I?EEA?IAONUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? AANEEss NOAOAIEEA

AAEUeITHE AIAAeAIA ?AAI?AIA

OAeE 883.09.

IIAOEEA ?NOI?E*II? ?IIAI?NOEEE

AIAAeAIA EAIEIAI

10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

?aaii–O?aie?anuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iie?e Aieiaeeie? Oaiaei?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?eueieoeueeee Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?iai? ?aaia E?ei’yeaae/a

IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoeye Aiaoie?e Ai?eniae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E09.03.02. o I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea ca aae?anith: 284000, i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
aoe.Oaa/aiea, 57.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
I.ss.Oeoe?anueea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? inoaii?o ?ie?a niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei inieneaiiy ooaeiaei?o aeanoeainoae
e?oa?aoo?ii-anoaoe/ieo yaeu. Ia ia?aaei?e ieai aeoiaeeoue iiaoeea, yea
aea/a? “niiniae ? caniae ooaeiaeiueiai ao?eaiiy, ia?aciiai ?ice?eooy
aeeooy”, ui ni?ey? inyaiaiith aioo??oiuei? i?aai?caoe?? ooaeiaeiuei?
no?oeoo?e ie?aieo oai??a ? anoaiiaeaiith cia/aii?aino? ?o o eiioaeno?
oe?a?inueeiai e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano, yeee ? aeiaie? iioa?iaiei, iaei
aea/aiei ? caiiaiaiei “a?eeie ieyiaie”.

Iniaeeai “caieyieaiith” noaea e?oa?aoo?ia ea?oa 20–30-o ??. Ia aoea
aeiyoeii o oeueiio ieai? e cao?aeiioe?a?inueea ?noi?e/ia i?ica,
i?acaioiaaia ?iaiaie A.Aoaeceiianueeiai, E.A?eiaae/aai?, A.Eaieiai,
TH.Eeie, TH.Ii?euenueeiai. Iaeiiioey?i?oei na?aae ieo, aacia?a/ii, aoa
A.Eaieee, aaee/aciee oai?/ee aei?iaie yeiai, a oiio /ene? ?noi?e/ia
?iiai?noeea, naiai /ano aeeo/aiee c iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy,
caeeoa?oueny aeiiei? iaei aeine?aeaeaiei. Neacaia noino?oueny
ianaiia?aae iaioaeia?? “Iacaia”, ia?oiai a cao?aeiioe?a?inuee?e
?noi?e/i?e aaeao?enoeoe? aaaaoioiiiiai aeaeaiiy, a yeiio aaoi? cae?eniea
ni?iao ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iiaiethaeaiiai ?noi?eeaie e e?oa?aoi?aie aaoueiaia
?.Iacaie.

Oa??, c?icoi?ei, ia iiaea iaieiooe oaaaa e?eoeee. Ca ei?aeiiii a?i
aiae?coaaany o ??ci? ia??iaee, na?ae/aiiyi /iio noaoo? I.Cae?oianueeiai
(1938), ?.-TH.Iaeainueeiai (1943), E.-?.Eaieiai (1961), ?.Eaaaaeiiai
(1961), e?eoe/i? caoaaae ?.Ieeiiaaoeueeiai (1959), iiiia?ao?y A.Eaaa
(1976). A io ia iaoa?eeia?e Oe?a?i? c a?aeiieo i?e/ei niinoa??aaeeny
caeaa?eueoiai o?eueee “aea? oaee?” caoe?eaaeaiiy iaioaeia??th. Iaeia c
ieo “i?aeiyeany” iae?aco ae i?ney aeoiaeo o na?o ia?oeo /anoei oai?o
(ioae?eaoe?? A.Aacooea, ?.Aoiaee, A.Aea?aeaa?ia, N.Eaeonoe,
TH.Ii?euenueeiai, I.?oaeieoeueeiai). “Ae?oaa oaeey” aeiaaea? ye?ac ia
nueiaiaeaiiy.

A?eueo?noue aaoi??a iaio ia??iae?a aeciathoue, ui aeaia iaioaeia?y – oea
iiaaaeiee ? aecia/iee aeeaae o e?oa?aoo?o. I?e oeueiio cia/aii?a?noue
??, ye o e?eoeoe? iiia?aaeiee?a, oae ? a aeine?aeaeaiiyo no/aniee?a
(I.?eueieoeueeiai, O.Iia?aaaiieea, I.AEoeeinueeiai, ?.Ai?aea,
A.Nieieiai?, O.Eeoaeiaiei) anoaiiaeth?oueny ia o?eueee /a?ac
aeoeaiooaaiiy ?aeaeii? noi?iie oai?o, a e /a?ac eiai ooaeiaeith
nai???aei?noue, iia’ycaio oi c ooaeeeai-e??e/iith oiiaeuei?noth, oi c
iniaeeainoyie noee?noeee, oi c aeaui iacae/iei o?aeooaaiiyi ia?ac?a. Aea
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy “Iacaie” ye ie?aiiai ? oe?e?niiai
e?oa?aoo?ii-anoaoe/iiai yaeua iiee ui ia niinoa??aaeinue.

Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue oaie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iio?aaaie
a?aeiia?aeiiai aei no/anieo e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo aeiia inieneaiiy
iaioaeia?? A.Eaieiai “Iacaia”, a oaeiae iiooe?a iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
aea/aiiy oai?/i? niaaeueie oeueiai ienueiaiieea caaaeii, anoaiiaeaiiy
aaeaeaaoiiai i?noey oai?o a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii? i?ice
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y –
oea eiie?aoiee aianie o ?ice?eooy iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: “E?oa?aoo?iee
i?ioean a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy: iai?yie, oa/??,
noee?, aeai?e, iinoao?”.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oa?aeoa?enoeea aioo??oiuei?
i?aai?caoe?? iaioaeia?? ye neeaaeii?, aaaaoie?i?eii? ?
iie?aeaoa?i?iiaaii? ooaeiaeiuei? nenoaie, on? ??ai? ? eiiiiiaioe yei?
i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny iniiaiei anoaoe/iei aeiiaai. ?aae?caoe?y iaoe
ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

– i?iaiae?coaaoe aeai?iao niaoeeo?eo oai?o, ui ? ooaeiaei?i neioacii
?noi?e/ieo oa e?oa?aoo?ieo ia?aaeeai, cina?aaeeaoenue ia i?aaii??iino?
icia/aiue “Iacaie” ye ?iiaio, aiiia?, aaeao?enoe/ii? o?ii?ee,
?noi?e/iiai iia?no?aiai oeeeeo;

– i?inoaaeeoe aca?iiae?th aaoi?nueei-ia?niiaaeieo iiaeyae?a o
ioe?ii/i?e, iiaeaii?a?e, /anii?inoi?ia?e ? ineoieia?/i?e noa?ao oa
aecia/eoe iaoe?eai?noue on?o oeeo ??ciiieaiiaeo eoo?a ci?o ia oi?ioaaiiy
neioaciaaiiai “ia?aco aaoi?a”, a a i?aenoieo – ia caaaeueio eiiiiceoe?th
oai?o;

– ?icaeyiooe no?oeoo?o ooaeiaeiueiai /anii?inoi?o c ?? ???a?o?/ieie oa
iacaeaaeieie eiiiiiaioaie ? c’ynoaaoe nae?aoe oai?aiiy “ia?aco na?oo”
aeaiiai ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e oia?oa nenoaiii
i?iaiae?ciaaii ooaeiaei? yeino? iaioaeia??, ?? aeai?iao, eiiiiceoe?eio
oa o?iiioii?/io nai???aei?noue.

Iaae?eio iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeey i?aaeiaoiiai aena?oeaiiy oaie
caaacia/othoue:

– ?icoi?iiy iiaoeee ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o ye nenoaie aca?iiiia’ycaieo,
aca?iicoiiaeaieo, ???a?o?/ii aii?yaeeiaaieo ? ni?yiiaaieo ia e?ioeaaee
?acoeueoao cania?a;

– aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a o?aaeeoe?eii? ? no?oeoo?ii? iiaoee ?c caeo/aiiyi
caeiaooe?a aa?iaiaaoeee oa e?iaainoee?noeee;

– aeio?eiaiiy e?eoa???a ?noi?ecio ? a?aooaaiiy nai???aeiino? oai?/i?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? ieooey.

Oai?aoeei-e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ith aacith noaee i?aoe? c i?iaeai aeai?o,
eiiiiceoe?? ? o?iiioiio, aaoi?aie yeeo ? I.Aaoo?i, I.A?eaoeueeee,
Ae.Eeoa/ia, A.Oniainueeee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? i?aoeue c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, o i?ioean? /eoaiiy
caaaeueieo oai?aoeei-e?oa?aoo?ieo oa ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ieo eaeoe?eieo
eo?n?a, a oaeiae i?e ?ic?iaoe? niaoeeo?n?a ? niaoenai?ia??a ye ca
oai?/?noth A.Eaieiai, oae ? c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ii? i?ice caaaeii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoeany ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Iiaoeea ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo” (Oa?nii,1996),
“Aiaaeai Eaieee – ooaeiaeiee neiaa” (aei 125-??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
A.Eaieiai) (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997). Iiaiee oaeno ?iaioe iaaiai?aii ?
noaaeaii ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.Noaoaieea. Iioae?eiaaii 4 noaoo?.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Aiia aeeeaaeaia
ia ___noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
ioiieth? 234 iiceoe??.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa aeooaeuei?noue aecia/aii?
oaie, ie?aneth?oueny noai ?? aeinueiaiaei?oiueiai aeine?aeieoeueeiai
ii?aoethaaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae
aeaco?oueny ia i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Inieneaiiy nenoaie ooaeiaei?o
i?eioeei?a “Iacaie” a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac aiae?c eaoaai??? aeai?o,
eiiiiceoe?? oa ooaeiaeiueiai o?iiioiio.

