaoa?eaaeca E.N., I?oaeeia A.A., I?oaeeia
E.A., I??aaeia I.A., Ua?aaeia A.I., Eaiiaa?aeo O., Iaiueaeue A.,
O?aeneia A. oa ?i.

Aeii?ioth/ei ia i?aei?e?inoaao aoae?iaeono??? NIAe ? aeaeo?ioa?i?/iee
niin?a iaoyaoaaiiy ia oii?e. I?ioa a ?nioth/?e aeiiii?/i?e oa
aia?aaoe/i?e neooaoe?? aeaiee niin?a, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny aaeeeeie
aeo?aoaie aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia iaoyaoaaiiy a?iaoo?e, aenaaeeo aiea?ieo
aie?aie, i?aeaeuaiith aeo?aoith iaoaeo ia aeaioiaeaiiy neeiaeo oi?i,
iaaeinoaoiueith oaoiieia?/iith aio/e?noth, noa? iaeiieo?aioini?iiiaeiei.
A oiiaao ?eieo iaiao?aeiee iiooe oeyo?a cieaeaiiy aia?aiaeo?aoiino?
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Ca inoaii? ?iee iai?oeeany oaiaeaioe?y ?icoe?aiiy ianya?a ? iaeanoae
canoinoaaiiy no?eaeiaai? iaiaoaeaai?, cie?aia, neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e.
A iniiaiiio aeei?enoiao?oueny aioo??oi? no?eaeiaaa ? o?a?iaa iaiaoaeaaa
a?ioaaiiy. I?e aenieeo i?oei?nieo iieacieeao ? iecueeiio iiaeoe?
aeaoi?iaoe?e canoinoaaiiy no?eaeiaai? iaiaoaeaai? a?iaoo?e a aaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?yo aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaa.
Iaea?eueo na?eicieie i?iaeaiaie i?e aeei?enoaii? iai?oaeoaaii?
iaiaoaeaai? a?iaoo?e ? aiea?i? ? caoaaoi? iaeaaeiaiiy, caoeno ?? a?ae
aieea?a na?aaeiaeua aaoiio, caaacia/aiiy i?oeiino? aeaiaio?a ca iioeeeie
ia?a??caie. Ae?iaieoeoai iaiaoaeaai?, iai?eeeaae, neeiieanoeeiai?
a?iaoo?e iio?aao? aeoaea aenieeo aia?aiaeo?ao ? neeaaeiiai
oaoiieia?/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy. Ana oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith ?ic?iaee oaeeo aia?aicaa??aath/eo
ae??oaiue, ye? a aeicaieeee o ?nioth/eo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao caaacia/eoe
aeione neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e ? aoaeoeaieo iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
eiino?oeoe?e c ?? canoinoaaiiyi.

Eiino?oeoe?? ?c ciai?oi?i neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi, ui aeeiio?
iaeii/anii neeia? ? caoeni? a?ae aieeao na?aaeiaeua ooieoe??,
aeaioiaeyeeny aeioaia? aac niaoe?aeueiiai iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiith eiino?oeoe?e ?c aioo??oi?i ? ciai?oi?i iaiaoaeaaei
a?ioaaiiyi, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo, oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy
i?enay/ai? ?iaioe Aneaiiai? E.A., Aoaa?aeiaa ?.I., Aa?aoeeiaa A.ss.,
A?eueaeaanueeiai TH.,I., Aeaaeaeiaa N.N., Eieyeiaa I.?., E?anianueei?
O.I., I?oaeeiaa E.A., Ieaen??iei E.A., Iaoeieueaea O.I., Ionoiaieoiaa
A.I., Iioaiiaa TH .A., Naey?aa A.I., Nieieiaa I.?., Nieiiaoiaa A.?.,
O?ieiaa I.I., Oaa?ia I.E., Oaeaeei ss.?. oa ?i.

Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ? iaaia?ai?iia iaoai?/ia iiia?aaei? iaoeniaiiy c
o?ainoi?iaoe??th eiino?oeoe?e o a?aeiia?aeieo aeiaaeeao o eiia?iiaai?
nenoaie oi?aiaaeueiiai oeio. Aeine?aeaeaiith ??ciiiai?oieo eiia?iiaaieo
eiino?oeoe?e i?enay/ai? ?iaioe Aiiaea?aiei A.I., Ee?iiaa I.?., E?aia?y
A.A., Iaaecia??aoa?e? A.A., Oaa?ia I.E., Aeeoeiaa?a O, Eaiiaa?aeoa O. oa
?i.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui i?iaeaia noai?aiiy iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? c? neeiieanoeeiaith
? noaeueiith a?iaoo?ith, iaoiae?a ?o ?ic?aooieo aei oaia??oiueiai /ano
ia ciaeoea naiai aoaeoeaiiai ae??oaiiy.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co a ?icae?e? 1 noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai?
caaea/? oe??? ?iaioe.

?icae?e 2 i?enay/aiee noai?aiith iiaeo aeae?a neeiieanoeeiai?
a?iaoo?e (NIA). Aieiaia iniaeea?noue ?o iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiea?i?
e?ioeaa? ae?eyiee noai?ththoueny o i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy a?iaoo?iiai
aeaiaioa caaeaii? aeiaaeeie, ui a?aeiia?aea? eiie?aoiiio
neeiieanoaaoiiiiio ae?iaia?. A iniiao cai?iiiiiaaiiai ae??oaiiy
iieeaaeaii i?eioeei aiea?oaaiiy ca ?aooiie ca/aieaiiy a?iaoo?e ca aaoii,
a ia c/aieaiiy . Oea iaoiiaeaia oei, ui c/aieaiiy i?ae neeiieanoeeii, ui
cacaeaeaa?aeue ioaa?ae?a, ? aaoiiii i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

?ic?iaeaii 3 oeie naiicaaiea?aii? o aaoii? NIA, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? ia
?en.1. A?eueo aenie? aeaoi?iaoeaii-i?oei?ni? iieacieee ia? aeaioa?eeiaa
NIA (?en.1,a), yea iaea?aeaia niiniaii iaiioee neei?ia?ia?a aai
neeiaieieii, i?ini/aieo iie?ia?iei ca’ycoth/ei, ia iaa?oiao
aaaaoino?oieiao ii?aaeo (?en.2). I?e aeiaaeei? NIA 5… 6 i aeioe?eueia
i?aai?caoe?y iaa?oaiiy ii?aaee a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? ca aiaeia??th c
iaoiaeii aacoieiiiai a?ioaaiiy I?oaeeiaa A.A. O aeiaaeeo aaeeei?
aeiaaeeie NIA iaiioea i?iaaaeeoueny ia ia?ooiio ii?aaeo c aeei?enoaiiyi
niaoe?aeueiiai iaoai?cio oeeaaeee i?ini/aieo iie?ia?iei ca’ycoth/ei
neei?ia?ia?a o ?? no?oiee aei inoaoi/iiai ?o caiiaiaiiy.

?en.1. Oeie NIA, ui i?iiiiothoueny:

a — aeaioa?eeia?, a — c iaoeueiaeie cae?i/aiiyie,
a — c aiea?ieie cae?i/aiiyie

?en. 2 . Iaiioea aeaioa?eeiai? NIA a oi?aa?naeuei?e onoaiiaoe?

?en.3. Ae?aa?aie aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeaioa?eeiai? NIA ??ciiai ia?a??co:

1- 0,5o1,0 ni; 2 — 0,75o1,0 ni; 3 — 1,0o1,0 ni

?en.4. Ae?aa?aia aeaoi?ioaaiiy NIA c iaoeueiaeie cae?i/aiiyie

O cai?iiiiiaai?e NIA aeey iineeaiiy e?ioeaaeo iaoeueiaeo ae?eyiie
ia?aaeaa/aia aeiaeaoeiaa oeeaaeea a?o/io a?ae??ce?a i?ini/aiiai
neei?ia?iaa caaeaii? aeiaaeeie, ui caaacia/o? a?aeiia?aeia i?noeaaa
noiauaiiy NIA (?en.1).. I?ney caaa?oaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
i?iaaaeeoueny iie?ia?ecaoe?y NIA, a iio?i ?icae?aiiy ii?aaee ? aeoyaaiiy
aeaioiaeaiiai a?iaoo?iiai aeaiaioa.

Aea?? oeio ca’ycoth/iai caeaaeeoue a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy
eiino?oeoe??, aenieoaoaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua, ?aaeeio iie?ia?ecaoe??,
iaiao?aeieo aeaoi?iaoeaii-i?oei?nieo iieaciee?a, niiniao aeaioiaeaiiy
NIA.

Iaea?eueo aenieo i?oei?noue caaacia/o? aeei?enoaiiy aiieneaeieo niie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?aeai?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a aeey aeaioa?eeiai?
NIA iieacaee, ui e?euee?noue ca’ycoth/iai iiaeiia neeaaeaoe 22…25%,
neeiaieieia a?aeiia?aeii 78…75%. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aoee i?ae?a?ai?
aeey iaeaaeiaiiy, yea aeei?enoiaoaaee, ?aoe?iiaeueia oaeaee?noue iaiioee
— 18 ia/oa, ui caaacia/o? e?au? iieacieee NIA, a oaeiae aaee/eia
oaoiieia?/iiai iaoyao neeiaieieia.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeaioa?eeiai? NIA i?e
ei?ioei/ani?e ? o?eaae?e ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy ni?eueii c Iieuenueeei I.I.
aoee i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy ia inueiaa ?icoyaaiiy. Ia ?en.3 iaaaaeai?
ae?aa?aie aeaoi?ioaaiiy o?ueio na??e c?ace?a NIA ??ciiiai?oiiai
iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co, oei/aniaee ii?? sne = 700…900 IIa, iiaeoeue
aeaoi?iaoe?e An = 5*104 IIa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ianooaaiee oaeoi? aieeaa?
ia i?oei?noue, aea i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia aaee/eio iiaeoey
aeaoi?iaoe?e. I?e ca?eueoaii? ieiu? ia?a??co a 3 ?ace aaee/eia
oei/aniaiai iii?o ciaiooaaeany a 1,4 ?ace.

