3

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?eooeye Iaaei Iao?iae/

OAeE 930:327.5.

Iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei a?eie, oeeaaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe??
A?anonueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o (aa?acaiue 1917-ea?oaiue 1918 ??.)

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Ie??a ?oneai sseiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, aieiaa Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo a?o?a?a Oe?a?ie.

Aa?/aa Iao?i ?aaiiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? ii eaoaae?? ?noi?? Oe?a?ie
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?in?enueei? ?noi???
Oaa??enueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A. Aa?iaaenueeiai

Aa?auaiei Oaoyia Noae?aia, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio ii eaoaae??
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Caii??cueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai
?inoeoooo IAN Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 10 a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 13 aiae ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E17.051.01 o Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe.
AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i.5, aoae. 327

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i.2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 5 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee N.I.Oei/aiei

1. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy
ae?yeueiino? oaeiai oaiiiaiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo a?o/eciyiiai
ia?eaiaioa?ecio, ye Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, ?, cie?aia, o noa?? ae?iaeaiiy
oa i?iaaaeaiiy aeanii? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. Oeae aniaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia? ye oai?aoe/ia, oae ? i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy.

Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a?aee?eooy a?o?aieo aeaea?ae,
ca?eueiaiiy ?noi?eea a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo ioo, aeicaieythoue aeineoue
iiaii ?aeiino?othaaoe caaaeueio iaii?aio ooieoe?iioaaiiy Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, aecia/eoe ?? oni?oe, i?i?aooiee oa iiieeee.

Naia anaa?/i?noue ? ia`?eoeai?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie ni?eyoeiooue
iiaeieaiith oaeeo caeeoeiaeo noa?aioei?a noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, ye
“eiio??aaiethoe?ei?noue”, “iaoe?iiae?ci”, “i?iaeaaei?noue” Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, ? aiaeii/an aeiiiiiaeooue caiia?aoe iia?oi?i ni?iaai
aeeo??aia?/ii? i?oieia?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ia?oiai oe?a?inueeiai
ia?eaiaioo.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a o ae??oaii? aeie?
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917 — 1920 ??.
e iiiei? neeaaea? iiaaaeio iaoeiao i?iaeaio, ?ica`ycaiiy yei? aea?
a?aeiia?aeue ia nae?aiaioaeuei? caieoaiiy: “*e i?iaeaaaea Oeaio?aeueia
?aaea Oe?a?io i?ioeyi?”; “*e aoee o ia? aeueoa?iaoeae ? o ye?e ieiuei?
aiie eaaeaee?”.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe o i?aeoe/iiio nain? coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth
aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? oiae?oiuei? oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao??. Aaeaea
no/ania iacaeaaeia Oe?a?ia a?oioo? naith ciai?oith iie?oeeo ia canaaeao
aeia?ia?eueiino?, ??aiii?aaiino? oa ia?oia?noaa, aeoiaey/e c aeanieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a. Ca oiia, eiee ?a?iiaenueeee aaeoi? noa?
aeii?ioth/ei o caaaeueiiio niaeo?? i?aeia?iaeieo noinoie?a Oe?a?ie,
iniaeeai? aaae iaaoaa? ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae iiia?aaei?o aoai?a
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, cie?aia ooaa?aeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye noa`?eoa
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, oeeaaeaiiy aeaio- oa aaaaoinoi?iii?o oaiae,
caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iai?yiie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?aeaoc?anueeeo
iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??.
Aea/aiiy ia?aii? oaie ia?aaeaa/aii ieaiaie iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
o?einionueeeo oa nioe?aeueieo iaoe Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue aa?acaiue 1917 — ea?oaiue
1918 ?. ? aecia/ai? /anii ooieoe?iioaaiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee — aeuiai
i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aeno?aeia e?i?y
ca?aa?oueny c ii/aoeii iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??, yea
ea?aeeiaeueii aieeioea ia noai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ?icaeoie eiai
?inoeooo?a ii oeyoo aeaniiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa aeoiaeo OI? ia
i?aeia?iaeio a?aio. Ieaeiy iaaea iicia/aia i?aeienaiiyi o ea?oi? 1918?.
aeiiii?/ieo oaiae i?ae Oe?a?iith oa aea?aeaaaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie
ca?aeii iieiaeaiue A?anonueeiai ie?o.

Iaoa aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, uia nie?ath/enue ia
iaoeiaee aei?iaie iiia?aaeiee?a, a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, iioae?eiaai?
iaoa??aee oa ?io? aeaea?aea, ia`?eoeaii aena?oeeoe no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ii aeaaaeaiith Oe?a?ie c Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie,
anoaiiaeaiith aeeieiiaoe/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei c
?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeai? oae?
aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy:

— iieacaoe aieea na?oiai? a?eie ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue;

— c`ynoaaoe ?iceeaae iie?oe/ieo nee o e?a?i? i?ney Ethoiaai?
?aaiethoe?? oa ?o noaaeaiiy aei a?eie;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei i?ae OI? ? ?aaeyinueeith ?in??th
ia iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?iith aeanii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
e?i??;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aaiethoe?th iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee a?ae
caaaeueiiai aei naia?aoiiai ie?o;

— aena?oeeoe i?ioean ie?ieo ia?aaiai??a ca o/anoth aeaeaaaoe?? OI? oa
i?aeienaiiy iath A?anonueeiai ie?o;

— ?ice?eoe o?ae ia?aaiai??a oe?a?inueei? oa i?iaoeueei-aano??enueei?
noi??i ii oeeaaeaiith aeiiii?/ii? oaiaee;

— iieacaoe cia/aiiy A?anonueeiai ie?o aeey Oe?a?ie aeiae Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee.

I?aiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ciai?oiy iie?oeea
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, caaacia/aiiy aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie c a?eie, ooaa?aeaeaiiy
OI? ye noa`?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueei?
aeeieiiao?? ii a?aenoithaaiith iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o ia??iae
i?aeienaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? A?anonueeiai ie?o.

Ia`?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaen ?noi?e/ieo
aeaea?ae, ye? aena?oeththoue ae?yeuei?noue Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa o?yaeo
OI? ii oeeaaeaiith A?anonueeiai ie?o. Ianaiia?aae, oea iaii?eethaeiai?
a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, aeieoiaioaeuei? ioae?eaoe??, i?ana, niiaaaee,
ai?noiey??y.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ni?ia? ?ica`ycaiiy
aeooaeueii? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, yea aein? eiiieaenii ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeany, a caaaeuei? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei ??
ae??oaiiy aacoaaeeny ia ?aeaieia?/ieo iinooeaoao, aeaeaeeo a?ae iaoeiai?
ia`?eoeaiino?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?eueoino? i?aoeue, aeioe/ieo oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aaoi? ?icaeyaea? i?iaeaio A?anonueeiai ie?o /a?ac i?ecio ?ioa?an?a
Oe?a?ie, ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, a ia ?in?? a oe?eiio, ye oea ?iaeeiny
?ai?oa. Aei oiai ae, ia iao iiaeyae, A?anonueeee ie? a ieai?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ae?noaa eia?/ia
caaa?oaiiy naia 23 ea?oiy 1918 ?., eiee aoee cae?i/ai? aeiiii?/i?
o?ueionoi?iii? ia?aaiai?e ? i?aeienaii aeiiii?/io oaiaeo. Aia?oa
aeeth/aii aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao oe?eo ieceo iiaeo, ianaiia?aae a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y ai?iaiaaia ia eaoaae?? o?einionueeeo oa nioe?aeueieo iaoe
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a ??
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia — ?a?iiaenueeee
Nithc: ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ? ia?niaeoeae
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa”(Ee?a, eenoiiaae 1995 ?.) oa i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaioai?/ee i?ioean
(aei 80-??//y noai?aiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee)”. — Ee?a, aa?acaiue 1997 ?.