AEai?, o yeiio caaaeaee a?aeia?aaeathoueny ? ocaaaeueiththoueny ?ene,
aeanoea? iaai?e iaoe?? /e aiin?, ni?ey? anoaiiaeaiith cia/aii?aino?
oai?o, caeiiii??iinoae eiai iiyae o 20-o ?ieao, c’ynoaaiith oa?aeoa?ieo
iniaeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? eaie?anueei? oai?/i? iaia?e. Eiiiiceoe?y
aena?oeth? niiniae ii?aeiaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a iaioaeia?? a
ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/io oe?e?ni?noue, iaaea? iaoa??aeo aii?yaeeiaaiino?.
Caniaaie i?aai?caoe?? ci?noo oai?o, ui caaacia/othoue eiai ni?eeiyooy ye
naiiaooiuei? ooaeiaeiuei? ae?eniino?, ? /an ? i?ino??. Aiie
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aiioo o anaia’?iiino? e iiaiio?, ? noeeaoai?/eie oa
aeai?iaecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie.

Ia?oee ?icae?e – “AEai?iaa niaoeeo?ea iaioaeia??”. Iiaeyaee oao?aoe?a ia
i?e?iaeo ?noi?e/ieo oai??a – a a aeena?oaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i??eoaaiiy aaaaoueio a/aieo, ii/eiath/e a?ae ?.O?aiea ? A.Aioiiiae/a,
cae?i/oth/e no/anieie e?oa?aoo?iciaaoeyie – caiaeyoueny aei aeac?aie ia
aeai?iao “iiaea?ei?noue” iiae?aieo ooaeiaei?o no?oeoo?, aeeeeeaio
neioacii e?oa?aoo?ieo oa ?noi?e/ieo ia?aaeeai. A ine?eueee iaioaeia?th
A.Eaieiai iaceaathoue ?iiaiii, aiiia?th, aaeao?enoe/iith o?ii?eith,
?noi?e/iei iia?no?aei oeeeeii, oi a iaoeia?e ?iaio? ianaiia?aae
c’yniaothoueny iia’ycai? c oeeie aeai?iaeie icia/aiiyie ieoaiiy.

Ioiae, aaci?aoaic?eiei noiniaii neacaiiai ? oa?i?i “?noi?e/ia
?iiai?noeea”, yeui eiai ni?eeiaoe c iiceoe?? ?.Aa?oieii??aa, yeee
i?aeaiaeeoue i?ae iueiai “aanue eiiieaen nenoaie aeai?iaeo no?oeoo?,
??ciiiai?oi?noue aioo??oiueiaeaeiaeo oi?i iia?nooaaiiy – a?ae
?iiaio-aiiia? aei iiaaee ? a?ae nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/iiai ?iiaio (iia?no?)
aei ?noi?eei-i?eaiaeieoeueei?, ?noi?eei-iiaooiai? iia?no? ?
?iiaio-eaaaiaee”.

Iiaeia iaceaaoe “Iacaio” ? aaeao?enoe/iith o?ii?eith. O oai??
iine?aeiaii ?ice?eaa?oueny ?noi??y aecaieueieo aeiiaaaiue oe?a?ioe?a o
1706–1709 ?ieao oa aiae?cothoueny iaea?eueo aaaii? iiae?? oeueiai
ia??iaeo. Ooi/iaiiy “aaeao?enoe/ia” iaaiei /eiii e?ea?aeiao? aeiiae
iiaii? a?aenooiino? a o?ii?oe? aeaaaeaieo aa?i?a ? noa’?eoeaieo ioe?iie
o ia?ainieneaii? iiae?e (o iaioaeia?? ia a?aeo? i? iiaeo oe?eaaeo
iiai?io?a o ae??, i? ooaeiaei?o ia?niiaae?a (nioiee I?o/ei, inaaoe
Neae??, Iaea?ea, ae?ae-neiaie eicaoeueei? neaae)). Oa ana ae aeaiee oa??
ne?ae aeao?i?thaaoe eiie?aoi?oa.

?c aeayeeie canoa?aaeaiiyie uiaei “Iacaie” iiaea i?eeiyoeny ? iiiyooy
“aiiiay”. Aaeaea i?ae oeei oa?i?iii ?icoi??oueny “iaea?eueoa
iiioiaioaeueia oi?ia ai?/ieo oai??a, ye? a?aecia/athoueny
iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/iith i?iaeaiaoeeith” ? neoaeaoue oe?eyi
“o?einionueeiai oa anoaoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy”. ?io? i?eeiaoe oaeiai oeio
aeai?iaeo no?oeoo? (oe?ioa o cia?aaeaii? iiae?e, ciaethaaiiy ethaeeie
“ia c aieo nai?? ie?aiino?, a c aieo nai?? ?aeiino? c ia?aaeeaaiiyie
eieaeoeao”) o iaioaeia?? iaio a?ae/ooi?. Aaoi?a ianaiia?aae oe?eaaeoue
a?aeoai?aiiy aeooaaieo ii?ea?a ie?aieo ia?niiaae?a, eio?? ieneyoue oae,
ye ? ethaee eiai aeiae – ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, ae??oothoue iiae?ai? aei
?oi?o i?iaeaie.

O?aeooaaiiy “Iacaie” ye ?iiaio, ui ? i?noeei ca ianyaii ? neeaaeiei ca
iiaoaeiaith oai?ii, oaae aeeeeea? iaai? noii?ae, ine?eueee ?iiai
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ? iaaaeyeith neeaaei?noth iiaoaeiae, ? aeeaeii?noth
eiioe?eoo “i?ae iiac??th na?oey ? i?icith aeeooaenueeeo noinoie?a, ui
i?ioenoi?oue ?e”, ? /?oeith e?i??th oi?ioaaiiy oa?aeoa??a aaaaoueio
ia?niiaae?a. Iaioaeia?? ae i?eoaiaiia iacia/ia iiae??a?noue, oa?aeoa?e
ia?niiaae?a iiaeathoueny o noaoeoe?, a io aeeaeiiee eiioe?eo ana-oaee
/?oei ae?aaeaiee, iaeiae ia? a?i, a iniiaiiio, aioo??oith oi?io
ae?aaeaiiy, oiaoi /an a?ae /ano a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeooao ie?aieo
ia?niiaae?a (Iio??, Iacaie, *oeeaae/a, Nei??ia). O ciai?oiueiio nthaeao?
aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny ia no?eueee caaino?eoe eiioe?eoi? neooaoe??,
?nioaaiiy yeeo coiiaeaii oaea naiei ia’?eoii cia?aaeaiiy, ne?eueee
caeaaeeoe e ia?aaanoe ?o o oeoa ?onei e??e/ieo ?icaeoi?a /e ?iciia?ae?,
aea a?ae/oaa?oueny ana?icoi?iiy ? anai?iuaiiy. O oai?? iaeaea iaia?
aino?iai i?ioenoiyiiy i? a noinoieao Iacaie c Iao?ii ?, i? o aca?ieiao
aaoueiaia ? aaia?aeueiiai noaeae?, i? iaa?oue o ca?ieieo nooe/eao
iineianueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo nee (aiyee i?inoi aeeiiothoue iaeac
aiaeae?a). Iaeiae i?e a?aooaaii? oiai, ui a e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO
no. a?o/eciyi? aeine?aeieee i?aeoe/ii ia aa/eee ??cieoe? i?ae iia?noth ?
?iiaiii, c?icoi?eei ? ? oaea aeai?iaa icia/aiiy “Iacaie”. Caoa c
iiaeyaeo no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa iaeaei?a/i?oa
ni?eeiaoe iaioaeia?th ye ?noi?e/iee iia?no?aee oeeee.

O oai?? iaaaaaoi ia?niiaae?a, ciaeueiaothoueny aiie iiaeaeoaee iaeaea
?ethno?aoeaii. O oeaio?? eiai noi?oue iaeei aa?ie – ?aai Iacaia, yeee
cia?aaeaiee aei oiai ae iaeiiiai?oii: /a?ac iino?eia ia?ainieneaiiy
aeanieo ae?e. A?i iiaeaiee ye oe?eeii caaa?oaia, c?icoi?ea ? ianeeaaeia
iinoaoue. Nthaeao oai?o caeaa?eueoiai caiaeeoueny aei ?ice?eooy
aecaieueieo ii?ea?a aaoueiaia. E??i oiai, naia iia?no?aei oeeeeii
iaceaaa naith nooae?th ? A.Eaieee, icia/eaoe oae ia?o? o?e /anoeie ??.

?io? aeai?ia? iniaeeaino? “Iacaie” c’yniaothoueny /a?ac eiie?aoecaoe?th
iiiyooy “?noi?e/iee oa??”, niaoeeo?/iith ?enith yeiai ? a?aeoai?aiiy
ieioeiai “ia a?aenoai?, ia iaio?e, i?ae aeeooy iaeiiai iieie?iiy – 80–90
?ie?a”, ioaea, “aaoi? cia? eiai ia c aeaniiai aeina?aeo, a
iiina?aaeeiaaii”. Iaioaeia?y A.Eaieiai iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea?
cai?iiiiiaaiei aeiiaai: iiae??, cia?aaeai? o oai??, aecia/athoueny
/aniaith caaa?oai?noth (a?aeaoaathoueny aeaiia noie?ooyie ?ai?oa a?ae
aaciina?aaeiueiai aaoi?nueeiai ia??iaeo), oiio a?aeiiino? i?i ieo
ienueiaiiee cae?aa c a?o?aieo oa iiiia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae.

