IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss IAOE OE?A?IE

IINOEOOO OE?A?INUeEI? A?OAIA?AOI? OA

AeAEA?AEICIAANOAA IIAII I.N.A?OOAANUeEIAI

AIEIAEI Naioeaia A?eai?iaia

OAeE 940.55.000.32: 331.105.44 (410)

IIEIOEEA “IIAEO OI?I” UIAeI O?AAe — THIIIIIA

(1980 — 1990 ??.)

07.00.02 — Ananaioiy inoi?iy

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiiiaeueiiio iaaeaaiai/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi

ii. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: eaiaeeaeao inoi?e/ieo iaoe

O?oaae/oe Aiaoieie Oioieiae/,

Iaoeiiiaeueiee iaaeaaiai/iee
oiiaa?neoao

ii. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e

caaaeueii? inoi?i?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? inoi?e/ieo iaoe

Aieionia Ieoaeei Ieoaeeiae/,

Iinoeooo iiaeia?iaeieo aiaeiinei

Ee?anueeiai iaoeiiiaeueiiai

oiiaa?neoaoo ii. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iiaeia?iaeieo
aiaeiinei

i ciaiioiuei? iieioeee

eaiaeeaeao inoi?e/ieo iaoe

Oienoia Na?aie Aaea?iaiiae/,

Iinoeooo naioiai? aeiiiiiee i
iiaeia?iaeieo

aiaeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, i?iaiaeiee
iaoeiaee

niia?iaioiee aiaeaeieo ?a?iiaenueeeo
i

aia?eeainueeeo aeineiaeaeaiue

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: *a?iiaaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao

ii. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, eaoaae?a
ananaioiuei?

inoi?i?, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe
Oe?a?ie,

i.*a?iiaoei

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 11 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.228.01 a Iinoeoooi oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?aoi? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ii. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea,4.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?aoi? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ii.I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee “28” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aa?aa I.A. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy. O ae?oaie iieiaeii XX no. aiaeaoeeny
aeiei?iiii ciiie a aeiiiiioei iiaeono?iaeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i Caoiaeii?
?a?iie. Oi?iaeiaae 50-70-o ??. niinoa?iaaeeny i?ioeane ciaioaiiy ?iei
“noa?eo” aaeocae iiaeono?i? — aeaeiaoaii?, iaoaeo?aieii?, oaenoeeueii?,
yei oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny cao?aoieie iieacieeaie, i iiaeaeuaiiy a aeiiiiioei
ieoiii? aaae “iiaeo” aaeocae ae?iaieoeoaa, yei oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny
c?inoaiiyi ?iei aenieeo oaoiieiaie, yeinoi i?aoei, eaaeioieaoei?
ia?niiaeo oiui. Ia?aoiae aiae iiaeono?iaeueiiai eaiioaeicio aei
iioi?iaoeieii-oaoiieiai/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa noi?iaiaeaeoaaany i?eioeeiiai
aaaeeeaeie ciiiaie a noniieuenoai. Aiie oi?eaeeny ?iciiaeieo eaiioaeo
iiae aaeocyie aeiiiiiee, no?oeoo?e i?ioanieii-oaoiai? caeiyoinoi, ?iei
ie?aieo nioeiaeueieo a?oi o nenoaii ae?iaie/eo aiaeiinei oa ?oiueiai
iieioe/iiai aieeao a noniieuenoai. Aeiiiii/ii ciiie oa c?ooaiiy o
nioeiaeueii-oaoiaie no?oeoo?i noniieuenoaa ia iiaee ia iicia/eoeny ia
iieioe/ieo i?ioeanao. sseui a 70-o ??. o?yaee Aaeeei? A?eoaii?, a o.
/. i/iethaaii eiina?aaoeaiith ia?oi?th, aeio?eioaaeeny ii?iaiyii
ianeaii? iiceoei? noiniaii oeieani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia i?ioeane
nioeiaeueii? iiaea?iicaoei? noniieuenoaa, oi ai?iaeiaae 1979-1990 ??.
eiina?aaoeaii o?yaee iaiaaaeeny iaeneiaeueii i?enei?eoe aaeaioaoeith
nioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e a?eoainueeiai noniieuenoaa aei iiaeo aeiiiii/ieo
?aaeie.

I?ioniieee aiaeia?aaaee a aeeooi Aaeeei? A?eoaii? aiioe
iiaeono?iaeueiiai eaiioaeicio o?aaeeoeieii aaaeeeao ?ieue. Aiie
i?aaenoaaeyee iioa?ane i?iieneiaeo ?iaioieeia c ?oiii niaoeeoi/iei
oaoiai-aaeocaaei iiaeieii, ui ciaeoia aiaeca?eaeaiiy a no?oeoo?i
A?eoainueeiai eiia?ano o?aae-thiiiiia (AEO). O?aae-thiiiie aiaeia?aaaee
cia/io ?ieue o oi?ioaaiii iieioeee eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi? (EIA),
noai?aii? ca iiioeiaoeaith i?ioniieie ia ii/aoeo XX no. ye eiiioao
?iaioie/iai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa.

Iaiaoiaeiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy aca?iiaiaeiinei “iiaeo oi?i” oa
o?aae-thiiiiia o 1980-1990 ??. aecia/a?oueny ?acoeueoaoeaiinoth
caeiiiaeaa/iai ao?o/aiiy o noaoooii canaaee o?aae-thiiiiicio, ui
i?ecaaei aei ciaioaiiy eieueeinoi “i?iieneiaeo aeie”, /enaeueiinoi
/eaiia i?ioniieie, cia/iiai iaiaaeaiiy i?aaeea “cae?eoiai oeaoo”. C
iioiai aieo, a ia?iiae, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, Aiaeiy oniioii iiaeieaea
na?eicio nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/io e?eco 1970-o — ii/aoeo 1980-o ?ieia.

Aeaii aniaeoe iiaioiuei? inoi?i? Aiaei? ? iniaeeai aeooaeueieie aeey
ian, ineieueee a nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oiiaao, ui neeaeeny a Oe?a?ii,
inio? i?iaeaia aeai?o aeiiiii/ii? iiaeaei ?icaeoeo i ?icii iiaeyaee ia
oeyoe aeoiaeo c e?ece. E?ii oeueiai, aeiyeueiinoue a?eoainueeeo
o?aae-thiiiiia a oiiaao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei?noei? iiiaoa?ii? iieioeee
eiina?aaoi?ia aenooia? oeieaaith i?iaeaiith aeey iaoeiaiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy c iaeyaeo ia i?aeoe/iee i?ioean iiooeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
iiai? ?iei i?ioniieie a oe?a?inueeiio noniieuenoai.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? aioo?ioi? noaiiaeua o Aaeeeie A?eoaii? o
1980-1990 ??., o/anoue o?aae-thiiiiia o noniieueii-iieioe/ieo i?ioeanao.

I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? iieioeea iaieiina?aaoi?ia ia /iei c
I.Oao/a? uiaei o?aae-thiiiiia, ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?oiio i?aa, aioo?ioiuei?
no?oeoo?e; aieea iiaeo nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oiia, ui neeaeeny a
a?eoainueeiio noniieuenoai, ia aeoeaiinoue i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo.

O?iiieiai/ii iaaei aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue 1980-1990 ?iee, eiee
o?yaee I.Oao/a? i?iaiaeeee aeoeaio iieioeeo uiaei o?aae-thiiiiia. 1980
?ie noaa ii/aoeii caaino?aiiy aiaeiinei iiae o?aae-thiiiiaie oa
i?aaey/ith ia?oi?th: oeueiai ?ieo aoa i?eeiyoee ia?oee “Caeii i?i
caeiyoinoue”, yeee noaa ii/aoeii ?aoi?ioaaiiy o?yaeii canaae
i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo. ?icii/aeiny aeanyoeeiooy i?aaeiiiy eaaiiaoia I.
Oao/a?, yea noaei iaeaieueo aoaeoeaiei ia?iiaeii “ooeoiie?aiiy”
i?ioniieie o ae?oaie iieiaeii OO noieiooy.

Ca aa?oith iaaeo aeineiaeaeaiiy aaoi? ia?aea 1990 ?ie, eiee
eiina?aaoeaiee eaaiiao I.Oao/a? i?eeiya inoaiiie ic caeiiia, ui
?aaoethaaee aeiyeueiinoue o?aae-thiiiiia, ?o i?aaa oa naiaiaee.
Caeii/eany /aoaa?oee aoai ianooio o?yaeo ia i?ioniieee. O oeueiio ae
1990 ?ioei Ia?aa?ao Oao/a? caeeoeea iino i?ai’??-iiiino?a Aaeeei?
A?eoaii? oa iinooieeany eiaea?noaii o ia?oi? Aeaeiio Iaeaeaei?o.

Iaoa ?iaioe — aea/eoe noniieueii-iieioe/ii i?ioeane, ui aiaeaoaaeeny o
Aaeeeie A?eoaii? o 1980-1990 ??. o eiioaenoi iieioeee iaieiina?aaoi?ia
uiaei i?ioniieie.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? ae?ioaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue:

1. Aeyaeoe oaeoi?e, yei ni?eyee aoaeoeaiiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith iieioeee
“iiaeo oi?i” uiaei i?ioniieie.

2. Aeineiaeeoe aieea nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo ?aoi?i I.Oao/a? ia
i?ioniieeiaee ?oo.

3. Iieacaoe iniaeeainoi caeiiiaeaa/eo iiioeiaoea, yei aeaee ciiao o?yaeo
iaiaaeeoe aieea o?aae-thiiiiia ia noniieueii i?ioeane o Aaeeeie
A?eoaii?.