Ci?no ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaii o 5 ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,0
ae?oeiaai? a?eoo?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui a ?iaio?
nenoaiaoeciaaii oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?i A?anonueeee ie?, yeee ?acii ?c
iaa?oioiaaieie iieiaeaiiyie ? noi?ioeueiaaieie aeniiaeaie iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee aeey i?aeaioiaee ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie aecaieueieo ciaaaiue aeiae
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie ia
oeyoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue i?eneoaeeoeny
oe?a?inueeei aeeieiiaoai, iie?oe/iei ia?o?yi, a?iiaaenueeei
i?aai?caoe?yi o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ii ?icaoaeia? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, ooaa?aeaeaiith ?? i?aeia?iaeiiai aaoi?eoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia? aiae?co
a?o?aieo aeaieo, aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa e?oa?aoo?e, ?o
e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny iie?oeea
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei a?eie, i?aeienaiiy oa ?aae?caoe??
A?anonueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o. Aeena?oaioii aecia/aii iia? o?iiieia?/i?
?aiee A?anonueei? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, iiae?eaieo ia
a?n?i ia?aa?ao?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae. Caaaeueiee
ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 170 noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
e?oa?aoo?e – 231 iaeiaioaaiiy.

2. INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, aecia/athoueny eiai i?aaeiao oa ia`?eo.
Ie?aneththoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
iaa?oioiaothoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aea oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy” — ?icaeyaea?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie,
?iaeoueny iaeyae aeaea?aeueii? aace oa aeeeaaeathoueny iaoiaeeea oa
iaoiaee, ui aoee aeei?enoai? a aeena?oaoe??.

?noi??ia?ao?/iee aei?iaie oaie neeaaeathoue ?iaioe ??cieo iieie?iue
?noi?ee?a, iie?oee?a, ioae?oeeno?a. C iaaiith aeieath oiiaiino? ?o
iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia e?eueea a?oi. Ia?oa — i?aoe? i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, o?yaeo OI?; ae?oaa — oe?a?inueea ai?a?aionueea
e?oa?aoo?a; o?aoy — ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y; /aoaa?oa — i?aoe?
ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a; i`yoa — aeine?aeaeaiiy no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiaoe?a.

Ia?oeie ?noi??ia?aoaie ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie oa
A?anonueeiai ie?o aoee ea??ai? ae?y/? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, i?ia?aei?
o?yaeiaoe? OI? – I.A?ooaanueeee,

A.Aeiie/aiei, ?.Iacaia, Ae.Aei?ioaiei oa ?io?. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e i?iaeaie
noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? a oe?eiio, aiie oi?eathoueny ? ieoaiue
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa i?aeienaiiy A?anonueeiai
ie?o. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaiee noa`?eoea?ci, aaoi?e aeathoue caaaeueiee
iaeyae ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, a?aeaeaathoue iiaeyaee oiae?oiueiai
ea??aieoeoaa ia aea?? i???ioaoe??, no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee aeoiaeo OI? c
na?oiai? a?eie, ia?aaeathoue oe?eaa? aeey ?noi?ee?a niinoa?aaeaiiy,
iniaeno? a?aaeaiiy. Cie?aia, aiie iaaieiooaaee, ui o?yae ?icoi?a
iaiao?aei?noue ie?o ? iaiaaaany oaeaeoa cae?i/eoe a?eio, o oie /an ye
?aaeia?eii ?in?? ?iaea ona, uia cieueoe ?aaeo ? oei naiei ia aeaoe ?e
ciiae caeeth/eoe naia?aoiee ie? c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie. Nai
aeiaia?? aecia?oueny aea?aeiei aeey Oe?a?ie, aea ni?aaa iieyaaea o
ai?ii? eiai ?aae?coaaoe.

O/ai? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e noai?eee /eiaei ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Aaaaoi c ieo o o?e /e ?io?e i???
oi?eathoueny A?anonueeiai ie?o. Oea ?iaioe ?. Ai?uaea, ?.Eaiaiaoeueeiai,
I.Oaeiae/aiea, I.Ai?ianueeiai, O.Aoi/aea, ?.Iaeno?aiea, I.Noaoaeueiiai,
?.Iaaa?anueeiai,oa ?ioeo. *anoeia c ieo eeoa o 1990-o ??. ia?aaeaeaia a
Oe?a?i?.

A?eueo?noue oeeo aaoi??a, aeoiaey/e c aea?aeaaieoeueeeo iiceoe?e,
aaaaeathoue ae?? oiae?oiueiai oe?a?inueeiai ea??aieoeoaa, ni?yiiaai? ia
aeciaiiy OI? ye noa`?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa oe?eeii iaa?oioiaaieie,
aeaoa?i?iiaaieie ieceith ia`?eoeaieo i?e/ei. A?eueoiaeoeueea aeniain?y
eaae?o?eo?oueny ieie ye aieiaiee /eiiee naia?aoieo ae?e OI? ? aeo
naiicaoenoo. Oi/ iane?aeee i?iaoeueei-aano??enueei? i?enooiino? a
Oe?a?i? ioe?iththoueny a?eueo ??cii??aeii.

Oaeei /eiii, caaaeueiee iaeyae aeaio ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo a?oi aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui naia oeeie i?aoeyie aoei caeeaaeaii aeineoue i?oeia
i?aea?oioy aea/aiiy “a?anonueei? i?iaeaiaoeee”. Neeueiith ?o noi?iiith
aoea ia?aaea/a aaciina?aaei?o a?aaeaiue, ie?aieo ai?ciae?a ?
iiae?iaeoeue o/ano? OI? o ia?aaiai?iiio i?ioean?. I?ioa aiie ia iiaeooue
ia?aaaaeeoe ?o iaioa?iino?, a?aenooiino? iaoeiaiai aiae?co, neaaei?
aeaea?aeueii? aace.

O ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? 1920-1930 ??. Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea caaaeii
eaae?o?eoaaeany ye onoaiiaa “ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/ia”,
“eiio??aaiethoe?eia”. Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui e ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue ?? a i?aoeyo io?oe?eieo ?noi?ee?a I.Iiiiaa,
A.??/eoeueeiai, I.Ne?eiieea, I.ssai?nueeiai oa ?ioeo ioe?ithaaeany
iaaaoeaii. ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y 30-o ??. uiaei i?iaeaiaoeee
ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, o/ano? OI? a oeeaaeaii? A?anonueeiai
ie?o iaaoaa? aaniethoii oia?aaeaeaiiai, ca?aeaieia?ciaaiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aaoi?e I.Oanoaeia, A.A?eionia, E.Aoneenoee a oe?eiio iaaaoeaii
ioe?iththoue A?anonueeee ie?, i?aeienaiee aeaeaaaoe??th OI?, oaeoe/ii
caiia/othoue ae?yeuei?noue Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Aaia?aeueiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo. Caaaeo?oueny eeoa i?i “aeayeeo” oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaaao?a.

O ?iee Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie oaae aoei aeaeaii ?yae i?aoeue, ui
noinoaaeeny a iniiaiiio iane?aee?a i?iaoeueei? oa aano??enueei?
ieoiaoe?? Oe?a?ie, aeioneath/e c iiey ci?o a?anonuee? ia?aaiai?e oa
i?aeienaiiy ie?o.

C na?aaeeie 50-o ??. ?ioa?an ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? aei i?iaeaie
AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie cia/ii c??n. Aeeoee
niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? A?anonueeiai ie?o A.Aooaicyia,
A.*oaa?`yia, A.I?eieueieeiaa oa ?ioeo. Iaeiae, ia aeeaey/enue ia ii/aoie
o?ouianueei? “a?aeeeae” o noni?euenoa?, ioe?iea ae?yeueiino?
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ?? Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo caeeoaeany
ca?aeaieia?ciaaiith. Cie?aia, a “Ia?enao ?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??
Oe?a?ie”, ia`?ii?e i?aoe? N.Ei?ie?anueeiai, I.?oaa/a, I.Noi?oiaiea
“Iiaaaea Niaaoneie aeanoe ia Oe?aeia” i?i Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo eeoa
caaaeo?oueny.