Aei?iaoaaiiy NIA i?e o?eaae?e ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e ??ai?
iai?oaeaiue 0,4 iiaia caaanaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e iiaco/ino? a?aeaoaaeiny
/a?ac 1000 aiaeei; i?e ??ai? 0,6 — /a?ac 1700… 1900 aiaeei: i?e ??ai?
0,8 aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaco/ino?, oi/a ? iacia/i?, iaee i?noea ? i?ney 2000
aiaeei. Aaee/eia a?aieoe? o?eaaei? i?oeiino? neeaaea? 0,7 a?ae
ei?ioei/anii?.

A?eueo i?inoei, ui ia iio?aao? neeaaeiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, ?noioii? aeo?aoe
aia?a?? ? eiioaeoia oi?ioaaiiy NIA oieiaeiiai caoaa?ae?iiy ?c
iaeiiiai?aaeaiei iaiiaiaiiyi neeiaieieii. Aiii iiaea aeeiioaaoeny a?o/io
c ianeeaaeiith iaoai?caoe??th ? canoinoaaiiyi i?inoeo iaoaeaaeo aai
aea?aa’yieo ii?aaie (ii noo? iiaeoai/ieo oi?i). Cai?iiiiiaaia NIA ia?
iaoeueia? cae?i/aiiy ca?eueoaii? oiaueie (?en.1, a). Aioo??oi? ?ici??e
iaoe? aecia/athoueny iaiao?aeiith ca ?ic?aooieii ieiuath c??co aaoiio,
ui ciaoiaeeoueny o na?aaeei? iaoe?.

IIa.

=3,3.104 IIa.

?icae?e 3 i?enay/aiee noai?aiith iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

?ic?iaeai? aeaee a?iaoo?e ? niin?a eieaeueiiai iaoeniaiiy aeicaieeee a
?aieao oe??? ?iaioe cai?iiiioaaoe i?eioeeiiai iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
noai?aiiy iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a.
Nooi?noue eiai i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.5. O i?ioean? aaoiioaaiiy ae?iao a
iueiio aeaooiao?oueny iac, o yeiio ?ici?uo?oueny iai?oaeoaaia NIA.
Aiea?i? ae?eyiee iai?oaeoaaii? NIA ?icoaoiaothoueny a nooe?eueieo
e?ioeaaeo ciiao ae?iao. I?e oeueiio noiauai? aiea?i? ae?eyiee ia
iaaaee/eo aeiaaeeio (100… 200 ii) aeoiaeyoue o iac. C iaoith iiaiiai
aeeeth/aiiy c/aieaiiy iai?oaeaii? NIA c aaoiiii e?ioeaaeo nooe?eueieo
cii ?? aiea?i? ae?eyiee iaiioothoueny 2 i?ioa?eaie iie?ao?eaiiai? aai
?ioi? aioeaaeaac?eii? ie?aee.

? i?aeoe/ii ca o??th ae noaiith ia?aaea? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aaeeo oaa?o,
aeaeiath/e ??. Oaeei /eiii, noai?th?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa iaoeniaiiy
aeaiaioa, oiaoi iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny o 2 noaae??. I?e
oeueiio, ye iieacothoue i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe, aaee/eia iaoeniaiiy
aaoiio ia ae?oa?e noaae?? neeaaea? 30…50% cia/aiiy iaoeniaiiy , yea
ooai?aia ia ia?o?e noaae??.

Oaeei /eiii, NIA ii an?e nai?e aeiaaeei? ia ia? eiioaeoo c eoaeiei
na?aaeiaeuai aaoiio, ui a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue i?aeae?aoe iie?ia?ia
ca’ycoth/a aeey NIA, yea a?aeiia?aea? eiie?aoiiio aenieoaoaoe?eiiio
na?aaeiaeuo ? caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy iaiao?aeieo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
iieaciee?a. Cie?aia, noa? iiaeeeaei canoinoaaiiy iie?ao??ieo niie, ui
iathoue ?noioii iaioo, i?ae aiieneaeia, aa?o?noue ? ye? aeicaieythoue
iaea?aeoaaoe NIA aeinoaoiuei aeniei? i?oeiino?. Noa? oe?eeii i?eeiyoiei
aeei?enoaiiy aiieneaeii? ? iie?ao??ii? NIA oieiaeiiai caoaa?ae?iiy, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?i?ioio aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy a?iaoo?e.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? aiaiano?eeino? iac, o yeiio
?icoaoiao?oueny iai?oaeaia NIA , ca/aeaith?oueny aiaiacaoeniei
iaoa??aeii, yeee iiaeiiee aooe aeinoaoiuei aeaoi?iaoeaiei, uia ia
aieeaaoe ia noaoe/io noaio ?iaioe cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe??, ? ia
aa?aneaiei noiniaii NIA.

caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ?iai/i? a?iaoo?e, a 80% ? a?eueoa. Iaiai?oaeaia
NIA iiaeiia aooe no?eeith a na?aaeiaeu? aaoiia.

Iaei??th ?c iniiaieo ia?aaaa cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? ? iiaeeea?noue
?? iiiie?oiiai aeeiiaiiy. Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano iiia?aaei?
iai?oaeaiiy iiiie?oieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e acaaae? ia
canoiniaoaaeiny /a?ac a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaieo niinia?a eiai
cae?eniaiiy.

I?aaenoaaey?oueny iiaeeeaei iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeoaaoe ia iii?ao ? a
i?ieueioao noaoe/ii iaaecia/ai? ia?ic??ci? aaeee (?en.6.), ?aie oa ?i.,
ui ?ai?oa oaeiae ia aaeaaaeiny cae?enieoe i?e aeei?enoaii? o?aaeeoe?eii?
NIA, yeo iaea?aeoaaee niiniaii i?ioyaeee.

I?e aeaioiaeaii? cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue o
aeei?enoaii? iaoaeii?noeeo iiaeoai/ieo neeiaeo oi?i, ui cieaeo?
aa?o?noue ? ?noioii i?enei?th? i?aai?caoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa eiino?oeoe?e.

O i?noe? aeoiaeo iai?oaeaii? NIA a iac i?e a?aeoyaoaaii? aeieea?
eiioeaio?aoe?y iai?oaeaiue, i?noeaaee aeaei a?iaoo?e ? cieiaiiy aaoiio.
Aeiaeaoeia? aei inueiaiai ?icoyao i?noeaa? aeaeiath/? coneeey
ni?eeiathoueny caaaeyee ia?aaeaa/aiei i?e aeaioiaeaii? NIA e?ioeaaei
noiauaiiyi, ciaioo?oueny cieiaiiy aaoiio.

I?oei?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoe?e ca iioeeei ia?a??cii
caaacia/o?oueny onoaiiaeaiiyi o no?ieao iaca aa?oeeaeueieo
neeiieanoeeiaeo n?oie aai i?noeaaiai a?ioaaiiy cii ae?? cia/ieo aieiaieo
?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue neeiieanoeeiaeie o?a?aie. O ?iaio? iaaaaeai?
??ciiiai?oi? noaie oi?ioaaiiy neeiieanoeeiaeo n?oie ? o?a?, no?eeeo o
na?aaeiaeu? aaoiio, niiniaaie eini? ia?ao?anii? ? ?yaeiai? iaiioee ia
??ciiiai?oieo onoaoeoaaiiyo.

O no?ieao iaca n?oee aai o?a?e niieo/athoueny ?c aeaioa?eeiaith
eoaeiino?eeith NIA, ui ?icoaoiao?oueny o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?. N?oee
i?aea’ycothoueny aei NIA ca aeiiiiiaith neei?ia?iaa, i?ini/aiiai
iie?ia?iei ca’ycoth/ei oieiaeiiai caoaa?ae?iiy.

. Iai?eeeaae, o aeiaaeeo a?aeoyaoaaiiy aeaiia neeaie o /aa?oyo
aeiaaeeie iaca

, (1)

, (2)

— aeiaaeeia aiea?ii? e?ioeaai? ae?eyiee NIA a i?eiii?i?e nooe?euei?e
cii?.

, noai?th?oueny aeaei.

o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?.

?en.5. Iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? caeiaeuei? aeaiaioe c aeaioa?eeiaith
a?iaoo?ith: 1 — aiea?ia ae?eyiea aeaioaoeeiai? a?iaoo?e; 2 — iaieiia
ae?eyiea iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e; 3 — oii?ia aeeaaeea

?en.6. Iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaia ia?ic??cia aaeea: 1 — i?ieueioia
iai?oaeaia NIA; 2 — oii?ia aeeaaeea; 3 — iii?ia iai?oaeaia NIA

?en.7. Iaoyaoaaiiy NIA ?icnoiaiiyi a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? ?
a?aeoyaoaaiiyi o aa?oeeaeuei?e

O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo aaaaoiaoaiiiai iaoyao NIA ?
io?eiai? a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? aeey ?aoe?iiaeueieo noai
eiai cae?eniaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, i?e noai?aii? iaoyaaiiy ca noaiith,
iiaeaiith ia ?en. 7 , eiee ?icnoiaiiy a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei?
cae?eniththoueny a o?ueio oi/eao, a a?aeoyaoaaiiy oiec aeaiia neeaie,
noia?ia coneeey iaoyao iiaea aooe aecia/aia ca caeaaei?noth

, (3.)

aea a — o?aoeia aeiaaeeie iaca;

— no??eea a?aeoyaoaaiiy o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?.

=407 IIa, oiaoi iaa i?noea aeaei o cii? aeoiaeo NIA a iac .

Iaoeniaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny i?e a?aeoyaoaaii?, a iio?i i?ney ciyooy
iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aaee/eia iaoeniaiiy ia ae?oa?e noaae?? neeaea 63,5% a?ae
aiaeia?/ii? ia ia?o?e noaae?? (?en.8.).

Iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueiiooai?aiiy a ii??aiyii? c aaeeith aac iaoeniaiiy
c?inei aeey na??? 1- o 2,2 ?ace, na??? 2 — o 2,67 ?ace, na??? 3 — o 2,83
?ace. Aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? ?oeiaoe?y a?aeaoaaeeny ca aiaeia??th c
ia?aa?iiaaieie cae?ciaaoiiieie caeiaeueieie aeaiaioaie (?en.9). I?ney
ciyooy iaaaioaaeaiiy aaeee iiaa?oaeeny a iieiaeaiiy, aeecueea aei
ii/aoeiaiai. Cia/aiiy ?oeioth/eo iaaaioaaeaiue: na??y 1 — 17 eI, na??y 2
— 19 eI, na??y 3 — 21,5 eI.

?en.8. A?ao?e c?inoaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e iaoeniaiiy aaoiia iaeaooiuei?
?icoyaiooi? ciie i?e cae?eniaii? iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy

?en.9. C?inoaiiy i?iaei?a i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi neeiieanoaaoiiieo aaeie: 1
— A1(12o13 ii); 2 — A2(12o5 ii); 3 — A3(12o6 ii)

?en.10. E?iaiaoe/ia noaia iaiiooaaeueii? onoaiiaee:
1 — iaoeaia no??/ea; 2 — aaoiiiee aeaiaio; 3 — iao?ii;
4 — eeeii?ai?iia ia?aaea/a; 5 — aieiaiee aeaeo?ii?eaiae; 6 — ?aaeoeoi?;
7 — aeiiii?aeiee aeaeo?ii?eaiae; 8 — /a?a’y/iee ?aaeoeoi?; 9 — ioooa
ia?aieeaiiy; 10 — aeoa?a oano??ai; 11 — eaioethaiaee eiioo? ?iceeaaeee;
12 — ea?aoea; 13 — aeaeo?ii?eaiae oi?ioth/i? aie?aee; 14 —
i?ini/oaaeueia aaiia; 15 — oioey?iee

?en. 11. C?noaaeaiiy a?aoee?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy oeaio?aeueii noeniooeo
eiiieaenieo aeaiaio?a na??e 1 — E-1, 2 — E-II, 3 — K-III, 4 — K-IV, 5 —
K-V

C?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith c
io?eiaieie a aenia?eiaioao aeaieie iieacaei, ui ??cieoey a cia/aiiyo,
iai?eeeaae, iai?oaeaiue o NIA neeaea i?e iaoyaaii? 4,83%, o aaee/eiao
no??eee a?aeoyaoaaiiy 5,86%.

O ?icae?e? 4 ?icaeyioo? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe?? ?c
ciai?oi?i ? eiia?iiaaiei neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi, ye? ?ic?iaeai? aeey
aenieoaoaoe?? a aa?aneaieo noiniaii aaoiio na?aaeiaeuao ? aeey
aeiaaee?a, eiee iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe noaa?euei?noue ae?aeaeo?e/ieo
aeanoeainoae aeaeo?i?cieyoe?eiiai aaoiio. Neeiieanoeeia? iaieie, oaeei
/eiii, aeeiiothoue ye caoeni?, oae ? neeia? ooieoe??. Oiio i?e
aeaoooaaii? niiniaii iaiioee no?oeoo?a (iai?yiee) a?ioaaiiy iaieie
i?aeae?a?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo iai?oaeaiiai noaio, yeee o i?e
aoaea aeieeaoe i?e aenieoaoaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo. A?aeiia?aeii
oaoiieia?/ia onoaoeoaaiiy iiaeiii iaoe iiaeeea?noue aa??thaaiiy
no?oeoo?ith a?ioaaiiy a aeinoaoiuei oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?. Aeei?enoai? a
aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo noaie iaiiooaaeueieo onoaiiaie (?en .10) OAeOOAA
? Noooinueei? eaai?aoi??? neeiieanoeeiaeo eiino?oeoe?e AOO,
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe ?yaeeiaa a?ioaaiiy o aeaeyae? aeoe?a
neeiaieieii, ye? u?eueii oeeaaeathoueny o e?eueoeaaiio (iiia?a/iiio)
iai?yieo; eina ia?ao?ania a?ioaaiiy, yea yaey? niaith nenoaio aca?iii
ia?an?/ieo neeiaieieii ?c u?eueiith oeeaaeeith a eiaeiiio iai?yieo, ui
caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaio aa?iaoe/i?noue; a?ioaaiiy iaoeaiith no??/eith o
aeaeyae? no?oeoo?e ?c neeiaieieii iniiae, ui oeeaaeathoueny ni??aeueii
? ooieiaeo ieoie , ui ?o iaie?oathoue; eina ia?ao?ania a?ioaaiiy
iaoeaiith no??/eith, yea niieo/a? iaiioeo iaoeaiith no??/eith c ??
oeeee?/iei ia?ai?uaiiyi ocaeiaae ae?iao, ui iaiioo?oueny.

Eooe iaiioee iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny a ae?aiacii? a?ae 300 aei 850. O ua
a?eueoiio ae?aiacii? iiaea ci?ithaaoeny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino?
iiaeiaaei?o (iaiiooth/eo) ? iiia?a/ieo e?iii/ieo ieoie. E??i oiai, ia
a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai niiniao iaiioee iaoeaiith no??/eith a
aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo o no?oeoo?o a?ioaaiiy aaiaeeeeny aeiaeaoeia?
ieoee iniiae. Aiie ia i?iioneaeeny /a?ac iaa?oiao oi?ioth/o aie?aeo , a
iiaeaaaeeny aaciina?aaeiuei ia eiino?oeoe?th.

Iaea?aeoaaia no?oeoo?a a?ae??ciy?oueny iiaeeea?noth oi?aae?iiy
ai?cio?ii??th aeanoeainoae neeiieanoeeiai? iaieie ca ?aooiie ci?ie eooa
iaiioee no??/ee aei in? ae?iao, eooa iaie?oaiiy iiia?a/ieo ieoie ?
?oiuei? e?eueeino? oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy oi?ioth/i?
aie?aee, ci?ie oe?eie no??/ee ? e?eueeino? aeiaeaoeiaeo iiia?a/ieo
neeiaieieii, ui i?ioiaeyoue iica oi?ioth/ith aie?aeith. I?ia?aioaaiiy
iaea?aeaiiy caaeaieo no?oeoo? a?ioaaiiy iaieie ae?iao eiie?aoieo
aaaa?eo?a aoaeo?oueny ia a?aeiia?aeiiio niieo/aii? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe
?iceeaae/eea, ui oeeee?/ii ia?ai?ua?oueny ocaeiaae in? ae?iao, ?
cae??ieaii? ia iueiio iaa?oiai? oi?ioth/i? aie?aee.

Aeoaea aaaeeeai, ui i?aaenoaaey?oueny iiaeeeaei cae?enithaaoe
iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy ia o?eueee iiia?a/ieo, aea ? iiaeiaaei?o
neeiaieieii.

Iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy ae?ia?a noai?th?oueny oaoiieia?/iei iaoyaoaaiiyi
neeiaieieii ? onaaeeith iie?ia?iiai ca’ycoth/iai, iniaeeai ia
iie?ao??i?e iniia?. I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui ?aoe?iiaeueiei ? iaoyaoaaiiy neeiaieieii, ui
neeaaea? 0,1 a?ae ?ic?eaiiai coneeey. I?i aoaeoeai?noue aeaiaio?a o
neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiao ?c oaoiieia?/iei iaoyaoaaiiyi na?ae/aoue
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o yeeo
ni?anoaaeyeanue ?iaioa e?oaeeo aeaiaio?a d = 70 ii, h = 350 a iaieiao
oiaueiith d = 2 ii ?c aaoii?a ??ciiiai?oii? i?oeiino? ? o?oa/anoeo
neeiieanoeeiaeo c?ace?a, caiiaiaieo aaoiiii, oiaoi ye? ia iathoue
oaoiieia?/iiai iaoeniaiiy (?en.12).

= 43,5 IIa — o 9 ?ac?a. C?inoaiiy i?oeiino? iaoiiaeaia
o?ainoi?iaoe??th (caaaeyee iaiei?) iaeiiinueiaiai noeneo a ia??aiii??iee
o?ueioinueiaee. Ia iaoenioo? caiiaiai? aaoiiii o?oa/ano? c?acee iieacaee
iaeneiaeueia c?inoaiiy i?oeiino?? a 4…7 ?ac?a, oiaoi a?aenooi?noue
oaoiieia?/iiai iaoeniaiiy nooo?ai cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue iaieie.

Aeaiaio i?ioiaeeoue 3 ??ciiiai?oieo ye?nieo noaae??: noaae?y e?i?eiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy; iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy a ?acoeueoao? ooai?aiiy
i?e?io??uei; e?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy, ui caaa?oo?oueny ?oeiaoe??th (?en.
13), aea aaea aaoiio c ii?ooaiith nooe?euei?noth, yeee ia? cia/ii iaioee
iiaeoeue aeaoi?iaoe?e.

=3ii ? neeaei 3,7 ?ace.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy o??ueiino?eeino? ?ic?iaeai? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai?
aaoiii? aeaiaioe a neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiao.

Iaoeniaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny cai?iiiiiaaiei Oaa?iei I.E. niiniaii, ca yeei
a?ae?aco i?ney oi?ioaaiiy iaieie aeaiaio iaoeneo?oueny c oi?oe?a ?
ciaoiaeeoueny a oeueiio iieiaeaii? aei iiaiiai caoaa?ae?iiy ? iaai?o
neeiieanoeeii i?oeiino?. I?ney oeueiai iaoeniaiiy i?eieiy?oueny,
aaoiiiee na?aea/iee i?aaia iiaa?iooeny a ii/aoeiaa noaiiaeua, aea
neeiieanoee ia?aoeiaeaea?, aiane?aeie /iai aaoii /anoeiai caeeoa?oueny
iaoeniooei. Iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui noai?th? iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy, o oi?oeyo
iiaea i?eeeaaeaoeny ii in? aai aenoeaio?e/ii, iai?eeeaae, aei
caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeaeo?i?cieyoe?ei? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe??
cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino?. O ieo aeei?enoai? noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?e, ui
aeicaieythoue cieaeoaaoe e?euee?noue aiaee a aaoii? ? caaacia/othoue o
ca’yceo ?c aeacaiei iaea?aeaiiy aeinoaoiuei aenieeo iieaciee?a
aeaeo?i?cieyoe??. I?e neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiao aa?y/iai caoaa?ae?iiy
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ono??e a iaoeniooeo ae?iaao eaiae?a aeey aeoiaeo /a?ac
ieo aieiae a i?ioean? aaaaoiaiaeeiii? iie?ia?ecaoe?? c iaeii/aniei
aaioeethaaiiyi eaiae?a. I?ney caaa?oaiiy iie?ia?ecaoe?? eaiaee
caiiaiththoueny i?ini/aieie iaeiiiai?aaeaieie neei?ia?iaaie aai oaioe/ii
iaiiaiaieie a?ae??ceaie neeiaieieia. Ooai?th?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa aioo??oi?
a?ioaaiiy. Noi?uaiiy i?ioeano noo?iiy aaoiio ? iie?ia?ecaoe?? iaieie
aeicaiey? cieceoe aeo?aoe aia?a??. sseui iaoeniaiiy ae?iao caa??aaoe aei
e?ioey iie?ia?ecaoe?? aioo??oiuei? a?iaoo?e, aoaea iaoe i?noea ua ?
aeiaeaoeiaa iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy.

. Na??y 1 aeeth/aea iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? c?acee, na??y 2 — aac
iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy. O??ueiino?ee?noue iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
c?ace?a aeyaeeany a 1.52 ?ace aeuith. Ia a?aei?io a?ae cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e, iiia?aaei? iaoeniaiiy i?aeaeueei a 1.39 ?ace i?oei?noue
eiino?oeoe??. Iieacaia iia’ycaii c «aeiiiiiaith» ?icoyaiooiai aaoiio c
o??ueiaie neeiieanoeeia?e iaiei?, ii ye?e ? a?aeaoaaeany ?oeiaoe?y.
*a?ac iae?noue oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei neeiieanoee o i?noe? o??ueie
i?aoeth? a oiiaao aieeao e?aeiaiai aoaeoo, noeniaiiy iiia?a/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e. Iiia?aaei? iaoeniaiiy ni?ey? a?eueo i?ci?e iiya? o??uei ?
iaio?e oe?ei? ?o ?ice?eooy, ui a?aenoaa? iiiaio ?ic??aaiiy neeiieanoeea.

Ae?aa?aie aeaoi?ioaaiiy iae?i?ei?, ui iiynith?oueny ia o?eueee
iae?i?eiei oa?aeoa?ii «aeiiiiiae» aaoiio i?ae o??ueiaie iaiei?, aea e
nooo?aith iae?i?ei?noth aeaoi?ioaaiiy naiiai neeiieanoeea canoiniaaii?
no?oeoo?e a iiaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo (ocaeiaae iaiiooth/eo ieoie).

Iaioee aoaeo aoa io?eiaiee o aei?iaoaaiiyo caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a o
neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiao, aeaioiaeaieo niiniaii iaiioee. Aaeee ia?a??cii
80o140 ii iaee i?ieueio 1000 ii, iaaaioaaeoaaeenue aeaiia neeaie a
o?aoeiao i?ieueioo. Iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueiiooai?aiiy a iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo aaeeao aoei a 1,34 ?ace, a iano/a ni?iiiaei?noue o 1,15
?ace aeua, i?ae o aaeie a iaieiao aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy. Oaeei
/eiii, i?e caei? aoaeoeai?noue iiia?aaeiueiai iaoeniaiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio aeiaaeeo aeyaeeany ieae/ith, i?ae i?e inueiaiio
?icoyaoaaii?.

= 0, oiaoi aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy, a oaeiae e?euee?noue
i?ioa?e?a neeioeaieie, oiaoi i?ioeaio ciai?oiueiai a?ioaaiiy.

Aei??e iieacaee, ui i?ney ciyooy iaoeniaiiy cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiue neeaee
a?ae 25 aei 45% a?ae aaee/eie ii/aoeiaiai iaoeniaiiy.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueiiooai?aiiy i?e 3 i?ioa?eao
neeioeaieie aoei a 3,38 ?ace a?eueoei, i?ae i?e 1 i?ioa?eo, iano/a
ni?iiiaei?noue o 3,04 ?ace.

= 0,6 ? iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiei. Iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeaiee
??aaiue i?aeoe/ii ca?aa?oueny c ?aeiiaiaeiaaiei CHeI 2.03.01-84* aeey
iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

?en. 12. Neeiieanoeeia? o?oa/ano? aeaiaioe: caiiaiaiee aaoiiii ? a
ii/aoeiaiio noai?

?en. 13. Oa?aeoa? ?oeiaoe?? aeaiaio?a a neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiieao i?e
inueiaiio noeneo

?en. 14. Caaaeueiee aeaeyae aei?iaoaaiue c?ace?a ?iioeueniith iai?oaith
i?e ??cieo ??aiyo iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy

?en. 15. Caeaaei?noue iai?oaeaiue ia?ae?eooy a?ae ??aiy ?icoyaoth/iai
iaaaioaaeaiiy: 1 — cae/aei?; 2 — iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? aeaiaioe

?en. 16. Iiiie?oiee ai?oiaee aeaiaio: 1 — iai?oaeaia NIA; 2 — oii?ia
aeeaaeea ; 3 — ieaei? neeiieanoeeiaa a?ioaaiiy eiioaeoiiai oi?ioaaiiy; 4
— iaiai?oaeaia NIA; 5 — neeiieanoeeiaa iaiaeue-iaieiiea; 6 — aa?oi?
ciai?oi? neeiieanoeeiaa a?ioaaiiy; 7 — iiiie?oiee aaoii; 8 —
neeiieanoeeiaee aieo

oiaoi a 1,2 ?ace aeua. Oaeei /eiii, a caeiaeueieo aeaiaioao aoaeo a?ae
iaoeniaiiy iaioee, i?ae i?e iaieiao, iaea?aeaieo iaiioeith.

?ic?iaeaii niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? aio/eeo iicaoeaio?iai
noeniooeo aeaiaio?a i?eoi?iiaeith ciai?oiueiai neeiieanoaaoiiiiai
a?ioaaiiy a niieo/aii? c iaoai?/iei iaoeniaiiyi.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeeeaiai aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy aaoiiieo
aeaiaio?a a iaieiao aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o iii?o iaeii/aniei
iaoai?/iei oa aeaeo?e/iei aieeaai. Cie?aia, c iaoith ioe?iee ?o ?iaioe
i?e aieea? ?iioeuenieo aeaeo?e/ieo iai?oa aoea ?ic?iaeaia niaoe?aeueia
onoaiiaea aeey aei?iaoaaiue ia ?icoyaoaaiiy, ui ?acii ?c aaia?aoi?ii
?iioeuenieo iai?oaeaiue A?I-0,6 Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo neeaea ?aeeiee eiiieaen, yeee aeicaieea
?aae?coaaoe iaeii/ani? aeaeo?e/i? ? iaoai?/i? aieeae. Iniaeea?noue
onoaiiaee iieyaaea a neeiieanoeeiaeo oianoino?iieo ?ciethth/eo no?eeao
neeiai? ?aie, aeaioiaeaieo niiniaii iaiioee. Onoaiiaea ?icoaoiaoaaeany a
cii? ae?? A?I-0,6 (?en.12.). Aeaeo?e/i? iai?oae noai?thaaeeny a?iciaeie
?iioeuenaie 1,2/50 ye aeey ia’?eo?a ?c ??aiai ?cieyoe??, ui
a?aeiia?aea? eeano aeaeo?e/ieo iai?oa 300 eA. O?eaae?noue o?iioo
?iioeueno neeaea 1,2 ien, o?eaae?noue ?iioeueno — 50 ien.

-23. Ae?iaoaaiee c?acie cae??iethaaany a caoaaoao onoaiiaee, i?ney /iai
A?I-0,6 i?aeeeth/aany aei aa?oiuei? /anoeie ?? ia?ooiii? ?aie, ieaeiy
/anoeia onoaiiaee, a?aeae?eaia neeiieanoeeiaeie no?eeaie,
cacaiethaaeany. A?ae?aae?/iei aeiie?aoii noai?thaaany ia?oee ??aaiue
iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, iio?i aeeth/aany A?I-0,6 ? ia ?icoyaiooee
c?acie iiaeaaaany a?iciaee ?iioeuen. sseui iiaeaia aaee/eia ?iioeueno ia
aeeeeeaea ia?ae?eooy, iiaeaaaeany iai?oaa ia 10eA a?eueoa ? o.ae. aei
anoaiiaeaiiy aaee/eie ?iioeuenieo iai?oa, ui aeeeeeathoue ia?ae?eooy.
Aeaia aaee/eia ooi/ithaaeanue oeyoii iinooiiaiai cieaeaiiy cia/aiue
?iioeuen?a, ye? iiaeaaaeenue. Aeae? i?eeeaaeaeiny ianooiia iaaaioaaeaiiy
? i?ioeaaeo?a iiaoi?thaaeany.

O iaiaaaioaaeaieo c?aceao aaee/eia iai?oa ia?ae?eooy neeaea 120 eA,
cia/aiiy ieoiii? iai?oae ia?ae?eooy 10 eA/ni. Io?eiaia oe?eeii i?eeiyoia
aeey a?eueoino? aeaeo?i?ciethth/eo iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e, ui
canoiniaothoueny.