4. Aeaeieeoe iniaeeainoi iiaaaeiiee i?ioniieie Aiaei? oa aoaeoeaiinoue
?o aeie o naioei iiai? iieioeee o?yaeo.

5. I?iaiaeicoaaoe no?aoaaith i oaeoeeo eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi? o noa?i ??
niiai?aoei c o?aae-thiiiiaie a oiiaao o?e?aciai? ii?acee ia caaaeueieo
ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?iciiai/iiio
aiaeici noinoieia “iiaeo oi?i” oa o?aae-thiiiiia o 1980-1990 ??., i?e/ei
?acoeueoaoeaiinoi eo?no o?yaeo I.Oao/a?. Aoei aeyaeaii iniaeeainoi
aeiyeueiinoi i?ioniieie o oeae ia?iiae oa ciiie no?aoaai? i oaeoeee
eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi?. Aeei?enoaii iiai oaeoe c inoi?i? i?ioniieeiaiai
?ooo Aiaei?. Iieacaii noinoiee iiae eiina?aaoi?aie oa o?aae-thiiiiaie ia
oiii caaaeueiiai icaei?iaeaiiy aeiiiiiee Aaeeei? A?eoaii? i caa?aaeaiiy
?? iiceoeie o naioi.

Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoei? ? canoinoaaiiy inoi?e/iiai i
eiai/iiai iaoiaeia iiciaiiy noniieueieo yaeu. Oeyoii neioaco
inoi?e/iiai, ii?iaiyeueii-nioeiieiai/iiai oa i?iaeaiii-o?iiieiai/iiai
iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy aaoi? c?iaeea ni?iao caeienieoe anaai/iee
aiaeic nioeiaeueii? oa aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee iaieiina?aaoi?ia, ?? aieeao
ia i?ioeane ?icaeoeo a?eoainueeiai noniieuenoaa, aeie?aieoe oa aecia/eoe
iinoea i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo a noniieueii-iieioe/iiio aeeooi Aaeeei?
A?eoaii?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei? iieyaa? o ?icoe?aiii oyaeaiue i?i
iiaioith inoi?ith Aaeeei? A?eoaii?, yei iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey
e?auiai ?icoiiiiy ?? aeinaiaeo c iiaeieaiiy aeiiiii/ieo oa nioeiaeueieo
e?ec, ui iiaea iaoe i?aeoe/io oeiiiinoue a oiiaao iiooeo oeyoia
?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noniieuenoaa oa aecia/aiiy iinoey aio/eciyieo
i?ioniieie o ?icieo aaeocyo aeeooy iaoi? e?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeeeaaea/aie
iiaioiuei? inoi?i? oa nooaeaioaie, i?e ?ic?iaoei iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo
iiniaieeia. Aiie oaeiae iiaeooue noaoe a iaaiaei i?aoeiaieeai
Oaaea?aoei? i?ioanieieo niieie Oe?a?ie o ieaii aea/aiiy oa
nenoaiaoecaoei? aeinaiaeo, aeinyaiaiue oa i?iaeai iiaeia?iaeiiai
i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo.

Ai?iaaoeiy aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy oa
aeniiaee aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaii a ioaeieaoeiyo aaoi?a o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo “Iiaa iieioeea”, “?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae”, “Ethaeeia i
iieioeea”, a oaeiae o ae?oeiaaiiio i?aaii OI Oe?a?ie “I?ioniieee
Oe?a?ie”; o a?ioo?i “Eiina?aaoeaia iieioeea ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?eoainueeiai
o?aae-thiiiiicio o 1980-1990 ??.”

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny oa io?eiaee
noaaeaiiy ia caniaeaiii eaoaae?e caaaeueii? inoi?i? Iaoeiiiaeueiiai
iaaeaaiai/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo ii. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Anaoe?a?inueeie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei? ( Ee?a, 1999 ?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa eioa?aoo?e,
aeiaeaoeia. Ianya aeena?oaoei? — 179 n., nieneo aeaea?ae oa eioa?aoo?e —
19 n. ( 233 iaeiaioaaiiy), aeiaeaoeia — 3 n.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy, o?iiieiai/ii ?aiee,
?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe,
iiaeaii aiaeiiinoi i?i ai?iaaoeith oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoia
aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icaeie — “Aeaea?aeueia aaca oa inoi?iia?aoiy aeineiaeaeaiiy”.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith ?iaioe noaee ioioeieii aeieoiaioe o?yaeo Aaeeei?
A?eoaii? noiniaii i?ioniieie, ia?eaiaionueei aeieoiaioe, a naia:
caeiiiaeaa/i aeoe i?i caeiyoinoue, i?i i?ioniieee, i?i ca?iaioio ieaoo1;
aeieoiaioe iieioe/ieo ia?oie oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aaiicaoeie:
ia?aaeaeai?ii iaiioanoe iaieiina?aaoi?ia, ?ioaiiy ui?i/ieo
eiioa?aioeie EIA, i?ioieiee eiia?ania AEO2 ; noaoenoe/ii oa aeiaiaeeiai
iaoa?iaee3 .

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaee ia?iiaee/ii aeaeaiiy, ye ca?oaiaeii, oae i
aio/eciyii. Oea ia?iiaeeea eiina?aaoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy: “Aeaeei
oaeaa?ao”, “Aeaeei aeni?an”; eaeai?enonueei aeaeaiiy: “Aeaeei ii??i?”,
“Naiaei ii??i?”, a oaeiae “Ii?iiia noa?”, “Ia?eneci ooaeae”, “Oaein”,
“Oaeiaioe oaein”, “Aa?aeiai”, “Aeiiiiino”, “Iana?aa?” oa iioi.

Iiae /an ?iaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaioa?e aea?aeaaieo oa iieioe/ieo
aeiy/ia Aiaei?, cie?aia I.Oao/a?, I.Eiiiiea4 .

Aeyaeeeny oeiiieie aeey aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeii
eiioaeoe oa iaaiai?aiiy aeaieo i?iaeai c i?aaenoaaieeaie Oaaea?aoei?
Iacaeaaeieo i?ioniieie ?ini? — o/anieeaie eiia?ania AEO, oa
i?aoeiaieeaie Oaaea?aoei? i?ioanieieo niieie Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi? iaea ciiao aea/eoe iaoa?iaee, ui aoee etha’ycii iaaeaii
i?aaenoaaieeii Iiaeia?iaeiiai aiaeaeieo A?eoainueeiai eiia?ano
o?aae-thiiiiia Ia?i Aa?aa? o ?acoeueoaoi eenooaaiiy.

Iniaeeai ei?eniith aeey ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoeieiei aeineiaeaeaiiyi aoea
ca?oaiaeia eioa?aoo?a. Aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaea aiaeienueei aeaeaiiy, a
yeeo i?iaaaeaii aiaeic i?iaeai, ui neeaaeathoue oaio aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy. Cai??iaeii aenaioeaii oei ieoaiiy a ?iaioao aiaeienueeeo
iieioeeia oa aeineiaeieeia “?aaiethoeieii-eeaniaiai” iai?yio A.
Iaeeaiiaia, O. Aieea, N.Aa?iiiae/a, A.?aiaeniia oa iio.1 Oei aaoi?e
i?iaaee aea/aiiy aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee iaieiina?aaoi?ia, ianeiaeeia,
coiiaeaieo ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iiiaoa?ecio; aeineiaeaeaiiy noinoieia “iiaeo
oi?i” oa o?aae-thiiiiia ia oiii caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoia uiaei i?ioniieie,
aeoieia iiai? aea?aeaaii? iieioeee o Aaeeeie A?eoaii? 1980-o ?ieia.
?aoi?iinonueei iaea? ?icaeoeo i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo i?aaenoaaeaii a
?iaioao Ae.Ioaia, N. Oaecaea?a, yei aaaaeathoue, ui iinoea i?ioniieie o
noniieuenoai oa ?o aeiyeueiinoue iiaeiii aecia/aoeny aiaeiiaiaeii aei
iiaeyaeia ia i?io?oo ye “aeieiaee thiiiiici”, aai ?aoi?iiaaiee
o?aae-thiiiiici.

O ?iaioao eaeai?enonueeeo aaoi?ia I.Eiiiiea, A. Oa?iaia, E. Eioona, O.
Oiioaia i?iaaaeaii aiaeic inoi?e/ieo aniaeoia caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei
i?ioniieie, i?iaeai no?aeeiaiai ?ooo, noinoieia eaeai?enoia oa
o?aae-thiiiiia, i?e/ei ii?acie EIA oa iiooeo iiaeo oeyoia
niia?iaioieoeoaa2. Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia caeiiiaeaa/i iiioeiaoeae
o?yaeo, yei, oae /e iiaeoa, ca/iiathoue i?aaa oa naiaiaee i?ioniieie.

Iaie aoee aeei?enoaii ?iaioe eiina?aaoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy oaeeo aaoi?ia:
E. Aeaeicaoa, ?.?ioca, ?.Oiiaei, ?. Ia?oiia3 . Iniaeeainoth i?aoeue
aeaieo aaoi?ia ? oa, ui i?e aenaioeaiii nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo
i?ioeania a?eoainueeiai noniieuenoaa i o/anoi a ieo o?aae-thiiiiia,
i?ioniieee iiaeathoueny ye aeanoaaieicoth/ee oaeoi?, ui iacaeaoiee
ni?eyoe aeiiiii/iiio c?inoaiith, a iieioeea iaieiina?aaoi?ia
?icaeyaea?oueny ieie c iiceoeie caoenoo canaae aeaiie?aoi?, naiaiae i
i?aa ?yaeiaeo /eaiia i?ioniieee.