Aaaeeeaith aeey aiae?co ?noi??ia?ao?? oe??? i?iaeaie ? ca?oa?aeia,
ianaiia?aae cao?aeiii?iaoeueea e?oa?aoo?a. Iaiaaaiiy I?ia//eie cae?i/eoe
a?eio ia Noiae? c iaoith ia?aaeeneieaoe?? aea?eueiaieo nee ia Cao?ae
o?aeoo?oueny a cao?aeiii?iaoeuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ye ?aeeiee ? iaci?iiee
oaeoi? aeey caeeth/aiiy naia?aoiiai ie?o. Iaeiae, oey aeoiea, oi/ ?
i?aaaeiiiae?aia, aea ia a?aeoai?th? an??? iiaiioe i?e/eiiiiane?aeeiaeo
ca`yce?a a?anonueei? iie?oeee I?ia//eie. Ia aeoieo cao?aeieo ?noi?ee?a,
iaiao?aei?noue caeeth/aiiy naia?aoiiai ie?o aoea aeeeeeaia aaaeaiiyi
i?aaey/eo e?e I?ia//eie cae?i/eoe a?eio ia Caoiae? a?enueeiaeie ae?yie ?
ia ii/anieo oiiaao. I?e oeueiio cao?iythoueny ?io?, ia iaio aaaeeea?
oaeoi?e, ye? cioneee i?iaoeueeee o?yae i?enooieoe aei ia?aaiai??a c
?aaeyinueeith ?in??th, a naia: iineeaiiy I?ia//eie, ye caeaaaeinue,
iiaeeeaei oeyoii aeiiii?/iiai a?aaoieo ?in?? oa iaiao?aeiino? i?eaeooeoe
?aaiethoe?ei? iano?i? ana?aaeei? e?a?ie. Caiia/oth/e oe? oaeoi?e,
cao?aeiii?iaoeueea ?noi??ia?ao?y iaiaaaeany caaoaethaaoe a?aa?aeieoeueeo
iie?oeeo Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa uiaei Oe?a?ie. Nooo?aei /eiieeii, yeee
i?enei?ea i?aeienaiiy naia?aoiiai ie?o, ia aeoieo aeine?aeiee?a, aoa
aioo??oi?e noai I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie.

Iniiaiee aeniiaie c aiae?co oe??? e?oa?aoo?e iieyaa? a oiio, ui
iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ii oeeaaeaiith ie?o oaeoe/ii caeeoeeeny
iica oaaaith cao?aeiii?iaoeueei? ?noi??ia?ao??.

? ia?aoo?, inoaiiy ?noi??ia?ao?/ia a?oia — no/ania e?oa?aoo?a c oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaaoeaia ioe?iea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ??
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ii/eia? iinooiiai ia?aaeyaeaoeny o
e?ioe? 1980-o ??. O ca`yceo c ii/aoeii iie?oe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e o
noni?euenoa?, ia?inoaiiyi e?eoeee ?aeaieia?/ieo iinooeao?a EI?N
?noi?eee, oi/ ? iia?eueii, aea a?aeoiaeyoue a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey
?aaeyinueei? aeiae eaae?o?eaoe?e o/ano? Oe?a?ie o A?anonueeiio ie?iiio
aeiaiai??. Iaei??th c ia?oeo o oeueiio ?yaeo c`yaeeany i?aoey
?.Neiiiaiea – “A?ano. Aeaia?e a?eie ? ie?o. – E., 1998”, o ye?e ia
o?eueee a?eueo aeieeaaeii, a e ia`?eoeaii ?icaeyaeathoueny
i?aeoiaee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai a?eie ? ie?o.
A.Aei?ioeaae/, I.Aieioei, I.?iiai/oe i?enay/othoue “a?anonuee?e”
i?iaeaiaoeoe? iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/i? ?iaioe.

Iiaee aoai ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie ?icii/eia?oueny i?ney i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, ui aeaei iiaooi?e ?iioeuen aeine?aeaeaiith
?noi??? aeiae aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1920 ??., a oiio /ene? e
Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. O 1995-1996 ??. i?ae caaaeueiith
?aaeaeoe??th aeaaeai?ea IAI Oe?a?ie A.Niie?y, aeaeaii aeaioiiiee
“?noi??y Oe?a?ie: iiaa aa/aiiy”. I?aaio/e a?aeae?eeoe i?oe a?ae
ia`?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino?, aaoi?e A.Aa?nothe, I.Aa?aiue, A.Aeaieeaiei oa
?io? aiae?cothoue aeaea?aea c iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e, iaoia?aaeaeaii
aena?oeththoue ?noi??th Oe?a?ie ?c caeo/aiiyi uieii a?aee?eoeo a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a. Ne?ae ie?aii aeae?eeoe i?aoe? A.Aa?nothea, O.Inoaoei,
I.Eiieeaiea, A.Nieaeaoaiea, O.Oo?/aiea oa ?ioeo. Aa?nothe A. Oe?a?inueea
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. — E., 1997; Aa?nothe A.,
Inoaoei O. Ae?y/? Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee
aeia?aeiee. — E., 1998; Eiieeaiei I.E. “Noi aei?a” Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee.
— E., 1992; Oo?/aiei O.A., E?eaioee A.O. Iaa?no?ae? e aeoo? eooe
oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??// Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y 1917-ii/aoie 1918 ?.
I?iaeaie, iiooee, ocaaaeueiaiiy. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. — Caii??aeaey,
1998.

Oea iaei? c ia?oeo i?aoeue, aea ?iaeoueny ni?iaa nenoaiii aeeeanoe
?noi??th Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, iaaecae/aeii iane/aii? iiae?yie,
iicia/aii? aaaeeeaeie iie?oe/ieie caeiaooeaie ? ao?aoaie. Naia i?ae
oaeei eooii ci?o eaea iiaa i?i A?anonueeee ie?iee aeiaia??. Cie?aia,
aeine?aeieee iaaieioothoue, ui A?anonueeee ie? ai?n cia/i? ei?aeoeae o
o?ae i?aeia?iaeiiai ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo, i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie o?nii iia’ycoaaeiny ?c oi?noaaiiyi oeeaaeaiiy ie?iiai aeiaiai?o
c e?a?iaie *aoaa?oiai nithco oa iai?iiith Oe?a?ie a?ae a?eueoiaeoeueeiai
ianooio.

Na?aae iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeue no/anieo ?noi?ee?a a Oe?a?i?
aaaiia i?noea iin?aea? aena?oeaiiy ianoaaei oeeaaeaiiy A?anonueei?
oaiaee OI? o 1918 ?. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?i? iaiaaaiiy e?eoe/ii inieneeoe
iaeiie/aiee a ?noi??ia?ao?? iaoa??ae uiaei ioe?iee A?anonueeiai ie?o, a
oaeiae eiai iane?aee?a aeey iaeaooiueiai Oe?a?ie. Ianaiia?aae oea noaoo?
I.AEoeeinueeiai, ?.Oi?ey, A.O?oaae/oea, I.Eiieeaiea. Oe? aaoi?e
i?eae?eythoue iaaio oaaao ? i?aeienaiith Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith
A?anonueeiai ie?o. Oi/ ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a ?noi??ia?ao?? ii/aoeo 90-o
??. ia aoei iaeiinoaeiino? a ioe?ioe? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?noi?e/ieo
iiae?e.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c onueiai iaiaeii??aeiiai ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aei?iaeo
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee. Ia?oee: i?iaeaia o/ano? Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, o?yae?a OI? o i?aeaioiaoe? oa i?aeienaii? A?anonueeiai ie?o
aeine?aeaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei. Ae?oaee: ca?aeaieia?ciaai? ioe?iee
?aaeyinueei? aeiae uiaei a?anonueeiai ie?iiai i?ioeano iio?aaothoue
aeeaieiai iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy, a?oioiaii? oaeoe/ii? a?aoiaioaoe??.
O?ao?e: ?ica`ycaiiy oe??? aaeueie aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie iiaea aooe
cae?eniaia oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?? iiaea aooe ?icae?eaia ia aeae?eueea a?oi.
O ia?oo /a?ao oea aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
iathoue oiiaee: 1115 — “Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea”; 1063 — “?aaea
Ia?iaeieo I?i?no??a”; 1118 — “I?i?noa?noai I?iieneiaino? ? Oi?ao”.
Cia/ia /anoeia aeieoiaio?a oeeo oiiae?a aia?oa aaiaeeoueny aei iaoeiaiai
ia?ao.