A iniiao aiae?co aeai?iai? nai???aeiino? “Iacaie” iieeaaeaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th ?noi?e/ii? i?ice ia ?noi?eei-ooaeiaei?,
ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/i? oa ?noi?e/i? ooaeiaeiuei-aeieoiaioaeuei? oai?e.
Oaeee iiae?e cai?iiiiiaaiee iaaeaaii N.Aiae?on?a ? canoiniaaiee aei
inieneaiiy e?oa?aoo?e e?ioey O?O–ii/.OOno. ?.Aa?aiii. Aaco?oueny
eeaneo?eaoe?y ia a?aooaaii? ??cieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae aeieoiaioii oa
aeaaaeeith ? aeiieneii (i?ae aeaaaeeith ?icoi??ii “aaaaeaiiy o oa??
ie?aieo ai?ciae?a /e ia?niiaae?a, ui ia ?nioaaee a ?noi???, a oaeiae
anth iiaoaeiao ?iiaio, nenoaio eiai ia?ac?a, nooi?noue oei?caoe?? – ana
oa, ui i?aeii?yaeeiaaii noai?aiith noa’?eoeaii? ea?oeie ia’?eoeaii?
ae?eniino?”. Aeiienae aea – oea “a?aeoeeaiiy aaoi?a a?ae ie?aieo oaeo?a
?aaeueii? ae?eniino?”). A ?noi?eei-ooaeiaei?o oai?ao ia?aaaaea? aeaaaeea
iaae aeiieneii ? aeieoiaioii, yeee a?ae?a?a? ooo cian?i iacia/io ?ieue,
a ae?eiaeie iniaaie ? caaaeii aeaaaeai? ia?niiaae?. O
ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/ieo oai?ao, oi/a e i?aaaeththoue aeaaaeea ? aeiienae,
ana ae aaaeeeaeie ? ?noi?e/i? ?aae??. O ?noi?e/ieo
ooaeiaeiuei-aeieoiaioaeueieo oai?ao iniiaiei ? caaeieoiaioiaaiee ?
ia?ainieneaiee aaoi?ii ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iee oaeo. Aeaaaeea ooo
iinooia?oueny aeiieneo, yeee oaae iaiaaeaiee ?aaeueieie a?aeiiinoyie c
aeeooy aa?i?a. Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y, oi/ ? ? aeineoue oiiaiith, ai aeiaeai
oa?? ia aeeaaeao o i?ie?onoiaa eiaea eiie?aoieo iaae, ana ae aea?
iiaeeea?noue aeey /?oe?oiai aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo oai??a.

Eaie?anueeee iia?no?aee oeeee noi?oue ia iaae? i?ae ?noi?e/ieie
ooaeiaeiuei-aeieoiaioaeueieie oa ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/ieie oai?aie. Aaeaea
iniiaia oaaaa ooo ?iciiae?ey?oueny a?eueo-iaio ii??aio i?ae aeieoiaioii
? aeaaaeeith (aeiieneii). sse ?noi?e/iee ooaeiaeiuei-aeieoiaioaeueiee
oa?? “Iacaia” i?iaeiaaeo? o?aaeeoe?? “*a?i?a?aee” I.Einoiia?iaa oa
?noi?e/ieo iiia?aeaiue I.Eaaeoeueeiai a oiio, ui A.Eaieee iie?a?oueny ia
aaeeeo e?euee?noue aeieoiaioaeueieo na?ae/aiue. Ine?eueee ae aiie
iae/ano?oa aoee noaeueneo?eiaaieie ? iaoe?eaieie ia i/i?iaiiy
iacaieinueeeo i?aaiaiue oa e naiiai aaoueiaia, oi ienueiaiiee ni?yiiao?
?o o cian?i ?ioa ?aeaeia ?onei, iaaeath/e ia?acia? Iio?? Ei/oaa?aie ?en
iaae??? ia caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, a Iacaio oa iieiaeiai
*oeeaae/a cia?aaea? ye ocaaaeueiaieo iin??a ??, ui ia o?eueee oai?eoue
eiio?ano aei onoaeaiiai a iaooe? e ienoaoeoa? iiaeyaeo ia oeeo aa?i?a, a
e aea? ciiao ni?eeiaoe oa?? ye i?iaeoe?th a no/ania aaoi?ia? aoooy. Oaea
oaiaeaioe?y aei iiaoaeiae ?noi?e/ieo oai??a aa?a ii/aoie a?ae “Caoa?a
Aa?eooa” ?.O?aiea, yeee i?iiia?aeoaaa ?aea? ?aeiaiiy oa ia?iaeiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ui aoee aeooaeueieie e?ioeth O?O noie?ooy ? ?oeioaaee
onoaeai? iiaeyaee ia ?noi?e/iee oa?? ye caieiooee eeoa o eiie?aoi?e
aeia?. Cia?aaeaiiy eicae?a o oai?? ye caacyoeo ooea/?a i?eaiae, a?aeieo
iane?aeoaaiiy ni?eue/ae?a-aanaeoi?a iaaeeaea? “Iacaio” A.Eaieiai e aei
?noi?e/ii? i?ice A.*aeeianueeiai, A.Aoaeceiianueeiai, TH.Eeie.

??aii/anii eiaeia iia?noue oeeeeo ia? aeani? aeai?ia? aeii?iaioe.
“Iio?y” oa “C-i?ae Iieoaae aei Aaiaea?” iacaaae ?
ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/ieie oai?aie, ui a ie?ai? iiiaioe iaa?oue
iaaaaeothoue ?noi?eei-ooaeiaeith aaeao?enoeeo. “Ia aaeaae” a?aaea?
yne?aaei ne?aeoaaiiyi ca aeieoiaioae?noeeith, o?ioe iaioith i??ith oea
noino?oueny ? “Iieoaae”. “Aaoo?ei” iiaeia iacaaoe ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iei
oai?ii, o yeiio aeieoiaioaeuei? aeai? aeineoue i?ea?iaeueii
ii?aeiothoueny c o?aaiaioaie aeaaaeee, iia’ycaieie oi c a?aeoai?aiiyi
aeoa ? aeiieo?a, oi c aee?aaeaiiyi Iio?? ?aaiii Iinii, oi c
iai?a?iiaioe/iei-iai?a?aae?noe/iei o?aeooaaiiyi ia?aco oea?nueeiai
iieeiaieea Iao?a Nei??ia, oi c /enoi oeaeaoeueeeie aeiiaaaiiyie
Iaioeeiaa.

*e ia iaeoa?aeoa?i?oei yaeuai eaie?anueeiai aeiieneo ? ae?aeiae. Aiie
caeaa?eueoiai iathoue ?ethno?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?, aenooiathoue ia no?eueee
ye eiioe?eoii-iai?oaeai?, ne?eueee ye iiaooia? e ?ioi?iaoeai?.
I?aai?ciaaia oaeei /eiii iiaeaiiy iaae?a? oi?i oi caieoaiiy-a?aeiia?ae?,
oi aca?iiaeiiiaiaiue, oi ae?aeiao c aeii?iaioith aeneiaethaaiue iaeiiai
c? ni?aaan?aeiee?a. ? eeoa c??aeea o?aieythoueny ae?aeiae-aeeniooe,
ae?aeiae-”aeaiai?”.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? iacao “Eiiiiceoe?ei?
iniaeeaino? oai?o”. Ine?eueee eiiiiceoe?y ia?aaeian?i ae?aaea?
aca?iiae?th eoo?a ci?o noa’?eo?a ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o c eiai ie?aieie
aeaiaioaie oa niiniaaie ciaethaaiiy na?oo, a a oe?a?inueeiio
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? aiia ye naiino?eia anoaoe/ia eaoaai??y aeine?aeaeaia
ua iaaeinoaoiuei, oi aaciaith oai?aoe/iith i?aoeath i?e ?ice?eoo? noaea
nooae?y ?in?enueeiai a/aiiai A.Oniainueeiai, a ye?e aaoi? ?icaeyaea?
“oeiieia?th eiiiiceoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae o ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith eooa
ci?o”, aeae?eyth/e i?e oeueiio /ioe?e noa?e, aea a?i iiaea aooe
cao?eniaaiee: ieai ioe?iee, o?acaieia?? (iiaeaii?aee), /ano-i?inoi?o ?
ineoieia??. Niinoa?aaeaiith ca ia?aa?aii oa aca?iiae??th ??cieo
aaoi?nueeeo iiceoe?e noiniaii ia’?eo?a cia?aaeaiiy (aa?i?a oai?o) ?
i?enay/aia oey /anoeia aeena?oaoe??. Iii?iei iiiyooyi o i?e ? “ia?ac
aaoi?a”, ui ni?eeia?oueny ia i?inoi ye ?aaeueiee ienueiaiiee, a ye
“ao?eaiiy o??? na?aeiiino?, oiai iiaeyaeo, yeee aecia/a? oaanue neeaae
cia?aaeaiiai o oai??”. One?ae ca A.Ni?eyinueeith ?ic??ciy?ii “aeania
aaoi?a”, ?iciia?aea/a, iiia?aea/a oa aaoi?a-aa?iy. ?iciia?aea/ ? “aeania
aaoi?” ioioiaeith?oueny c ?aaeueiei ienueiaiieeii. “Aeania aaoi?o”
a?aeiii ana i?i naiai aa?iy, a?i caeaoai iioeaoaaoe eiai a/eiee ?
aeanoe, iiaea aaeaaaoeny iaa?oue aei o?einionueeeo ocaaaeueiaiue.
?iciia?aea/ aenooia? ciai?oi?i niinoa??aa/ai aa?i?a oa iiae?e, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny o oai??. Iiia?aea/ aea ? iin??i “/oaei?” (ia
ienueiaiieeiai?) na?aeiiino?. I?e iio?aa? a?i aa?a ?aaeueio o/anoue o
ae??. Aaoi?-aa?ie ni?eeia?oueny ye nai ienueiaiiee, ui aeani? iiaeyaee
neio?ii?co? c iiaeyaeaie ia?niiaae?a. O “Iacai?” A.Eaieiai “ia?ac
aaoi?a” aecia/a?oueny, a iniiaiiio, ni?a?nioaaiiyi ?iciia?aea/a oa
aaoi?a-aa?iy (a ie?aieo neooaoe?yo ia?ii ? “aeania aaoi?a”).