Aeineiaeieee N. Iieeiaai, O. Oae?e, O. A?ioi, O. Aaeinii oa iio.
?icaeyaeathoue o?aae-thiiiie ye caa?ico aeaiie?aoi?, a c?inoaiiy ?oiuei?
aeoeaiinoi oa iiioey?iinoi a noniieuenoai ye ainiee na?eicieo i?iaeai,
i?eoaiaiieo e?eciaiio noaio nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii? noa?e1.
I?inoaaeo?oueny iiaeyae ia i?ioniieee ye iniiaia aaeueii aoaeoeaiiai
?icaeoeo, a oiio iieioeea “iiaeo oi?i” uiaei i?ioniieie oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa aenooia? iaiaoiaeiith oiiaith iiaeaeueoiai
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai i?ia?ano a?eoainueeiai noniieuenoaa.

I?aoethth/e iaae aeena?oaoeieiei aeineiaeaeaiiyi aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaea
?iaioe a/aieo, ui noinothoueny i?iaeai inoi?i? no/anii? Aiaei?. Oaei
iaoeiaoei, ye A. Aaeeiaa, I. Ai?iaeaoeueea, A.AEa?eia, I.Eeiiia,
N.Ieoaeeia, A.Iiaea?a, N.Ianoa?ia, AE.Inaae/a, N. Ia?aaoaeia, A.
I?n/ainueeee, I.?oniiia, I.Noaiaiiaa, ?. Oanii aea/aee ie?aii aniaeoe
inoi?i? aiaeiinei o?aae-thiiiiia oa eiina?aaoi?ia, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iieioeee iiiaoa?ecio eaaiiaoaie I.Oao/a?, i?e/eie oa ianeiaeee
“oao/a?ecio”, ye aaaeeeaiai yaeua iiaioiuei? inoi?i?. I?iaeaiai
noinoieia EIA oa o?aae-thiiiiia i?enay/aii ?iaioe N.*a?iaoeueeiai, A.
?eaeeeiaa2.

Iaaii aniaeoe aeaii? i?iaeaie aenaioethaaeeny o ?iaioao aio/eciyieo
inoi?eeia, aea iiiia?aoi/ieo ?iaio, a yeeo aeaoaeueii aoee a aenaioeaii
ieoaiiy aca?iiaiaeiinei ia?oi? “iiaeo oi?i” oa o?aae-thiiiiia o Aaeeeie
A?eoaii? ia?iiaeo ia?aaoaaiiy o aeaaee I.Oao/a?, iiee ui iaia?. Oae, o
?iaioao A.I.Ai?aeea i?iaaaeaii aiaeic noia?a/iinoae ?icaeoeo
a?eoainueeiai noniieuenoaa eiioey 1970-o — ii/aoeo 1980-o ??.3 Ie?aieie
ieoaiiyie nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee eiina?aaoi?ia, no?aeeiai?
ai?ioueae aiaeienueeeo i?ioniieie 1970-o — 1980-o ??. caeiaany
A.O.O?oaae/oe4.

Ieceo oeieaaeo aeineiaeaeaiue aeeiiaee I.Aeaeaaeaeoea, TH. Aa?aaaiia,
N.Oienoia. I?iaeaiai aeiyeueiinoi aiaeienueeeo i?ioniieie, ?o
aca?iiaiaeiineiai c aicianii oa aea?aeaaith eiioey 1970-o — ii/aoeo
1990-o ??. i?enay/aia aeena?oaoeieia aeineiaeaeaiiy N. I. Ai?eyinueeiai
5 .

Ae?oaee ?icaeie — “Ia?aaeoiiae ianooio eiina?aaoi?ia ia iiceoei?
aiaeienueeeo i?ioniieie”. Noni?euei? iano?i? caciaee ci?i, ni?e/eiaieo
i?iaaeii iie?oeee eaeai?eno?a iai?eeiioei 70-o ?ie?a. Ni?iae ae??oeoe
aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie eieaeoea?nonueeeie iaoiaeaie, a
naia, oeyoii iaoe?iiae?caoe??, ?icoe?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
nioe?aeueieo iineoa, ia ciiaee i?eianoe aoaeoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo ?
aeyaeeeny iaaaeaeeie.

Oe?ie? aa?noae ianaeaiiy ciaa??eeeny a «aea?aeaa? caaaeueiiai
aeia?iaooo», ine?eueee iio?aae ? iiieo o?oaeyueo caeeoeeeny
iacaaeiaieaieie. Iaaio ?ieue o aeanoaa?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy noni?euenoaa a?ae?a?aea iaaaeaea ni?iaa o?yaeo A.O?oa, yeee
i?eeoia aei aeaaee o 1970 ?ioe?, ci?ieoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io
iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo a?eoainueeiai noni?euenoaa. Eiina?aaoi?e aac
aeaoaeueii? i?aeaioiaee anooieee a i?ioe??//y c i?ioni?eeaie, ui eeoa
iiaeeaeei e?eco a noni?euenoa?. Iaaeia??a aei iaio ia?o?e ni?e/eieea
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? iaeeo ia?o?e — e?aa?aeueii?,
aeieia?/ii? oa iio.

Aiae?y noaea aea?aeaaith, a yeie oaiie c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aoee
iaeiaioeie na?aae aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?i naioo. sseui aei 1966 ?ieo
??aaiue i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo o Niieo/aiiio Ei?ieianoai ii??aiyii c 1951
?ieii ca?eueoeany ia 51%, c 1966 ii 1974 ??e — ia 46%, oi c 1974 ii
1979 ??e — anueiai ia 5%. Aeey ii?iaiyiiy, o 1979 ?ioei NOA iaee 15 %,
O?I — 23%, Eaiaaea-14%, ssiii?y-29%, O?aioe?y — 25% i?e?inoo
ae?iaieoeoaa1 . I???ioaoeiy a?eoainueei? aeiiii?ee ia eieeoi? eieii??
i?ecaaea aei oiai, ui aeiiii?ea e?a?ie ia iiaea oaeaeei ?aaaoaaoe ia
o? ci?ie, yeeo aeiaaaee iio?aae ae?iaieoeoaa. C 1970 ?ieo Aaeeea
A?eoaiiy iieieeany ia 5 i?noe? na?aae ?icaeiooeo e?a?i naioo, oiae? ye o
1950 ?ioe? aiia caeiaea ae?oaa, a a 1960 ?ioe? — 3 i?noea.

C?inoaiiy aac?ia?ooy noaei cia/iith i?iaeaiith aeey e?a?ie
70-o ?ie?a. ?ioeyoe?y neeaaeaea aeecueei 12% ??/ieo, a a 1975 ?ioei
aeinyaea 25%. Caeiyo?noue a ia?iai?e i?iieneiaino? cieceeanue ia 15%,
aac?ia?ooy iiaeai?einy, iiaeieaaoe i?eueeiiio iicia/eo.

70-oi ?iee a aeeooi Aaeeei? A?eoaii? i?ieoee iiae ciaeii iiaeaeuaii?
aeoeaiinoi i?ioniieie, yei aeinyaee cia/iiai aieeao a noniieuenoai.
Oeueiio, cia/iith ii?ith, ni?eya oaeo ia?aaoaaiiy o aeaaee c na?aaeeie
70-o ??. eaeai?enonueeiai o?yaeo. Ii/eiath/e c 1970 ?ieo, e?euee?noue
/eai?a o?aae-thi?ii?a c?inea ia 3 iei 250 oen. /ieia?e, oiaoi ia 36% (c
8,88 iei /ie. aei 12,13 iei /ie. o 1979 ?ioe?) . A?eoainueeee eiia?an
o?aae-thi?ii?a ia’?aeioaaa aei 90% an?o i?ioni?eie ia 1979 ??e1 . Aaeeea
A?eoaiiy caeiyea ia?oa i?noea o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? ca eieueeinoth /eaiia
i?ioniieie. I?ioni?eee ii/aee aeoeaii ae?yoe a iie?oe/i?e noa??, a
oaeiae a?aee o/anoue o ae??oaii? i?iaeai aac?ia?ooy oa cia/iiai
nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae oa aeieia?/ieo ieoaiue.

O 1979 ?ioe? e?euee?noue no?aee?a a Aiae?? neeaea 2045. Oeueiai ?ieo
aoei ao?a/aii iaea?eueoa ethaeeii-aei?a — 29 oeny/ 1162 . Ao?oeea? ae??
i?ioni?eie caaa?ooaaeeny ci?iith o?yae?a, ye oea aoei, iai?eeeaae,
o 1973-1974 ??. (eiee i?ae iaoeneii a??iee?a i?oia o a?aenoaaeo o?yae
A.O?oa) oa 1978-1979 ??. (oiae? i?ioni?eee ia i?aeo?eiaee
eaeai?eno?a, c yeeie ca ?iee i?aae?iiy inoaiiio aeieeee na?eici?
iaii?icoi?iiy).

