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Подвійний електронно-ядерний резонанс обірваних зв’язків в неметалевих твердотільних сполуках: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / І.П. Ворона, НАН

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEE IAI?AI?IA?AeIEE?A

Ai?iia ?ai? Iao?iae/

OAeE 539.219;539.184

IIAeA?EIEE AEAEO?IIII-ssAeA?IEE ?ACIIAIN

IA??AAIEO CA’ssCE?A

A IAIAOAEAAEO OAA?AeIO?EUeIEO NIIEOEAO

01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, ?uaiei Noai?neaa Noaiaiiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, A?ee Ieaenaiae? Ai?eniae/,

?inoeooo aaio?i??, i?ia?aeia?? oa ?oaeiooai?aiiy IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao o?c.-iao. iaoe, Oaneaiei Aieiaeeie? Aieiaeeie?iae/,

?inoeooo o?i?? iiaa?oi? IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 1415 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.199.01 a ?inoeooo? o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie (i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45, 03028, Ee?a,
Oe?a?ia).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie (i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45, 03028, Ee?a,
Oe?a?ia).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe ?.A.Oaeaoaac?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia a ia?oo /a?ao oei, ui
ia??aai? ca`ycee ? iaa?ae’?iiei aeaiaioii ?aaeueieo oaa?aeio?eueieo
iaoa??ae?a ? a?ae?a?athoue cia/io ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? ?o aeanoeainoae.
Iia? ciaiiy a?aeiinii i?e?iaee ia??aaieo ca`yce?a ?icoe?ththoue iao?
oyaeaiiy i?i aoaeiao oa i?e?ioa?aeoa?enoeee ??cieo ?a/iaei, iaoai?cie
aeaoaeoiooai?aiiy a ieo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeua IAss? ia ia??aaieo
ca`yceao aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i no?oeoo?o oa
iniaeeaino? ?aciiainiiai neaiaeo a?ae ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a (IOe)
oaeiai oeio, c`ynoaaoe iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy oeeo neaiae?a o
oiiia?ao?/ieo iaoiaeeeao. Oeei naiei aiie ni?eythoue iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo iaoiaeo IAss?, ?icoe?aiith eiai iiaeeeainoae. Cacia/ai? aeua
ciaiiy aaaeeea? ye aeey o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea a oe?eiio, oae ? aeey ??
ie?aieo ?icae?e?a, cie?aia aeey ?icae?eo “?aciiaini? yaeua”. sse
a?aeiii, aeani? aeaoaeoe e?enoae?a nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a. A na?oe? oeueiai iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe??
a?aeiiino? aaaeeea? oaeiae aeey ?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae no/anii?
oaoi?ee.

Aea?? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaiee aaaeaiiyi aeine?aeeoe
aeanoeaino? ia??aaieo ca`yceao o oaa?aeio?eueieo niieoeao ??cii?
i?e?iaee. O oie aea /an aei ieo noaaeeanue aeiiaa, uia aiie aoee oe?eaa?
ye o iaoeiaiio, oae ? i?aeoe/iiio ieai?. Ii?enoee e?aii?e, coaia aiaeue
oa ooea?eoe, ye? aeine?aeaeothoueny a aeena?oaoe??, yaeythoue niaith
oaoi?/ii ia?niaeoeai? iaoa??aee ? ciaoiaeyoue canoinoaaiiy o
iioiaeaeo?ii?oe?, aeiceiao??? oiui. Aea caeeoeeinue aac a?aeiia?ae?
aaaaoi ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c i?e?ino?oeoo?ith oeeo ?a/iaei. Oaeeie
ieoaiiyie, cie?aia, ? no?oeoo?a iiaa?oi? ii? o ii?enoiio e?aii??,
iaoai?ci aoiaeaeaiiy aoaeaoeth a a?ae?ieneeaiaoeo, iiaeaeue iniiaiiai
?aae?aoe?eiiai aeaoaeoo a coai?e aiae?, i?e?iaea aeanieo aeaoaeo?a o
ooea?eoao ? o.?i. C`ynoaaiiy oeeo ieoaiue aoaea ni?eyoe a?eueo
?ioaineaiiio aeei?enoaiith aeacaieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe yeeo oa?eoee aei aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aoee i?iaaaeai? o
?aieao oaie ?34 “I?e?ioaeeueiaa niaeo?ineii?y iiaeo ? ia?niaeoeaieo
iaoa??ae?a” (1994-1999 ??.) oa oaie ?28 “Aca?iica’ycie ia’?iieo oa
iiaa?oiaaeo no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ooea?eo?a c ?o iioe/ieie oa
iaai?oi?aciiainieie aeanoeainoyie” (1995-1999 ??.), ui aeeiioaaeenue
ca?aeii c iinoaiiaaie I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?iaeoo 2.3/191 “?icaeoie
iaoeiaeo iniia oa ii?iaoaaiiy iiaiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy – IAss?
oiiia?ao??” (1994-1995 ??.) oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
AeEIO Oe?a?ie, i?iaeoo 5.3.2/540 “?ic?iaea iaoiaeo ?ao?iniaeoeaii?
aeiceiao??? c aecia/aiiyi oeio aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui ae?yei ia ia’?eo”
(1993-1995 ??.) Oe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie e?ea?aeaoe??
iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe ? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?iiaaeyi
ia 1993-1995 ?iee oa ia??iae aei 2000 ?ieo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?? – iaea?aeaiiy
iiaeo a?aeiiinoae i?i i?e?iaeo, no?oeoo?o oa aca?iiae?th ia??aaieo
ca`yce?a a aeooaeueieo oaa?aeio?eueieo iaoa??aeao: ii?enoiio e?aii??,
coai?e aiae? oa ooea?eo?; anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo aeanoeainoae yaeua
IAss? a?ae ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a oaeiai oeio oa ?icaeoie iaoiaeo IAss?,
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?e?ino?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia`?eo?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaea/?.