2.1.Ioe?ii/i? eooe ci?o aaciina?aaeiuei ni?eythoue aena?oeaiith
aaoi?nueei? ?aeaeii? iiceoe??, oi/a oe?e iao? a i?aenoieo
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? e iiaeaii?aa, ineoieia?/ia ? /anii?inoi?iaa ieiueie. O
iaioaeia?? iiaeeeaa iani?ai??i?noue ia?niiaaeieo ? aaoi?nueeeo ioe?iie o
oaiii?aeueiiio, c??aeea iiaeaii?aiio ieaiao, ui aeeeeeaii, i/aaeaeue,
/aniaith aeenoaioe??th i?ae ia??iaeii aaciina?aaeiuei? ae?? oa
iaienaiiyi oai?o. Iaeiae oea nooo?ai ia ci?ith? eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee
iaioaeia??. Ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao “ioe?iee” iaea?eueo aieeaa? noa?a
ineoieia??. I?e ia?aaoaaii? aaoi?a ia ciai?oi?e iiceoe?? noiniaii aa?iy,
yeee ? ia’?eoii eiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, iiaea noai?thaaoeny ni?iuaia aai
oaeueoeaa a?aaeaiiy i?i aeaio iniao. Oea ianaiia?aae iia’ycaii c
ioe?ieith aaoueiaia Iacaie. A?i aenooia? c?aceii aa?ieiai? ethaeeie, o
ye?e iii?/a?oueny i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae ciai?oi?i ? aioo??oi?i “y”, yea aoea
iin??i “/iainue iacaaaiaiiiai aeey ?icoio, iai?ici?i-oaiiiai ?
iacae/aeiiai”, a?aeaeaaaea aeaieio caiiei ?iceioai ? aiaeii/an aeaaea
i?i /enoioo noie?iiy. I?e ciaethaaii? oea?y Iao?a /e ei?iey Ea?ea oaeeo
i?iaeai ia aeieea?, ai aaoi? a?eueii a?a?o? i?ae ?ao?iniaeoeaiei ?
neio?iiiei eooii ci?o. Ioe?iea oeeo ?noi?e/ieo iinoaoae cia/ii i?ino?oa
? iaa?oue aeaui iaeiiaa?aia: Ea?ei O?? ciaeueiao?oueny a aeon?
?iiaioe/ieo ?aeaaeueieo aa?i?a, Iao?i ? – ye aa?aa? ? aeaniio, oi/a oie
aea ei?ieue ia oaio? aiye?a, a oea? ?icoi?? ae?? Iacaie iaa?oue i?ney
eiai ia?aoiaeo aei oaaae?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? ia?ace a?aeoai?ththoue
o?aaaae?th aaeeeeo ethaeae, ye? ciooai? c??eaoeny aeanieo ii/ooo?a
caaeey aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a.

Aeineoue nai???aeiith o iia?no?aiio oeeee? ? iinoaoue Iio?? Ei/oaa?aie,
yea ii?aeiaea o nia? ?ene eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii? iniae oa aano?aeoii?
iaae?? ia caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino?. Ieai cia?aaeaiiy i?ioenoi?oue i?e
oeueiio ieaiia? ae?aaeaiiy. A ioe?ioe? aaoi?a-?iciia?aea/a Iio?y ?
aei/eith aaia?aeueiiai noaeae?, oiae? ye o o?aaiaioa?i?e ioe?ioe?
ia?niiaae?a aiia – oi iaae?y ia aine?an?iiy Oe?a?ie (aaoueiai), oi
?aeay iacaeaaeiino? (*oeeaae/), oi i?oieia?/ia ?eaia c O?iyinueei? a?eie
/e aa/i?iaa c??ieoey c noc??’y Aeecithe?a (Oe?a?ia oiae?
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c O?i?th). Iani?ai??i?noue ieaio cia?aaeaiiy ieaiia?
ae?aaeaiiy ni?ey? ?aeaeiiio “aeoiaeia?” aeaiiai oai?o ca iaae?
?noi?e/ii? aeiae ii/aoeo XVIII noie?ooy a Oe?a?i? o “iica/ania?” aei??e.

2.2.Iiaeaii?a? eooe ci?o. Noa?ith iiaeaiiy aaoi?a, “a?aeaeaeaiiai” a?ae
ia?niiaaea, ? ?iciia?aeue, i???ioiaaia ia ii?ie e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae,
aeneiaethaaiiy ae ia?niiaae?a, ye i?aaeei, caaaa/ai?
?iciiaii-i?inoi??/ieie aeaiaioaie, ui ao?eththoue o nia? aeoo /ano, a
yeiio aeeaooue aa?i?, oa aeoo ?oiueiai nioe?aeueiiai noaio, oiio /?oeiio
i?inoaaeaiith ca ci?iith aaoi?nueeeo iiaeyae?a ni?ey? iciaeiieaiiy c
iniaeeainoyie iiaeaiiy aa?i?a. Oea aea? ciiao ia?aeiiaoeny, o yeee
iiiaio neiaa ia?niiaaea “ae?aieththoueny” a aaoi?nueeo ?iciia?aeue,
aiane?aeie /iai ooai?ththoueny a?a?eaei? eiino?oeoe??. Iaeiae o
iaioaeia?? iiaeaiiy ia?niiaae?a iaeaea ia ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaia. Uaneeaee
aeiyoie iii?/a?oueny o?eueee a ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iio??” (“Oea?”) oa i?e
a?aeoai?aii? aeneiaethaaiue nioieea I?o/ea ? ea?eee?a. Caeaa?eueoiai ae
iniaeea?noth oai?o ? noee?caoe?y iiae ia?niiaae?a i?ae aaoi?nueeo. Oiae?
/eoa/a ia iieeaea? a?aaeaiiy, ui aanue oaeno iia?no?aiai oeeeeo
iaeaaeeoue ?aeeiiio iiaoeaa?, yeee aeeaaea? nai? neiaa a onoa
ia?niiaae?a, o?acaieia?/ii ceeaath/enue c ieie. Iaoa??aeueii oea
ae?aaea?oueny o aeei?enoaii? iaaeania i?yii? iiae. Oaeei /eiii, aaoi?
iaeaea caaaeaee caeia? aioo??oith iiceoe?th noiniaii iiae ia?niiaae?a.
I?e oeueiio iaa?oue aaaeei aecia/eoe, /e oi a?i ? aaoi?ii-aa?i?i, a /e
aa?i?i-?iciia?aea/ai.

Eeoa o aeiyoeiaeo neooaoe?yo A.Eaieee iineoaiao?oueny ?iaioaaiiyie, o
yeeo i?cia?oueny niaoeeo?ea aeneiaethaaiue ia?niiaae?a. Caaaeii aea c
ono aa?i?a c?eaathoueny iaeo?aeuei? ?iaia. “Aeia” ca oaeo
iaeiiiai?oi?noue caiaeeoueny ua e aei i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei?
iaioaeueiino?, aei “oai?iae” iaei?in?a. Aaeaea caa?oaiiy iaeei aei
iaeiiai /a?ac ?iaia ii aaoueeia? (?aai Noaiaiiae/, Aaneeue Eaiio?eiae/,
Ethaia Oaaaei??aia) a?aei aeoiee a?ae ?in?enueeeo ?iaioaaiue ?
aeaiiino?oaaei ianooi ia oe?a?inueeo aaoiiiii?noue, aoei iciaeith
ci?aaethaaiiy ethaeae ye ie?aieo ? oa?aeoa?ieo iniaenoinoae.

C??aeea ci?ie aaoi?nueeiai eooa ci?o i?ciathoueny /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy o
eiai iiaeaii? “/oaeeo ne?a”, a oi e oe?eeo ?a/aiue, ye? iaaeathoue
aieth/i-na?eanoe/iiai /e o?aaaae?eiiai caaa?aeaiiy o?ac?, ii?aeiothoueny
c iiaith ?iciia?aea/a ia oiiaao i?ioenoiyiiy /e aeiiiaiaiiy. “*oae?
neiaa” o noee?noeoe? ia?niiaae?a cono??/athoueny aeineoue /anoi, aea
neoaeaoue o?eueee aeey a?aeoai?aiiy aiioe ? aioo??oiuei? eoeueoo?e
iaaieo aa?i?a.

2.3.*anii?inoi?ia? eooe ci?o aeathoue oyaeaiiy i?i “iiaaae?ieo” aaoi?a o
cia?aaeoaaiiio na?o?. Oaiii?aeueii A.Eaieee caeaa?eueoiai ia?aaoaa? ia
iiceoe?? ?iciia?aea/a (aeei?enoaiiy ieioeiai /ano o iia?nooaaii?), a
i?inoi?iai ceeaa?oueny c ia?niiaaeai. Oaea ceeooy iiaea aooe aeineoue
o?eaaeei ? ioiiethaaoe iaeaea aanue ?icae?e. A io iine?aeiaiee iaeyae
ia?niiaae?a /e i?noey iiae?e cae?enith?oueny aaoi?ii cia/ii ??aeoa.

O?aiey?oueny o oaeno? ia eeoa i?inoi?iaa, a e oaiii?aeueia
neio?ii?caoe?y aaoi?a c aa?i?i (ia?ao?ae aei oaia??oiueiai /e
iaeaooiueiai /ano), aea “i?ee??ieth?oueny” a?i anueiai eeoa aei e?eueeio
ia?niiaae?a (Iacaie, Iio??, *oeeaae/a, Aieia?ianueeiai), oa e oi
o?eueee ia yeonue ieoue. Iio?i ciiao a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ao?ae ia eoo ci?o
aaoi?a-?iciia?aea/a, aeae? – iao?eaaea neio?ii?caoe?y c iaaiei
ia?niiaaeai. Ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo /aniaeo ieai?a ni?ey? oe?e?niiio
?ice?eooth ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo oai?o. Iaeaeaa eooe ci?o ia
eiio?anoothoue i?ae niaith, a ie?ii ni?a?niothoue. Ieioeee /an
iia?aeiiey? i?i uinue, oaia??oi?e ? iaeaooi?e iienothoue ? cia?aaeothoue
iiaa/aia ? aei??yia.