Ia oiii caaino?aiiy e?eciaeo yaeu ciioeieeany iiceoeiy i?eoeeueieeia
iiiaoa?ii? iieioeee. I?eioeeiia? canaaee iiiaoa?ecio iaieiina?aaoi??a
aec??ee caaeiaai aei i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee I.Oao/a?. Iniiai? iai?yii?
iie?oeee eiina?aaoi??a aoee aeeeaaeai? a aeieoiaio? «I?aaeeueiee
i?aeo?ae» (1976 ?.). E. Aeaeicao, iaeei c «iiaeo eiina?aaoi??a», oae
icia/ea ia?oi/a?aia? caaaeaiiy eiina?aaoeaiiai o?yaeo, ua aei i?eoiaeo
oi?? aei aeaaee: iio??aii iaiaaeeoe oa nei?ioeoe aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe o
neeaae? caaaeueieo aeo?ao, no?eiaoe ?ioeyoe?th; iaiaaeeoe iiaeeea?noue
i?ioni?eie oeiaeeoe aeiiii?oe?, aea e ciaioeoe aieea oaeoi??a, ye?
ciooothoue ?o oae ae?yoe3.

O ?acoeueoaoi oaei? iieioeee ?iaaiue iioeyoei? ciaioeany aei 9,1%
(1982 ?.), c 1983 ?ieo cia/ii c?inee oaiie i?eaaoecaoe??: o 1983-1984
??. — 1,1 ie?ae. o.no.; o 1984-1985 ??. — 2,1 ie?ae.; o 1985-1986 ??.
— 2,7 ie?ae.; o 1986-1987 ??.- 4,4 ie?ae. o.no.4 Aei 1987 ?ieo aoei
i?eaaoeciaaii a?eueoa o?aoeie i?iieneiaeo, eiia?oe?eieo oa o?ainii?oieo
no?oeoo?. Iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo eaiie iiiaoa?ii? iie?oeee I.Oao/a?
noaei ?icoe?aiiy iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Iai?eeiioei 80-o ??. e?euee?noue i?aoe?aiee?a, caeo/aieo aei o/ano? a
i?eaooeao, a iniiaiiio oeyoii aeoe?iioaaiiy, aeinyaea 1 iei 750 oen.
/ieia?e. Na?aeii?noue ia?an?/ieo a?eoaioe?a iinooiiai iaaoaaea ?en
ineoieia?? «aeaiie?ao?? aeaniee?a».

I?iaiaeicoaaaoe iieioeeo oao/a?ecio i?eoiaeeii aei aeniiaeo, ui aeey
iiaeieaiiy aeiiiii/ii? e?ece Aaeeei? A?eoaii? eiioey 1970-o ?ieia o?yae
I.Oao/a? aeei?enoaa aoaeoeaii iaoaiicie iiiaoa?ii? iieioeee.

I?ioa a iiiaoa?iie iie?oeoe? iaieiina?aaoi??a ia aoei i?noey aeey
niiioaiieo «no?on?a» aeiiii?ee, aeeeeeaieo ae?yeuei?noth o?aae-thi?ii?a.
Oiio c 1980 ?ieo ? ?icii/eia?oueny oe?ieee oa aaceiii?ii?niee ianooi ia
i?aaa i?ioni?eie.

O?aoie ?icaeie — “Iaiaaeaiiy i?ioniieeiaeo naiaiae — iaeia c iai?yiieo
o?yaeo Ia?aa?ao Oao/a?”. Ci?iae caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ioenoiyiiy i?ioniieie oa iiaei?e?ioeia a Aiaei? caeieniththoueny ua c
eiioey OVIII — ii/aoeo OIO no.

I?eeoiaoe aei aeaaee o 1979 ?ioei, iinooiiai, e?ie ca e?ieii, eaaiiao
iaieiina?aaoi?ia i?iaia /a?ac ia?eaiaio o?e caeiie uiaei i?ioniieeiaeo
i?aaiicaoeie:

— “Caeii i?i caeiyoinoue 1980”;

— “Caeii i?i caeiyoinoue 1982”;

— “Caeii i?i i?ioniieee 1984”.

E?ii, oeueiai o?yae ?ic?iaea ieceo aeieoiaioia, ui noinoaaeeny aeayeeo
iieiaeaiue aeuaaeacaieo aeoia, oiaoi iiynithaaee ?o oa eiie?aoecoaaee.
Na?aae ieo “Eiaeaen iieaooaaiiy” oa “Eiaeaen cae?eoiai oeaoo”.

Iaeiei c ia?oi/a?aiaeo ia’?eoia, ia yeee aoee ni?yiiaaii caeiie, noaei
i?aai i?ioniieie ia no?aee. I?eeiyaoe “Caeii i?i caeiyoinoue” 1980 ?.
(Employment Act 1980), o?yae aiin eieueea “iacia/ieo” i?aaie aei caeiio
1974 ?.. Iani?aaaei oei i?aaee aoee iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaeie, ineieueee
aaiaeeeany iiaa noaia i?iieneiaeo aeie i aia?oa c’yaeeiny iiiyooy
“aoi?eiii i?iieneiai aei?”, iiae yeeie ii/aee ?icoiioe no?aeee
nieiaea?iinoi.

Ianooiiei e?ieii th?eaee/iiai iaiaaeaiiy i?ioniieeiaeo i?aa noaa “Caeii
i?i caeiyoinoue” 1982 ?ieo (Employment Act 1982), ui aoa iiaeaioiaaiee
iiaei iiiino?ii c ieoaiue caeiyoinoi Ii?iaiii Oaaaioii. Aeuaiacaaiee
caeii iaa aioeno?aeeiao ni?yiiaaiinoue. Oeei caeiiii o?yae
eiina?aaoi?ia aiin iii?aaee aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “o?oaeiaee eiioeieo”,
yea aoei noi?ioeueiaaia a caeiii 1974 ?ieo, ui aoa i?eeiyoee o?yaeii
eaeai?enoia i?e aaciina?aaeiie o/anoi AEO1 .

O caeiii 1982 ?. iinoeeiny ua iaeia iaiaaeaiiy i?aaa i?ioniieie ia
no?aee — iiaei?e?ioeyi aeicaieyeiny caieueiyoe o/anieeia no?aeeo
aeai?eiai. ?aiioa, “Aeoii i?i caoeno caeiiiinoi” 1978 ?. aeicaieyeiny
caieueiyoe oieueee anio no?aeeoth/eo ?acii. Ca iieiaeaiiyie caeiio 1982
?. iiaei?e?iaoeue iia ii/eiaoe aeai?eiaa caieueiaiiy no?aeeoth/eo aaea
/a?ac o?e iinyoei iiney ii/aoeo no?aeeo.

Ia ii/aoeo 1980-o ?ieia iii? o?aae-thiiiiinonueeiai ?ooo o aiaeiiaiaeue
ia o?yaeiai aei? ia aeinya iaaioue oiai ?iaiy ianiainoi oa ?ioo/inoi,
yeee aoa i?eoaiaiiee aeiyi i?ioniieie aeanyoue ?ieia oiio, eiee aiie
aenooieee i?ioe “Caeiio i?i i?iieneiai aiaeiineie” 1971 ?.

O /a?aii 1983 ?. iaieiina?aaoi?e io?eiaee /a?aiao ia?aiiao ia
caaaeueiiiaoeiiiaeueieo aeai?ao aei ia?eaiaioo Aaeeei? A?eoaii?.
Ia?aa?ao Oao/a? cayaeea i?i iaii? o?yaeo eiaeii aeaa ?iee aiineoe ia
?icaeyae aei ia?eaiaioo caeiiii?iaeoe i?i i?ioniieee. Ia?niaeoeaa
ia?aaoaaiiy o aeaaee eiina?aaoi?ia aeeeeeaea iiyao o a?eoainueeiio
i?ioniieeiaiio ?oni iiaeo oaiaeaioeie, ui aiaeiii ye iieioeea “iiaiai
?aaeicio”.

26 eeiiy 1984 ?. c’yaeany “Caeii i?i i?ioniieee” (Trade Union Act 1984).
Aeaiei aeoii i?aaey/i eiea caeienieee /a?aiaee ianooi ia iaeia c
iaeaaaeeeaioeo oa iniiaieo i?aa a?eoainueeeo i?ioniieie — i?aai ia
no?aee. Oeae caeii, ye aaaaeathoue aeineiaeieee i?iaeai a?eoainueeiai
o?aae-thiiiiicio oa ye aeaeii c aiaeico iniiaieo eiai iieiaeaiue, noaa
eeth/iaei ia oieueee a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeiyo eaaiiaoo I.Oao/a? na?aaeeie
1980-o ??., aea e a onie iieioeoei iaieiina?aaoi?ia uiaei
o?aae-thiiiiia. Iineeath/enue ia aiaeiiao i?ioniieie aiae
aeia?iaieueiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aoi?i, o?yae aeaco? ia
iaiaoiaeiinoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea a ni?eyei oaeei
?aoi?iai. Oaeei /eiii, o?yae oioia aeiaanoe iaiaoiaeiinoue
caeiiiaeaa/iai ao?o/aiiy o aioo?ioii ni?aae i?ioniieie.

“Iiaee ?aaeici” i?iaeaiiino?oaaa naith iani?iiiaeiinoue. Iaeay
niiai?aoei c o?yaeii ia io?eiaea ?icaeoeo. Eaaiiao oi?i oa aicianiai
eiea ia aoee caoeieaaeaii a oeueiio, aaeaea aeey aeinyaiaiiy oeieae ?i
iaiaoiaeii aoei e iaaeaei iineaaethaaoe o?aae-thiiiie. Niaoeeoieith
a?eoainueeiai noniieuenoaa 1983-1984 ??. aoea iayaiinoue, c iaeiiai
aieo, iaea? i?eie?aiiy oa niia?iaioieoeoaa iiae o?yaeii oa i?ioniieeaie,
a c iioiai, oyaeiiiy aei aeoeaieo aioeo?yaeiaeo aeie.