Aeoaea aaaeeeaei aoei caaacia/aiiy iaiiaeeeaino? i?iaith ii iia?o?th
i?ae caoaaoaie, ui iaee aino?? e?iiee. C oe??th iaoith caoaaoe aoee
caoeuai? aethi?i??aeie ae?aiaie (?en. 14). Oiio a i?iaaaeaieo
aei?iaoaaiiyo ia?ae?eooy a on?o aeiaaeeao a?aeaoaaeiny ii iiaa?oi?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a, aei??aeea i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?ic?yaeo
?icoaoiaoaaeanue i?ae aethi?i??aeie ae?aiaie.

aeaiaio?a ?c aenooaiiai aaoiio a neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiieao eiioaeoiiai
oi?ioaaiey. Aei?iaoaaiiy ia inueiaa ?icoyaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a iaoei?
OAI-50. C?acee ?ciethaaeeny a?ae caoaao?a ? naii? iaoeie ca aeiiiiiaith
aoiiaeo i?ieeaaeie oiaueiith 5ii. I?ney iiyae o??uei iaei i?noea
eaaeiia iaae?iiy cia/aiiy iii?o ?cieyoe??, o iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
c?aceao aiii a?aeaoaaeiny i?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo o 1,53 ?ace a?eueoeo, i?ae
o c?aceao aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy. Aaee/eia iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?e
ye?e a?aeaoaaeiny eaaeiia ciaioaiiy iii?o ?cieyoe??, o iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo aaeeao o neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiao eiioaeoiiai oi?ioaaiiy
aoea o 1,55 ?ace a?eueoith, i?ae o aaeeao aac iaoeniaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy ?noioii i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue
?iaioe aeaeo?i?ciethth/eo iano/eo aaoiiieo aeaiaio?a o neeiieanoeeiaeo
iaieiao.

?icae?e 6 i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaeaiei eiia?iiaaiei eiino?oeoe?yi ?c
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a ? neeiieanoeeiaeo
iaieiiie. O ?aae?ii?ici?eo eiino?oeoe?yo iie?eoo?a iiiie?oi? (?en. 16)
aai ca??i? ai?oia? (aaeeia?) aeaiaioe c iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaiith
aioo??oiueith NIA ? ciai?oiueith iaieiith niieo/athoueny c?
neeiieanoeeiaeie iaiaeyie-iaieiieaie, ui aeaioiaeythoueny aeiaaeeiith
aei 9… 12i ? ae?aiao?ii aei 2,5i niiniaii iaiioee ia oeee?iae?e/io aai
?ioi? oi?ie ii?aaeo c ianooiiith (i?ney iie?ia?ecaoe??) ?ic??ceith ia 2
? a?eueo /anoei ocaeiaae ooai?thth/eo.

Ai?oiaee neeiieanoaaoiiiee aeaiaio iiaea iaoe ia o?eueee
aioo??oi?, aea ? ciai?oi? oi?aiaaeueia i?aee??ieaiiy c aeaioa?eeiaith
NIA.

?ic?iaeai? eiino?oeoe?? ?aae?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy o aeaeyae?
neeiieanoeeiaeo caieiooeo oeee?iae?e/ieo iaieiiie ?c niaoe?aeueieie
aaoiiieie a?/ieie aeieuaie, a?iiaaieie aioo??oiueith iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaiith NIA ? ciai?oi?i neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi eiioaeoiiai
oi?ioaaiiy.

Oiio ui ?ic?iaeai? eiino?oeoe?? aenieoaoothoueny ia a?aee?eoiio iia?o??,
aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
aei?iaoaaiue, ye? iieacaee, ui i?e a??oiio aeey neeiieanoeea niieo/aii?
ee?iaoe/ieo aieea?a i?oei?noue caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a a iaieiao
cieaeo?oueny ia 20…22%.

O ?icae?e? 7 i?aaenoaaeai? ?ic?iaeai? cae?ciaaoiii? eieaeueii
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe?? caaiaenueeiai aeaioiaeaiiy
cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino?, i???ioiaai? ia ia?aaaaeia aeei?enoaiiy
noaeueii? a?iaoo?e eeano A-III ( A-IIIa ), ui aeionea?oueny
iaoaeo?a?eieie i?aei?e?inoaaie A?oc?? oa Oe?a?ie. Noaie cae?eniaiiy
iiia?aaeiueiai iaoeniaiiy eiino?oeoe?e ?c noaeueiei a?ioaaiiyi
i?eioeeiiai ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aiaeia?/ieo aeey aeaiaio?a c?
neeiieanoeeiaith a?iaoo?ith c iaoeueiaeie cae?i/aiiyie. Aea aiea?oaaiiy
noaeueii? iai?oaeoaaii? ? iaiai?oaeoaaii? a?iaoo?e caaacia/o?oueny ca
?aooiie c/aieaiiy.

iaioa, i?ae i?e canoinoaaii? neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e.

Aeei?enoiaothoueny iiaeoai/i? oa?iioi?ie (c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith ia?iaith
ni?i/eith), o yeeo i?iaiaeeoueny oi?ioaaiiy ? oa?iiaieia?nia ia?iaea c
aeene?aoiith, ii?oe?iiiith iiaea/ith ia?o, ui caaacia/o? ?noioio eiai
aeiiii?th. Aeeeth/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiy aia?aiaeo?aoieo i?iia?thaaeueieo
eaia?.

aeei?enoiao?oueny aac aenaaeaeaieo aie?aie, oiio aoea ?ic?iaeaia
onoaiiaea, ui aeicaiey? ?iaeoe ci?oeiaiiy aeoyaeeith oaeiae aac
aeei?enoaiiy aenaaeaeaieo aie?aie (?en.17). Iayai?noue aeaio nia?aieo
a?ae?ioeee?iae??a c aaeeeei oiaeii aeicaiey? aeoyaoaaoe no?eaei?
ae?aiao?ii aei 36 ii, aeiaaeeiith aei 12 i. Caoaao no?eaei?a
cae?enith?oueny oaeiae ca aeiiiiiaith iiaaiaoeee oa a?ae?aae?ee.
Onoaiiaea eaaei ia?aiano?ith?oueny ia aeoyaeeo no?eaei?a ??ciiiai?oii?
aeiaaeeie. A onoaiiaoe? aeey ci?oeiaiiy aeoyaeeith a?iaoo?e ae?aiao?ii
aei 20 ii (?en.18) aeei?enoiao?oueny iaeei a?ae?ioeee?iae?. Oaeei /eiii,
?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ci?oeiaiiy aeoyaeeith aeicaiey? ia o?eueee
o?aaeeoe?eii ciaiooaaoe aeo?aoe a?iaoo?ii? noae?, aea e caaacia/oaaoe
aeiiii?th aeaeo?iaia?a??.

Eieaeueia iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e i?iaiaeeoueny ia
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiiio noaiae? (?en.19) oeyoii a?aeoyaoaaiiy
iai?oaeoaaii? a?iaoo?e a iac? oiec oeyoii iaaeaaethaaiiy ia ia? ca
aeiiiiiaith a?ae?aae?/ieo aeiie?ao?a ? ianooiii? o?enaoe?? iieiaeaiiy
a?iaoo?e i?iioneaiiyi oii?ieo no?eaei?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
aeaeo?ioa?i?/iiai niiniao iaoyaoaaiiy, yeee canoiniao?oueny ia
i?aei?e?inoaao aoae?iaeono???, aeaia iaoeniaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia iio?aao?
aeo?ao aeaeo?iaia?a??. Ia?aaaaith a ii??aiyii? c? niiniaii iaoyaoaaiiy
ia oii?e ? iiaeeea?noue aeaioiaeaiiy a iaei?e ? o?e aea oi?i? ae?ia?a
??cii? aeiaaeeie aac ianooiii? ia??cee e?ioeaaeo ae?eyiie a?iaoo?e
?noioieo ?ici???a . Cacia/aia aeicaiey? oi?ioaaoe ae?iae aeia?eueii?,
iaiiaeoeueii? aeiaaeeie, ui aaaeeeai a oiiaao ?eieo, yeee iio?aao?
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? aoae?aaeue.

O ?icae?e? 8 aenia?eiaioaeueii ioe?iaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a
eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?yo a?iaoo?e eeano A-III.

O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? ia iathoue o nai?io
?icii?yaeaeaii? iiaeeeaino? ci?oeiaiiy a?iaoo?e ? i?e ia?ae?eoo?
i?ieueio?a ca?eueoaii? aeiaaeeie cooiaoothoueny c i?iaeaiith a?ioaaiiy
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e i?e a?aenooiino? aenieii?oeii?
noae?. O ?iaio? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
a eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?yo a?iaoo?e eeano A-III
aac ci?oeiaiiy aeoyaeeith. Cacia/aia iiaea aooe cae?eniaii caaaeyee
oiio, ui i?e eieaeueiiio iaoeniaii? ao?aoe iai?oaeaiue ?noioii iaio?,
i?ae i?e o?aaeeoe?eieo niiniaao, ? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iaio?
anoaiiaeaiiai ii?iaie i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy 100 IIa. O a?iaoo?e
eeano A-III a?aenooi? ao?aoe a?ae ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oa; ? iiaeeea?noue
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e noiniaii iaiai?oaeaii? o
no?ieao iaca, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe aaee/eio coneeey iaoeniaiiy. O
oeeo aea oe?eyo iiaeia aeiionoeoe i?aeaeuaiee a?aie/iee ??aaiue
iai?oaeaiue a a?iaoo?? i?e iaoeniaii?.

?en. 17. Noaia onoaiiaee aeey ci?oeiaiiy a?iaoo?e ae?aiao?ii aei 36 ii:
1 — e?ioeaaee iiaaiioeee?iae?; 2 — ?ooiiee caaeei; 3 — iaoai?ci
o?enaoe??; 4 — ?aia; 5 — iaoai?ci aeaea/? no?eaeiy; 6 — iiaaiioeee?iae?
iaoai?cia aeaea/?; 7 — ?ooiiee caaeei; 8 — iiaaiioeee?iae? caoaaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy; 9 — a?ae?ioeee?iae?; 10 — iiaaiioeee?iae? iaoai?cia
o?enaoe?? no?eaeiy

?en. 18. Onoaiiaea aeey ci?oeiaiiy aeoyaeeith a?iaoo?e eeano A-III
ae?aiao?ii aei 20 ii

?en. 19. Noaia noaiaea aeey iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e: 1 —
noaeacae?ciaaoiiiee ooiaeaiaio; 2 — iii?ia i?aeeeaaeea; 3 — iai?oaeaia
eiino?oeoe?y; 4 — oii?ia ?aia; 5 — iai?oaeaia a?iaoo?a; 6 — aeiie?ao

-I.

=32,1 Iia.

