IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i.A.I.EI?AOeUeEIAI

OAeE 32.019.5

Eaoa?aa Ia?eia Noai?neaa?aia

IIE?OE*IA NIOe?AE?CAOe?ss OEIEss?AA A OIIAAO

O?AINOI?IAOe?? OE?A?INUeEIAI NONI?EUeNOAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.03 — iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a ? iie?oe/ia ?aeaieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Caii??cuee?e aea?aeaai?e ?iaeaia?i?e aeaaeai??
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

AI?IIEIAA Aaeaioeia A?eai??aia,

Caii??cueea aea?aeaaia ?iaeaia?ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee

A?A*A?EE Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

E?AN?IA ??eia Ieaen??aia

?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ oeaio?o ii

i?aai?caoe?eiiio oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio

caaacia/aiith i?aeaioiaee «TH?eaee/ii?

aioeeeeiiaae??».

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a iie?oieia??

? nioe?ieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «15» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. Ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.236.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 01001,
Ee?a -1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «13» aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.Ai?aaoaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a coiiaeaia iio?aaaie aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie c
oioaeueii? e?ece — aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii?, aeooiaii-?aeaieia?/ii?;
iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo oai??? ? i?aeoeee noaiiaeaiiy i?aaiai? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?, a?aeiia?aeii iie?oe/ii? ? i?aaiai?
eoeueoo?e, aeaaeieo ?inoeoooe?e ? oeea?e?ciaaiiai noni?euenoaa,
iiaeieaiiy aeano?oeoeaieo yaeu a na?aaeiaeu? iieiae?. Iie?oe/ia
nioe?ae?caoe?y caeaaeeoue a?ae ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a ia an?o ??aiyo
oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?nii? iniaenoino?, yea iio?aiey? aei oeaio?o iie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? ? coiiaeth? iiceoeai? ci?ie a noni?euenoa?, a oea iiaeeeai
eeoa ca aeniei? yeino? ?? na?aeiiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaii? ?iaioe.
Oiio iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a — iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo,
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo o oai?aoe/iiio ? i?eeeaaeiiio cia/aii? oai. Aecia/aiiy
nooiino? oeueiai yaeua, aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo
iniia ia? iaaecae/aeio aeooaeuei?noue, ? aeo?aeiei ? eeth/iaei a oai???
? iaoiaeieia?? noaiiaeaiiy i?aaiai? aea?aeaae ? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Ci?oeiaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo canaae o iie?oe/i?e nenoai? noni?euenoaa
?icoe?th? iiaeeeaino? iie?oe/iiai aeai?o. Aeaiie?aoe/ia noni?euenoai ?
caoe?eaaeaiei a ethaeei?, yea naiino?eii i?eeia? ??oaiiy ye iie?oe/iee
noa’?eo. Ia ci?io iai?ioethaaiith iie?oe/iith iiaaae?ieith i?eoiaeeoue
ona?aeiieaiee iie?oe/iee aea??, ui ? aaaeeeaith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy
aeaiie?ao??. Oiio c?inoa? cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia oi?ioaaiiy
iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, oaeoi??a ? aeaea?ae ?? noaiiaeaiiy, aoai?a ?
nooiai?a ?? ?icaeoeo. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o a?aeoai?aii? iie?oe/ii?
eoeueoo?e a?ae?a?a? i?ioean iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? o oe?eueiiio
a?oe?.

Aea/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ieo oyaeaiue oeiey??a ? aaaeeeaei aeey
?icoi?iiy aaiaceno iie?oe/iiai naiiaecia/aiiy ? iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe??. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui o a?o/eciyi?e iie?oieia?? ieoaiiy
i?i oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oa na?oiaeyaeo a i?aee?oeiaiio
a?oe? aaea iinoaaeaia, aiii ia ?ic?iaeaii aeaoaeueii ye ia oai?aoe/iiio
oae ? ia aii??e/iiio ??aiyo.

No/ania oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iie?oe/iith
o?ainoi?iaoe??th, iie?oe/iith iaaecia/ai?noth, iecueeith iie?oe/iith
eoeueoo?ith, iacaaacia/ai?noth iie?oe/ieo ii?i a?aeiia?aeiith
iiaaae?ieith, neaaeei aieeaii a?iiaaeyi ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie oa
aeaaeo, iaonoaeaieie noinoieaie i?ae aea?aeaaith ? a?iiaaeyiaie, ci?iaie
a i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueii? oa nioe?aeueii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ui iaaea?
i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? iaaii? niaoeeo?/iino? oa ?iaeoue iaiao?aeiei
eiai aea/aiiy a oiiaao iie?oe/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy.

Iiae?aiee oei aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? ci???iooaaoe ei?eaoaaiiy
aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaia iaaecia/ai?noue o aei?ineeo,
o/eoae?a ? aeia?a iii?oiith aeey oeiey??a ? aieeaa? ia nooi?iue iiaaae
aei ia?oeo ye aaaio?a o?aineyoe?? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e. Iiaaaa aei
a/eoae?a, aei?ineeo caeaaeeoue aeayeith i??ith ? a?ae ?oiuei? iie?oe/ii?
iiceoe??. Ciaiiy iie?oe/ieo i???ioaoe?e oeiey??a iiaea iaaeaoe aeiiiiiao
a/eoaeyi oa ?ioei aaaioai nioe?ae?caoe?? o ?ic?iaoe? aaeaeaaoieo
ina?oi?o ? aeoiaieo i?ia?ai.

I?aee?oeiaee a?e oa?aeoa?eco?oueny e?ecith ?aeaioe/iino?. Eiai iniiaiei
caaaeaiiyi ? nioe?aeueia naiiaecia/aiiy. Oiio iaaaeueiith iio?aaith ?
aea/aiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oeiey?a, i?iyniaiiy ea?oeie eiai
iie?oe/ieo aeeniiceoe?e. Cia/aiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue eiai
aeieoiaioaeuei?noue, oiaoi eiie?aoiee ci?no iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?
ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a, aecia/aiee a
aeine?aeaeaii?, iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiei a iaeaooiueiio ye
aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae aeey aiae?oe/ieo ?ic?iaie c ieoaiue aaiethoe??
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie. Oae? ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue noni?euenoaa iiaeooue oaeiae neoaeeoe a?eueo aeeaieiio
?icoi?iith nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?,
yea o?ainoi?io?oueny.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a ni?eythoue
i?iaiicai aeaeoi?aeueii? iiaaae?iee, ui ae?ae aaaeeeai a oiiaao
?aaoey?ieo aeai?/eo eaiiai?e.

I?iaeaiaoeea noaiiaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oeiey?a ? i?eioeeiiai
aaaeeeaith aeey ?icoi?iiy oi?ioaaiiy oeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo a?eiaeo
iiaiooai?aiue, ui aeieeathoue ia iaaiiio a?eiaiio aoai?. Naia ia
noaaeaii? aei iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e iiaeia aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i? aca?ieie
oeiey??a c nioe?aeueiith ?aaeuei?noth. Iniaeeaee ?o oei oi?io?oueny a
eiioaeno? oeeo ?aae?e ? noaaeoue oeiey?a o noni?eueio, a?iiaaeyinueeo
iiceoe?th, a iniia? yei? eaaeeoue oe?ii?nia noaaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueii?
ae?eniino?.

?icoe?aiiy iie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino? ethaeae iieiaeiai a?eo, c?inoaiiy
?ioa?ano aei iie?oeee yaeythoue ia nueiaiaei? aeiaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th
na?oiaiai ?icaeoeo. Aoiaeaeaiiy iiaeo iieie?iue aei neeaaeiiai na?oo
iie?oeee ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy o ieo iaaiiai noaaeaiiy aei iie?oe/ieo
oe?iiinoae, ui ?niothoue o eiie?aoiiio noni?euenoa? . Aeey i?aeo?eiee
oe?e?niino? ? i?ia?ano noni?euenoaa aaaeeeai ciaoe, ye naia
a?aeaoaa?oueny o?aineyoe?y iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a ? noaiaea?o?a
iie?oe/iiai aeeooy a?ae iaeiiai iieie?iiy aei ?ioiai, ye a?aeaoaa?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eiiai ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai iie?oe/iiai noa’?eoa.