O iaea?eueo iai?oaeaieo nthaeaoieo iiiaioao iaioaeia??, iniaeeai o
iia?no? “Aaoo?ei”, ui ia?aiiaiaia oaeethaaiiyi ? nooe?eueiith o?eaiaith,
ai iia’ycaia c a?aeoai?aiiyi aeoa, iii?/a?oueny iino?eia ci?ia
eaie?anueeeo /anii?inoi?iaeo iiceoe?e. O ?icae?e? “A?aoeue”
niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?oue iiaeyae c aenioe “ioaoeiiai iieueioo”, aei
yei?, caaaeii, iiaea aeioyaiooeny o?eueee anthaeenouee “aeania aaoi?”.

Aaoi?nueei-ia?niiaaeia ceeooy (eoo ci?o aaoi?a-aa?iy) a ie?aieo
aeiaaeeao iaae?a? i?ea?iaeueieo oi?i. Oiae? ooaeiaeiy ae?eni?noue
ni?eeia?oueny c /enoi iiaea?i?noe/ieo iiceoe?e – ieioea i?cia?oueny o
iiae?yo oaia??oi?o ? a ?o ia?aaeeaaii? aa?iyie, oiio /an o?aeoo?oueny c
iiaeyaeo a?/iino?, a ia?niiaae? noathoue ao?eaiiyi a?oaoeiieo ia?ac?a
(iaeia?oa oea noino?oueny Iio?? – ?aea? iacaeaaeiino?), ui ?
ooaeiaeiueith ?ethno?aoe??th ienueiaiieeiai? aeoiee i?i iiaoi?thaai?noue
iaaieo iiiaio?a ?noi??? ? iaiao?aei?noue iicaooeny iiieeie iiia?aaeiee?a
ca?aaee e?auiai iaeaooiueiai. Aena?oeaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai /ano e i?inoi?o
c iiceoe?e a?/iino? a “Iacai?” a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oeyoii cia?aaeaiiy, a
/a?ac oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy, na?aae yeeo o?aieythoueny ? a?euei? anioe?aoe??,
? ?ao?iniaeoe??, ? aaaaeaiiy o ia?niiaaeio oa aaoi?nueeo ?iciia?aeue
aeaiaio?a iaeaooiueiai.

2.4.Ineoieia?/i? eooe ci?o aeyaeythoue i???ioaoe?th ia ca’ycie c?
na?aeii?noth ia?niiaae?a oai?o. I?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny /anoa
a?a?aoe?y i?ae ciai?oiueith oa aioo??oiueith aaoi?nueeith iiceoe??th.
O?eaaeiai ia?aaoaaiiy aeanue “iica ia?niiaaeai” ia iii?/a?oueny, aaeaea
?iciia?aea/ o iaioaeia?? ia i?aaia caa?oaoe oaaao ia iiaaae?ieo ethaeae.
Aiia iaeaea aeiaaea? c eiai iiey ci?o. Aeiyoeii ? ?icae?e “Oea?” o
“Iio??”, aea ?ao?iniaeoeaia aaoi?nueea iiceoe?y i?cia?oueny /a?ac
“aeaeeio iiao” ii/ooo?a i?e ciaethaaii? ineoieia?/iiai ii?o?aoa oea?y,
/a?ac aeei?enoaiiy ae??ne?a, ui aeacothoue ia ia’?eoeai?noue ?iciia?ae?
(oea? “neacaa”, “oaaeea”, “caa?ioany”, “caoaaaeea”) anoaaieo ne?a oa
ae?ac?a, ye? aeyaeythoue iaiaai?noue o neacaiiio, /ei aecia?oueny, ui
iiyniaiiy a?oioo?oueny o?eueee ia i?eiouaii?: “…oea?, iaaooue,
i?eaaaeaa nia?…” Caoa neio?ii?caoe?th aaoi?nueeeo ? ia?niiaaeieo eoo?a
ci?o ia?ii aeoaea /anoi. Oa?aeoa?enoeee A.Eaieiai iiaeooue noinoaaoeny
ni?eeiyooy ye iiceoeaieo aa?i?a (Iacaie, Iio??, *oeeaae/a, I?o/ea,
I?eeea, Aieia?ianueeiai, ei?iey Ea?ea, Neaei?a, Iaea?ee, Nei??ia), oae ?
ia?niiaae?a, iicia/aieo iaaaoeaieie a/eieaie (Ethaia Oaaaei??aia,
Ei/oaae, Iaioeeia, oea?), aacoaaoeny ia o?eueee ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e, a
e ia eieaeoeai?e ineoieia?? eicae?a, oaaae?a, iineianueeeo aiye?a. Aaoi?
aaaea nai???aei? ?aii?oaae? c aeoo aa?i?a, ye? ioi?ieai? oi o aeaeyae?
?iciia?ae?, oi naiica?oo, oi niiaaae?a, oi i??e, oi ?icaeoi?a, ui ia
o?eueee a?aeiia?aea? niie?ei?e, aeaa?eii-ooaeeea?e iaoo?? ienueiaiieea,
a e a?aeia?aaea? ineoieia?th ethaeeie aa?iei, yeo oaeethaaee “aeeaeie e
caaaaeee aeanii? aeoo?”, a iaea?eueo cae/iei aoa “noai aioo??oiuei?
cina?aaeaeaiino? aai aenoaco, i?ic??iiy e inyyiiy”.

?iiae? neioac aaoi?nueei-ia?niiaaeieo iiaeyae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeon?
?ii?an?ii?noe/ieo, a oi e aeni?an?ii?noe/ieo a?yiue, ui nii??aeith? oa??
A.Eaieiai c ooaeiaei?ie no?oeoo?aie I.Eioethaeinueeiai /e A.Noaoaieea.
Oiae? oai?/a inai?iiy ?aaeueiiai na?oo aaoi?ii-aa?i?i a?aeaoaa?oueny
oe?eeii noa’?eoeaii ? ianiaaeaia aeeiai?/iith aeni?an??th. Aeai? ?ene o
eaie?anueeiio iia?nooaaii? aeyne?aaeththoueny, eiee ia?niiaae? (Iio?y,
Nei??i, ei?ieue Ea?ei) iieiythoueny a aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?yo,
iia’ycaieo c iai?iiith ? acyooyi Aaoo?eia, Iieoaanueeith aeoaith.

2.5.Neioaciaaiee “ia?ac aaoi?a” oa eiai ?ieue o oi?ioaaii?
eiiiiceoe?? oai?o. *a?ac niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?icae?eii “Ia Oe?a?i? aoei”
(iia?noue “Ia aaeaae”) aiae?co?oueny aca?iiae?y aaoi?nueeeo eoo?a ci?o a
on?o eiiiiceoe?eieo noa?ao. Iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui aiia ia o?eueee
ni?ey? aeeiiaiith ?aeaieia?/ii? ooieoe?? – iiaa?iaiith iaoe?? aeia?iai
?iai? aaoueiaia Iacaie, i?iieeiaiith a noie?iiy /eoa/a ? ni?yioaaiith
eiai aei ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue, ui aoei aeooaeueii ? a
aeaaaeoeyo? ?iee, – a e aieeaa? ia ae?iaeaiiy oe?e?niiai anoaoe/iiai
a?aaeaiiy a?ae oai?o, a yeiio ni?a?niothoue ? aeiiiaiththoue iaeei
iaeiiai eooe ci?o aaoi?a-?iciia?aea/a oa aaoi?a-aa?iy, eio?? aeoaea
u?eueii ia?aie?oathoueny. Iiaeaeoaee ae A.Eaieee aaea?oueny aei
o?einionueeeo ia?ainieneaiue, i?aei?iath/enue ia iiceoe?th “aeania
aaoi?a”.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? – “Ooaeiaei?e o?iiioii”. *anii?ino?? o
iueiio ieneeoueny ia o?eueee ye aeae no?oeoo?ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
aca?iica’yce?a o oaeno?, a e ye a?aeaeooy caaaeueieo o?einionueeeo
oyaeaiue aaoi?a i?i cia?aaeoaaio iei aiioo (ii/aoie XVIII no. a Oe?a?i?)
oa i?iaeoe?th ?? o ianooaae a?/iino?. Oea ?aei?noue eiie?aoii-iiae??aiai
oa anioe?aoeaiiai eiioeiooi?a, o ye? aoiaeyoue caaaeueiia?aeii?
o?iiioiie ii?iaa, aei?iae, cono??/?, a oaeiae iiaooiaeo, ?aeee?/ieo oa
iniaeno?nieo ?aae?e. O ??cieo iia?noyo oeeeeo aeyaeythoueny aiie a
iaiaeiaeia?e i???.

Iiaooiaee /anii?ino?? iae/?oe?oa i?cia?oueny o “Iio??”, aea
a?aeia?aaea?oueny aeiaie? niie?eiee ia??iae ?nioaaiiy Aaoueiaiueie,
ei?aeii?a yei? iiee ui ia oi?eaeany Aaeeea I?ai?/ia a?eia. Ia oa?eoi???
Iacaieiiai i?aae?iiy iaio? ie? ? aeia?iaoo (ii?a “cieioi? aeiae”
(Ae.Aei?ioaiei), “ia??eeiaiai a?eo ?icaith Oe?a?ie” (TH.?aai/aiei)). *an
ooo aoaeaiiee, c ?io?eaaie, eiioe?eoaie, ae??a’yceiaeie i?iaeaiaie. A?i
i?ioyaeiee, ioaeioiee, iiaeaeoaee iaaeeaea?oueny aei oeeee?/iiai.
Iniiaiith i?inoi?iaith iaeeieoeath aenooia? aaaaoee aea??
(aaoueiainueeee – o Ee?a? oa Aaoia/? ? aaia?aeueiiai noaeae? – o
Eiaae?aoe? e Aaoo?ei?). Oaea na?aaeiaeua ni?eeia?oueny oi ye i?ae?aniee
ooaeiaei?e na?o, ui iaa?th? aeoieo i?i ?aeee?th, oi ye i?noea caiaiaaeo
? aeaa?aaeaoe?? ethaenueei? aeoo?, yea iia’ycaia c aeieeiaiiyi e?eciaiai
o?iiioiio ii?iaa.