Ae?oaa a?oia aeaea?ae ioiieth? ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a,
iioae?eiaai? a Oe?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue
ae?yeuei?noue Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa ?? aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a. Nooo?ao
?ieue o aeine?aeaeaii? aeaii? i?iaeaie a?ae?a?aea o?aoy a?oia aeaea?ae —
i?ana. Aeena?oaioii aea/ai? iaoa??aee io?oe?eieo aeaeaiue — “A?no? c
Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee”; “A?niee ?aaee Ia?iaeieo I?i?no??a”, a
oaeiae aacaoe i?ia?aeieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie oeueiai ia??iaeo. O
aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aeei?enoai? iaioa?e oa niiaaaee o/aniee?a oiai/anieo
?noi?e/ieo iiae?e. Na?aae ieo niiaaaee /eai?a aeaeaaaoe?? OI?
I.Naa?thea, I.Cae?ciyea, iaioa?e aeaa i?iaoeueei? oa aano??enueei?
aeaeaaaoe?? ?.Etheueiaia, I.Aioiaia oa I.*a?i?ia.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ae?aeaeoe/i?
i?eioeeie ?noi?e/ii? ae?eniino? — ?noi?ecio, ia`?eoeaiino? i?ciaiiy oa
iaoeiaino?.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? canoinoaaa
caaaeueiiiaoeia?, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?i? oa aeania ?noi?e/i? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaea?eueo iioe?aiei c ieo noaa i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee
iaoiae, yeee aeicaieea aecia/eoe iia? ?aiee a?anonueei? iie?oeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa eiiieaenii aea/eoe aieiai? ieoaiiy ia?aii? oaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
— iieniaee, ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee, noaoenoe/iee.

?icae?e 2 – “Aieea ?aaiethoe?? ia a?enueeiai-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo” – neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O ia?oiio
2.1. — “Oe?a?ia a eiioaeno? iiae?e Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie” —
aeine?aeaeaii iie?oe/iee oa aeiiii?/iee noai oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o
caaaeaiee ia??iae.

Iaaieioo?oueny, ui oe?a?inuee? caie? ii iaeaeaa aiee
aano?i-?in?enueeiai ei?aeiio aoee iaei??th c i?e/ei ? i?aaeiaoii
a?enueeiaiai i?ioeai?noaa. Aeaa /eiieee iaee i?eoyaaeueio neeo aei
oeueiai ?aa?iio: ia?oee – aeiiii?/iee (iaia?aaeiaei? a?eie Oe?a?ia
ae?iaeyea 16 iei. o. oe?aa), ae?oaee – iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
aaee/acieo ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie o ai?iieo oe?eyo.

A?eia aianea na?eici? ei?aeoeae o noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, yeee
ia iaa aeanii? aea?aeaae, caeaoii? caoenoeoe eiai iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioa?ane. A oiiaao Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie
?ici?uoaaeeny cia/i? a?enueeia? neee. I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee o?iio
oi?iaeiaae onueiai ia??iaeo caeeoaany iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei no?aoaa?/iei
/eiieeii. Ooo noaaea o?eiaea a?eueoa 40% on?o aeea?c?e, ye? i?ioenoiyee
i?iaoeueeei ? aano?i-oai?nueeei a?enueeai.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ca ?iee a?eie Oe?a?ia noaea
oaeoe/ii oeeiaei ?aeiiii I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai oa V??? a?i?? ?oioinueeiai
o?iio?a, a oa?eoi??y ?? cao?aeieo aoaa?i?e — a?aiith a?enueeiaeo ae?e.
Iaeaeeae/ei oeeii I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai o?iioo aoa oae caaiee Ee?anueeee
?aeii, eoaee aoiaeeei i’youe aoaa?i?e.

Iaoa??aee ?icae?eo aeiaiaeyoue, ui o/anoue Oe?a?ie o a?ei? ca /oae?
?ioa?ane i?ecaaea aei cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ?iai/eo ?oe, iia??oaiiy iinoa/aiiy
naea iaoeiaie oa ?aiaiaioii. A?eia noaea i?e/eiith aaeeeeo ci?i ? a
i?iieneiaino?. Caaiaee ? oaa?eee aoee caaaioaaeai? a?enueeiaeie
caiiaeaiiyie, aeeiiaiiy yeeo aeiaaaei /eiaeeo iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.
Iieiaeaiiy ?ia?oie/iai eeano aoei aeineoue aaaeeei, i?i ui na?ae/eoue
e?euee?noue no?aee?a ca ?iee a?eie, ui aei??aithaaea 410. Iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeaaeiny ia noaiiaeu? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ? iino?eia
i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i ia i?iaeiaieue/? oa i?iieneia? oiaa?e.

Naia Ia?oa na?oiaa a?eia ? ia?iaeaeai? iath o?oaeiiu? i?aeaaee
oe?a?inueeee ia?iae aei ona?aeiieaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?aaeeeaeueii? ci?ie
anueiai noni?eueiiai ono?ith aeey naiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
noaoono.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. – “Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ?aaiethoe?y oa
iaiao?aei?noue aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie c a?eie” – aiae?co?oueny neooaoe?y a
Oe?a?i?, ui neeaeany i?ney iaae?iiy ?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aeaniioecio o e?ioe? ethoiai

1917 ?.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui iaaani? 1917 ?. a Oe?a?i? a?aeiiaeththoue naith
ae?yeuei?noue noa?? oa ooai?ththoueny iia? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ye?
i?aoaiaeothoue ia ea??aieoeoai oe?a?inueeith ?aaiethoe??th. I?ney
ethoiai 1917 ?. Oe?a?ia noaea a?aiith neeaaeieo iiae?e, ui iicia/eeiny
ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeia? e?a?ie. Iiaeeaeth?oueny
caaaeueia coaiae?iiy noni?euenoaa, ?iciaae eiai nioe?aeueii? oa
iie?oe/ii? no?oeoo?e, ui ci?ieei na?oini?eeiaiiy ethaeae oa noai?eei
aeaaiaeaoiee a?oio aeey nioe?aeueiiai ?aaeeeae?cio.

O ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny iiceoe?y Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei ??
?aeaieia?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ea?oiaaee
Iaoe?iiaeueiee eiia?an iieeaa ii/aoie i?aeoe/iiio ao?eaiith o aeeooy
?aea? Oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee ye neeaaeiai?
/anoeie ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoeaii? ?anioae?ee. Aiaeii/an i?aee?aneaii, ui
naia eiia?an ooaaeea oe?eeii naiino?eieoeueeo aeiiao uiaei o/ano?
Oe?a?ie o iaeaooi?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe?? aithth/eo aea?aeaa.

O ?icae?e? i?aee?aneaii, ui aeey aoiieaieo a?eiith nieaeao?a ?aeay
oe?a?i?caoe?? a?i?? aoea aeoaea i?eaaaeeaith. Oea ni?eyei
a?ae?iaeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a o ?in?enuee?e
a?i??. Aoee c?iaeai? eeoa ia?o? e?iee ia oeyoo ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? Oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai eii?oaoo uiaei
oe?a?i?caoe??, aea /?oeiai ieaio ae?e ae?iaeaii ia aoei. I?e/eiith
noaea iaaia iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, a?aenooi?noue /?oeiai ?icoi?iiy
caaaeaiue ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo a?i??. Uiaei I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai ?
?oioinueeiai o?iio?a, oi iaia?aaeiaei? a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ia?aai?ioo ooo
ciaoiaeeeiny 42 iiai?noth ? 11 /anoeiai oe?a?i?ciaaieo iieee.

Aiaeii/an aaeeny ni?iae noai?aiiy iai?aa?enueeiaeo aeia?iaieue/eo
ooai?aiue a?eueiiai eicaoeoaa ia Ee?auei?, *a?i?a?auei?, Iieoaauei? oa
Oa?niiuei?. ?o caaaeueia e?euee?noue noaiiaeea aeecueei 60 oen. /ie.

Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y a?i??, ii/aoie ?? noeo?eiiai ?icaaeo ni?eyee
noai?aiith oiia aeey aeoea?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo oa
i?eieiaiiy na?oiai? a?eie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3.- “Iie?oe/ia ieaooi?ia Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee c ieoaiue
a?eie oa ie?o” — iaaieioo?oueny, ui iaeiei ?c aieiaieo iai?yie?a
ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee a e?ioe? 1917 ?. noaee caoiaee ii
anoaiiaeaiith ia?aie?’y ia o?iioao oa i?eieiaiith Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.
Aiie aeeth/aee a naaa iaiaaaiiy iaaaeiiai i?iaieioaiiy oaaea?aoeaii?
?in?enueei? ?anioae?ee, i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ia ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??
iaaea?aeaaieo ia?iae?a, canoaeaeaiiy e?ie?a a?eueoiaee?a uiaei aaaeaiiy
ia?aaiai??a c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie i?i ia?aie?’y, ye? aeoiaeeee ca
iaae? caaaeueiiaeciaieo ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Iiaeyae Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo oe?eeii ca?aaany c aeoieith aieeaiaeo
o?aeoe?e Iaei? ?aaee i?i ie? ? ia?aie?’y. Ine?eueee ?aaeia?eii ia iiaea
i?aaenoaaeyoe ?ioa?ane iaaea?aeaaieo ia?iae?a ia ia?aaiai?ao,
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea aeciaea ca iio??aia iaaaeii i?enooieoe aei
ia?aie?’y. Aiia ?icii/aea ae?iaeaiiy eiie?aoii? i?ia?aie ie?o, e?ioeaaa
iaoa yei? iieyaaea o aeinyaiaii? caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiai
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ie?o. I?ae aieeaii ianoaaei OI? ciooaia aoea ?aooaaoeny
c ia?aie?’yi, ui caeeth/eee a?eueoiaeee c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie.

?icaeyaea?oueny i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i o/anoue OI? o ia?aaiai?ao o
A?ano?, yea oe?a?inueeiio o?yaeo aeaeiny iaeaaei. O a?oaei? 1917 ?.
oi/eeeny aino?? aioo??oi? aeeneon?? c oeueiai ieoaiiy, iniaeeai ia 8-e
nan?? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Nan?y i?eeiyea ??oaiiy acyoe o/anoue o ie?ieo
ia?aaiai?ao a?ae ?iai? OI? ia??ai? c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie e iineaoe
aeaeaaaoe?th o A?ano. Oea aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue Oe?a?i? cae??ieoe e
eaaae?coaaoe ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? naith aea?aeaai?noue.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – “O/anoue aeaeaaaoe?? OI? ia ia?aaiai?ao o A?ano?” –
no?oeoo?ii neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a ? i?enay/aiee ?ice?eooth
oaeeo i?iaeai. I?ae?icae?e 3.1. – “I?aeia?iaei? oa aioo??oi? /eiieee
iaiao?aeiino? oeeaaeaiiy Oe?a?iith naia?aoiiai ie?o” – a?aee?eaa?oueny
aiae?cii iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a ?in?? oa Oe?a?i? i?ney AEiaoiaaiai
ia?aai?ioo a Iao?ia?aae?. Iiaaeaiiy Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo a?aee?eei ia?aae
iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ooii aaeee? ia?niaeoeae. I?ioa aac /?oei? eiioeaioe??
aecaieueii? ai?ioueae Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ia ciiaea aeeoe ca ?aiee
oaaea?ae?nonueeeo i?aaiaiue. C ?ioiai aieo ?aaeia?eii, ia iath/e
aeinoaoiuei nee a Oe?a?i? aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeaaee,
ae??oea aanoe ca?ieio ai?ioueao c ?aaeith. A?i iineeea aieea ia a?i??
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai, ?oioinueeiai o?iio?a oa *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo.
Oea i?aeoaa?aeeee iiae?? ui a?aeaoeeny ia iaaecae/aeiiio c’?cae?
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai o?iioo 16-24 eenoiiaaea a i. Aa?aee/aa?, aea
a?eueoiaeee io?eiaee ia?aaaao ia aeai?ao aei a?enueeiai-?aaiethoe?eiiai
eii?oaoo, ui icia/aei oaeoe/ia aeciaiiy aeaaee ?aaeia?eiio.

Oaea iiaaae?iea a?eueoiaee?a aeeeeeaea i?ioeae?th oa eiio?caoiaee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Oe?a?inueeee o?yae, a?aoiaoth/e iiaiee ?iceaae
aeaio o?iio?a, o a?oaei? ia’?aeio? I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee oa ?oioinueeee
o?iioe a ?aeeiee Oe?a?inueeee o?iio, ui i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny
Aaia?aeueiiio Nae?aoa??aoo.

C a?oaeiy 1917 ?. ?aaeia?eii iaae?neaa aei Ee?aa oeueoeiaooi, /ei ii
noo? iieeaa ii/aoie ca?ieii? ?ioa?aaioe?? a Oe?a?io c iaoith cieuaiiy
aeaaee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. I?aeeeee ianea o iieoi’y a?eie, ui
?icai?aeany i?ae OI? oa ?IE, ? aeai?e aei Onoaiia/eo cai??a o
eenoiiaae? — a?oaei? 1917 ?.

Oaeoe/ii c 6 a?oaeiy ?aaeyinueea ?in?y oa OI? ia?aaoaaee a noai? a?eie.
E?iee OI? uiaei iai?iie e?ath a?ae aa?ani?a aeyaeeeny iaaeinoaoi?ie, ?
o?yae ii/aa ooeaoe iii?e na?aae ?ioeo i?eoeeueieo aei Oe?a?ie nee, yeeie
noaee Oeaio?aeuei? aea?aeaae.

Oaeei /eiii, o?ae iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, ui ana a?eueoa caaaiya OI? oa ??
aeaaei? no?oeoo?e o aeooee eoo, i?eionea ci?ieoe oaeoeeo o ieoaiiyo
ie?o c e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. I?aeooiaooaaia neeith ianoaaei,
OI? aeeth/aeany o ia?aaiai?iee i?ioean, niiae?aath/enue caoenoeoe nai?
aeani? ?ioa?ane.

I?ae?icae?e 3.2. — “I?aeienaiiy ie?iiai aeiaiai?o” — i?enay/aiee
aiae?co o/ano? aeaeaaaoe?? OI? o ia?aaiai?iiio i?ioean? a A?ano?.
Aeaeaaaoe?y OI? cayaeea, ui aiia aaaea? ianaiia?aae aeciaiiy Oe?a?ie ye
naiino?eii? aea?aeaae, a oiiaith ie?o noaaeoue i?e?aeiaiiy aei ia?
Oieiueie, I?aeeyooy oa i?iaaaeaiiy ieaa?noeeoo a No?aei?e Aaee/ei?,
Aoeiaei? e Caea?iaoo?.

Aaaeeeaei aeey OI? noaei ieaia?ia can?aeaiiy 10 n?/iy, aea aoei
ae??oaia ieoaiiy i?i noaoon oe?a?inueei? aeaeaaaoe?? ye i?aaenoaaieea
iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae. 12 n?/iy Oeaio?aeuei? aea?aeaae a inia? I.*a?i?ia
i?aeoaa?aeeee aeciaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeaeaaaoe?? naiino?eiith ?
i?aaiii/iith aanoe ia?aaiai?e a?ae ?iai? aeaniiai ia?iaeo.

Aiaeii/an ?aaeia?eii iaiaaa?oueny aoaeue — ui aeene?aaeeooaaoe
aeaeaaaoe?th OI? ia?aae nai?i i?ioeaieeii, aeei?enoiaoth/e iia?ice,
iineeeo iiai? aeaeaaaoe?? a?ae ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie aei A?anoa, yea
aoea aeeth/aia o ?in?enueeo aeaeaaaoe?th.