Iie?oe/i? oyaeaiiy no?ieao? ? ??ciiiai?oi?, ui coiiaeth?oueny
neeaaei?noth iie?oe/ii? ?aaeueiino?, a oaeiae ??cieoeath ??aiy eoeueoo?e
? iaioaeueiino? ?? iin??a. I?e?iaeii, ui ?o oyaeaiiy c?ooiaoothoueny
iaeia c iaeiei, ii?iaeaeoth/e iino?eio ai?ioueao. A oeeo oiiaao
caa?aaeaiiy noni?euenoaa iiaea caaacia/oaaoeny canai?iiyi iiaeie
iieie?iiyie ?ieae ? ooieoe?e, ye? ia?aaeaa/ai? ?aeaaeaie ? oe?iiinoyie
aieeaiai? o noni?euenoa? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/a?
aeae?eueea oaiaoe/ieo oa??a, cie?aia oea i?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e,
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?, iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, ?aeaioe/iino?,
a?eiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, iniaeeaino? ni?eeiyooy iie?oeee oeiey?aie.
Eiaeia c oeeo i?iaeai ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy o e?oa?aoo??. Eiioeaioe?y
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? aeoeaii aeine?aeaeoaaeany a NOA c e?ioey 50
?ie?a OO no. Cia/iee aieea ia ?icaeoie oe??? i?iaeaie ni?aaeee ?iaioe C.
O?aeaea, AE. I?aaea, Aeae. I?aea, *. Eoe?, Ae. ?noiia, I. Eiaia, ?.
E?ioiia, O. Ia?niina, I. Oaaa?iana, E. Eoiaia, A. A??eniia, A. O?iiia.
Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e iniaeeai
aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaea?oueny a/aieie A. Aeiiiaeii, AE. Aeiiaeae?i, N.
Aa?aith, Aeae. E. Aieaeoa?aii, I. Aethaa?aea, O. I?eii-Aeaeuenie?i,
?. Oae??ii, Aeae. Oiiiniiii, Aeae. O??iaii oa ?i. Aeo?aeiei iaoa??aeii
aeey cae?eniaiiy aiae?co i?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e noaee ?iaioe
oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ye A. Aiae?ouaiei, A. Aaae?i, I. Aaae?ia, A.
Aa?oe?i, ?. Ae/ei, ?. Aie/aiei, ?. Aiiaea?/oe, I. A?a/a?ee, A.
Ai?iieiaa, A. Aa?anueeee, E. Aoaa?nueeee, A. Ai?ae, A.A?ooei, I.
Eiii?ia, A. E?ai?iue, ?. E?an?ia, A. E?niaiee, A. Eie, I. Iaia?aeaoa?e?,
I. Ieoaeue/aiei, I. Iieeye, A. Iooeye, A. Ieeeiaiei, A. ?aaeaei, N.
?yaia, I. Na?a??iei, A. Oienoeo, A. Oe?aeia, A. Oeiea?oe, A.
*a?aaei?/aiei, O. ssuoe oa ?i. I?iaeaia iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??
?icaeyaea?oueny a ?iaioao Aeae. Aeieea?aea, I. I?ee??a, I. Iao?a?a, ?.
N??na, O. A??inoaeia, ?. Eaeia, Ae. ?noiia, Aeae. Aeai?na, ?.
O?nna, I. Oanoiiae oa ?i. I?iaeaia ?aeaioe/iino? ?icaeyaea?oueny a
?iaioao A. A??eniia, I.Eoia, Ae. Eaiaaea, A. Aa??aa, O. Aaei?ii, M.
Oiaaa, Ae. Aa?aina, I. aeth I?aca, A. Noa?iaieoiai?, I. Ooeueae oa ?i.

I?ioa, oe?eee ?yae aniaeo?a ia ciaeoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
a?aeiia?aei?e e?oa?aoo??. Oae, a ?nioth/eo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia?aaaaea?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee, a ia iie?oieia?/iee aniaeo. Iaaeinoaoiuei
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ae?oae,
aiia a iniiaiiio aoea ?ic?iaeaia aeey iio?aa iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaaoi?nuee? ?iaioe a iaeano? nioe?ieia?? iie?oeee (I.
Ao?aeue?, AE.-O. E?ioa?a oa ?i.), ui aeaee iiooiao ?icaeoeo
iaoiaeieia?? no/anieo nioe?aeueieo iaoe, ii/aee aeoeaii a?aeia?aaeaoeny
o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? eeoa a 90-o ?ieao.

Ca aeaieie, io?eiaieie c ?ioa?iaoo, i?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??
oeiey??a aea/athoueny a Noaiaeoi?aenueeiio oi?aa?neoao?. Cie?aia, o
a?aeiia?aeiiio naeo? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui aaaeeeaei aniaeoii iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe??, ye eaoaioiei, oae ? yaiei, ? oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei,
iia’ycaieo c ?ieyie o iie?oe/i?e nenoai?. Oe?eueia nenoaia, c-iii?ae
?ioeo no?oeoo?, ? aaaioii iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith i???ioaoe?? iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee. Oe?eueia nenoaia iiaea
caaacia/eoe ciaiiyie oa ai?iiyie, ui ni?eythoue iie?oe/i?e aeoeaiino?;
iinoa/a? neiaiee, iaienai? i?aaeea iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio; anoaiiaeth?
a?aeiia?aei? noaiaea?oe aeey ae?oe ? eaa?oeiiino?; oi?io? aeia??o aei
iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?, aioo? aei o/ano? a iie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino? o
iaeaooiueiio.

A ?ioa?iao? oaeiae aeeeaaea?oueny ci?no aeiiia?ae? Aia?eeainueei?
oaaea?aoe?? a/eoae?a “Ina?oa aeey aeaiie?ao??: i?eioeeie aeeeaaeaiiy
ca?aaee ci?oeiaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae”. Aacoth/enue ia canaaeao
oiai, ui iniiai? i?eioeeie aeaiie?ao?? ia aeaeeaooue, yeui aiie
oe?eani?yiiaaii ia aoaeooue ia?aaeaaaoeny ianooiiei iieie?iiyi,
aeiiia?aea/? aaaaeathoue, ui aia?eeainueeei oeieai iaeaaeeoue iineeeoe
caoiaee uiaei iie?ioaiiy “iaa/aiiy a?iiaaeyinoao”. Cie?aia, o aeiiia?ae?
iaaiai?th?oueny ci?no oe?eueii? ina?oe uiaei oi?ioaaiiy o oeiey?a
a?iiaaeyinueeiai ii/oooy , ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe oa
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ye ina?aaeaey aeaiie?aoe/ii? ina?oe. C iaoith
oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinoaa ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe oe?euei?
aeenoeeie?ie, iniaeeai e?oa?aoo?o, aaia?ao?th, ?noi??th, a a ?aieao
inoaiiuei? i?aee?aneth?oueny aaaeeeaa ?ieue o iie?oe/iiio aeoiaaii?
a?ia?ao?e aeaeaoieo aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a.

Aecia/ia iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii Ae. ?noiiii ? Aeae.
Aeaii?nii, ye? iieoaee 12 oen. aia?eeainueeeo ae?oae c iaoith aecia/aiiy
?o noaaeaiiy aei iayaieo ao?eaoo?a iie?oe/ii? nenoaie: i?aceaeaioa,
iie?oeaenueeiai, aea?aeaaiiai i?aii?a ? a?iio. Oea ni?eyei aeyaeaiith
aeanoeainoae i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae a?eii a?ae 3 aei 19 ?ie?a.
Aeine?aeieee aeiaaee, ui a aia?eeainuee?e iie?oe/i?e nenoai? i?ia?aeia
?ieue o noai?aii? ? i?aeo?eioe? a??e aeeoeie o ni?aaaaeeea?noue aeaaee
iaeaaeeoue i?aceaeaioo ? iie?oeaenueeiio, ye? eaaei i?ciathoueny ? aei
yeeo iino?eii i?eeooa oaaaa aei?ineeo.

A ?ioa?iao? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aaouee?anueeiai
aieeao ia ia?aeiiaiiy ae?oae, i?iaaaeaiiai a 1997 ?. o/aieie
Iae?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo a Eeoa?. 289 o/i?a na?aaeiuei? oeiee ? ?oi?
aaoueee aoee iieoai? ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueii? “oeaee ia?aeiiaiue”.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee ia?ana?ae/eoeny a oiio, ui
ia?aeiiaiiy ae?oae aoee o?nii ocaiaeaeai? c ia?aeiiaiiyie ?oi?o
aaouee?a.

?in?enueeee aeine?aeiee A. Niae?i iieai?co? c iioe?aiith aeoieith i?i
oa, ui o oeiey??a oyaeaiiy i?i iie?oeeo ?niothoue ia iiaooiaiio ??ai? ?
?o noaeaeaiiy ? aeeeth/ii a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iiceoe?? aei?ineeo. A?i
aaaaea? aaaeeeaei aea/aoe iie?oe/io na?aeii?noue oeiey??a ? iaaiaeeoue
?yae aeieac?a. Aaoi? aeoeaioo? oaaao ia oiio, ui iniaeno?noue ai?uo? a
nia? nai? nioe?aeueia ioi/aiiy, ui aiia ? iniaeeaei ae?aeia?/iei
ca’yceii c? na?oii, nai?i nioe?aeueiei ioi/aiiyi. E??i oiai,
nioe?aeueia ioi/aiiy nueiaiaei? iie?oeciaaia ? eiai iie?oe/i? ?ioa?ane
ia iiaeooue ia a?aeaeoeny ia i?ioeanao nioe?aeueiiai ? iie?oe/iiai
naiiaecia/aiiy oeiey?a. Oi/a Ae.Niae?i a??ii aeaco? ia cia/ou?noue
aea/aiiy aaiaceno iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? a i?aee?oeiaiio a?oe?, a?i
iaaiaeeoue aeai? eeoa i?i noa?oeo i?aee?oe?a ?in??. Ia iao iiaeyae,
iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y ii/eia?oueny o a?eueo ?aiiueiio a?oe?.