Ii??a ? /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oei o?iiioiiii iia?no?aiai oeeeeo. A?i
i?aei?ia?oueny iaae on?ia /anii?inoi?aie ? i?ae canoeaa? a iia?o??.
I?aaaea, o “Iio??” a?i ua o?nii ni?a?nio? c iiaooiaei o?iiioiiii.
Ine?eueee iaiaaiee, o?eaiaeiee /an, yeee i?eoaiaiiee eiio, iiee ui
i?cia?oueny o?eueee o ?iciiaao, aeoieao, niiaaaeao aaoueiaia, noa?oei oa
eicae?a, oi ii??a ia? /enoi anioe?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Ia noeea?oueny /eoa/
oi?eooe ? c iniiaiei i?inoi?ii eiai ae?? – noaiii ethaenueei? aeoo?, ui
neiaie?co? ?? ?icaiocaeai?noue, iai?aeaeaaei?noue, iaaea?aeaai?noue. I?i
noai ye iniiaio iciaeo ie?iiai oe?a?ioey ooo o?eueee caaaeo?oueny.

Ii??a oa iiaooiaee o?iiioii aeyne?aaeththoueny e??cue aca?iiae?th iaioeo
/anii?inoi??a, iaea?eueoa /a?ac cono??/ ? aei?iao. O aeai?e iia?no?, ye
? o “Ia aaeaae” oa “Aaoo?ei?”, o?iiioii aei?iae icia/a? “iniaeeaee
aca?iica’ycie i?inoi?iaeo ? /aniaeo i?eeiao, i?e yeiio ia?niiaae
cae?enith? ia?ai?uaiiy o i?inoi??, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a /an?”. O “Iio??”
aeineoue /?oei a?i aeyaey?oueny o?e/?: ye aei?iaa e?iiiai a?aeae?eo
eicae?a o Eiaae?aeo, ae?cae aaia?aeueiiai noaeae? c Eiaae?aee a Aaoo?ei
oa iaeyaeeie aaoueiaiii Ee?aa. A on?o o?ueio aeiaaeeao ia?ii oaea
eiie?aoi? nooe/ee c iineianueeei a?enueeii, ye? aeacothoue ia iac??aaiiy
e?eciai? neooaoe?? (oi nieaeaoe iaiaaeathoue ia ie?ia naei, a?aaothoue,
iaeyoue ? ieuaoue eiai, oi ia’?eoii ?oiueiai ?icaith noa? iia?c Ei/oaay,
oi aiie ciouathoueny c ethaeae ia aoae?aieoeoa? Ia/a?nueei? oi?oaoe? ?
a?aeiiaeythoue o iineooo aaoueiaiia?). *anii?inoi?iao iaiaai?noue o
aei?ic? aaia?aeueiiai noaeae? i?aeneeth? ua e “ii?? na?aaeiaeua” (ca
aecia/aiiyi Ae.Eeoa/iaa). Eiai ao?eth? neueioeeaa iiaiaea, yea ia/a
iieaeo? ianooiio aeieth Ei/oaay, ia ionea? aaia?aeueiiai noaeaeth o
Aaoo?ei, ia?aoai?thth/e oeyo o aieioi e ica?oey.

O?iiioii cono??/? aeeiio? iniiaio nthaeaoioa??io ooieoe?th o oai??. A?i
aeyaey?oueny a iae?icia?o?oeo oi?iao: cono??/-aaieao,
cono??/-ia?aaiai?e, cono??/-aeoaa, cono??/-?iciiaa. Cono??/? aoaathoue
ia?aaeaa/ai?, iaia?aaeaa/ai? oa ia?aaeaa/oaaii-iaia?aaeaa/ai?.
I?eeeaaeii inoaiiuei? ? cono??/ Iio?? c Iacaiith o Eiaae?aoe?, ui noaea
i?eaiaeii aei ianooiiiai ?icai?oaiiy ae?? ? aeiei??iii ia?a?iaeoeea
aeeooy ia?niiaae?a, i?iaeaiiino?oaaea a?aeiaeaeaiiy ieie iaeei iaeiiai.
I?e oeueiio iniaeno?niee /anii?ino?? Iio?? – ii??a, yeee a?aeoai?th?
a?ae/oaeaiiy ?? a?ae oiai ioaeioiiai /ano ? aaaaoiai i?inoi?o, a yeiio
aiia iai?aaeeaa-iai?a?nio?, – yeinue ?aioiai ?ica?th?oueny, cieea?.

Iaeaea anth ae?oao /anoeio “Iio??” ioiieth? ?aeee?/iee o?iiioii.
Aeieeiaiiy eiai coiiaeaia aoa/ath caeioaii? aei/ee aaia?aeueiiai
noaeae?, yea ni?eeia?oueny ia o?eueee ?, iiaea, iaa?oue ia no?eueee ye
?aaeueia iinoaoue, a e ye ?aeay iacaeaaeiino?, o Aaoia/ aei aaoueiaia,
ui ? ia i?inoi Iacaiith, a ua e iin??i oe??? ?aea?. O aeaiiio o?iiioii?
/an ie?o, uanoy, niieith, a oaeiae a?aee?eo? aa?oeeaeuei? i?inoi?ia?
iaeeieoe? (niioea, iaai, ci??, i?nyoeue), ia ye? iino?eii caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa a oaeno?, ? ia eeoa na?oii ?aae?e, a e neiaie?a. ? yeui
aeio?eioaaoenue o??? aeoiee, ui o ia?o?e iia?no? e?e?oueny oeo? aei
?icaaaeee anueiai oeeeeo, oi ?aeee?/iee /anii?ino?? a?aeia?aaea?
i?aeaioiaeo aei aecaieueieo aeiiaaaiue aaoueiaia. Ia aeiaaeeiai aaee/aaa
nayoi aeoo? aa?i?a ca?aa?oueny c iaea?eueoei nayoii ?ieo – ??caeaii
O?enoiaei. Aaeaea c ia?iaeaeaiiyi O?enoa o ethaenoaa ci?oeith?oueny
iaae?y ia nian?iiy, a a caeioaieo – a??a o aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie. ? iaa?oue
ceia ia anooia? a eiioe?eo c iieiaea/eie iai??aie aa?i?a, na?ae/aiiyi
/iai – iia?aei?, aa?i? aei?. Oa oaiei aceieo iao?eaea, nei?iieioua ye ?
?aeee?y o aca?ieiao aaoueiaia ? aei/ee aaia?aeueiiai noaeae?. Ia aeoo?
caeeoa?oueny oieiae ? a?eue, a “iaae Aaoia/ai aoae?ee a?o?e ? iaei
ni?aii”. ?oeiaoe?y ?aeee?? coiiaeaia aeieeiaiiyi ia?aoeiae c aieo
Ei/oaa?ai? n?i’? oa o?iiioiiii niiaeae?iue, yeee aiineoue o iaaeoi
iia?eueiee ?oo ae?? (a oeueiio ni?ey? ianaiia?aae iaaeinoaoiy
iiae??a?noue) aeaiaioe o?eaiae.

Ia??iae, cia?aaeaiee o “Iio??”, o?eaaeee – a?ae e?oa aei ceie. Iiae?aia
neooaoe?y ? a ?aooe oiiao, ca aeiyoeii “Aaoo?eia”. Oea aaaea aei cia/ii?
ia?a?aiino? ? ?ic??aeaeaiino? ooaeiaeiueiai /ano, yea ia? na?e
iiceoeaiee iiiaio, ui a?ae/oaa?oueny o oieonoaaii? aaoi?nueei? oaaae ia
cia?aaeaii? i?? ?ieo ? aeiae. O “Iio??”, ye ? a “Ia aaeaae”,
iaeyne?aa?oei aeiaiaei ia??iaeii ? aa/??, ui neiaie?co? ia?ao?aeio ii?o,
? ia?aae/oooyi ci?i. A?i a?aeiia?aea? ?noi?e/iiio noaiiaeuo Aaoueiaiueie
o 1706–1707 ?ieao. Ineoieia?caoe?? /ano ni?ey? ?ici?aaeia/oaaiiy
ciai?oiueiai i?inoi?o, yeee noa? “iaecaaeai aeoo?”. Oae A.Eaieee
i?iaeiaaeo? o?aaeeoe?? ?iiaioee?a.

O “Ia aaeaae” iaiaaiee, o?eaiaeiee /an iaeaea iiai?noth aeo?niea
aoaeaiiee, ui ni?e/eiaii oneeaaeiaiiyi noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie oa aaaeaiiyi
A.Eaieiai yeiiiaa ia’?eoeai?oa a?aeoai?eoe ?noi?e/i? a?aeiiino?.