Aeae? a i?ae?icae?e? iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeaeaaaoe?y OI? /?oei
iinoaaeea ieoaiiy uiaei i?e?aeiaiiy aei Oe?a?ie ia eeoa Oieiueie, a e
No?aeii? Aaee//eie oa Aoeiaeie, a oaeiae ieoaiiy uiaei ei?aeii?a
No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Aeaeaaaoe?y aeiaaaea a?ae Aano?i-Oai?ueie aa?aiooaaoe
eoeueoo?i? ? iie?oe/i? i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy oeyoii noai?aiiy
?c No?aeii? Aaee/eie oa I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie ie?aii? i?ia?ioe?? o neeaae?
Aano???.

Oa?aeoa? ? ci?no *aoaa?oiai Oi?aa?naeo o ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ae
eooii ci?o a?anonueei? iie?oeee, aaeaea ie?, oeeaaeaiee ia naiino?eiith
aea?aeaaith ia iaa ae th?eaee/ii? neee ? i?aeia?iaeiiai cia/aiiy.
A?aeoaia? oe?a?inueea aeaeaaaoe?y o A?ano? io?eiaea an? th?eaee/i? i?aaa
naiino?eii caeeth/aoe naia?aoiee ie?.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia c?inoaiiy iai?oaeaiino? ia ae?oaiio aoai? ia?aaiai??a
c 30 n?/iy, 9 ethoiai 1918 ?. a?aeaoeiny i?aeienaiiy ie?o i?ae OI? oa
e?a?iaie *aoaa?iiai nithco. Iacaaaeath/e ia an? ia?aoeiaee, ye? /eieee
i?aaenoaaieee ?in??, oe?a?inueea aeaeaaaoe?y aeiaaea ni?aao aei e?ioey,
i?aeienaaoe naia?aoiee ie? c e?a?iaie *aoaa?iiai nithco. Oea aoa ia?oee
na?eiciee aeo OI? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e 3.3. -“A?anonueeee aeiaia??: ci?no oa ?aoeo?eaoe?y”
— i?noeoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiiieaeno aeiaiai??a, ui aecia/athoueny ye
A?anonueeee ie?, a oaeiae oiaeo eiai ?aoeo?eaoe?? iaiia noi?iiaie. Ie??i
aieiaiiai aoee i?aeienai? aeiaeaoeia? aeiaiai?e OI? c eiaeiith ?c e?a?i
*aoaa?oiai nithco, ye? oaeoe/ii aoee aiaeia?/i? aieiaiiio, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi aeayeeo ioieo?a, iai?eeeaae, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeea?eueieo
caeoe?a, oiiae iai?io a?enueeiaiiieiiaieie oiui. Aeiaeaoeia? aeiaiai?e
oaae i?aeeyaaee ?aoeo?eaoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui a A?ano? aoei i?aeienaii ua iaeei
aeiaia??, ui iaa iacao “Oaeiee aeiaia?? i?i Aaee/eio oa Aoeiaeio”, yeee
aoa i?aeienaiee i?ae OI? oa Aano?i-Oai?ueiith. Nooue eiai caiaeeeanue
aei aa?aio?e i?aa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei iieye?a, ?a?a?a, i?ioe?a a
Oe?a?i? oa oe?a?ioe?a a Aano???. Aei 31 eeiiy 1918 ?. aano??enueeee
o?yae ciaia’ycaany noai?eoe c Aaee/eie oa Aoeiaeie ie?aiee ei?iiiee e?ae
a iaaeao Aano??enueei? ?iia???.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ua iaeei aeieoiaio, ui
noinoaaany ae??oaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo i?iaeai — oea aeiaeaoeiaee i?ioieie
i?ae Oe?a?iith oa Aano?i-Oai?ueiith, ca yeei Oieiueia ? I?aeeyooy iaee
a?ae?eoe aei Oe?a?ie.

Ie?iee aeiaia??, ca?aeii ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, iaa aooe
?aoeo?eiaaiee an?ia noi?iiaie ? eeoa oiae? anooiaa o ae?th. Nii/aoeo oea
c?iaeea Aieaa??y, i?ci?oa I?ia//eia. 17 aa?aciy 1918 ?. ?aoeo?eoaaea
ie?iee aeiaia?? ? Oe?a?ia. TH?eaee/ia oa aeiiii?/ia naeoe?? Iaei? ?aaee
aeciaee aeiaia?? oaeei, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?ioa?anai OI?, a?aoiaoth/e oiiae
i?aeia?iaeiiai noaiiaeua.

Ia ?aoeo?eoaaea ie?iee aeiaia?? eeoa Aano?i-Oai?ueia, c iaeyaeo ia
iacaaeiaieaiiy o iieuenueeiio noni?euenoa?, anoaiiaeaieie ei?aeiiaie
Oe?a?ie ? oa?iiei aeiaiai?ii i?i Aaee/eio. Oaeei /eiii, aeiaia?? 9
ethoiai ia aoa ?aoeo?eiaaiee iaei??th c aea?aeaa *aoaa?oiai nithco ?
ia anooiea o neeo.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — “Aeeiiaiiy OI? oiia A?anonueeiai ie?o” — ioiieth?
ia??iae c 9 ethoiai ii 23 ea?oiy 1918 ?. O i?aeioieo? 4.1. – “I?iaoeueea
oa aano??enueea a?enueeiaa i?enooi?noue a Oe?a?i?” – cacia/a?oueny, ui
aaea i?ae /an ia?aaiai??a o A?ano? o?yae OI? caa?ioany ca a?enueeiaith
aeiiiiiaith aei I?ia//eie oa Aano???. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeyoue
iaiao?aei?noue a?enueeiai? aeiiiiiae OI?. C 24 ethoiai ?icii/aany iio?ae
a Oe?a?io i?iaoeueeeo oa aano??enueeeo a?enuee neeaie 33 aeea?c?e.
Neeaaei?noue iieyaaea o oiio, ui oe?a?inueeee o?yae ia aeineoue /?oei
oyaeya nia? iaae? i?inoaaiiy ?iicaiiiai a?enueea aaeea Oe?a?ie. Oiiae
eiiiainaoe?? ca a?enueeiao aeiiiiiao ia aoee aeieoiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeai?.

Ioaea, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea cai?ineea a?enueeiai? aeiiiiiae aeey
aeo?niaiiy ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?. Ia
iath/e aeanii? ai?caeaoii? a?i??, aiia ioneea oo?eioaaoe /oaeicaiia
a?enueei acai?i aa?aio?? aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui o i?ioe?a oa aano??eoe?a aoee ia?o ca ana nai?
iniaeno? ?ioa?ane a Oe?a?i?. Oea i?aeoaa?aeeee i?aaenoaaieee i?iaoeueei?
oa aano??enueei? noi?iie, a oaeiae oe?a?inueeee i?ai`?? A.Aieoaiae/.