; iaoya 21,98 eI. Aaee/eia iaoyao, io?eiaia ?ic?aooieii ca
?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith neeaea 23,6 eI, a?aei?ii?noue i?ae aeine?aeieie
? ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie 7,4%. ??cieoey i?ae aeine?aeieie ?
?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie no??eie a?aeoyaoaaiiy 6,55%.

=13,0 eI, oiaoi iano/a ni?iiiaei?noue aoea i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith.

O ?icae?e? 9 cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie ?ic?aooieiai? ioe?iee ianoaiiy
a?aie/ieo noai?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo eiino?oeoe?e ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy
i?ia?aiieo eiiieaen?a »I??aae» oa ?i., ye? oe?iei canoiniaothoueny
Iniaeea?noth ? oa, ui aeey eiino?oeoe?e c? neeiieanoeeiaith
ei?ic?eiino?eeith aioo??oiueith a?iaoo?ith a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue a
ioe?ioe? o??ueiino?eeino?, ae?oaa a?oia a?aie/ieo noai?a aecia/a?oueny
o?eueee i?iaeiaie. Aeey eiino?oeoe?e ?c ciai?oi?i a?ioaaiiyi
i?eaeaoi?noue aei ii?iaeueii? aenieoaoaoe?? aecia/a?oueny aa?iaoe/i?noth
neeiieanoeeiaeo iaiei, iii?ii aeaeo?e/ii? ?cieyoe??. A?aie/iee noai
ei?ioeeo noeniooeo aeaiaio?a a iaieiao a iniiaiiio aecia/a?oueny
iiia?aaeiuei anoaiiaethaaiei aeiionoeiei cia/aiiyi iiaeiaaei?o
aeaoi?iaoe?e, aio/eeo aeaiaio?a — ?o no?eeinoth.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiai? ioe?iee aaee/eie ao?ao iai?oaeaiue o
cai?iiiiiaaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?yo a?ae iiaco/ino? e onaaeee
aaoiio.

Cia/aiiy eiio?iethth/iai a NIA iai?oaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ca aiaeia??th
c? NIeI 2. 0301-84*, ye aeey aeiaaeeo iaoyaoaaiiy ia aaoii.

,aeioe?eueii ca caeaa iaa?aeiia i?eeiyoe coneeey a no?eoe? (oii?iiio
aeeaaeeo? ) oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aee??ieaiiy. Aaee/eia eiai aecia/a?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi ?iaioe iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e ye o iac?, oae ? o i?eiii?ieo
ciiao.

. I?ney iiyae o??uei ii/eia? ?noioii c?inoaoe coneeey a oi?aiaaeuei?e
/anoei?.

?ic?aooiie cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoe?e ? nenoai, a yeeo aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny, aoaeo?oueny ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo
iine?aeiaieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa ?oa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ooi/iaiiy ia
eiaeiiio e?ioe? iaaaioaaeaiiy cia/aiue iai?oaeaiue ? a?aeiia?aeieo ?i
aaee/ei n?/ieo iiaeoeae aeaoi?iaoe?e. O i?ioean? iine?aeiaiiai ia?aai?o
iaaaioaaeaiue onoaiiaeth?oueny iiiaio ianoaiiy a?aie/ieo noai?a ia?oi? ?
ae?oai? a?oie, ca yeee i?eeia?oueny ia?aaaaeii aaee/eia ia?ai?uaiue,
oiio ui iayai?noue o??uei o aaoii? i?e canoinoaaii? NIA c iie?ia?iei
ca’ycoth/ei, yeee i?ae?a?aii aeey caaeaiiai aenieoaoaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ia yaey?oueny e?i?ooth/ei oaeoi?ii. Ioe?iea
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?a??c?a aeeiio?oueny a a?aeiia?aeiino?
c i?aeoiaeii Aiiaea?aiei A.I. Aeaia ioe?iea neeaaea? aioo??oi?e oeeee
?oa?aoe?e; anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue i?ae
aeaiaioaie, ia?a??caie — ciai?oi?e oeeee ?oa?aoe?e.

Iia?euei?noue ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaoiio ? NIA caaacia/o?
ca?aei?noue ?oa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

O ?ic?aooieao ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie, a oaeiae i?e aecia/aii? aei?noeinoae
ia?a??c?a aeei?enoiao?oueny i?aeo?ae A.?. Io?aoaaa.

O ?icae?e? 10 aena?oeththoueny iniaeeaino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?iaioe ia ia’?eoao ??ciiiai?oiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy A?oc??
oa Oe?a?ie, o niaoe?aeueieo nii?oaeao , a i?iaeo? ii?iaoeaiiai
aeieoiaioa Oe?a?ie «AeAI. ?aiiio oa i?aeneeaiiy iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e
i?iieneiaeo aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae, ui aenieoaoothoueny
(?aeiino?oththoueny)».

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei neeiieanoaaoiiieo iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
eiino?oeoe?e c? naiicaaiea?aiith a?iaoo?ith, iaoyaoaaiiy yei?
noai?th?oueny a?aeoyaoaaiiyi aiec oeyoii aaciina?aaeiueiai i?eeeaaeaiiy
aei ia? iiia?a/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. I?aeneeaiiy e?ioeaaeo ae?eyiie NIA,
caoeno ? ?ici?uaiiy ?? iniiaii? /anoeie a iac? iica o?eii aaoiio o
aiaiacaoeniiio iaaa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu? caaacia/othoue aeinoaoiuei
aenieee nooi?iue iaae?eiino?, iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy ia no?eeeo o
aaoii? neeiaieieii ? iie?ia?ieo ca’coth/eo, o oiio /ene? oieiaeiiai
caoaa?ae?iiy. ?noioii cieaeothoueny aia?aaoe/i? ? o?iainia? aeo?aoe,
aia?oa i?aaenoaaeeiny iiaeeeaei iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy iiiie?oieo
eiino?oeoe?e, noaoe/ii iaaecia/aieo nenoai.

2. Aeey ?ic?iaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e noai?ai? aoaeoeai?
oeie NIA ?c ??ciiiai?oieie aiea?ieie cae?i/aiiyie, iaaia?aii?noe?
niiniae ?o aeaioiaeaiiy iaiioeith ? eiioaeoiei oi?ioaaiiyi ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iie?ia?ieo ca’coth/eo aa?y/iai ? oieiaeiiai caoaa?ae?iiy.

=(4…5)*104 IIa.

4. ?ic?iaeaia NIA oaioe/iiai iaiiaiaiiy , ui ia? aiea?i? cae?i/aiiy.
Anoaiiaeai? o aei?iaoaaiiyo aeaoi?iaoeaii-i?oei?ni? iieacieee aeaii? NIA
ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aiieneaeieo eiiiiceoe?e: sne = 350 IIa, An =
3,3*104 IIa.

5. *a?ac ii??aiyii aenieo aeaoi?iaoeai?noue NIA cai?iiiiiaaia
aaaaoiaoaiia iaoyaoaaiiy ?? ?icnoiaiiyi ? noyaoaaiiyi o iac? a
ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? ? ianooiiei a?aeoyaoaaiiyi o aa?oeeaeuei?e
ieiuei?, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
iaoyaoaaiiy NIA c o?aooaaiiyi aeaoi?iiaaii? noaie.

6. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo cai?iiiiiaaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino?, iniaeeainoae ?o ?iaioe, ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue i?ae
neeiieanoeeiaith oi?aiaaeueiith ? neeiieanoaaoiiiith aaeeiaeie
/anoeiaie.

7. I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe
caeiiii??iino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e,
oa?aeoa? ae/a?iaiiy iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? oa o??ueiiooai?aiiy.
Aenia?eiaioe i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue (aaee/eia iaaaioaaeaiiy
o??ueiiooai?aiiy ca?eueooaaeanue a 2,5 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a) iaoeniaiiy
a?aeoyaoaaiiyi NIA; oaeo c?inoaiiy coneeey iaoeniaiiy ia 30…50% ia
ae?oa?e eiai noaae?? (i?ney o?enaoe?? iieiaeaiiy iai?oaeaii? NIA ?
ciyooy a?aeoyaoth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy).

C?noaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii io?eiaieo aeaieo ? ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo
ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith iieacaei ?o i?eeiyoio a?aeiia?aei?noue,
ooeeaiiy neeaee aei 6%.

8. Cai?iiiiiaai? ia?ic??ci? noaoe/ii iaaecia/ai? neeiieanoaaoiii? ?aii?
oa aaei/i? eiino?oeoe?? c iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaiith naiicaaiea?aiith NIA
a i?ieueioao ? ia iii?ao, ia?aaeaa/ai? ae??oaiiy aeey aeiaaee?a ca??iiai
? iiiie?oiiai aeeiiaiiy.

9. Cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie ?ic?aooieo ??ciiiai?oieo neeiieanoaaoiiieo
noaoe/ii iaaecia/aieo nenoai c o?aooaaiiyi ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue ia
iniia? aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aiieo eiiieaen?a «I??aae» oa ?i. o niieo/aii?
c aeieii ioe?iee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia?a??c?a.

10. ?ic?iaeai? aeaeo?i?cieyoe?ei? aaoiii? aeaiaioe a neeiieanoeeieao
iaieiao, iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? oaoiieia?/iei iaoyaoaaiiyi neeiaieieii
i?e iaiiooe?.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui neeiieanoeeiaa iaieia a 2…4 ?ace
i?aeaeuo? i?oei?noue ia ?icoyaoaaiiy, a 9…14 ?ac?a i?e inueiaiio
noeneo. A aiaeia?/ieo aeaiaioao, iaea?aeaieo caiiaiaiiyi aaoiiii
neeiieanoeeiaeo o?oa/anoeo c?ace?a, oiaoi aac iaoeniaiiy oaoiieia?/iei
iaoyaoaaiiyi, aoaeo i?e inueiaiio noeneo ciaioo?oueny ? caaacia/o?
c??no i?oeiino? aaea a 4…7 ?ac?a, iaeiae nooo?ai ni?iuo?oueny
aeaioiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a, a?aee?eaathoueny oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
a ?aeiino?oeoe??.