?iaeea?aeoaeueiee o?iiioii aaoueiaia, yeee ?ai?oa oiiae?aithaaany aei
iaoaoi?e/iiai /anii?inoi?o ieoieo o?iyiae, ui aeiaeeaathoue o aea/eeo
na?e inoaii?e aeaiue, ca?ac iaaaaeo? /anii?ino?? aa?oieea ia ?icaoeaiiio
noaiiaiio eii?. ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?caeoey ia ioae?eiio eii? o oai??
i?ea?iaeueia ? aea?aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae cia?aaeaiiy Iacaie o
na?oia?e ?iiaioe/i?e e?oa?aoo??. Aeey A.Eaieiai ?icaoeaiee e?iue– oea
o?eaiaeiee /an, ui iaaaeaaaiii eaoeoue oia?aae, aioiaee ?icoiioaoe an?o,
ooi iieieoueny i?ae eiai iiaaie. Ai?oao “noaiiaee” ye i?inoi?iaa iciaea
iaaea?aeaaii? Oe?a?ie oaae aeei?enoaiee ia aeiaaeeiai: o?aaa aooe
iaaaeyeei aa?oieeii, aieiae?oe iaaecae/aeiei ?icoiii ? ieeuei?noth, uia
oo?eiaoeny a n?aee? ia oa?eoi??? Aaoueiaiueie a oaeee ianiie?eiee
ia??iae. O iaioaeia?? oieono?oueny oaaaa ia aeaiiio iniaeno?niiio
o?iiioii? aaoueiaia oiae?, eiee iniiaiith iaoith Iacaie noa? caeiaoooy
aie? aeey nai?? aaouee?aueie – o ia??iae Aaeeei? I?ai?/ii? a?eie.
Iaoaoi?e/iee /anii?ino?? aa?oieea ia ?icaoeaiiio noaiiaiio eii?
ae?aaea?oueny ye o eiie?aoieo ae?yo aaoueiaia, oae ? /a?ac aiae?c
ia?aaeeaaiue aa?iy o iiiaio ?o i?io?eaiiy. A?i ni?aa?aeiineoueny c
iaeaaaeeea?oei /anii?inoi?ii oiio – ii?iaii.

Ii??a o “Ia aaeaae” inieneth?oueny /a?ac a?aeoai?aiiy oiaeo aieth/eo
anioe?aoe?e o aaoi?nuee?e na?aeiiino? /e na?aeiiino? aa?i?a. sse
iniaeno?niee o?iiioii a?i iaieiae?aa? I?eeeii i?ney i?i/eoaiiy eenoa
ei?iey Noai?neaaa aei Iacaie, a oaeiae Ei/oaa?i, eiee oie iieiy?oueny a
?ie? i?aenoaeiiai ia?aae a??ciei ii?o?aoii Iao?a ?. Eiie?aoi? i?inoi?ia?
aeaoae? i?aee?aneththoue o?aa?ci noaiiaeua. Ni?ey? oeueiio aeoeaiooaaiiy
oaaae ia i?inoi?? iineianueei? “eoeueoo?e”, ia eieuei?? e?ia? oa ia
“noaiia?e” iaioaeueiino? oe?a?ioe?a, oaeoe ?icaiocaeaiino? yei? aaea
?aaeueii cono??/athoueny (c?aaea Ei/oaay e ?ne?e), a o “Aaoo?ei?”
aeyaeythoueny ua /?oe?oa (iiaaae?iea Iina, Eaiaeeae, naeyi, ye? aioia?
aeaeaoe Iaioeeiao *a/aey, uia eeoa a?yooaaoe aeanio oeo?o, iiyaa
a?eueoy?a, aeey eio?eo iaia? i?/iai nayoiai). Noai o oai?? A.Eaieiai
oiiae?aith?oueny aei ?icoi?iiy eiai ae ?.Iaeaitheii. Iaeiae aaoi?
iaioaeia?? ia aaea?oueny aei oaei? aieth/i? ??ceino?, ye ni?aaoeue
“Noaiiai? Aeeaaee”. A?i ia no?eueee caeioaa/o? ethaeae, ne?eueee
i?ineoue o a?/iino? iiuaaee aeey nai?o caieye?a, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e
oeueiio iaa?oue neiaa ?ic?i’yoiai O?enoa: “I?inoe ?i, Ainiiaee, ai aiie
ia a?aeathoue, ui oai?youe”.

O “Aaoo?ei?” ii??a aeyne?aaeth?oueny ua a?eueoa, i?ae o “Ia aaeaae”.
Ae?y ooo a?aeaoaa?oueny anueiai e?eueea aei?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
oaiii?aeueiiai caouaiiy ? ciaioaiiy ia?a?aiino?. A?o?oaeoii?ea /aniieeio
neeaaei?oa. Oaeaee?noue /ano ia?inoa? c ia?oeo ?icae?e?a. Aeoeaioo?oueny
oaaaa oaea ia ia aa/i??, a ia ii/?, ui ni?eeia?oueny ye iaeo?aa?/i?oa,
ae??oaeueia ii?a. A a ia??iae iaea?eueoi? aeeiai?ee /ano (i?e
a?aeoai?aii? aeoae) iaoyee ia aeiaiao ii?o acaaae? a?aeeeaeathoueny. Ona
caiaeeoueny aei ieo?. I?e oeueiio aaeeea cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny
iaeii/aniaino?, yeith aaoi? o ?aooe oiiao iaeaea ia iineoaiao?oueny.
Iaeaaaeeea?oeie oiiinaie Aaoo?eia, ui ai?eea?oueny c? nia?oth, ? aiaiiue
? ?o?ie.

Iniiaiei o?iiioiiii aeaioiiieea “Iieoaaa” ? /anii?ino?? aei?iae, ui
ni?eeia?oueny ye oeyo aaoueiainueeeo a?enuee o iiooeao ieioeiai (aei?iaa
aa?noa?oueny a Aaoo?ei). Ieioea oaea ao?a/aii (aaoueiainueea
?aceaeaioe?y cieuaia aei oea), aea eicaeai oea ua ia a?aeiii. Neiaieii
/aniieeio aenooia? ??ea Aeania. ? oi/a ia?ao?ae /a?ac ia? aaoueiainueeeo
a?enuee ? ?noi?e/iei oaeoii, a?i ?icoi??oueny ni?aaae?
ii-aa?aee?o?anueee: ia iiaeia oa?eoe a iaeio ? oo ae ??/eo aea?/?. Iao?
iiaa?iaiiy i?iaayiiai i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny a?aeiia?aeia iiaoaeiaa
ooaeiaeiueiai /ano, yeiio A.Eaieee iaiaaa?oueny iaaeaoe ?en iiaooiaino?,
a i?ino?? neio?ii?coaaoe c aiaeia?/ieie no?oeoo?aie “Iio??”. Aea iiaoo
ie?o – oea, cae/aeii, ia iiaoo a?eie, oiio a aei?ic? o?aieythoueny
nai???aei? ia?aiiie, a?aoo? ianiiae?aaii aeieea? aaee/aciee o?iiioii
ii?iaa, aeaoa?i?iiaaiee iiaa/aieie ?aooeaie eieeoiuei? noieeoe?. Aae
oiae? ia?niiaaeai noa? c?icoi?ei, ui oe?ia ao?a/aiiai iaaeoi aaeeea,
eiai ia iiaa?iooe iacaae. Aanue iaaeieeoi?e na?o ia?aoai?th?oueny o
oaeaeaaaa??anueeee i?ino?? ionoee, yeo aaea i?ui ia a ciic?
e?ea?aeoaaoe. ? iaa?oue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ai?ioueae o ae?oaiio oii? (aei?iaa
ooo i?ieeaaea?oueny o iiooeao e?auiai iaeaooiueiai) a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeineoue aiaoe/ii. Ni?ey? oeueiio ua e aeaoeeaa iiaiaea: neeuei? ii?ice,
a iio?i aaeeea a?aeeeaa.

O “C-i?ae Iieoaae aei Aaiaea?” o?iiioii aei?iae oaae ? anaia’?iiei. C
iaeiiai aieo, oea ?aaeueiee oeyo, ui cae?enith?oueny iaaeiaeoeaie
eicaoeueeeo a?enuee o iiooeao i?eooeeo, a c ?ioiai – iiaei?iae o
a?/i?noue /a?ac ethaenueeo iai’youe, eio?a cina?aaeaeo? o nia?
i?inoi?ia? ? /ania? iaeeieoe?, caeaoia caaoaaoe aai aine?aoaoe ?aea?
ieioeeo iieie?iue oa ?iaia ?o iin??a. Aei?iaa aaaeea – ia niiy/ia, a
niaeioia. A?aee?eoee i?ino??, yeei aiia i?ioiaeeoue, aa?iii?th? c
a?eueiei i?inoi?ii eicaoeueeeo aeoo. Iei ianaiia?aae ? noai, ui a aeai?e
iia?no? aenooia? eiie?aoiith aaia?ao?/iith ?aae??th, yea a?aaea?
iaeiia??iith e?anith ? aaaaonoaii. Eaie?anueea cia?aaeaiiy noaio
oiiae?aith?oueny aei aiaie?anueeiai, oa ca iaeueiaie/?noth, iaaooue,
ia?aaa?oo? ? eiai. A?eueiee noai oaea ia cao/eoue ia?aceeai aei
oa?aeoa?enoeee ethaenueei? aeoo?, a neiaie?co? oa ao?a/aia ? aei aieth
??aeia, /ei ? oaea iaaeinyaeiee aeey eicae?a-ai?a?aio?a i?ino?? Oe?a?ie.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae iiaoeeith “Iacaie”
A.Eaieiai. Aeaco?oueny ia oa, ui aiia aca?iiiia’ycaia c ?aeaeiei
ni?yioaaiiyi oai?o, oiio /anoi ?noi?e/ia iaioaeia?y ia?anooia? iaae?
“caieiooino?” ? noa? “a?aee?eoith” o no/anio ienueiaiieeia? aeiao, ui
aoei oa?aeoa?ii cao?aeiioe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e i?ic? ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy.