Inoaiiii yne?aaei i?iyaii o?aaeeoeieieo iaoiaeia ai?ioueae
o?aae-thiiiiia, ui i?ecaaei aei inoaoi/iiai i?iaaeo “iiaiai ?aaeicio”,
noaa 12-iiny/iee no?aee oaooa?ia (1984-1985 ??.).

O 1987 ?ioei a oiaei /a?aiaeo ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ia o Aaeeeie A?eoaii?
ia?aiiao ciiao io?eio? ia?oiy eiina?aaoi?ia ia /iei c “caeiciith eaaei”
Ia?aa?ao Oao/a?. Ii/eia?oueny o?aoie aoai ?aaeicaoei? caeiiiaeaa/i?
iieioeee “iiaeo oi?i”, ni?yiiaaii? ia iaiaaeaiiy i?ioniieeiaeo aeie. O
1988 ?ioei aoa i?eeiyoee /a?aiaee “Caeii i?i caeiyoinoue” (“Employment
Act 1988”). O oeueiio caeiii ia?aaeaa/aeiny i?aai /eaia i?ioniieee
caa?oaoeny aei noaeo c iaii?ii iaiaaeeoe iiaeeeainoi eiai
i?ioi?aaiicaoei? i?iaiaeeoe “i?iieneiai aei?” o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee a
?acoeueoaoi oa?iiiai (a oaeiae iiooiaiai) aieinoaaiiy c’ynoaaeiny, ui
aieueoinoue /eaiia i?ioniieee aeneiaeeeny i?ioe1 .

“Caeii i?i caeiyoinoue” 1988 ?. iinoea o niai aeiiao i?iaaaeaiiy aeai?ia
/eaiia aeeiiaa/iai eiiioaoo, yei ia iaee a iueiio i?aaa aieino, aea
a?aee o/anoue a iaaiai?aiii i?iaeai, a oaeiae aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y oa
i?aceaeaioa i?ioniieee. Caeii 1988 ?ieo caaino?ea noia?a/eeai noinoiee
iiae iiaei?e?ioeyie, yei aenooiaee ?iaioiaeaaoeyie, oa iaeiaieie
i?aoeiaieeaie.

Inoaiiie ic caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoia eaaiiaoo I.Oao/a? “Caeii i?i
caeiyoinoue” 1990 ?. noaa eiai/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aeanyoeeioiueiai oeneo
o?yaeo ia o?aae-thiiiie. Aeo iinoaaea iica caeiiii aoi?eiii aei? oa
aeoei? nieiaea?iinoi, aeeeth/aiiyi noaei oieueee ie?ia iieaooaaiiy.
Iiaei?e?ioei io?eiaee i?aai caieueiyoe o/anieeia iaioioeieieo
“i?iieneiaeo aeie” ia naie ?icnoae. C oeueiai /ano aieinoaaiiy iio?iaii
aoei i?iaiaeeoe na?aae onio o/anieeia iaeaooiueiai no?aeeo.
I?iaieiooaaeany iacaeiiiith aoaeue-yea aiaeiiaa i?eeiaoe ia ?iaioo oeo,
ooi ia aoa /eaiii i?ioniieee. Aeiyoeii aoa oie aeiaaeie, eiee ia ?iaioo
i?eeiaea i?ioniieea. Aeaiee caeii iiaeoaa?aeaeoaaa i?aai ?iaioieea, ui
aoa iani?aaaaeeeai caieueiaiee, ia a?ioiao eiiiainaoeith.

Aea?aeaaa iaiaaaeany iinoieii caieueoeoe naie eiio?ieue ca
aeiyeueiinoth i?ioniieeiaeo i?aaiicaoeie oeyoii ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?o
aioo?ioiuei? no?oeoo?e, ao?o/ath/enue o i?ioeaaeo?o aeai?ia ea?iaieo
i?aaiia o?aae-thiiiiinonueeeo i?aaiicaoeie.

Iiaeaiaey/e iiaenoiie aiaeico caeiiiaeaa/iai ao?o/aiiy o?yaeia “iiaeo
oi?i” iiae ea?iaieoeoaii I.Oao/a?, a caiaeii, iiney 1990 ?ieo,
Aeae.Iaeaeaei?a o ni?aae i?ioniieie, iaaieineii, ui oea ao?o/aiiy iineei
oa?aeoa? oeieani?yiiaaiiai iieioe/iiai eo?no.

*aoaa?oee ?icaeie — “A?eoainueei o?aae-thiiiie a oiiaao aei?noei?
iieioeee iaieiina?aaoi?ia”.

O ia?oie iieiaeii 80-o ?ieia niinoa?iaaeiny ciaioaiiy caaaeueii?
eieueeinoi /eaiia EIA. Eieaeoeaii /eaie EIA — o?aae-thiiiie, yei
noaiiaeee iniiaio /anoeio ia?oi? (iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo /eaiia aeecueei
3,5%), o 80-o ?ieao ia?anoaee a?aoe aeoeaio o/anoue o iieioeoei
eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi?, iinooiiai iineaaeeeny ca’ycee i?iooeaio?ia ia
iinoeyo c EIA. Ciaioeeany eieueeinoue eieaeoeaieo /eaiia EIA c 6 iei 511
oen. o 1979 ?ioei aei 6 iei 185 oen. o 1982 ?ioei.2

Niinia aeeooy, iineaaeaiiy ca’yceia c eaeai?enonueeith ia?oi?th
eaaeioieiaaieo ?iaioieeia, yei iieiyeeny a na?aaeiaeui aeineoue
caiiaeiiai “na?aaeiueiai” eeano, ni?eyee ?o iinooiiaiio ia?aoiaeo aei
aeaeoi?aoo “iiaeo oi?i”.

O 80-o — ia ii/aoeo 90-o ??. eaeai?enonueea ia?oiy iinooiaeany
iiioey?iinoth eiina?aaoi?ai ia oieueee na?aae i?ioa?eia ianaeaiiy, yei
o?aaeeoeieii iiaeo?eioaaee “iiaeo oi?i”, a oaeiae, ui iniaeeai aeeeeeaei
caiaiiei?iiy eiaea?ia EIA, na?aae ?iaioieeia. I?e/eie oeueiai, ye
aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe, iieyaaee, ii-ia?oa, o iaaeinoaoiie oaaci eaeai?enoia
aei i?iaeai i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo, iineaaeaiii ca’yceia c o?aae-thiiiiaie.
Ia na?aaeeio 80-o ?ieia i?ioniieee iinooiiai ia?aoai?eeeny a cania
iiiiaiaiiy eiooia ia?oi?, ui ni?eyei eeoa iiaeaeuaiith ianeaiinoi
o?aae-thiiiiinoia uiaei aeiyeueiinoi EIA. Ii-ae?oaa, cia/ii ciiie o
ianiaiio neeaaei eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi? aeiaaaee ae?iaeaiiy iiaeo
i?i?ioe?ia, aaeaea noa?i i?eioeeie, ca yeeie ia?oiy nie?aeany ia
eaaeioieiaaiiai ?iaioieea, oaia? caeeoaeeny iaaei?caeaoieie. Ii-o?ao?,
ia ii/aoeo 1980-o ??. aeiiiii/ia no?aoaaiy eaeai?enoia ia aiaeiiaiaeaea
iiaei oiiaai, ia a?aoiaoaaea oaiaeaioeie, ui inioaaee a a?eoainueeiio
noniieuenoai. Aeiiiii/ii iaaa?acaee ?icoeiithaaeeny eaeai?enoaie ye
oei/aniaee oaeoi?, ui coiiaethaaany iieioeeith eiina?aaoi?ia. Caaaeath/e
ia oea, aeueoa?iaoeaia aeiiiii/ia iieioeea EIA ia aiaeia?aaeaea iio?aa
oa iano?i?a noniieuenoaa, a yeiio aeoeaii ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny iaea?
“oao/a?ecio”. Aa?oi aeaeieeoe i i?iaeaie ana?aaeeii eaeai?enonueei?
ia?oi?, yei ia?a?inee o canoieii yaeua, ca neiaaie eiaea?a eaeai?enoia
Iiea Eiiiiea, eaeai?eci coieieany ia ?iaii iiai?iieo ?ieia.

O iiaie iieioeoei eaeai?enoia ie?aneeany aiaeoiae aiae iianthaeiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiiiiee. Aiie ii/aee aeneiaethaaoeny ca oa,
uia niiaaiaeiioaiiy aea?aeaaieo oa ?eieiaeo nee aecia/aeiny eiie?aoieie
oiiaaie. Aeiiiii/ia i?ia?aia caeiyoinoi EIA neeaaeaeany c aeai?i/ii?
i?ia?aie, yeith ia?aaeaa/aeiny nei?ioeoe aac?iaiooy aei 1 iei. /ieiaie,
oa i’yoe?i/ii? no?aoaai?, yea a aeicaieeea ae?ioeoe i?iaeaio iinoieiiai
?icoe?aiiy caeiyoinoi. Inoaiiie aoai ia?aaeaa/aa aeanyoeeioith i?ia?aio
“Ia?niaeoeae aeiiiii/iiai ieaioaaiiy”, iaoa yei? caaacia/eoe
aeiaaino?ieiaee ?icaeoie aeiiiiiee oa caeiyoinoi. Aaeeea oaaaa
i?eaeieyeany i?ia?aiai i?ioanieii? iiaeaioiaee ianaeaiiy. Oaeeie
caoiaeaie eaeai?enoe niiaeiaaeeny ae?ioeoe oiiainiai i?iaeaie oa
iicaooeny iioeyoei?.