I?enooiath/e aei ?aae?caoe?? oiia ie?o, o?yae OI? oaea 15 ethoiai 1918
?. ?icaeyioa ieoaiiy i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a aeeooy oa?iiiai aeiaiai?o i?i
Aaee/eio oa Aoeiaeio, cai?iaaaeeaoe a Oieiuei? oa I?aeeyoo?
aaei?i?no?aoeaia oa a?iiaaenueea o?yaeoaaiiy i?ecia/aiiyi aeaniiai
eii?na?a. Oea ieoaiiy oae ? ia aoei ae??oaia, ine?eueee aano?i-oai?nuee?
oeea?euei? e a?enueeia? aeano? oaeoe/ii ia aeiionoeee eiai aei aeeiiaiiy
iaia`yce?a, cai?ieaoe aaei?i?no?aoe?th a Oieiuei? ia ei?enoue Iieueu?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2. — “I?aeienaiiy OI? aeiiii?/ii? oaiaee c I?ia//eiith
oa Aano?i-Oai?ueiith” — ?ice?eaathoueny i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? 7-? noaoo?
aeiaiai?o uiaei aca?iiiai iai?io iaaeeeoeaie i?iaeoeoe??. Ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, oea aoei iaeia c iniiaieo iieiaeaiue A?anonueeiai ie?o, yea
noaiiaeei aieiaio nooue aeey iiaeo nithciee?a Oe?a?ie. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeyoue, ui, a?aoiaoth/e oaeoe/iee noai ieoiaoe??,
caeaaei?noue o?yaeo a?ae i?ioe?a, ?ici??e caieo?a Oeaio?aeueieo
aea?aeaa, neaae?noue oe?a?inueei? aeaaee, eii?n?y /eiaei aeinyaea o
iinoaaeaieo ia?aae iath caaaeaiiyo. 28 aa?aciy ?icii/aeany ?iaioa
ni?eueii? eii?n??. Aeaeaaaoe?y OI? aeiaaaea aeaoaaeo oiaa??a, ia?aaeon?i
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei oa cia?yaeue, aoa?eey, iaooe, aano,
??cieo ianoee, oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo oa ?ioeo o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a,
oaenoeeueieo oiaa??a. Iaaieioo?oueny, ui iia? nithcieee ooeeyeeny a?ae
ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i ?iii?o oiaa??a ? ne?iaeie a Oe?a?io, ia aeaaaee
eiie?aoieo a?aeiia?aeae ia aeiiae oe?a?inueei? noi?iie, ?noioii
ciaiooaaee ?ici??e iinoaaie, /anoi aenoaaee cacaeaeaa?aeue iai?eeiyoi?
oiiae aeiaiai?o. C ?ioiai aieo aiie aeiaaaee iaaeoiaeaeaiue cia/ii?
e?eueeino? i?iaeiaieuenoaa aei Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa.

I?e aea/aii? i?ioieie?a can?aeaiiy i?aeeii?n?e, noai?th?oueny a?aaeaiiy,
ui oe?a?inuee? i?aaenoaaieee a A?ano? a?eueo-iaio i?ici?i iaoyeioee
i?ioeyi ia iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy c Oe?a?ie aaaaoueio oaeeo i?iaeoeo?a,
yeeo ooo a ae?eniino? aoei iaiaeue, a noie?ii? ?iicaii? /eiiaieee
iaiaaaeeny iaea?aeaoe oa, ui aoei ia?oeyia.

Oeaio?aeuei? aea?aeaae, aiooth/e aaoueiainueeee ia?aai?io, iaeii/anii
ae??oeee i?enei?eoe cae?i/aiiy ia?aaiai??a uiaei caeeth/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
oaiaee, yeith aoee iaeiicia/ii iacaaeiaieai?. Ioaea, i?aeienaiiyi
aeiiii?/iiai aeiaiai?o a?ae 23 ea?oiy 1918 ?. caaa?oeany iaaiee aoai
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei OI? c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie. A?i noaa
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith A?anonueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o a?ae 9 ethoiai 1918
?.

*a?ac oe?eo ieceo i?e/ei, aeuee caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai OI? ao?a/aa aieea
ia iane. Ianaiia?aae oea aeoeaia aa?oaoe?y a?eueoiaee?a, a oaeiae
aeayeeo o?aeoe?e ? a?oi o nai?e Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae?, ao?o/aiiy o
aioo??oi? ni?aae OI? c aieo i?ioe?a oa aano??eoe?a, naiia?eueiee aea?c
oa ?aea?ceoe?? i?iaeiaieuenoaa c Oe?a?ie, aea iniiaiith i?e/eiith, ui
iaea?eueoa oneeaaeithaaea neooaoe?th, aoee ?iicaii? a?enueea, noaoon
yeeo ia cian?i /?oei aoa aecia/aiee.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeyoue, ui iie?oeea Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a OI?,
i/iethaaiiai A.Aieoaiae/ai, aoea ca oiia i?iaoeueei? i?enooiino?
aeineoue iacaeaaeiith, a?eueiith a?ae caiiiaaeeeaino?, ui c?aooith e
i?ecaaei aei ianeeueieoeueeiai onoiaiiy o?yaeo e a?aoo?a eiai /eai?a.

I?iaoeueei-aano??enueea i?enooi?noue ia?aoai?eeany o oaeoe/io
ieoiaoe?th.

3. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE IAOEIAIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss:

1. C oi/ee ci?o noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
A?anonueeee ie? aoa aacoiiaii oaeoii iiceoeaiei ? iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaei. A?i ci?oeithaaa oe?a?inueeo naiino?ei?noue, i?aeiinea
cia/aiiy Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, o nain? i?aeia?iaeiiio.

2. Oe?a?ia caeeth/eea A?anonueeee ie?, noiy/e ia?aae aaeeeith
iaaaciaeith, ? uia a?yooaaoe naith aea?aeaai?noue ?e aeiaaeiny iieeeeaoe
ia aeiiiiiao i?iaoeuee? oa aano?i-oai?nuee? a?enueea. I?ia//eia oa
Aano?i-Oai?ueia aoee caoe?eaaeai? a Oe?a?i?, ai iiaee io?eiaoe ooo
ca?aeaey.

3. I?aeienoaaoe ie?iee aeiaia?? iiaea o?eueee noaa?aiia aea?aeaaa, a
ine?eueee a?eueoiaeoeueea ?in?y ?icii/aea aiaen?th Oe?a?ie, noaaaei
i/aaeaeiei, ui ia?aaoaaiiy o oaaea?aoeaiiio ca’yceo c aa?ani?ii ?
iaiiaeeeaei. Oea i?aeaaei Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo aei iaiao?aeiino?
i?iaieioaiiy 4-ai Oi?aa?naeo.

4. O A?anonueeiio ie?? aia?oa cao?eniaaii niai?ieoeuee? ono?aie?iiy
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ?? oo?aioo i?i aeieth cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.

5. Aioaioa iaiaaaeany oo?eiaoe OI? a?ae caeeaeaiiy c Oeaio?aeueieie
aea?aeaaaie, a ?nioaaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie noia?a/eei ?ioa?anai
inoaiiuei?. E??i oiai, a?eueoiaeoeueeee o?yae caeioaa/oaaa Oeaio?aeueio
?aaeo a “ao?aeoaciino?” ? c?aae? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a. Ca oeeo oiia
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? ia caeeoaeinue ?ioiai, ye iinooieoeny nai?ie
neiiao?yie aei cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeaiie?ao?e ? i?oe ia aeiooaiee
nithc c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie.

6. I?aeienaiiy Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith A?anonueeiai ie?o ni?e/eieei
oyaee? a?enueeia? iane?aeee aeey nithciee?a, a oaeiae ?ic?ea a?aeiinei
Oe?a?ie c Aioaioith. A ?acoeueoao? ie?ii? oaiaee Oeaio?aeuei? aea?aeaae
e?ea?aeoaaee oe?a?inueeee o?iio, io?eiaee iiaeeea?noue ia?aaanoe nai?
aeea?c?? ia Cao?aeiee o?iio ? noai?eee oai cia/io ia?aaaao nee.

7. Ciai?oiy iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aeeeeeaea ?ic/a?oaaiiy ian.
I???iooth/enue nii/aoeo ia e?a?ie Aioaioe, aiia an?eyei a?aeaie?eaea
ni?aao oeeaaeaiiy ie?o. Caaaeeaoenue, ia?aoo?, i?ae oeneii ianoaaei, ia
oeeaaeaiiy naia?aoiiai ie?o c I?ia//eiith oa ?? nithcieeaie,
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ciooaia aoea i?aeienaoe ie? a iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaee
aeey naaa /an.

8. I?aeaioiaea oa i?aeienaiiy aeiiii?/ii? oaiaee a Ee?a? aoee aeoeaiei
i?iaeiaaeaiiy a?anonueei? iie?oeee oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo. No?aoaa?y aoea
ae?iaeaia a A?ano? ? aaea iio?i i?ney i?aeienaiiy ie?o aoea i?iaeiaaeaia
ia ia?aaiai?ao o Ee?a?. Oea no?aoaa?y aca?iiaea?aeiino?, ??aiii?aaiiai
ia?oia?noaa, eiii?ii?n?a, caoenoo ?ioa?an?a aeanii? aea?aeaae oa ??
aeiiii?/ii? iacaeaaeiino?.