A?o/eciyi? aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ae?oae caeaa?eueoiai
iathoue iieniaee oa?aeoa?, aea e oaeeo ?ia?o iaei, oiio ui
aaaaea?oueny, ui oeiey?? ia aenooiathoue aeoeaieie iie?oe/ieie
noa’?eoaie ? aea/aiiy ?o na?aeiiino? ia ia? nooo?aiai cia/aiiy.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ? aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee
nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noai?aiiy iaoai?ci?a oni?oii? iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe??, caeaoieo caaacia/eoe niaaeei?ii?noue iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo ? caa?aaeaiiy noni?euenoaa a eiioaeno? ci?ie iieie?iue, ui
yaey? niaith aaaeeeao oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io caaea/o iie?oe/ii? nenoaie.
Aeey ?? ae??oaiiy iaiao?aeii aeine?aeeoe, ye ?iaeea?ae ?ioa??i?eco?
iie?oe/io iaoo ? iie?oe/i? oe?iiino? oa ye ?ioaa?o? ?o o naith
iniaeno?noue : ianeaii ni?eeia? iaioth/? noa?aioeie /e aeoeaii
aca?iiae?? a a?iiaaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa? . Oea niiioeaei aaoi?a aei
aeei?enoaiiy aeaio i?aeoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/iiai ?
i?aeoe/iiai. ?aae?caoe?y oeueiai eiia?iiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo iio?aao?
ae??oaiiy ianooiieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue nioe?ae?caoe??, ye aaaeeeaiai
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy oe?e?nii? iniaenoino? a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, caii/aoeiaaiiai ia canaaeao ieth?ae?cio,
naiaiaee aeai?o, oiea?aioiino?.

2. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe i?noea oeiey??a o iie?oe/iiio i?inoi??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ?o ?ieue ye ae?eniiai ia’?eoa oa noa’?eoa
iie?oe/iiai aieeao. Nenoaiaoecoaaoe ? iioe?eoe iiiyo?eio ?
iaoiaeieia?/io aaco i?eeeaaeieo iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a.

3. Aeaoe aiae?c niaoeeo?ee oa aoai?a iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??.
Aeine?aeeoe iaeaieeaia?o? oaeoi?e iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, iie?oe/i?
oyaeaiiy oeiey??a ia aac? aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o eiie?aoieo iie?oe/ieo
oe?iiinoae ? ii?i, iie?oe/ieo iiceoe?e ?iaeea?aea .

4. ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?aae?caoe?? aa?iii?/iiai
oeio iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, yea ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue iaeii??aeiiai
eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua, c??eeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo o?aaeeoe?e
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ui caaacia/othoue ae?aeia ?iaeea?aea oa
aeaaee, ? yea iieaaoo? iiaei iieie?iiyi anooi aei iie?oe/iiai aeeooy.

5. Aeyaeoe noai aeooiaiino? no/anii? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, yeee
ciaoiaeeoue a?aeaeoie o oei? ?aoeaen??, ni?yiiaaii? ia oi?ioaaiiy
aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iie?oe/ia
nioe?ae?caoe?y, ye i?ioean oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aai niiioaiiiai aieeao ia
iniaeno?noue. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oa oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
oeiey??a ??ciiai a?eo a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a ? o?einionuee? caeiie ? eaoaai???, ui
a?aeia?aaeathoue ia’?eoeai? ?ene ?icaeoeo na?oo o anueiio eiai
?icia?oo? ? ?acii c oei i???ioothoue ? ni?yiiaothoue iaoeiaa i?ciaiiy ia
iiooe ?noeie oa caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eieo i?eioeei?a. Aaoi?ii
aeei?enoiaothoueny caaaeueiio?einionuee? i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?,
?noi?ecio, ca’yceo oai??? ? i?aeoeee; aeaiaioe no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiiai ?
a?iioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiiai iaoiae?a aano?aeoe??, oi?iae?caoe??, aiaeia?e,
?aeiino? eia?/iiai oa ?noi?e/iiai. Aaoi? oaeiae aeei?enoiao?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie, ui ?ice?eaathoue nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeo
i?iaeaiaoeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue i?eioeeie nioe?aeueiiai
aeaoa?i?i?cio, ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo, ?aeiino? nioe?aeueii? oai??? ?
nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee, a oaeiae i?eioeeie, ui iienothoue aeeeth/ii
niaoeeo?eo yaeua, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny, /e i?ioeano ?aeiino?
i?ioeeaaeiinoae, aca?iii?iieeiaiiy, aca?iicoiiaeaiino?, aa?iii??,
aeenaa?iii??, i?ioenoiyiiy.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaa? aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a nenoaiiiai,
?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai, iioieia?/iiai,
oaiiiaiieia?/iiai, aen?ieia?/iiai, a?oaa?i?aeueiiai aiae?co oa i?aaiaiai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

A ?iaio? oaeiae aeei?enoai? ianooii? iaoiaee aiae?co: caaaeueii-eia?/i?
(aano?aaoaaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeaaeoeoe??, ?ioaioe?iiaeueiino?);
oai?aoe/i? (oi?iae?ciaaiee aenia?eiaio, aen?iiaoe/iee iaoiae,
a?iioaoe/iee ia?ao?ae a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai),
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, nenoaiiee (iae?i- ? i?e?inenoai),
aeaeiiiiceoe?eiee, eiiiiceoe?eiee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
?aeyoe?ii?noe/ii? oai??? iii?o. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe?? cae?enith?oueny ia canaaeao aiinaieia?/iiai ieth?ae?cio,
neioaoe/ii? iaoiaeieia??, canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a ai?noaiieia??, nooi
o?einionueeeo iaoiae?a, ui ?ice?eaathoue aeine?aeaeoaai? yaeua o an?e ?o
oioaeueiino? ? aooaioe/iino?.

Aeey no/anii? iaoiaeieia?? aea/aiiy iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??
oa?aeoa?iei ? oe?e?niee aai oie?noe/iee i?aeo?ae, oiaoi ia’?eo
?icaeyaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a ia iaei??? , a aaaaoueio iaoe.
Oaiiiaiieia?y ia iiaea i?aoethaaoe c? no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie iaoiai
aeina?aeo — c on?i aaaaonoaii eiai oaenoo? ? eiioaeno?a, ia?niaeoeaaie
e ia??yie, ui ci?iththoueny aiane?aeie aieeao ioi/aiiy, a?aeo?ieaie
ci?no?a. Iaiao?aeiee iaoiae ni?iiiaeiee i?aoethaaoe aoaeoeaii i?e
aeeiai?/iiio oa?aeoa?? aii??e/ieo i?ioean?a. Oaeei iaoiaeii iiaea aooe
aa?iaiaaoe/iee i?aeo?ae, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a aeai?e ?iaio?. Cie?aia a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaothoueny oaiiiaiieia?/iee,
aa?iaiaaoe/iee, a oaeiae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeoiaee, ye?, a
naith /a?ao, ii?aeiothoue aeinyaiaiiy o?einio??, nioe?ieia??,
iie?oieia??, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee, e?iaa?noeee.

Iaeiei ?c iaoiaeieia?/ieo aeaea?ae ? ?iaioe I. Ao?ae’?, ni?yiiaai? ia
aiae?c iie?oeee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny o e?eueeio iai?yieao. Ii-ia?oa, oea iiaeyae
ia na?o no/anii? iie?oeee c iaoith i???ioaoe?? na?aae ?aaeueieo
iie?oe/ieo i?ioe??/. Aeoiea i?aee?oea i?i iie?oeeo cia/oua caaaeyee
nai?e a?aeie?aieaiino? o eoeueoo?iiio i?ioean?, oiio aiia ? nai???aeiith
iie?oe/iith ?aaeuei?noth. Ii-ae?oaa, aea/aiiy iie?oe/ieo oyaeaiue
i?aee?oe?a aaaeeeai aeey ?icoi?iiy ?o iie?oe/iiai naiiaecia/aiiy ?
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??. Ieoaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo a i?aee?oeiaiio a?oe? aeine?aeaeoaaeiny o a?o/eciyi?e
iie?oieia?? , aea ia aeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaii ye ia oai?aoe/iiio, oae ?
ia aii??e/iiio ??aiyo.