Aoaeoeaiinoue nai?? aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee eiaea?e EIA iia’ycoaaee c
ooai?aiiyi Iaoeiiiaeueii? aeiiiii/ii? ?aaee, yea a ia’?aeiaea
i?aaenoaaieeia o?yaeo, iaiaaeaeiaioo oa i?ioniieie. Naia ia oeth ?aaeo
iieeaaeaeiny caaaeaiiy i?eeiaoe ?ioaiiy i?i ?iciiaeie IAI iiae
iiaeeaiaeoaeueiei niiaeeaaiiyi, nioeiaeueieie iio?aaaie oa
iiaanooaaiiyi.

Iniaeeainoth no?aoaai/ii? iieioeee EIA oeueiai ia?iiaeo aoei iaiaaaiiy
caeo/eoe a?iiaaenueeinoue aei ae?ioaiiy ?iciiiaiioieo i?iaeai, a oaeiae
cai?iaaaeeoe ieth?aeicaoeith a?iiaaenueeiai naeoi?o, o?iciiiaiioiaiiy
oi?i aeaniinoi.

I?ioyaii inoaiiio ?ieia aiaeaoeeny na?eicii ciiie a no?aoaai? i oaeoeoei
eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi?. Aiae/oaath/e iaiaoiaeiinoue ?aoi?i, eaeai?enoe
oaeoe/ii aiaeiiaeeeny aiae iieiaeaiiy, yea aoei cae?iieaia a noaoooi EIA
i aei oeueiai /ano caeeoaeiny o?aaeeoeieiei a?aoiaioii eaeai?ecio, —
aiie ciyee c naaa ciaia’ycaiiy i?i iaoeiiiaeicaoeith aieiaieo caniaia
ae?iaieoeoaa.

”Iiai eaeai?enoe” aenooiathoue i?eoeeueieeaie eiinoeoooeieieo ?aoi?i i
iiiaioeyee noai?eoe ie?aiee ia?eaiaio aeey Oioeaiaei? oa anaiaeath aeey
Oaeuena. EIA cai?iiiioaaea a?iiaaeyiai iiaeo?eieo ci naiai aieo ?oiuei?
iiaei?e?iieoeueei? aeoeaiinoi, iaioeyth/e ia ao?o/aoeny a oi?aaeiiiy
iiaei?e?inoaaie. Oaia? eaeai?enoe ea?othoueny oacith, ui o?yae
iaiaoiaeiee aeey oiai, uia ni?eyoe aeiyeueiinoi iiaei?e?inoa, a ia aeey
oiai, uia ea?oaaoe ieie.

O 80-oi ?iee ?icii/aeiny ceeooy i?ioniieie. Aei 1988 ?. ?o aoei 79,
oiaei ye o 1979 ?. — 112. O 1991 ?. noai?aii Niieeo iieia?aoinoia, yea
ia’?aeiaea 282 oen. /eaiia i noaea 10-oith ii /enaeueiinoi i?ioniieeith
Aaeeei? A?eoaii?1 . Iaeii?th c aieiaieo i?e/ei oaeeo oe?oiiaiue noaee
aeiiiii/ii o?oaeiiui, aeeeeeaii ciaioaiiyi eieueeinoi /eaiia i?ioniieie.
E?ii oiai, i?ioniieeai iaiaoiaeii aoei ia’?aeiaoeny o nai?o aeiyo i?ioe
iiaei?e?ioeia oa o?yaeo.

Ie?aneeeenue oaiaeaioei? aeaiie?aoecaoei? o?aae-thiiiiia
(aeaoeaio?aeicaoeiy oi?aaeiiiy, aeaoeaio?aeiciaaii oi?ie oeeaaeaiiy
o?oaeiaeo oaiae oa ?ica’ycaiiy eiioeieoia). AEO iiaa?ioany aei i?iaeai
“i?iieneiai? aeaiie?aoi?” o naioei ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
o?aae-thiiiiicio. Iai?eeiioei 80-o ??. oeae oaeo ?acii c iineaaeaiiyi
i?ioniieie i?ecaia aei oiai, ui o?aae-thiiiie ia?anoaee ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
caa?ica aeiiiiioei oa noniieuenoao.

A?eoainueeee o?aae-thiiiiici i?iaiaeeoue iiooee iiaeo oeyoia ?icaeoeo oa
aeiyeueiinoi i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo, i?aoeth? iaae ia?aaoaeiaith nai??
oaeoeee a iiaeo oiiaao.

INIIAII ?ACOEUeOAOE I AENIIAEE

IAOEIAIAI AeINEIAeAEAIIss

O ?acoeueoaoi i?iaaaeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeia c?iaeoe oaei aeniiaee:

1. Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, yei ni?eyee aoaeoeaiiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith iieioeee
“iiaeo oi?i” uiaei i?ioniieie aoee: aaeaea iieeaaeaiiy eiina?aaoi?aie ia
o?aae-thiiiie aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoi ca nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/io e?eco Aiaei?
eiioey 1970-o ?ieia i, ye ?? ianeiaeee, cieaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai ?iaiy
ianaeaiiy, c?inoaiiy aac?iaiooy, iioeyoeith oa i?aaenoaaeaiiy i?ioniieie
ye aeanoaaieicoth/iai oaeoi?a; ?ioo/i oa oeieani?yiiaaii aei? o?yaeia
I.Oao/a? ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ?iaii; e?eca ana?aaeeii i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo,
aeei?enoaiiy o?aae-thiiiiaie canoa?ieeo iaoiaeia o aiaenoithaaiii nai?o
i?aa; iiaeeaeaiiy ?ic?eao o noinoieao o?aae-thiiiiia oa eaeai?enonueei?
ia?oi?, yeo aiie o?aaeeoeieii iiaeo?eioaaee, a ?acoeueoaoi /iai cia/ia
/anoeia o?aae-thiiiiinoia aiaeaeaaaea ia?aaaao ia ia?eaiaionueeeo
aeai?ao eiina?aaoi?ai.

2. Aieea nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo ?aoi?i I.Oao/a? ia o?aae-thiiiiici
aeyaeany o iineaaeaiii ?iei i?ioi?aaiicaoeie, yei ua iai?eeiioei 70-o
??. yaeyee niaith aeineoue aeoeaio neeo; ciaioaiii ?o /enaeueiinoi,
cieaeaiii aoaeoeaiinoi “i?iieneiaeo aeie”; iaiaaeaiii o?aaeeoeieieo
i?aa o?aae-thiiiiia.

3. Iniaeeainoi caeiiiaeaa/eo iiioeiaoea, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
eiina?aaoeaiiio o?yaeo aaeaeiny iaiaaeeoe aieea o?aae-thiiiiia ia
noniieueii i?ioeane Aaeeei? A?eoaii?, iieyaaee o ao?o/aiii o noaoooii
canaaee i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo, ?aaeaiaiooaaiii i?ioeaaeo?e aeai?ia o
i?ioniieeao, ?aoi?ioaaiii i?aaee iaieioaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy “i?iieneiaeo
aeie”; iaiaaeaiiy iecee i?ioniieeiaeo i?aa: neanoaaiiy i?aaeea
“cae?eoiai oeaoo” (iaia’yceiaiai /eainoaa a i?ioniieeao onio
i?aoeiaieeia iiaei?e?inoaa); aeaei, iaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoi ?iaioieeai, yei
ia ? /eaiaie i?ioniieie, iaii?oaaoe aai ii?oooaaoe ?ioaiiy i?ioniieeiai?
i?aaiicaoei?; oneeaaeiaiiy i?iaaaeaiiy aeoeie nieiaea?iinoi;
eieaiaeaoeiy iioiioaoo noiniaii “aoi?eiieo i?iieneiaeo aeie”; aoei
aaaaeaii a?iiicaeeo oa aei?iao i?ioeaaeo?o oa?iiiai aieinoaaiiy oa
aieinoaaiiy ii iiooi c iniaeeai aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue aeey o?aae-thiiiiia —
i?iaaaeaiiy “i?iieneiaeo aeie” oa aeai?ia i?ioniieeiaiai ea?iaieoeoaa;
iaiaaeoaaeany iieioe/ia aeoeaiinoue o?aae-thiiiiia; aoee iineaaeaii
ca’ycee c eaeai?enonueeith ia?oi?th oeyoii oneeaaeiaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e
oi?ioaaiiy iieioe/ieo oiiaeia.

4. C aiaeico aeiyeueiinoi o?aae-thiiiiia oeueiai ia?iiaeo aeaeii, ui
aianeiaeie aeniei? ath?ie?aoecaoei? iac?iea e?eca a naieo i?ioniieeao.
Ea?iaiee aia?ao aoa caiaaeoi ?icoe?aiee, oneeaaeithaaeany i?aaiicaoeieia
no?oeoo?a i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo.