11. Aeine?aeaeai? aaoiii? aeaiaioe a neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiao,
iaea?aeaieo iaiioeith ? eiioaeoiei oi?ioaaiiyi, iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy
yeeo cae?enith?oueny iaoeniaiiyi ii oi?oeyo ia?aae iie?ia?ecaoe??th ?
a?aeioneaiiyi i?ney ?? cae?i/aiiy. Iaoeniaiiy ia iio?aao? aia?aaoe/ieo
aeo?ao ? i?aeaeuo?, ye iieacaee aenia?eiaioe, o??ueiino?ee?noue
?icoyaiooeo aeaiaio?a a iaieiao, iaea?aeaieo iaiioeith, a 1,52 ?ace,
caeiaeueieo — a 1,34 ?ace, a iaieiao eiioaeoiiai oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii
a 1,4 ? 1,25 ?ace. Ia a?aei?io a?ae cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e,
iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy i?aeaeuo? i?oei?noue aeaiaio?a: ?icoyaiooeo a
iaieiao, iaea?aeaieo iaiioeith, a 1,39 ?ace, caeiaeueieo — a 1,15 ?ace;
a iaieiao eiioaeoiiai oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii a 1,2…1,6 ?ace ? a 1,2
?ace.

12. ?ic?iaeaii niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? aio/eeo
iicaoeaio?iai noeniooeo aeaiaio?a, iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo ciai?oi?i
neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi.

13. Cai?iiiiiaai? aeaeo?i?cieyoe?ei? eiino?oeoe?? c eiia?iiaaiei
(ciai?oi?i ? aioo??oi?i) a?ioaaiiyi ? aeei?enoaiiyi noia?ieanoeo?eaoi??a
aeey cieaeaiiy aiaeioeaiaioiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy,
nooea ? iie?ia?ecaoe?y cae?eniththoueny a ?aeeiiio i?ioean?, ui nooo?ai
cieaeo? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe.

=120eA( 10eA/ni) ? a?eueo. Iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy i?aeaeuo? aaee/eio
a?aie/iiai ca oiiaaie aeaeo?i?cieyoe?? iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
20…40%, i?e ae?? aeaeo?e/ieo ?iioeuenieo iai?oa ia?ae?eooy — ia
50…65%.

15. Aiae?c o?eaaeeo iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ia
?iaioo caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a a neeiieanoeeieao iaieiao iieacaa, ui a
iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaeo aeiaaeeao i?oei?noue cieaeo?oueny ia 20…22%,
aeaoi?iaoeai?noue c?inoa? ia 8…10%.

16. Cai?iiiiiaai? eiia?iiaai? eiino?oeoe?? c? neeiieanoeeiaeo
iaiaeae-iaieiiie oa neeiieanoaaoiiieo iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo ai?oiaeo
(aaeeiaeo) aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae o aeaeyae? caieiooeo oeee?iae?e/ieo
neeiieanoeeiaeo iaieiiie c aieiaeie iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieie
neeiieanoaaoiiieie aeieuaie.

17. ?ic?iaeai? eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? cae?ciaaoiii?
eiino?oeoe?? caaiaenueeiai aeaioiaeaiiy, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny cieaeaiith
aia?aiaeo?aoi?noth ? aenieei ??aiai oaoiieia?/ii? aio/eino?.

18. ?ic?iaeaia aia?aicaa??aath/a nenoaia ci?oeiaiiy no?eaeiaai? a?iaoo?e
?c noae? eeano A-??? aeoyaeeith aac canoinoaaiiy aenaaeee aiea?ieo
aie?aie ? ?aae?coth/? ?? onoaiiaee.

19. I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo
caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo a?aeoyaoaaiiyi a?iaoo?e,
ui i?aeoaa?aeeee iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ca aeaiei niiniaii iaoeniaiiy
iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e eeano A-??? aac ci?oeiaiiy aeoyaeeith. C?noaaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a c aeaieie, ye? iaea?aeai? ?ic?aooieii ca
?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith, iieacaei ?o i?eeiyoio a?aeiia?aei?noue:
a?aeoeeaiiy aei 7,4%..

20. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? ?
?aeiino?oeoe?? ia’?eo?a ??ciiiai?oiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy
A?oc?? oa Oe?a?ie, o niaoe?aeueieo nii?oaeao, a i?iaeo? ii?iaoeaiiai
aeieoiaioa Oe?a?ie «AeAI ?aiiio oa i?aeneeaiiy iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e
i?iieneiaeo aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae, ui aenieoaoothoueny
(?aeiino?oththoueny)».

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o 49 ?iaioao, a oiio
/ene?:

1.Naeey A. O., Oaaei A. E. Aaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee n iaiaoaeee/aneei
a?ie?iaaieai. — I: No?ieecaeao, 1990. — 145 n.

2.Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea aaoiiiuo yeaiaioia iiia?a/iui
iaa?oaeaieai iaiaoaeee/aneie a?iaoo?u //Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai
ai?iaeia: Iao/.oaoi.na. — Aui.6. — E.: Oaoieea, 1996. — N.18-21.

3.Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua eiino?oeoeee n aeaooaaoaaaie
noaeeiieanoeeiaie a?iaoo?ie //Na.aeiee.iaaeaeoia?.eiio.
«?ano?ninaa?a-aathuea eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneea ?aoaiey caeaiee e
nii?oaeaiee».- Oii II, /anoue 6-7. -Aaeai?iae: Ecae. «E?anoueyineia
aeaei». — 1997. — C. 197-202.

4.Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea yeaiaioia ni
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N.14-16.

5.Naeey A.O. Eieaeueiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea eiino?oeoeee a
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6.Naeey A.O. Ianouea yeaiaiou n iaiaoaeee/aneei a?ie?iaaieai //O?oaeu
Iaaeaeoia?.eiio. «Iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai
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7.Naeey A.O. Yenoeaio?e/iia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea aiaoeaio?aiii
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8.Naeey A.O. E?eoa?ee ioeaiee iaaeaaeiie ?aaiou eiiieaeniuo
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9.Naeey A.O. Eieaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua yeaiaiou n
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10.Naeey A. O.. ?an/?o iaoyaeaiey noaeeiieanoeeiaie a?iaoo?u i?e
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii iaaeaoee ecaeaaaiiai yeaiaioa // O?oaeu
Iaaeaeoia?.eiio. «I?eiaiaiea ieanoiann a no?ieoaeuenoaa e ai?iaeneii
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11.Naeey A. O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea aiaoeaio?aiii naeaouo
aaoiiiuo yeaiaioia a noaeeiieanoeeiauo iaieiao //Na. o?. eiio.
«Noaeaaeaeaciaaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee. Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaeoe?iaaiea e
no?ieoaeuenoai»: — E?eaie ?ia: E?.OO. — 1996. — N.38.

12. Naeey A.O. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey eieaeueii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiuo yeaiaioia n a?iaoo?ie eeanna A-111 //
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201-204.

13. Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua yeaiaiou n naiicaaiea?aiiie
noaeeiieanoeeiaie a?iaoo?ie e yenia?eiaioaeueiay ioeaiea eo ?aaiou.
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N199-201.

14.Nae?y A.O. Iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy noaoe/ii iaaecia/aieo
neeiieanoaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e //A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. -Aei. 2.- Noi: Eicaoeueeee aae, 1998. — N
119-120.

15. Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea noaeueiie e
noaeeiieanoeeiaie a?iaoo?u a oneiaeyo ?aeiino?oeoeee // O?. 5-ie eiio.
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— N 36-37.

16. Naeey A.O. Iiiaiyoaiiia eieaeueiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea
eiino?oeee // O?.Iaaeaeoia?.eiio. «?ano?niaeiiiii? iaoa??aee,
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17. Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua noaeeiieanoaaoiiiua
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Oa?ueeia: OAOONA,1999. — ?5. — N.61-66

18. Naeey A.O. Yia?ainaa?aaathuea eiino?oeoi?nei-oaoiieiae/aneea
?aoaiey ia?ae?uoee oaaee/aiiuo i?ieaoia.// Iaoeiaee a?niee
aoae?aieoeoaa: -Oa?ueeia.: OAOONA , 1999.- ? 5. — N. 59-61

19. Naeey A.O. Eiino?oeoeee iie?uoee ia iniiaa noaeeiieanoaaoiiiuo e
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20. Naeey A.O. Inianoea eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/ 0,4eA: Io/ao i IE?/ A?oc.
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21. Oaaei A.E., Naeey A.O., Aeiiaaaa E.A. Iaaeaoea eiino?oeoeee
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iaaeaeoia?.eiio. «Eiaeaia?iua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai aaoiia e
aeaeaciaaoiia. Eiino?oeoeee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee. Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa»- Oii
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22. Oaaei A. E., Naeey A. O. Yooaeoeaiinoue noaeeiieanoeeiauo iaiei i?e
?acee/iuo yenoeaio?eneoaoao i?eeiaeaiey iaa?ocee // Na.o?. eiio..
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23. Oaaei A. E., Naeey A. O., Aaaaaa A. I., Ai?ioei E. I.
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24. Oaaei A. E., Naeey A. O. Nai?ii-iiiieeoiay ea?eaniay nenoaia aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa a naeniiiianiuo ?aaeiiao. // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai
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25. Shagin A.L., Salia G.Sh. Buildings and constructions with
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26. Oaaei A. E. Ecaao I.TH., Naeey A.O. Niaoeeaeueiua eiino?oeoeee ec
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27. Oaaei A. E., Naeey A. O., Aaeeeia A.Y.Iniaaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey
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28. Oaaei A. E., Naeey A. O., Aaeeeia A.Y., Iaaiiaaeia TH.A. Eieaeueii
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aeanoeinoe // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa. — Oa?ueeia: OAOONA, 1999. —
?5. — N 56-59.