“Iacaia” ? aeineoue neeaaeiei aeai?iaei ooai?aiiyi, yea, aoaeo/e iacaaae
?noi?e/iei iia?no?aei oeeeeii, caaaa/o?oueny iciaeaie aaeao?enoe/ii?
o?ii?ee oa aiiia?, iaaeo? c ?noi?eei-aeieoiaioaeueiith oa
ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iith e?oa?aoo?ith. Iiaeaeoaee ae yne?aai aeyaey?oueny
?noi?eei-ooaeiaeiy aeii?iaioa.

O aeai?e ooaeiaei?e no?oeoo?? aeo?eiaia e??i-ai?/ia iaia?a aeeeaaeo,
oiio o aca?iiae?? aaoi?nueei-ia?niiaaeieo eoo?a ci?o ia?ii ae?aci?
ia?aaaae aioo??oiuei? iiceoe?? iaae ciai?oiueith, a “ia?ac aaoi?a”
a?eueoa ni?eeia?oueny ye aaoi?-aa?ie, i?ae aaoi?-?iciia?aea/.

“Ia?ac na?oo” i?cia?oueny e??cue ?aei?noue anioe?aoeaiiai oa
eiie?aoii-iiae??aiai eiioeiooi?a ? noaiiaeoue oe?e?nio nenoaio, o ye?e
aca?iiae?thoue, aca?ii?icaeaathoueny, ???a?o?/ii i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny ?
aieeaathoue iaeei ia iaeiiai iae??ciiiai?oi?o? /anii?inoi?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. ?noi?e/ia iia?noue Aiaaeaia Eaieiai “Iio?y”: o?iiioii?/ia no?oeoo?a
oai?o // Aeeaineiai. – 1998. – ?1. – N.3–6.

2. Oa?aeoa? /aniieeio a ?noi?e/i?e iia?no? Aiaaeaia Eaieiai “Aaoo?ei”
// A?niee I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. O?eieia?y. Aeione 2. –
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997. – N.80–84.

3. E??ee ia?aiaaa? ai?ea, aai Ni?iaa eiiiiceoe?eiiai aiae?co oao?aeia??
A.Eaieiai “Iacaia” // Ia?aaae. – 1998. – ?1. – N.152–157.

4. ?aai Iacaia oa Iio?y Ei/oaa?aia a ?noi?e/i?e ?iiai?noeoe? Aiaaeaia
Eaieiai // Aeaea?aea. – 1998. – ?1. – N.28–32.

5. *an ? i?ino?? o o?eeia?? Aiaaeaia Eaieiai “Iacaia” // Iiaoeea
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo. Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – Ee?a–Oa?nii, 1996.
– N.141–142.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaeueithe A.?. Iiaoeea ?noi?e/ii? ?iiai?noeee Aiaaeaia Eaieiai. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 – oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a. –
I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i.A.Noaoaieea, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?cia? ooaeiaeiuei? nai???aeiino? iaioaeia??
A.Eaieiai “Iacaia”. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeai?iaeo, eiiiiceoe?eieo
oa o?iiioii?/ieo iniaeeainoae oai?o c?iaeaii ni?iao inyaiooe aioo??oith
i?aai?caoe?th eiai ooaeiaeiuei? no?oeoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii: “Iacaia” ?
?noi?e/iei iia?no?aei oeeeeii, ui ia? ua e aeaye? iciaee aiiia?, ?iiaio
oa aaeao?enoe/ii? o?ii?ee; iaioaeia?y noi?oue ia iaae? i?ae ?noi?e/iith
ooaeiaeiuei-aeieoiaioaeueiith oa ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iith e?oa?aoo?ith; o
eiiiiceoe?? aaoi?nueeee aioo??oi?e eoo ci?o ia?aaaaea? iaae ciai?oi?i,
a?aeiia?aeii aaoi?-aa?ie i?aaaeth? iaae aaoi?ii-?iciia?aea/ai, a
A.Eaieee aeio?eio?oueny e??i-ai?/ii? iaia?e aeeeaaeo; ooaeiaei?e
o?iiioii oai?o neeaaea? oe?e?nio nenoaio, o ye?e aca?iiae?thoue
iae??ciiiai?oi?o? /anii?inoi?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaoeea, aeai?, eiiiiceoe?y, o?iiioii, eoo ci?o, ia?ac
aaoi?a, ia?ac na?oo.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeueithe A.E. Iiyoeea enoi?e/aneie ?iiaienoeee Aiaaeaia Eaieiai.–
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iiai noaiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01 – oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. –
I?eea?iaoneee oieaa?neoao ei.A.Noaoaieea, Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeeth iinayuaii aiaeeco ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai naiaia?acey
iaioaeiaee A.Eaieiai “Iacaia”. Ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey aeai?iauo,
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo e o?iiioiie/aneeo iniaaiiinoae i?iecaaaeaiey naeaeaii
iiiuoeo iinoeaiooue aioo?aiithth i?aaiecaoeeth aa ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
no?oeoo?u. Onoaiiaeaii: “Iacaia” anoue oeeeeii enoi?e/aneeo iiaanoae n
iaeioi?uie i?eciaeaie yiiiae, ?iiaia, aaeeao?enoe/aneie o?iieee;
iaioaeiaey noieo ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo enoi?e/aneie
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-aeieoiaioaeueiie e ooaeiaeanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie
eeoa?aoo?ie; a eiiiiceoeee aioo?aiiyy oi/ea c?aiey aaoi?a i?aiaeaaeaao
iaae aiaoiae, niioaaonoaaiii aaoi?-aa?ie i?aaaeee?oao iaae
aaoi?ii-?anneac/eeii, a A.Eaieee i?eaea?aeeaaaony ee?i-yie/aneie iaia?u
iiaanoaiaaiey; ooaeiaeanoaaiiue o?iiioii i?iecaaaeaiey ninoaaeyao
oeaeinoioth nenoaio, a eioi?ie acaeiiaeaenoaotho naiua ?aciiia?aciua
a?aiaia-i?ino?ainoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiyoeea, aeai?, eiiiiceoeey, o?iiioii, oi/ea c?aiey,
ia?ac aaoi?a, ia?ac ie?a.

SUMMARY

Valnyuk B.I. ?oetics of Historical Novels by Bohdan Lepky. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree in Philology by speciality 10.01.01 –
Ukrainian literature. – Precarpathian University named after V.Stefanyk,
Ivano-Frankivsk, 1998.

The paper provides insight into specific aesthetic features of
B.Lepky’s penthology “Mazepa”. The research attempts to present the
internal arrangement of the work’s aesthetic stucture investigating its
genre, compositional and chronotopic pecularities. It has been
established the “Mazepa” is a historical narrative cycle that
incorporates some elements of the epic, novel and belles-lettres
chronicles. As a penthology it stands on the boundary-line between
historical documentary and historical fiction writings. In terms of
composition the internal writer’s concept prevails over the external
one. Respectively, the author-character prevails over the
author-narrator. B.Lepky employs a lyrico-epic manner of representation.
The chronotopic patterns of the work function as an integral system
which consists of variety of interacting temporal planes.

Key terms: poetics, genre, composition, chronotope, concept, author as a
character, presentation of the world.

O?ai/aiei I.A. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oai?/anoai, aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue,
/aeiaae. — I.: Nia. ienaoaeue, 1982. — N.399.

Aeea.:Ii?euenueeee TH. Aoa/a ia?aae ae?eni?noth (“Iacaia” — Aiaaeaia
Eaieiai) // Iia? oeyoe. — 1929. — ?7. — N.112-119.

Aa?oieiiaaa E.I. Oeiieiae/aneea iniiau aeai?ia enoi?e/aneie
?iiaienoeee (Eeanneoeeaoeey aeaea).-Oaoeaio: Ecae-ai “OAI” Ocaaeneie
NN?, 1979. — N.8.

Iiniaeia A. I. (iiiay // E?aoeay eeoa?aoo?iay yioeeeeiiaaeey: A 9 o. —
I.:Nia. yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1975.- O.8.- N.925.

A?eaoeueeee I. Aeiey aaeeei? ai?/ii? oi?ie a ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo??
O?O-OO noie?oue // C?a?aiiy i?aoeue: A 5 o. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1966.
— O.4. — N.25.

Oai naii. — N.18.

Aaaaeue A.A.O. Ynoaoeea: A 4 o. (Ia?aaiae).-I.: Eneonnoai,
1971.-O.3.-N.475.

Aiae?on?a N. Iinoe i?ae /anaie (I?i oeiieia?th ?noi?e/ii? i?ice)
//Oe?a?inueea iiaa ? e?oa?aoo?a a oeie?. — 1987.- ?8. — N.15.

Aeaenaiae?iaa E.I. Niaaoneee enoi?e/aneee ?iiai: oeiieiaey e iiyoeea.-
E.: Aeua oeiea, 1987. — N.136.

Oniaineee A.A. Iiyoeea eiiiiceoeee. – I., 1970. – N.11.

Aoeianeee A.A. ?aaeeci Aiaiey. – I. — E.: Aineeoecaeao, – 1959. –
N.200.

Aeea.: Ni?eyinueea A.E. “Nayoei iaiaiiei neiaii…” – E.: Aei?i?i,
1990. – N.9–13.

Aeea.: Iaea?ia A.I. Na?oei oe?a?inueeiai Aa?iei. – E.: Ienoaoeoai, 1994.
– N.7.

Aeea.i?i oea aeao.: Iaeaithe ?. Iaei?in?enoai // Eieaa niinoa?aaeaiue:
O 2o. — Oi?iioi, Iioa??i, Eaiaaea.: Iaeeaaeii aeae-oeoaa “Aii?i
Oe?a?ie”, 1966. — O.2. — N.229-246.

Iaea?ia A.I. Na?oei oe?a?inueeiai Aa?iei. — N.33.

Ee?’yi/oe A.I. ?iiaie ?aaia O?aiea 90-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy: i?iaeaia
/ano-i?inoi?o: Aeen.eaiae.o?eie.iaoe. — E., 1993. — N.75.

PAGE

PAGE 20

Похожие записи