A oiiaao iiai? iieioeee eiina?aaoeaieo o?yaeia iinooiiai ?icii/aeany
o?ainoi?iaoeiy i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo Aaeeei? A?eoaii?. Iniaeeainoyie
oei?? o?ainoi?iaoei? aoei: aeoeaiee iiooe o?aae-thiiiiiciii oeyoia
iiaeieaiiy aioo?ioiuei? e?ece oa aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaoiaeia aeiyeueiinoi,
yei aeaee ciiao oieeiooe iiaii? e?ece i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo oa i?ioenoiyoe
iaoeneo caeiiiaeaanoaa “iiaeo oi?i”; aeaoeaio?aeicaoeiy oi?aaeiiiy,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaoeaio?aeiciaaieo oi?i oeeaaeaiiy o?oaeiaeo oaiae oa
?ica’ycaiiy eiioeieoia. A oiiaao aiaeie?aiiy o?eia?oecio o?aae-thiiiie
aeciaee iaiaoiaeiinoue ?aoi?ie i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ana?aaeeii niieie. AEO
aenooiea c iiioeiaoeaith ?aaoethaaoe aiaeiineie iiae ie?aieie
i?ioi?aaiicaoeiyie, iaiaaath/enue noai?eoe nenoaio iieioe/ii? aeoeaiinoi
nai?o /eaiia noiniaii oe?ieiai eiea ieoaiue. Aoei aeie?aieaii noinoiee
AEO oa eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi?, ye iaeia c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue, oniioia
?ica’ycaiiy yeiai aeicaieeoue aoaeoeoaii ae?iooaaoe i?iaeaie
o?aae-thiiiiicio.

E?aeii iaoiaee aiaenoithaaiiy i?aa iinooieeeny iinoeai aeaaaeaiei aeiyi.
Iniiaii coneeey i?ioi?aaiicaoeie ni?yiiaoaaeeny ia caa?aaeaiiy oa
caieueoaiiy /eainoaa, ?icoe?aiiy nioeiaeueieo, inaioiio, th?eaee/ieo
iineoa /eaiai i?ioniieie, iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi oa ?acoeueoaoeaiinoi
aeie ii caoenoo iioa?ania ?iaioieeia.

5. No?aoaaiy i oaeoeea eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi? ia oiii iiaeo
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo i?ioeania, yei aiaeaoaaeeny o Aaeeeie A?eoaii?,
oa oneeaaeiaiiy noinoieia c o?aae-thiiiiaie aecia/aeeny ia?aaeyaeii
iieioeee uiaei inoaiiio oa aioo?ioiii ?aoi?ioaaiiyi EIA. ?acii c oeei
aeyaeeany ?acoeueoaoeaiith iieioeea caeo/aiiy iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo /eaiia
aei EIA. Aoa aiaeiiaeaiee Eiiioao ca’yceo EIA c AEO, ?icii/aeany ?iaioa
iaae niieueieie aeieoiaioaie c nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo i?iaeai. O iiaie
iieioeoei eaeai?enoia i?inoaaeo?oueny aiaeoiae aiae o?aaeeoeieii?
iiceoei? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa aeciaiiy iaiaoiaeiinoi
niiaaiaeiioaiiy aea?aeaaieo oa ?eieiaeo nee, ui aecia/a?oueny
eiie?aoieie oiiaaie. ?ic?iaeythoueny i?eioeeie iinoeaai? aeaiie?aoi?,
yea i?i?iooaaeany ia caeo/aiiy oe?ieeo ian oa niiai?aoeth c i?ioniieeaie
c eiie?aoieo i?ia?ai.

6. Neeaaeia nenoaia aca?iiaiaeiinei ia?oi? “iiaeo oi?i” oa
o?aae-thiiiiicio ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny eeoa o ?ic?ici
aioei?ioniieeiaiai, aioe?iaioie/iai iai?yieo aeiyeueiinoi ia?oi? aeaaee.
Ie?aii c i?iaieioaieo eiina?aaoi?aie iai?yieia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
i?ioniieeiaiai ?ooo iiaeooue aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ye aei?, ui
ia’?eoeaii iiaeooiaooaaee i?ioniieee aei aeaiie?aoecaoei?, iiaeieaiiy
eiina?aaoecio oa ath?ie?aoecio aiaeiiaiaeii aei iiaeo
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oa noniieueii-iieioe/ieo oiia.

Ia’?eoeaii aeiyeueiinoue o?yaeia oi?i o 80-o ??. ni?eyea i?iaaaeaiith
iieioe/ieo i nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo ?aoi?i o noniieuenoai (aiae,
aeania, aeiiiiiee aei nioeiaeueii? aaeaioaoei? aac?iaioieo). Aianeiaeie
oei?? aeiyeueiinoi i?ioniieee aoee ciooaii aaeaiooaaoeny aei
nioeiaeueii-oaoiaeo ciii a aeiiiiioei i noniieuenoai oa aeciaoe oaeoe/ia
“cieeiaiiy” aaaaoiiieueeiiiiai iiaeono?iaeueiiai ?iaioie/iai eeano, yeee
oiniaethaaa eeth/iaee eiiiiiaio nioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e noniieuenoaa
aeiae i?iieneiaiai eaiioaeicio.

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aiaeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioaeieaoeiyo:

1. Eiina?aaoeaia iieioeea ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?eoainueeiai o?aae-thiiiiicio o
1980-1990 ??.- E.: Ciaiiy, 1999.- 25 n.

2. O/anoue i?ioniieie o aeai?ao: aeinaiae a?eoainueeeo o?aae-thiiiiia
// Iiaa iieioeea.- 1998.- ? 2.- N.25-27.

3. ?a?iiaenueeee aeinaiae aeoiaeo c aeiiiii/ii? e?ece (ia i?eeeaaei
Aaeeei? A?eoaii?) // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.- 1998.- ? 11 — 12.- N.69-77.

4. Ciiia ?iei i?ioniieie o iiaeo nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo oiiaao:
A?eoainueeee aeinaiae // Ethaeeia i iieioeea.- 1999.- ? 1.- N.65-69.

5. Aiaeienueei o?aae-thiiiie a oiiaao aioei?ioniieeiai? iieioeee
eiina?aaoi?ia // I?ioniieee Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ? 3.- N.29-32.

6. I?ioniieee — aeoeaia neea? *e caeaoii aiie aei?ai aieeaaoe ia
iieioe/ia aeeooy e?a?ie// I?ioniieee Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ? 1.- N.90-93.

7. I?aaiicaoeiy nieaoe i?ioniieeiaeo aianeia: Iiaeia?iaeiee aeinaiae //
I?ioniieee Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ? 4.- N.66-71.

Aiioaoeiy

Aieiaei N.A. Iieioeea “iiaeo oi?i” uiaei o?aae-thiiiiia (1980-1990
??.).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 07.00.02 — ananaioiy inoi?iy.- Iinoeooo oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?aoi? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ii. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeieia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?enay/aia aea/aiith noniieueii-iieioe/ieo
i?ioeania, ui aiaeaoaaeeny o Aaeeeie A?eoaii? o 1980-1990 ??., o
eiioaenoi iieioeee iaieiina?aaoi?ia uiaei o?aae-thiiiiia.

O aeena?oaoei? aeyaeaii iniiaii /eiieee, ui coiiaeee iai?yiee iieioeee
“iiaeo oi?i” uiaei i?ioniieie i ia?aoeiaeeee aeoeaiie i?ioeaei? c aieo
i?ioniieie; aeineiaeaeaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo
?aoi?i I.Oao/a? i i?ioniieeiaiai oaeoi?o, iniaeeainoi caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui
?aaoethaaei aeiyeueiinoue o?aae-thiiiiia, aecia/aii no?aoaaith i
oaeoeeo eaeai?enonueei? ia?oi? o noa?i ?? niiai?aoei c i?ioniieeaie.

Eeth/iai neiaa: o?aae-thiiiie, “iiai oi?i”, caeiie uiaei i?ioniieie,
eiina?aaoeaia ia?oiy, eaeai?enonueea ia?oiy, “oao/a?eci”, AEO
(A?eoainueeee eiia?an o?aae-thiiiiia), “i?iieneiai aei?”.

Aiiioaoeey

Aieiaei N.A. Iieeoeea “iiauo oi?e” ii ioiioaieth e o?aae-thieiiai
(1980-1990 aa.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — anaiauay enoi?ey.- Einoeooo oe?aeineie
a?oaia?aoee e enoi/ieeiaaaeaiey ei. I.N.A?ooaaneiai, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii eco/aieth
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeeee a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1980 — 1990 aa., a eiioaenoa iieeoeee iaieiina?aaoi?ia
ii ioiioaieth e o?aae-thieiiai.

A aeenna?oaoeee auyaeaiu iniiaiua oaeoi?u, eioi?ua i?aaeii?aaeaeeee
iai?aaeaiey iieeoeee “iiauo oi?e” e i?aiyonoaiaaee aeoeaiiio
i?ioeaiaeaenoaeth i?ionithcia; enneaaeiaaiu niioiioaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i I.Oyo/a? e i?ionithciiai oaeoi?a,
iniaaiiinoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia ?aaoee?iaaei aeayoaeueiinoue
o?aae-thieiiia, ii?aaeaeaia no?aoaaey e oaeoeea eaeai?enoneie ia?oee a
noa?a a? nio?oaeie/anoaa n o?aae-thieiiaie.

1. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca ia?aienoi/ieeia, iao/iuo ioaeeeaoeee, aeieoiaioia
onoaiiaeaii, /oi a eiioea 70-o aiaeia a?eoaineea o?aae-thieiiu
i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ?aaeueioth neeo, niiniaioth i?ioeainoiyoue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?ionithcu no?aieeenue
oeo/oeoue oneiaey aeecie e ionoaeaaee i?aaa ?aai/eo a oneiaeyo
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, aeinoeaoaai aiiaay a yoio ia?eiae. Aianoa n oai
iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa aeayoaeueiinoe o?aae-thieiiia, eioi?ua an? /aua
i?iyaeyeenue a “i?iiuoeaiiuo aeaenoaeyo”, iaino?yee e?eceniua yaeaiey a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie noa?a Aiaeee e niinianoaiaaee oiio, /oi
i?ionithcu i?aa?auaeenue a aeanoaaeeece?othuee oaeoi?.

2. Iinea iiaaaeu ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao 1979 a. “iiauo oi?e” ai aeaaa
n I.Oyo/a? a aeecie Aaeeeia?eoaiee ia/aeenue aieueoea eciaiaiey,
iniiauaathueany ia iiiaoa?enoneie iieeoeea. Ia/aeanue iieiiianooaaiay
?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey e aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeey yeiiiieee, eciaiyeenue iiaeoiaeu
e i?iaeaia aac?aaioeoeu — an? yoi o?aaiaaei ia?aie/aiey aeeyiey
o?aae-thieiiia. I?aaeoaeuenoai I.Oyo/a? no?aieeinue ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
o?iaia ?aoi?ie?iaaoue i?aaiaoth aaco o?aae-thieiiecia, i?eieiay n 1980
ii 1990 aa. ?yae caeiiia, iai?aaeaiuo ia nieaeaiea i?aaieciaaiiinoe
i?ionithciiai aeaeaeaiey ioo?i oiaiueoaiey eo oeaio?aeecaoeee e
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?yaeiaui /eaiai aieueoeo aiciiaeiinoae aeeyoue ia
aeayoaeueiinoue o?aae-thieiiia, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aioo?aiieo iniia
i?ioaeaeaeaiey.

3. Iiae aeaaeaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iinoaiaiii nieaeaeanue yooaeoeaiinoue
eieeaeoeaiuo aeaenoaee, oiaioaeanue /eneaiiinoue o?aae-thieiiia,
ianooiee ia?eiae “?anoa?yiiinoe” a i?ionithciii aeaeaeaiee. Noa?ua
iaoiaeu ?acaeaaeenue ae?noeie oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie iieeoeeie I.Oyo/a?.
Yoiio niinianoaiaaea e aieueoay ath?ie?aoecaoeey naieo i?ionithcia.

A?eoaineea o?aae-thieiiu ia/aee iienee iiauo iooae i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena
i?ioaeaeaeaiey. Ia/aeny i?ioeann oe?oiiaiey i?aaiecaoeee, ?anoe?eeny
e?oa oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?ionithcaie naiei /eaiai,
ia?aniao?eaaeenue ioiioaiey n eaeai?enoneie ia?oeae.

4. Ia oiia iiauo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia ia?aniao?eaaeanue
iieeoeea eaeai?enoneie ia?oee ii ioiioaieth e o?aae-thieiiai.
I?ineaaeeaaeny iooiae io o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiceoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ?ac?aaaouaaeenue i?eioeeiu ianoiie aeaiie?aoee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aae-thieiiu, “iiaua oi?e”, caeiiu ii ioiioaieth e
i?ionithcai, eiina?aaoeaiay ia?oey, eaeai?enoneay ia?oey, “oyo/a?eci”,
AEO (A?eoaineee eiia?ann o?aae-thieiiia), “i?iiuoeaiiua aeaenoaey”.

Annotation

S.G.Golovko. Policy of the New Tories concerning trade unions,
1980-1990.-Manuscript.

The thesis submitted for a scientific degree of a Candidate of History
on speciality 07.00.02 — History of the world.-Hrushevsky Institute of
Ukrainian Archeography and Source Studies of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis research deals with the study of the social and political
processes in Great Britain during the years 1980-1990 within the context
of the policy of neo-conservatives towards trade unions.

The thesis brings to light the principal motives which called forth the
orientations of the policy of the New Tories, and hampered the progress
of active opposition from trade unions;

inquires into a question of correlation of social and economic reforms
carried out by M.Thatcher with the factor of trade unions;

studies the distinctive features of the legislation which regulated
activities of trade unions at that time;

specifies the tactics of the Labour Party towards its collaboration with
trade unions.

Key words: trade unions, New Tory, trade union acts, Conservative Party,
Labour Party, thatcherism, TUC (Trade Union Congress), industrial
actions.

1 Employment Act 1980. Ch.42.-L.: HMSO, 1980.-30 p.; Employment Act
1982. Ch.46.-L.:HMSO, 1982.-44 p.; Employment Act 1988.-L.:HMSO,
1988.-51 p.; Employment Act 1989.-L.:HMSO, 1989; Employment Act
1990.-L.: HMSO, 1990.-63 p.; Trade Union Act 1984. Ch.49.-L.:HMSO,
1984.-26 p.; Wages Act 1986.-L.:HMSO, 1986.-43 p.

2 The Conservative Manifesto, 1979.-L.: Conservative centr. off.,
1979.-32 p.; The Conservative Manifesto, 1983.- L.: Conserv. centr.
off., 1983.-47 p.; People at Work: New Rights, New Responsibilities.-L.:
TUC/Labour Party, 1986.-43 p.; Work to Win.- L.: TUC/Labour Party,
1987.-15 p.; TUC Report 1988.- L.:TUC, 1988.-750 p.; Employment Law: a
TUC Briefing.-L.: TUC, 1995.- 10 p.; TUC Publications List.-L.:TUC,
1997.-32 p.

3 Britain: An officiall handbook.-L.: HMSO, 1979-1987.; Encyclopedia of
Employment Law and Practice.-L., 1986; Eoi anoue eoi a ie?iaie iieeoeea.
Who is who / Ioa. ?aae. E.I.E?aa/aiei.-I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1990.-559 n.

4 Thatcher M. The Downing Street Years.-L.: Harper Collins Publishers,
1993.-914 p.; Kinnock N. Making our way.-L.: Blackwell, 1987.-200 p.

1 Aaronovitch S. The road from Thatcherism. The alternative economic
strategy.-L.: Lawrence a. Wishart, 1981.- 138 p.; MacLennan G. Oppose
Tory policies: Take Britiain on a different course.-L., 1981.-36 p.;
Gill C. Work, unemployment and new technology.-Cambridge: Pol. press;
N.Y.: Blackwell, 1985.-XII, 204 p.

2 Kinnock N. Making our way.-L.: Blackwell, 1987.-200 p.; Coates K.,
Topham T. Trade Unions and politics.- Oxford, 1986.; Hain P. Political
strike.-L., 1986.

3 Rose R. Politics in England: Persistence and change.-L., 1985.; Joseph
K. Solving the union problem is the key to Britain’s recovery.-L.:
Centre for policy studies, 1979.-42 p.; Undy R., Martin R. Ballots and
Trade Union Democracy.-Oxford, 1984.

1 Milligan S. The new barons. Union power in the 1970-s.-L., 1976.;
Brown H. The Origins of Trade Union Power.- Oxford, 1983.

2 Aaeeiaa A.I. I?ionithciia aeaeaeaiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee 70 — 80-o
aiaeia.-I.: Iaoea, 1990.-193 n.; Ai?iaeaoeeay E.A. Noa/ea aeeeiith a
aiae //Iiaay e iiaaeoay enoi?ey.-1987.-?1.-N. 39-54.; Ieoaeeia N.A.
?aai/ee eeann NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee.-I.: Iaoea, 1988; Ia?aaoaeia N.I.
Oyo/a? e oyo/a?eci.-I.: Iaoea, 1996.; Ian/aineee A.A. Iiuo a?eoaineeo
o?aae-thieiiia: Eoiae 80-o aiaeia //Iieen.-1992.-? 4.; ?uaeeeia A.A.
A?eoaineee eaeai?eci naaiaeiy: oai?ey e i?aeoeea.-I.: Iuneue, 1984.-N.
15-26.

3 Ai?aee A.I. A?eoaiiy: noia?a/iinoi i i?iaeaie.-E.: Iieioaeaeaa, 1980.

4 O?oaae/oe A.O. Aaeeeia?eoaiiy: Nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii ianeiaeee
“oao/a?ecio”.-E.: Oia. “Ciaiiy”, 1988

5 Ai?eyinueeee N.I. I?ioniieeiaee ?oo o Aaeeeia?eoaii? (eiiaoeue 1970-o
— ii/aoie 1990-o ?ieia): Aaoi?ao. aeen… eaiae. ino. iaoe:
07.00.02/Caii?icueeee aea?ae. oiia-o.-Caii?iaeaey, 1997.-18 n.

1 Rowthorn B. The Past Strikes Back// Marxism Today.-L., 1982.-?
7.-P.59.

1 Oaoo A. A?eoaineee o?aae-thieiieci: E?aoeay enoi?ey: Ia?. n aiae.-I.:
I?ia?ann, 1981.

2 Employment Gazette.-L., 1980.-P.29.

3 Joseph K. Solving the union problem is the key to Britain”s
renovery.-L., 1979.-P.9.

4 Ia?aaoaeia N.I. Oyo/a? e oyo/a?eci.-I.: Iaoea, 1996.- N.157, 165

1 Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974.- L.: HMSO, 1975.

1 Employment Act 1988.-L.: HMSO, 1988.-51 p.

2 Report of the 86th Annual Conference of the Labour Party.- L., 1987.-
P. 64.

1 Iiaeaaa A.A. E aii?ino i neeyiee //Aanoiee i?ionithcia.-I., 1994.-?
11,-N.40-43.

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