A iniia? iie?oecaoe?? aei?ineeo eaaeeoue ii/oooy nioe?aeueii?
?aeaioe/iino?. Oiio i/?eo?oueny, ui naia aiii ii/eia? aeooae?coaaoeny ?
iaaoaaoe a?eueoi? cia/ouino? ? o iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo i?aee?oe?a. Oea
aeeeeea? iniaeeaee ?ioa?an, oiio ui naia i?aee?oeiaee a?e ? ?aiiy
thi?noue oa?aeoa?ecothoueny “e?ecith ?aeaioe/iino?”. Ioaea, i?iaeaiaoeea
noaiiaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oea ? i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaith
aeey ?icoi?iiy noaiiaeaiiy oeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo a?eiaeo iiaioai??a, ui
aeieeathoue ia aeaiiio a?eiaiio aoai?. Ooo oi?io?oueny oe?eeii iniaeeaee
oei noaaeaiiy i?aee?oea aei iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e , ui noaaeoue “y” o
noni?eueio, a?iiaaeyinueeo iiceoe?th, a iniia? yei? ciaoiaeeoueny
oe?ii?nia noaaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?. Eiai aea/aiiy aea?
ciiao aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i? aca?ieie i?aee?oea ?c nioe?aeueiith
?aaeuei?noth.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaiee oa
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee iiaee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy — “iie?oieia?y
aeeoeinoaa”, yeee ii?aeio? iie?oieia?/i?, aio?iiieia?/i?, nioe?ieia?/i?,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe. A ?aieao oeueiai
iai?yieo ?icaeyaea?oueny iie?oieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y, a ?one? yei? ae?oe
oe?eueiiai a?eo aeine?aeaeothoueny ye cia/ouee noa’?eo iie?oeee oa
ia’?eo iie?oe/iiai aieeao. A ?acoeueoao? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoee io?eiai? iaai? ?acoeueoaoe oa c?iaeaii ianooii? aeniiaee, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. Cae?eniaii iaa?oiooaaiiy cia/aiiy oeiey??a ye iie?oe/iiai ia’?eoa oa
noa’?eoa a eaoaai??yo iie?oe/ii? aio?iiieia??. O i?ioean? iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey?? caeo/athoueny aei aaaaoiaei??iiai iie?oe/iiai
i?inoi?o, neeaaeia? /anoeie yeiai ae?thoue ia na?aeii?noue ? iiaaae?ieo.
Oeiey??, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo iaaiiai nioe?aeueiiai eeano /e a?oie
ia i?aenoaa? i?enai?iiy iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo iiceoe?e aaouee?a,
iathoue nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? ?ioa?ane a ianooaaao aeeoy/iai oyaeaiiy
i?i na?o (N. 44-64).

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiioi?eaoeaio eiioeaioe?th iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??
oeiey??a, ca?aeii yei? iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y iiynith?oueny
oi?ioaaiiyi niaoeeo?/ieo eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa, ci?noii yeeo ? i?aaiaiiy
aooe a eiioaeo? c noni?euenoaii. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui ?iaeeeaoi?ii
oni?oiino? nioe?ae?caoe?? a oeueiio aniaeo? ? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y c
e?a?iith, canai?iiy noni?eueii? iaoe. (N. 28-30; 112-115 )

3. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?noaea oai??y ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaaee o
ca’yceo c i?ioeanaie nioe?ae?caoe??, ca?aeii yei? ?aaeueia nenoaia
aeaaee yaey? niaith neeaaeia nieao?iiy ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo,
eiioi?eaoeaieo, neiaie?/ieo aeaea?ae aieeao ? i?aeeaaeino?. O i?ioean?
nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey?? i?aai?/ii aeeth/athoueny a oeth neeaaeio
no?oeoo?o ? iaiaaathoueny ciaeoe naaa, naii?aae?coaaoeny. (N. 23-30,
50-52, 88-90).

4. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? e?ece, a
iaaiiio cia/aii? iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i ?ioaioeeueio iie?oe/io
na?aeii?noue, yea i?eoaiaiia ? /anoei? aei?ineeo. Iiaa eaea i?i oeo
a?iiaaeyi, o yeeo cieaeaiee ??aaiue iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, neaaei
ae?aaeaia a?iiaaeyinuee?noue. Oaeei /eiii, i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe?? ia?
cia/aiiy ia o?eueee aeey ae?oae, a ? aeey aei?ineeo, ui coiiaeaii
aacia?a?ai?noth i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe??, aaaeeeaiai ia an?o aoaiao
?icaeoeo. (N. 12, 21, 31, 130-140 ).

5. Anoaiiaeaii cia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?ie oa a?aeoeeaiue o
iie?oe/i?e na?aeiiino? ? iiaaae?ioe? o i?ioean? iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe??. A oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? e?ece ii?ie iie?oe/ii?
iiaaae?iee iaaoee ?aeyoea?nonueeiai caaa?aeaiiy. Eiee
oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaia nenoaia iineaaeaia, oi ?icoeoaia nioe?ae?caoe?y
ao?a/a? na?e i???ioe?. Iaae? ii?ie ? a?aeoeeaiue ?icieaathoueny, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ciiiai?oieo aeano?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a o noni?euenoa?.
(N. 107-111).

6. Aeine?aeaeaii ci?no iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo
oeiey??a, ui a?aecia/a?oueny i?aaiaiiyi aei aeaiie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa, ci?oeiaiiy iacaeaaeiino? e?a?ie, caa?aaeaiiy ??
oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino?. (N. 153-161).

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a
oiio, ui cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iie?oieia?/iee iai?yiie — “iie?oieia?y
aeeoeinoaa” — ni?yiiaaiee ia oaeineiiaeaiiy oa nea?oaaiiy iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe?? iieiae? a oiiaao e?eciaiai nioe?oio, aeey yeiai
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei ? iiaeieaiiy aeano?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a aoooy,
oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?niino? iniaenoino?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe noai iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oa iie?oe/ii?
iiaaae?iee, iiynithth/e, ui oe?eueiaa ni?yiiaai?noue iie?oe/ii? ae??
iiaea aooe eiino?oeoeaiith ? aeano?oeoeaiith. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
aeeth/aiiy aai aeeeth/aiiy iieiae? c iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, yea iiaea
aeyaeyoeny a ??cieo oi?iao: a?ae aeoeaiiai iai?eeiyooy iie?oeee aei
ianeaii? aiie?oe/ii? iiceoe??.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe a oiio, ui aiia aiineoue iaaiee caeiaooie o
aea/aiiy iaeaea ia aena?oeaii? i?iaeaie nioe?ae?caoe?? ethaeeie a oiiaao
iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue a?eueo aaeaeaaoii oyaeoe ci?ie nioe?aeueii? na?aeiiino?, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny ia aoai? ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

Oeaio? a?iiaaeyinueei? aeoeaiino? ana a?eueoa ci?uo?oueny c iiiiiieueii
aea?aeaaii? noa?e aei caaaeueiia?iiaaeyinueei? naiiae?yeueiino?, i?e/eie
yei? cia/iith i??ith iieyaathoue a iaaeinoaoi?e caae?yiino? iieiaeeo
a?iiaaeyi a aeeoo? aea?aeaae. Oei naiei a?iiaaeyinueea aeoeai?noue
aieeaa? ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeeoy/i? iie?oe/ii? a?e aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe, ui
aiia yaey? niaith iaaio oi?io iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??. A eiioaeno?
oaei? a?e oi?io?oueny aeia?eueia iie?oe/ia iiaaae?iea, ui iio?aao?
iie?oe/ieo ae?e, iia’ycaieo c ae??oaiiyi eiie?aoieo ianoaiaea?oieo
neooaoe?e.