IOAE?EAOe?? AAOI?A CA ?ACOEUeOAOAIE AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Noaoo?:

1. I?eooeye I.I. A?anonueeee ie?: ci?no oa iane?aeee// Ieoaiiy ?noi???
Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. Aeione 1. *a?i?aoe?, 1997. — N.165. —
172.

2. I?eooeye I.I. Aeiiii?/iee aeiaia?? OI? c I?ia//eiith oa
Aano?i-Oai?ueiith 1918 ?. // Oe?. ?no. aeo?i. — 1997. — ? 1. — N.62-72.

3. I?eooeye I.I. ?aoeo?eaoe?y A?anonueeiai ie?o: ca ? i?ioe // Iaoeia?
i?aoe? ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. – Aei. 6. – Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1999. –
N. 140-148.

Oace aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

4. C ?noi??? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo noinoie?a i?ae Oe?a?iith oa
e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? (1917-1920 ??.) // Oe?a?ia — ?a?iiaenueeee nithc: i?iaeaie
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. Oace
aeiiia?aeae 22-23 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?. i.Ee?a. — N.46-48.

5. A?anonueeee ie?: ci?no oa iane?aeee// Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ?
oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaioai?/ee i?ioean. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
20 aa?aciy 1997 ?. (o 2-o /anoeiao). — IAI Oe?a?ie. ?inoeooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie. — E., 1997. — N.392-400.

I?eooeye I.I. Iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei a?eie, oeeaaeaiiy ?
?aae?caoe?? A?anonueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o “aa?acaiue 1917- ea?oaiue
1918 ??.” — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaiai oai??? ? i?aeoeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei a?eie oa ie?o a ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

?icaeyiooi ? aena?oeaii aieea ?aaiethoe?? ia a?enueeiai-iie?oe/io
neooaoe?th a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Aiae?co?oueny o/anoue aeaeaaaoe?? OI? ia ia?aaiai?ao o A?ano? uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? i?aeienaiiy naia?aoiiai ie?o c e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie.

?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? A?anonueeiai ie?o iaiia noi?iiaie a
ieai? eiai ?aoeo?eaoe??, aeeiiaiiy oaiaee i?i a?enueeiao aeiiiiiao,
i?aeienaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aeiaiai?o ca?aeii a?anonueeeo iinoaiia.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?eia, ie?, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, aeiaia??,
?aoeo?eaoe?y, ieoiaoe?y, oaiaea.

Pritulyak P.P. Policy of Central Rada concerning the War,

conclusion and realization of the Brest peace treaty “march 1917 — april
1918 yy. — Manuscript.

Candidate of Science dissertation (History) in speciality 07.00.01 —
history of Ukraine. Kiev State University of Trade and Economics. Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the research of the Central Rada theory
and practice concerning war and peace during the First World War.

Influence of revolution on military-political situation in Ukrainian
lands is studied.

Participation of Ukrainian Peoples Republic in the Brest negotiations
as to the necessity of signing a separate peace treaty with the
countries of Central Europe is analyzed.

The problem of Brest peace treaty realization by both parties as to its
ratification, fulfillment of agreement on military help, signing of
economic treaty in accordance with Brest decisions is studied.

Key words: war, peace, Central Rada, treaty, ratification, occupation,
agreement.

I?eooeye I.I. Iieeoeea Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu a ioiioaiee aieiu ,

caeeth/aiey e ?aaeecaoeee A?anoneiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a

“ia?o 1917 — ai?aeue 1918 aa.” — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Eeaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeai oai?ee e i?aeoeee
Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu a ioiioaiee aieiu e ie?a a aiaeu Ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu.

?anniio?aii e inaauaii aeeyiea ?aaiethoeee ia aiaiii-iieeoe/aneoth
neooaoeeth a oe?aeineeo caieyo. Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia cia/eoaeueii
oooaeoeea iieiaeaiea oe?aeineiai ianaeaiey e oneeeea eieiieaeueioth
caaeneiinoue Oe?aeiu io ?innee. Aieia aeaci?aaieciaaea oiaa?iiai?io,
ninoiyiea aeaeaciuo aei?ia, iaino?eea i?iaeaio iaania/aiey oiieeaii
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o?ainii?oa, oneeeea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiue
e?ecen. Eiaiii Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia e ii?iaeaeaiiua ath o?oaeiinoe
iiaeaaee oe?aeineee ia?iae e iniciaieth iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaiu anaai
iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa e naiaai iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai
noaoona.

Aiaeece?oaony o/anoea aeaeaaaoeee OI? ia ia?aaiai?ao a A?anoa a
ioiioaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeienaiey naia?aoiiai ie?a ni no?aiaie
Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. ?acaeoea iieeoe/aneeo niauoee, e a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iaino?aiea ioiioaiee n aieueoaaenoneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii ?innee,
ii?aaeaeeei eciaiaiea oaeoeee a aii?inao aieiu e ie?a. Oaia?ue Oe?aeia
eneaea ia anaiauaai, a naia?aoiiai ie?a ni no?aiaie Oeaio?aeueiie
Aa?iiu.

Ia ia?aaiai?ao a A?anoa aeaeaaaoeey OI? o?aaiaaea i?eciaiey aa
?aaiii?aaiie ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie, a oneiaeai ie?a noaaeea nicaeaiea
aaeeiiai oieoa?iiai ainoaea?noaa iooai i?eniaaeeiaiey yoie/aneeo
oa??eoi?ee e i?iaaaeaiey ieaaenoeeoa a Caiaaeiie Oe?aeia.

?anniio?ai aii?in ?aaeecaoeee A?anoneiai ie?a iaaeie noi?iiaie a ieaia
aai ?aoeoeeaoeee, eniieiaiey niaeaoaiey i aiaiiie iiiiue, iiaeienaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai aeiaiai?a niaeanii a?anoneei iinoaiiaeaieyi.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoeoeeaoeee i?aaeiieaaaeanue, e?iia iauai?eiyouo ii?i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa, e naiei aeiaiai?ii. Ia?aie ?aoeoeoee?iaaea
aeiaiai? Aieaa?ey, caoai Aa?iaiey, a 17 ia?oa e Oe?aeia.

Niaeanii aeiaiai?aiiinoyi a A?anoa, OI? iieo/eea aiaiioth iiiiuue io
iiauo nithcieeia n oeaeueth ecaiaiey niaaoneeo aiene n oa??eoi?ee
Oe?aeiu e aiciaiiaeaiey aeanoe OOe?. Aiaiiay iiiiuue oaeoe/anee
i?aa?aoeeanue a ieeoiaoeeth.

O/eouaay iinoaiiaeaiea 7-e noaouee A?anoneiai ie?a, 23 ai?aey 1918 ?.
OOe? iiaeienaea yeiiiie/aneee aeiaiai? n Aa?iaieae e Aano?i-Aaia?eae i
acaeiiie iinoaaea i?iaeiaieuenoaey, nu?uey e aioiauo ecaeaeee a iaa
noi?iiu. Iiaeienaieai yeiiiie/aneeo niaeaoaiee caaa?oeeny A?anoneee yoai
aiaoiae iieeoeee OOe?.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aieia, ie?, Oeaio?aeueiay ?aaea, aeiaiai?,
?aoeoeeaoeey, ieeoiaoeey, niaeaoaiea.

I?EOOEssE IAAEI IAO?IAE*

IIE?OEEA OeAIO?AEUeII? ?AAeE UIAeI A?EIE, OEEAAeAIIss ? ?AAE?CAOe??
A?ANONUeEIAI IE?IIAI AeIAIAI?O (AA?ACAIUe 1917 — EA?OAIUe 1918 ??.)

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 04.11.99. Oi?iao 60 o 84/16.

Iai?? ienuei. Ion. Ae?oe. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1, 10.

Oi. oa?ai-a?aea. 1, 22. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1, 00.

Oe?aae 100 i?. Cai. 594.

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Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? EAeOAO. Ae?oea?iy AOe

253156, Ee?a — 156, aoe. E?ioi, 19

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