AIIOAOe?ss

Nae?y A.O. «Iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe?? cieaeaii?
aia?aiaeo?aoiino? c? neeiieanoeeiaei ? noaeueiei a?ioaaiiyi». — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.01 — aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa
nii?oaee. — Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaiee ? aeine?aeaeaiee i?eioeeiiai iiaee eean
neeiieanoaaoiiieo iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e c canoinoaaiiyi
?ic?iaeaii? naiicaaiea?aii? neeiieanoeeiai? a?iaoo?e cieaeaii?
aia?aiaeo?aoiino?. ?ic?iaeai? ? aeine?aeaeai? iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai?
aeaiaioe c ciai?oi?i ? aioo??oi?i neeiieanoeeiaei a?ioaaiiyi, a oaeiae
eiia?iiaai? eiino?oeoe?? c? neeiieanoaaoiiieo ? neeiieanoeeiaeo
aeaiaio?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie ?ic?aooieo.

?ic?iaeai? eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? cae?ciaaoiii? aeaiaioe
cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino? caaiaenueeiai aeaioiaeaiiy, nenoaie
ci?oeiaiiy ? iaoyaoaaiiy a?iaoo?e.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ae??oaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? ia ia’?eoao Oe?a?ie ? A?oc??, a
niaoe?aeueieo nii?oaeao, i?iaeo? ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: neeiieanoeeiaa a?ioaaiiy, neeiieanoaaoiii? aeaiaioe,
iaiioea, iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy, ao?aoe iai?oaeaiue, ae?aeaeo?e/i?
iieacieee, ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue.

SUMMARY

Saly G.Sh. Lowered power expenditure prestressed structures with
qlass-reinforced plastic and steel reinforcement. — Manuscript.

Thesis on seeking for Doctor of Sciences on speciality 05.23.01
«Construction structtures, buildings and structures». Kharkow State
Academy of Railway Transport, Kharkow, 1999.

Basically new class of glass-reinforced plastic concrete prestressed
structures with using author developed selfanchored glass-reinforced
plastic reinforcement is investigated and suggested in this thesis.

Glass-reinforced plastic contact with concrete medium is excepted.
Strength along inclinated section and fireprotection are provided.
Reinforcement stress loses and power expenditure for manufacturing are
lowered. Methods of calculating one and multiply staged reinforcement
tensioning parametres and stress losses are developed.

Presfressed elements with exterior and interior glass-reinforced
plastic reinforcement and combined glassplastic concrete and
glassplastic elements structures are suggested. Mechanism of their
resistance to mechanical and electric loads, environment is studied.

Suggested decisions are installed at the using activities of Ukraine
and Georgia and at special structures.

Key words: glass-reinforced plastic reinforcement, glass-reinforced
plastic concrete, reeling, prestressed reinforcement, power losses,
dielectric indexes, corrosion firmness.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naeey A.O. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua eiino?oeoeeee nieaeaiiie
yia?aicao?aoiinoe n noaeeiieanoeeiaui e noaeueiui a?ie?iaaieai.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.01 — no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee, caeaiey e
nii?oaeaiey. -Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia nicaeaieth yooaeoeaiuo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iai?yaeaiiuo noaeeiieanoaaoiiiuo e aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee
nieaeaiiie yia?aicao?aoiinoe, eo enneaaeiaaieth, ?ac?aaioea i?eioeeiia
?an/aoa e aiaae?aieth a iiaii no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aeiino?oeoeee.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua aeaeu naiicaaiea?aiiie noaeeiieanoeeiaie a?iaoo?u e
niiniau eo iieo/aiey; yenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey i?e e?aoeia?aiaiiii e aeeeoaeueiii aeaenoaee iaa?ocee.
Iieo/aaiay iaiioeie aeaooaaoaaaay a?iaoo?a eiaao a?aiaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea
Rsn=800…900 IIa, iiaeoeue aeaoi?iaoeee Es=5·104 IIa; iaeiiiai?aaeaiiay
n iaoeaauie ieii/aieyie — Rsn=500…600 IIa, Es=4·104 IIa; oaioe/aneiai
iaiieiaiey n aiea?iuie ieii/aieyie — sne =350 IIa, En=3·104 IIa.
Aeeeoaeueiay i?i/iinoue ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 0,7 io e?aoeia?aiaiiie. Ia
iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ?ac?aaioaiiie a?iaoo?u i?aaeeiaeai e
yenia?eiaioaeueii enneaaeiaai i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue eeann
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiuo noaeeiieanoaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee, a
eioi?uo iai?yaaaiay a?iaoo?a ia eiaao eiioaeoa n uaei/iie n?aaeie
aaoiia, aiea?iaea inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao caoeaieaiey ca aaoii,
iaoyaeaiea — iooyaeaaieai iiia?a/iie iaa?oceie. Iaania/eaaaony
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey iiiieeoiuo, ia?ac?aciuo
nenoai; iiauoaiey i?i/iinoe ii iaeeiiiui na/aieyi; i?eiaiaiey ?acee/iuo
naycothueo oieiaeiiai ioaa?aeaeaiey; nieaeaiey yia?aicao?aoiinoe e
noieiinoe.

?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua aaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee n
aiaoiei noaeeiieanoeeiaui a?ie?iaaieai, yeaeo?iecieyoeeiiiua ianouea
yeaiaiou nieaeaiiie yia?aicao?aoiinoe. Enneaaeiaaiu caeiiiia?iinoe eo
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey e nii?ioeaeaiey iaeiia?aiaiiui iaoaie/aneei e
yeaeo?e/aneei aicaeaenoaeyi. A neo/aa iaaeaoey, nicaeaaaaiiai
oaoiieiae/aneei iaoyaeaieai aieieii, noaeeiieanoeeiaua iaieiu
oaaee/eaatho i?i/iinoue i?e inaaii naeaoee a 9…14 ?ac, i?e inaaii
?anoyaeaiee a 1,8…2,8 ?aca a caaeneiinoe io oieueiu iaieiu (1…3 ii)
ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiae/iuie aaoiiiuie yeaiaioaie aac iaiei. A
i?iaaaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo auyaeaii, /oi a
yeaiaioao, iieo/aaiuo caiieiaieai noaeeiieanoeeiauo o?oa/aouo ia?acoeia
aaoiiii, oeacaiiue yooaeo ?inoa i?i/iinoe oiaiueoaaony e ninoaaeyao 4-7
?ac.

?ac?aaioaiu e enneaaeiaaiu yeaiaiou a iaieiao e n eiiaeie?iaaiiui
a?ie?iaaieai, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua iaoaie/aneei niiniaii.
Iaaeaoea iiauneei o?aueiinoieeinoue i?e ?anoyaeaiee a 1,52 ?aca, i?e
ecaeaa a 1,34 ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiae/iuie yeaiaioaie aac iaaeaoey.
Aiaeiae/ii aic?anoatho aaee/eiu oaeaeueiuo eiioeueniuo yeaeo?e/aneeo
iai?yaeaiee ia?ae?uoey e nii?ioeaeaiey ecieyoeee.

Yenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ioee/ea io aeaeaciaaoiiiuo
eiino?oeoeee, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea noaeeiieanoaaoiiiuo
yeaiaioia iiauoaao eo i?i/iinoue a 1,15…1,4 ?aca.

?ac?aaioai niinia iiauoaiey ianouae niiniaiinoe aeaeeo naeaouo yeaiaioia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiui aiaoiei noaeeiieanoeeiaui a?ie?iaaieai.

I?aaeeiaeaiu eiiaeie?iaaiiua eiino?oeoeee ec ?ac?aaioaiiuo
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiuo noaeeiieanoaaoiiiuo yeaiaioia n aiaoiei e
aioo?aiiei noaeeiieanoeeiaui a?ie?iaaieai e noaeeiieanoeeiauo iaiei/ae e
neeaaeie, iieo/aaiuo niiniaii iaiioee; aeaiu ?aoaiey oceia eo
nii?yaeaiey.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia iaeii- e iiiaiyoaiiiai
iaoyaeaiey a?iaoo?u, iioa?ue iai?yaeaiee. I?aaeeiaeaiu i?eioeeiu ?an/aoa
?ac?aaioaiiuo eiino?oeoeee e nenoai ia eo iniiaa ii i?aaeaeueiui
ninoiyieyi n o/aoii oece/aneie iaeeiaeiinoe. I?e yoii eniieuecoaony
oaaiaue iaoiae a ni/aoaiee n aiaoiei e aioo?aiiei oeeeeaie eoa?aoeee ia
eaaeaeii oaaa iaa?oaeaiey eeai aeia?oaeaiey.

?ac?aaioaiu eieaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua aeaeaciaaoiiiua
eiino?oeoeee nieaeaiiie yia?aicao?aoiinoe caaiaeneiai ecaioiaeaiey e ia
i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia eniieueciaaiea o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiyaiuo yia?aiaieeo
aunaaeaiiuo aieiaie nenoaiu aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai oi?i/iaiey e iaoyaeaiey
noaeueiie a?iaoo?u; yenia?eiaioaeueii iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue
i?eiaiaiey a ieo aac aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai oi?i/iaiey a?iaoo?u eeanna A-III,
auioneaaiie iaoaeeo?ae/aneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie Oe?aeiu e A?ocee.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu a iiaii no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aeiino?oeoeee ia
iauaeoao Oe?aeiu e A?ocee, a niaoeeaeueiuo nii?oaeaieyo, a i?iaeoa
ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioa Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaeeiieanoeeiaia a?ie?iaaiea, noeeiieanoaaoiiiua
yeaiaiou, iaiioea, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea, iioa?e iai?yaeaiee
aeeyeaeo?e/aneea iieacaoaee, ei??iceiiiay noieeinoue

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeenna?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe?? cieaeaii? aia?aiaeo?aoiino?

c? neeiieanoeeiaei ? noaeueiei a?ioaaiiyi

Nae?y Ao?ai Oaeaiae/

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione ?iiaiaiei A.A.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 06.04. 1999 ?.

Oi?iao iaia?o 60 o 84 1/16. Iai?? aeey ?iciiiaeoaaeueieo aia?ao?a.

Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oiiai.-ae?oe. a?e. 2. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 2,25.

Caiiaeaiiy ? 197. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Aacieaoii.

Aeae. Oa?AeACO, 310050, i.Oa?e?a-50, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

Ae?oe. Oa?AeACO, 310050, i.Oa?e?a-50, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

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