Iaoa??aee cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy iieiae?aeii? iie?oeee (oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?yeueiino?
uiaei ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? eiai ?inoeooo?a),
ni?yiiaaii? ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? eoeueoo?e,
a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino?. Iieiae?aeia iie?oeea ia? oi?ioaaoeny a o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo c aeoiaaiiyi, ina?oith ? ?aae?coaaoeny a i?ioean? oai?/iai
iaieiae?iiy ethaeeiith an?ia aeinooiieie aeinyaiaiiyie eoeueoo?e
oa?aeoa?ieie aeey aeaiiai eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai eiioaenoo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ni?eyoe ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? i?ia?aie
iie?oe/iiai aeoiaaiiy, nenoaiaoe/iiai oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia
aeooiaiee, iie?oe/iee ? eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie ethaeeie c iaoith
i?aeaioiaee ?? noni?eueii?, iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui ?
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee aa?oi aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ina?oyinuee?e
ae?yeueiino?, a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a (iniaeeai
iie?oieia?a, nioe?aeueieo iaaeaaia?a oa ineoieia?a, a/eoae?a oiui).
I?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa? oaie aeicaiey? aaeeaaoe ?ic?iaee aaoi?a a
eo?nao iie?oieia??, nioe?aeueii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, eoeueoo?ieia??,
ineoieia?? ? iaaeaaia?ee oa niaoeeo?nao, ye? iai?aaeai? ia oi?ioaaiiy
eiioeaioe?? oe?e?nii? iniaenoino?, aeoiaaiiy ethaenueeeo yeinoae ?
canai?iiy ieie ii?aeueii?, iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueii?, aeooiaii?, iie?oe/ii?
eoeueoo?e, ui i???ioo? iniaeno?noue ia oi?ioaaiiy ?aeaae?a ?noeie,
aeia?a, e?ane, ni?aaaaeeeaino?: “Iie?oieia?y aeeoeinoaa”, “Iie?oe/ia
ineoieia?y”, “Iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a”, “Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y”,
“Ethaeeia ? eoeueoo?a”, “Oai??? iniaenoino?” oa ?i., ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo caeiaooe?a iie?oieia?? aeeoeinoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui eiai iaoa??aee ni?eyoeiooue
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e, iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio?, i?ina?oieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino?, ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? noa?e
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiith aeai?/eo oa
?ioeo iie?oe/ieo eaiiai?e na?aae ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy ?, iniaeeai,
caeo/aiith iieiae? aei aeai?/iai i?ioeano.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. I?eioeeiia? ?aea?, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee,
iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/i? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a aoee aeeeaaeai? ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “E?eciaa noni?euenoai: iie?oeea,
nioe?ieia?y, nioe?aeueia ineoieia?y /Oe?a?ia iaia?aaeiaei? OO? a?eo/”
(Caii??aeaey, 1994); ia Caaaeueiioe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaioae?oao oa i?ioe??//y no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa: iie?oieia?/i?, nioe?ieia?/i?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i? aniaeoe”
(Caii??aeaey, 1994); ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
”Nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe aea?aeaaioai?aiiy” (Caii??aeaey, 1996); ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iieiaeue ? noni?euenoai”
(Caii??aeaey, 1997); ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “2000 ?ie?a c ??caeaa
O?enoiaa” (Caii??aeaey, 1997); ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeueia o?ainoi?iaoe?y oa noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? a
no/ani?e Oe?a?i? (Caii??aeaey, 1997); ia Ae?oa?e anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? ineoieia?? oa ?? ?ieue o
noaiiaeaii? a?iiaaeyieia oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (Ee?a, 1997); ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeoie iie?oe/ii? ?
eoeueoo?ii? aio?iiieia?? a OO no” (Caii??aeaey, 1998); ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeaaea oa eoeueoo?a” (Caii??aeaey, 1999). Aaoi? ?
aeeieiiaioii ?? Anaoe?a?inueeiai eiieo?no ?iai? A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai
ia e?au? nooaeaionuee? oa ani??aionuee? ?iaioe o aaeoc? noni?eueieo oa
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe ( Ee?a, 1997).

C i?iaeai aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii ?yae ?ia?o caaaeueiei
ianyaii 5 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (177 iaeiaioaaiue, 13
noi??iie) oa aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 191 noi??iea. O aeiaeaoeao
i?noeoueny 7 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe nioe?ae?caoe?? oa
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ae?oae” ?icaeyaeathoueny oae? i?iaeaie: nooi?noue
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oa iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?; noai iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee oeeo ieoaiue; iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy; noaoon
ae?oae o iie?oe/iiio i?inoi??; i?aaa ae?oae o na?oe? iie?oe/ii?
aio?iiieia?? aeeoeinoaa; niaoeeo?ea ni?eeiyooy iie?oeee oeiey?aie;
e?iaa?noe/i? oa naiaioe/i? aniaeoe iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?; iaoai?cie
oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee; iiaea?oueny aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
iiiyoue (“iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y”, “iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue”,
“iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a”, “a?iiaaeyinuee?noue”, “a?iiaaeyinueea
na?aeii?noue”);

Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny a oa?i?iao
??ciiiai?oieo eiioeaioe?e ye i?ioean ?icaeoeo iniaeno?niiai eiio?ieth,
ye ?acoeueoao i?aeiniaeno?niiai ni?eeoaaiiy oa ?ieueiaiai o?aioaaiiy,
ye i?ioean iino?eii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee ca aeiiiiiaith
caioi/aiue ? iiea?aiue, ye i?ioean iaa/aiiy, canai?iiy oa i?eaeaniaiiy
neiaie?/ieo cia/aiue iie?oe/iiai na?oo ?acii ?c eiai ?acoeueoaoii —
iie?oe/iith eoeueoo?ith.

A oe?e?ni?e iie?oe/i?e eoeueoo?? noni?euenoaa iiaeia aeae?eeoe
iie?oe/io noaeoeueoo?o oeiey??a. Oi?ioaaiiy o ethaeeie iie?oe/ii?
eoeueoo?e ? aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??. Ci?no
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oi?io?oueny c iiae?e a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy
?iaeea?aea, eiai ae?yeueiino? ? noaaeaiiy aei iiae?e o na?o?.
Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue oeiey??a aeeth/a? oyaeaiiy oeiey??a i?i
aea?aeaao, aeaaeo a noni?euenoa?, i?i noinoiee aea?aeaa, iaoe?e.
Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue oeiey??a ? iianyeaeaiiith.

Nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oaeeo aaaio?a
nioe?ae?caoe??, ye ?iaeeia, oeiea, ae?oc?, caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Iie?oe/io nioe?ae?caoe?th iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ?acoeueoao aeanii?
aeoeaiino? iie?oe/iiai noa’?eoa, iaoith yeiai ? i?eaeaniaiiy
?ano?n?a ? iiaeeeainoae noni?euenoaa, naiiaecia/aiiy ? aeinyaiaiiy
?aeaioe/iino?, aeeth/aiiy aei nioe?aeueii? nenoaie e ?inoeooo?a. C
iiceoe?e iie?oe/ii? aio?iiieia?? aeeoeinoaa oeiey?e aenooiathoue ye
a?aeiinii naiino?eiee, aeoeaiee noa’?eo iie?oeee. Iie?oe/i? e ?io?
?ioa?ane ae?oae a?aeaeo? a Aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa aeeoeie.

O iaaiiio cia/aii? i?aee?oe? ? iie?oe/iith neeith. Oi/a
iioeaaoe?y ?o ae?yeueiino? ia ? nooi iie?oe/iith, aiia iiaea iaoe
iie?oe/iee ci?no. O aeno?aiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo neooaoe?yo i?aee?oee
iiaeooue a?ae?a?aaaoe aeoeaio ?ieue. Ni?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo yaeu
oeiey?aie coiiaeaii nioe?aeueieie /eiieeaie, cie?aia, nioe?aeueiith
no?oeoo?ith noni?euenoaa.

Ia’?eoeaiee nioe?aeueiee noai cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy a
noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaecia/ai?noth.
Oea iaoiiaeth? ieth?ae?ci o aa/aii? nioe?aeueiiai na?oo, ui, o naith
/a?ao, iiynith? iaaecia/ai?noue iie?oe/ieo iiceoe?e. Ia
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai? iie?oe/ia iaaecia/ai?noue iia’ycaia c
eiai?oeaieie no?aoaa?yie iniaenoino? oeiey?a, oaeeo ye: iiiiaiaiiy,
ni?iuaiiy, cieaeaiiy cia/ouino?. Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiith ? no?aoaa?y
“iiiiaiaiiy”, aiia noeioeth? iie?oe/io aeoeai?noue o ??
??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei oni?oii? iie?oe/ii?
nioe?ae?caoe??.

Ni?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo yaeu oeiey?aie a?aeaoaa?oueny ia
iaaa?aaeueiiio ??ai?. Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny a
??ciiiai?oieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ianoaaeiao, ? ??ciith o oeiey??a, ye?
iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa, ? aaea ia aeiiiiyo?eiiio
??ai? a?aeoai?th? nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y. Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue
noa’?eoeaii i?aaenoaaeaia a?ae/oooyi nai?? iiceoe?? a iie?oe/iiio
i?inoi??.

Iie?oe/ia aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ? iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a iie?oe/ii?
ai?ioueae. Aaaeeeaee eiiiiiaio oeueiai aeoiaaiiy — canai?iiy oeiey?aie
oeaio?aeueieo iie?oe/ieo iiiyoue. Aiii a?aeaoaa?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino?
c caeiiaie ?icaeoeo na?aeiiino? aeeoeie: a?ae ??aiy i?aaeiaoieo ae?e
aei ??aiy aano?aeoieo iiiyoue ia ??cieo a?eiaeo aoaiao.

Iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a oeiey??a a?ae??ciy?oueny i?enooi?noth
iana?aeiiiai eiiiiiaioo, oi?ioaaiiyi ia?aeiieo iiiyoue, canai?iiyi iaca
??cieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo yaeu. Iie?oe/ia aeey oeiey?a ia nooi
iie?oe/ia, a ?nio? ia iaeiiio ??ai? c ?ioeie yaeuaie eoeueoo?e.
I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ? ia eeoa iaeiie/aiiyi
iiiyoue ? ci?no?a, aea e aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th iie?oe/iiai a?ae ?ioeo
noa?. ?icaeoie aeeoy/iai ni?eeiyooy ?ooa?oueny a?ae ceeoino? aei
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiino?. C aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th yaeu na?oo a ni?eeiyoo?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ni?eeiyooy iie?oe/iiai na?oo. ??
iaoai?cie aaciina?aaeiuei aeyaeythoueny a iaoai?ciao ia’?eoeaaoe??.

O na?o? aei?ineeo ia i?ioean ia’?eoeaaoe?? aieeaathoue
i?ioan?iiaee-oao?aoe?, yee aecia/athoue nienee iie?oe/ieo yaeu,
iaaeath/e ?i neiaaniee ae?ac. O na?o? ae?oae oeth ooieoe?th aeeiiothoue
aaaioe iie?oe/iiai aieeao (aeoiaaoae?, aeeeoi?e oaeaaa/aiiy, aaoueee).
Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui iie?oe/ia a?aeie?aieth?oueny a iie? nioe?aeueieo
yaeu ye eiioe?eo, oiaoi ia ye oe?e?ni?noue, a ye aaea aioo??oiuei
iiey?eciaaia yaeua. Oea noaaeoue aeeoeio a neooaoe?th aeai?o. O
oeiey?a aea?? cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iie?oe/iiai aaaioa.
Iai?oaa iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae aeioiaeeoue aei oeiey?a aaea a ciyoiio
aeaeyae?.

O e?eciaiio noni?euenoa? iaia? noaa?eueieo eoeueoo?ieo c?ace?a
iie?oe/iiai ni?eeiyooy. Oea cieaeo? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?
ii?iaeaeo? no?an, yeee coiiaeth? iie?oe/io ianeai?noue aai
noa?aioei?caoe?th. Aaaeeeaith oiiaith oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino? oeiey??a aenooiathoue neiaiee iie?oe/ieo yaeu ? aa?aaeuei?
oi?ioee — ciaee cia/oueo ao?eaoo?a aea?aeaae. ?ica?aei?noue neiaie?/ii?
nenoaie ? ?aaeueiiai noaio ?a/ae a e?eciaiio noni?euenoa?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? aiaethaaoe ia aei ?icoio, a aei aiioe?e,
oiaoi iaa?thaaiiy ia? a?eueoa cia/aiiy, i?ae ia?aeiiaiiy.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny e?iaa?noe/i? oa naiaioe/i? aniaeoe
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?. Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa iiaea aenooiaoe ye ai?ioueaa
eiioeaioe?e. Aeae?eythoueny no?aoaa?? e?iaa?noe/iiai noi?iaiaeo
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae. Na?aeii?noue oeiey??a ia?acia, iane/aia
neiaie?eith. Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue ?nio? ia o oi?i? ?aeae, a o oi?i?
ia?acieo oyaeaiue, oieaoaieo o no?oeoo?o iianyeaeaiii?
?aaeueiino?. Oiio oe? oyaeaiiy aeaeyaeathoue aeiaaeeiaeie,
neooaoeaieie, ?ic??aaieie. Aeeoy/a iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue eeoa aeayeith
i??ith a?aeaeaa? iie?oe/i? ia?aeiiaiiy aei?ineeo.

Oeiey?e ia iathoue naiino?eiiai iie?oe/iiai noaoono ? ia
caeiathoue naiino?eieo iiceoe?e o iie?oe/iiio i?inoi??. Aiie
/anoeiai i?eaeaniththoue iie?oe/iee noaoon nai?o aaouee?a,
nioe?aeueii? aai aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe. Oeae i?ioean caeaaeeoue a?ae
oa?aeoa?o iie?oe/ii? aeaniino? ? a?ae i?noey aeaiiai oeiey?a
noiniaii aeaaeieo iie?oe/ieo aaaio?a. O oeiey?a ?ioa?ane nioe?aeueiiai
eeano aaouee?a a?aeaeaathoueny e??cue i?ecio “aeeoy/iai noaio”, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaiiaiioith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? iaiaaeai?noth
iiaeeeainoae aeey ?aae?caoe?? nai?o ?ioa?an?a.

Aeey iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? iathoue aaeeea cia/aiiy iaoai?cie
oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee. A ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny
aoiai?noe/ia, a?oaa?i?enonueea, eiai?oea?nonueea eiioeaioe?? oeoia/aiiy
oeeo iaoai?ci?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei eiiaaioe?iiaeueiiai ? nioe?aeueiiai a?oaa?i?ecio
aa?aneaia iiaaae?iea — ia i?e?iaeaeaia ?aaeoe?y, a ?acoeueoao
iaa/aiiy a i?ioean? nioe?ae?caoe??.

A?aeiia?aeii aei eiai?oeaiiai i?aeoiaeo ia oi?ioaaiiy
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? aieeaa? ??aaiue a?eiaiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?,
yea aa?a o/anoue a ni?eeiyoo? iie?oe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ia o/anoue o
iie?oeoe? iathoue aieea iio?aae ethaeeie a naiinoaa?aeaeaii?,
ni?eeoaaii?, aie?. Aacia? oyaeaiiy i?i niiniae ?o caaeiaieaiiy
oi?iothoueny a ?aiiueiio aeeoeinoa? ? aecia/athoue iie?oe/io
iiaaae?ieo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a: eiiiiiaioe,
oaeoi?e, aoaie” ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? oa aii??e/i? i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? ?aeaioe/iino? ae?oae ye no?oeoo?iiai eiiiiiaioo
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? c iiceoe?e
aio?iiieia?? aeeoeinoaa, /eiiee?a iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae. A
oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aeeeaaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a oa eiiaioothoueny
iniaeeaino? ?aeaioe/iino? ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?.

Iie?oe/iee eiiiiiaio ?aeaioe/iino? a?ae?a?a? aaeeeo ?ieue o
iie?oe/i?e nioe?ae?caoe?? ethaeeie. O oi?ioaaii? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?
iniaenoino? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? i?aee?oeiaee a?e. Aeaea?aeii
iiceoeaiiai aiioe?eiiai i?aee??ieaiiy iie?oe/ieo oe?eae o i?aee?oeiaiio
a?oe? ? ni?eeoaaiiy c ?iaanieeaie ? iio?aaa a nioe?aeueii cia/ou?e
ae?yeueiino?. O/anoue o iie?oeciaaieo aeeoy/eo ia’?aeiaiiyo caaacia/o?
oaea ni?eeoaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue.

Aaaeeeaei eiiiiiaioii ?aeaioe/iino? ? iaoe?iiaeueia
i?eiaeaaei?noue: iayai?noue iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae, ii/ooo?a ? neiaie?a.
Ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueii? i?eiaeaaeiino? oi?io? i?aea?oioy aeey ni?eeiyooy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? ye oe?iiino?.

Aiae?co?oueny i?iaeaia ii?ie e a?aeoeeaiue a aeeoy/?e iie?oe/i?e
nioe?ae?caoe??, a?aecia/a?oueny a?aeiini?noue iaae? i?ae ii?iith ?
a?aeoeeaiiyie.

No?eaeiai iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? ? oi?ioaaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo
eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa, ci?noii yeeo ? i?aaiaiiy iaeaaeaoe oaeiio
ni?aoiaa?enoao ye aea?aeaaa, e?a?ia. Iaoith iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? ?
oi?ioaaiiy iio?aae aooe a?iiaaeyieiii. Aiae?cothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? ??ai?
i?enoinoaaiiy aei ioi/aiiy a i?ioean? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, i?e
ye?e cae?enith?oueny no?oeoo?oaaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeaeiaeo
cae?aiinoae ? caaeaoe?a ethaeeie: ??aaiue i?aeoe/ieo ae?e, ia?aciiai
inai?iiy ioi/aiiy, ?icoiiaeo i?ioean?a, aiioe?eiee ??aaiue. Ia?aciee
??aaiue caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy ia?acieo aiaeia?a iie?oe/ieo ia’?eo?a,
iia’ycaieo ?c aea?aeaaith, aoaeiiiith iniaeno?noth, noni?euenoaii.
??aaiue ?icoiiaeo i?ioean?a caaacia/o? ?aoe?iiae?caoe?th iaynieo ca
cia/aiiyi, aea ?ioo?oeaii aaaeeeaeo oyaeaiue i?i aeaaeieo iie?oe/ieo
ae?y/?a, e?a?io, aea?aeaao, a?i?th, iie?oe?th oa ?iu? iie?oeciaai?
eiiiiiaioe. Aiioe?eiee ??aaiue caaacia/o? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia noaaeaiiy
aei noa’?eo?a iie?oeee ia oiio ??ai? iiaioaaiiy iie?oe/ii?
?aaeueiino?, ui aeinooiiee oeiey?ai.

?icaeyaeathoueny noaae??, ??ai? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??. Ia ia?o?e
noaae?? iie?oe/i? noaeaeaiiy iinyoue ni?iuaiee oa?aeoa?: ia ??ai?
iaeiicia/ieo aeneiaeaiue. Ia ae?oa?e noaae?? noaeaeaiiy ia iie?oe/i?
oaie iiaeooue aooe a?eueo ?icai?ioo?, iane/oaaoeny aiioe?eieie
a?aeo?ieaie.

?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue iaa/aiiy, i?aoe?, aaoi?eoaoo, a?e a
i?ioean? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??. Aiae?co?oueny niaoeeo?ea
??ciiiai?oieo oei?a iie?oeciaaieo ?ai?: o?ce/ii?, no?aoaa?/ii?,
noioanoe/ii?, ?ieueiai?.

Iaaiaeyoueny aeai? aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo oyaeaiue
oeiey??a. Aeyaeaii a?aeiinii aenieee nooi?iue aeia??e aei a?i?? ?
oea?eae. Oeiey?e ia iiaiith i??ith aeia??ythoue i?aaenoaaieeai aeaaee
ia?aaaaeii c ii?aeueieo i?e/ei. Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe noia?a/eea?noue
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oeiey??a. Oae, aiie aeciathoue iaiao?aei?noue
ci?oeiaiiy ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie ? ?in??, aea ae?aaeathoue aei ?in?? aeayeo
iaaeia??o.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? oi?ioeth? eiioeaiooaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy uiaei iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny,
ui iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a ? neeaaeiei i?ioeanii, yeee
i?aai?/ii ii?aeio? iie?oieia?/i?, ineoieia?/i?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i? e
?aeaieia?/i? eiiiiiaioe.

Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a ?icaeyaea?oueny a eiioaeno?
iie?oieia?? aeeoeinoaa, ui aeeth/a? oae? aniaeoe, ye: iie?oe/io
eoeueoo?o oeiey??a, iaoai?cie ?? oi?ioaaiiy, iie?oe/io
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th, ci?no iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oeiey??a, iie?oe/i?
oiiae aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aa aeeoeie, iie?oe/io nioe?ae?caoe?th,
noaaeaiiy aei iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, iie?oe/iee noaoon oeiey??a.

Iaoa iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? — oea oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
a?iiaaeyieia. Aaaeeeaei ia?aiao?ii ?? ? noaaeaiiy aei iie?oe/iiai
?aaeeio aea?aeaae. Ca?aeii aeine?aeaeaiue, a?eueo?noue ae?oae
aaaaeathoue, ui iaiao?aeii ci?oeithaaoe aeaiie?ao?th oa
iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie.

Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue ae?oae ? iianyeaeaiiith. ?icoi?iiy iie?oeee
?nio? o oi?i? aeiiiiyo?eieo eiino?oeo?a, aiii ianoi?iiaaia iiaiith
i??ith ia aa?aaeueiiio ??ai?. Oiio iie?oe/i? oyaeaiiy aeaeyaeathoue
aeiaaeeiaeie, neooaoeaieie, ?ic??ciaieie.

Iaoai?ciaie iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a ? iane?aeoaaiiy
iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee ? ianoaiia ?aoa?aioieo a?oi oa iniaenoinoae,
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y c iie?oe/ieie noa’?eoaie, caaeia?eueiaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
iio?aa, aieea aaaio?a iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? (cie?aia, ?iaeeie,
oeiee, ae?oc?a, oea?eae, cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??), iniaenoee
aeina?ae (a?a, o/anoue o aeeoy/?e iie?oe/i?e i?aai?caoe?? oiui).

O i?ioean? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oi?io?oueny oaanue iaa??
noaaeaiue, ui aenooiathoue aeey iniaenoino? aeaea?aeii ianooiii?
iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee. O ?acoeueoao? oni?oii? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??
caaeiaieueiy?oueny aeeaeiia iio?aaa iniaenoino? aooe a?iiaaeyieiii.

?niothoue iaai? a?aei?iiino? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? ae?oae ??ciiai
a?eo.

Aaaeeeaith iaoith nioe?ae?caoe?? ? iie?oe/ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ae?oae,
yea icia/a? oi?ioaaiiy ii/ooo?a i?eiaeaaeiino? aei aea?aeaae oa iaoe?? .

Iiaeyaee oeiey??a ia eiie?aoi? iie?oe/i? iiae??, noaaeaiiy aei
iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, aeaaee neeaaeathoue ci?no iie?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino?. I?aaie aeaaee, ia?o?? aeeeeeathoue o oeiey??a iaaaeeeo
aeia??o. Aeyaeythoueny aeaiaioe a?ae/oaeaiino? a?ae aea?aeaae. A
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo ieoaiiyo ae?oe ?aeaioeo?eothoue naaa c aea?aeaaith
a?eueoa, i?ae o aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo.

A no/anieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaaao ?niothoue caeiie uiaei i?aa
aeeoeie. Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, ia?aaeoiiae yei?
noi?ioeueiaai? a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, ia?aaeaa/a? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aa
ae?oae.

I?ciaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oa
iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e oeiey??a ia? ia o?eueee oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy, a e
aaaeeeaa aeey i?aai?caoe?? iie?oe/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ?icoi?iiy aeeiai?ee
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, caa?aaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

IOAE?EAOe??

Eaoa?aa I. Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y i?aee?oe?a // I?iaeaie
nioe?ae?caoe?? no/anieo i?aee?oe?a, Caii??aeaey, CAeO- 1998 ?. — N.
60-119.

Eaoa?aa I. Eeiaaenoe/aneea e naiaioe/aneea aniaeou iieeoe/aneiai
niciaiey aeaoae e ac?ineuo // Iiaa ia?aaeeaia, ? 8, Caii??aeaey CAeO,
1998 ?. — N. 33-41.

Eaoa?aa I. Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue ae?oae // A?niee I?aeeinueeiai AeI? —
I?aeei: Aeae. I?aeeinueeiai AeI?, 1998 ?. — N.45- 48.

Eaoa?aa I. Iie?oieia?y aeeoeinoaa ye iai?yiie iie?oe/ii? aio?iiieia?? //
Iiaa ia?aaeeaia, ?10. — Caii??aeaey, CAeO. — 1999 ?. — N. 67-78.

Eaoa?aa I. Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae //
A?niee Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo. — 1999. — ? 1. — N.
218-222.

Eaoa?aa I. Iio?aaeoaeueneea i?eaioaoeee e aeeciaiiua oeaiiinoe
iieiaeaaee // Oace eiioa?aioe?? “Iaioae?oao oa i?iaeaie ina?oe”. —
Caii??aeaey. — 1994. — N. 53-54.

Eaoa?aa I. Iieeoe/aneay nenoaia e aeaoe // Iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueei?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. ”Nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe aea?aeaaioai?aiiy”. —
Caii??aeaey. — 1996. — N. 116-117.

Eaoa?aa I. I?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? ?aeaioe/iino? i?aee?oe?a // I?iaeaia
iie?oe/ii? ineoieia?? oa ?? ?ieue o noaiiaeai? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. —
Iaoa??aee ae?oai? anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? . — Ee?a, 1997
?. — N.138-140.

Eaoa?aa I. Ia?o?? o iie?oe/i?e na?aeiiino? ae?oae // Nioe?aeueia
o?ainoi?iaoe?y oa noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?. —
Iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Caii??aeaey, 1997
?. — N. 97-98.

Eaoa?aa I. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey aeaoae //
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe CAe?A. — Caii??aeaey,
CAe?A. — 1998. — N. 93-94.

Eaoa?aa I.N. Iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.03 — iie?oe/ia
eoeueoo?a ? iie?oe/ia ?aeaieia?y.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ae.26.236.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy
aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A. I.
Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

A ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai oa aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oeiey??a.
?icaeyiooi i?noea oeiey??a o iie?oe/iiio i?inoi?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ae?oae, iaoai?cie,
aoaie oa oaeoi?e iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe??, iie?oe/i? oyaeaiiy
oeiey??a. Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy oeiey??a uiaei iiaeyae?a ia
eiie?aoi? iie?oe/i? iiae??, noaaeaiiy aei iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a.
Iiaeaii oaiiiaiieia?/i?, aio?iiieia?/i?, eiioi?eaoeai? oa e?iaa?noe/i?
aniaeoe iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? oeiey??a. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui o
?acoeueoao? oni?oii? iie?oe/ii? nioe?ae?caoe?? caaeiaieueiy?oueny
aeeaeiia iio?aaa iniaenoino? aooe a?iiaaeyieiii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?oieia?y, iie?oe/ia nioe?ae?caoe?y oeiey??a,
iie?oe/iee i?ino??, iie?oe/ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y , iie?oe/i? oyaeaiiy,
iie?oe/ia aio?iiieia?y, iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a, iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue.

Kataeva M.S. Political socialization of schoolchildren in condition
of transformation of Ukrainian society. Manuscript.

Dissertation is submitted for the degree in the field of political
sciences. Speciality 23.00.03 — political culture and political
ideology.

The defense of the thesis will take place at the specialized scientific
council sitting Ae.26.236.01 in the Institute of State and Low named
after V.M.Koretsky of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

The thesis includes the results of the theoretical and empirical
study of the problem of the formation of the political consciousness .
It is considered the role of schoolchildren in the sphere of politics
of Ukrainian society, particularities of the political identifications
of the children, mechanisms, stages and factors of political
socialization, political opinions of schoolchildren. There are results
of schoolchildren’s questioning about their views on different political
events and attitude to political institutes.It is considered
phenomenological, anthropological, communicational and linguistically
aspects of the political socialization of schoolchildren. So, the
successful political socialization satisfies the inner need of a person
to be a citizen.

Key words: polithology, political socialization schoolboys, political
space, political identification , political opinions, political
anthropology, political culture, political consciousness.

Eaoaaaa I.N. Iieeoe/aneay nioeeaeecaoeey oeieueieeia a oneiaeyo
o?ainoi?iaoeee oe?aeineiai iauanoaa.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.03 — iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a e iieeoe/aneay
eaeaieiaey.

Caueoa ninoieony ia canaaeaiee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai o/aiiai niaaoa
Ae.26.236.01 i?e Einoeoooa ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A.I. Ei?aoeeiai IAI
Oe?aeiu.

A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneiai e yiie?e/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey ii i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey
oeieueieeia. ?anniio?aii ianoi oeieueieeia a iieeoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa
oe?aeineiai iauanoaa, iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeee aeaoae,
iaoaieciu, yoaiu e oaeoi?u iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee, iieeoe/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey oeieueieeia. ?anniao?eaathony oaiiiaiieiae/aneea,
aio?iiieiae/aneea, eiiioieeaoeaiua e eeiaaenoe/aneea aniaeou
iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee oeieueieeia a oneiaeyo o?ainoi?iaoeee
oe?aeineiai iauanoaa.

Iieeoe/aneay nioeeaeecaoeey oeieueieeia yaeyaony i?ioeannii, eioi?ue
i?aaie/ii niaaeeiyao iieeoe/aneea, ineoieiae/aneea, eoeueoo?ieiae/aneea
e eaeaieiae/aneea eiiiiiaiou.

Iieeoe/aneay nioeeaeecaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony a eiioaenoa iieeoieiaee
aeaonoaa, a eioi?ie aeaoe i?aaenoaaeaiu eae cia/eiue noauaeo iieeoeee e
iauaeo iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey.

Iieeoieiaey aeaonoaa eco/aao aeaoneoth iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o e
iaoaieciu aa oi?ie?iaaiey o aeaoae, iieeoe/aneoth eaeaioeoeeaoeeth
aeaoae, niaea?aeaiea iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey, iieeoe/aneea oneiaey aeey
?aaeecaoeee i?aa aeaoae, iieeoe/aneoth nioeeaeecaoeeth, ioiioaiea aeaoae
e iieeoe/aneei einoeoooai, iieeoe/aneee noaoon aeaoae.

Oeaeue iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee — yoi oi?ie?iaaiea iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u a?aaeaeaieia. Aaaeiui aa ia?aiao?ii yaeyaony ioiioaiea e
iieeoe/aneiio ?aaeeio, ainoaea?noao. Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieth,
aieueoeinoai aeaoae n/eoaao, /oi iaiaoiaeeii oe?aieyoue aeaiie?aoeth e
iacaaeneiinoue Oe?aeiu.

Iieeoe/aneia niciaiea aeaoae a iniiaiii yaeyaony iauaeaiiui, iiieiaiea
iieeoeee nouanoaoao a oi?ia aeiiiiyoeeiuo eiino?oeoia, ianoi?ie?iaaii a
iieiie ia?a ia aa?aaeueiii o?iaia. Iieeoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey auaeyaeyo
neo/aeiuie, neooaoeaiuie o?aaiaioa?iuie.

Iaoaieciaie oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey oeieueieeia yaeyaony
iiae?aaeaiea iieeoe/aneiio iiaaaeaieth e onoaiiaeai ?aoa?aioiuo a?oii e
ee/iinoae, eaeaioeoeeaoeey n iieeoe/aneeie noauaeoaie, oaeiaeaoai?aiea
eiiioieeaoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae, ea?a, aeeyiea aaaioia iieeoe/aneie
nioeeaeecaoeee (naiuee, oeieu, ae?ocae, oea?eae, n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee), nianoaaiiue iiuo, o/anoea a aeaoneie iieeoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee.

Nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua ioee/ey iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee aeaoae
?aciiai aic?anoa. Iaeiie ec caaea/ nioeeaeecaoeee yaeyaony iieeoe/aneay
eaeaioeoeeaoeey aeaoae, aaaeiui eiiiiiaioii eioi?ie yaeyaony
oi?ie?iaaiea /oanoaa i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ainoaea?noao.

A i?ioeanna nioeeaeecaoeee aeaoe aeeth/athony a iieeoe/aneoth
no?oeoo?o e iuoathony iaeoe a iae naia ianoi, naii?aaeeciaaoueny. Aeaoe
ia eiatho naiinoiyoaeueiiai iieeoe/aneiai noaoona e ia caieiatho
naiinoiyoaeueiuo iiceoeee a iieeoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa. Iie /anoe/ii
i?enaaeaatho iieeoe/aneoth nianoaaiiinoue naieo ?iaeeoaeae, naiae
nioeeaeueiie eee yoie/aneie iauiinoe. Ia eioa?anu nioeeaeueiiai eeanna,
e eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeao ?iaeeoaee ?aaaiea, iaeeaaeuaathony nianoaaiiua
eioa?anu nioeeaeueiiai noaoona aeaoae, aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?iu
iaiieiioa ioaaonoaaiiinoe e iaaeinoaoi/iinoue aiciiaeiinoe aeey
?aaeecaoeee naieo eioa?ania.

Niaea?aeaieai iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey oeieueieeia yaeythony acaeyaeu ia
eiie?aoiua iieeoe/aneea niauoey, ioiioaiea e iieeoe/aneei yaeaieyi e
iieeoe/aneei einoeoooai. I?aaiu aeanoe, ia?oee aucuaatho o oeieueieeia
iaaieueoia aeiaa?ea. Auyaeythony yeaiaiou io/oaeaeaiey io ainoaea?noaa o
noa?oaeeannieeia. Ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo aii?inao aeaoe
eaeaioeoeoee?otho naay n ainoaea?noaii aieueoa, /ai ai
aioo?eiieeoe/aneeo. Eiuie neiaaie, a aii?inao acaeiiioiioaiee n ae?oaeie
no?aiaie oeieueieee, eae i?aaeei, ?acaeaeytho iiceoeee oe?aeineiai
ainoaea?noaa, a aioo?eiieeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu ?anniao?eaathony ca/anooth a
iiiiceoeee e ainoaea?noao.

A i?ioeanna iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee oi?ie?oaony aanue iaai?
onoaiiaie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneiai iiaaaeaiey
ee/iinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa oniaoiie iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee
oaeiaeaoai?ythony aeoaeiiua iio?aaiinoe ee/iinoe auoue a?aaeaeaieiii.

A nia?aiaiiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ainoaea?noaao nouanoaotho caeiiu i
i?aaao aeaoae. Eiioeaioeey nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa,
i?aaeiinueee eioi?ie noi?ioee?iaaiu a Eiinoeoooeee Oe?aeiu,
i?aaeoniao?eaaao inouanoaeaiea i?aa aeaoae, caueoo eo ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeoieiaey, iieeoe/aneay nioeeaeecaoeey oeieueieeia,
iieeoe/aneia i?ino?ainoai, iieeoe/aneay eaeaioeoeeaoeey, iieeoe/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey, iieeoe/aneay aio?iiieiaey, iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a,
iieeoe/aneia niciaiea.

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