1. Iaea?aeaiiy niaeo??a IAss? a?ae ia??aaieo ca`yce?a o ii?enoiio
e?aii??, coai?e aiae? oa ooea?eo?, aea/aiiy ?o caeaaeiinoae a?ae IA* oa
?* iiooaeiinoae, i???ioaoe?? oa oaiia?aoo?e c?acea.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao a?aeiae?a ia niaeo?e IAss?, i?aea??
iioeiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaaeoiiei? no?oeoo?e
e?i?e IAss?.

3. Anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo aeanoeainoae IAss? a?ae ia??aaieo ca`yce?a
oa no?oeoo?e ?aciiainiiai neaiaeo.

4. ?icaeoie oai??? ii?ioeiaiai IAss?, iaea?aeaiiy ae?ac?a aeey
?aciiainieo /anoio, ?ic?iaea AII i?ia?ai aeey iiaeaethaaiiy niaeo??a
IAss? ii?ioe?a.

5. Iien niaeo??a IAss? a?ae Pb-oeaio??a o ii?enoiio e?aii??, ?aaeeeaeo
CO2- a coai?e aiae? oa ia??aaieo ca`yce?a o ooea?eo?, aecia/aiiy
eiinoaio iaaeoiiei? aca?iiae?? (IOA) oa ?ioeo ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo
ia?aiao??a.

6. Aiae?c ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo aeaieo oa io?eiaiiy a?aeiiinoae i?i
i?e?ino?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia`?eo?a, cie?aia, i?noea ?icoaooaaiiy
IOe o e?enoae?/i?e a?aooe? ? no?oeoo?o ?o ioi/aiiy, iaoai?cie
aoiaeaeaiiy aeii?oie, oiiae noaa?e?caoe?? ia??aaieo ca`yce?a.

7. C`ynoaaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy neaiae?a a?ae IOe oaeiai oeio
aeey IAss? oiiia?ao??, noai?aiiy AII i?ia?ai aeey oiiia?ao?/ieo
iaoiaeee, aecia/aiiy i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo aeaoaeo?a.

8. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao??? c aecia/aiiyi oeio
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui ae?yei ia ia’?eo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. O ii?enoiio e?aii?? aia?oa ca?a?no?iaai? oa oai?aoe/ii iienai?
niaeo?e IAss? Pb-oeaio??a – ia??aaieo e?aii??aeo ca`yce?a, i???ioiaaieo
acaeiaae iai?yieo [111]. Iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?a e?i?? IAss? iaoiiaeaia
IOA Pb-oeaio?o c aoiiaie aiaeith, ye? anioe?eiaai? c ia??aaiei ca`yceii.
Aecia/ai? eiinoaioe IOA aeey 4-o eii?aeeiaoe?eieo noa?. Ca?a?no?iaaii oa
iiyniaii niaeo?e iio??eiiai aeaeo?iiii – yaea?ii-yaea?iiai ?aciiaino
(IAssss?)oa IAss?-?iaeoeiaaiiai AI? (I?-AI?).

2. Aia?oa niinoa?aaeaia iaaeoiieo no?oeoo?o neaiae?a IAss? a?ae
?aaeeeaeo CO2– iniiaiiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai aeaoaeoo coaii? aiae?. Ca
aeiiiiiaith oai??? ii?ioeiaiai IAss?, yea aoea eiie?aoeciaaia aeey
aeaiiai aeiaaeeo, aecia/aii eiinoaioe IOA oeueiai ?aaeeeaeo c yae?aie
oinoi?o (8 eii?aeeiaoe?eieo noa?) oa yae?aie aiaeith (9 eii?aeeiaoe?eieo
noa?), ui ioi/othoue aeaoaeo. Iaea?aeai? aeai? aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe
i?noea eieae?caoe?? CO2– a a?aooe? a?ae?ieneeaiaoeoo, yeee ? iniiaith
coaii? aiae?.

3. Aia?oa ca?a?no?iaaii ? iiyniaii niaeo? IAss? a ii?ioeiaiio ooea?eo?
C60. Anoaiiaeaii, ui neaiae IAss? iaeaaeeoue ?aaeeeaeai C60+, ye?
yaeythoue niaith ia??aai? ca’ycee iieaeoe ooea?eoo, ui ?icoaoiaai? a
i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa??. Ciaeaeaii, ui ia??aai? ca’ycee anioe?eiaai? c
aoiiaie aiaeith, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia a?aenoai? r 10 A a?ae aeaoaeoo.

4. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii nenoaiaoe/ia aea/aiiy neaiae?a IAss? a?ae
ia??aaieo ca’yce?a o iao?eoeyo ??ciiai oeio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie
iathoue aeaeyae no?oeoo?iaaieo aai aacno?oeoo?ieo ?aciiainieo e?i?e ia
ea?ii??anueeeo /anoioao yaea? ? ? noia?iiceoe?th neaiae?a ??ciiai oeio.
I?iaaaeaii ?icae?eaiiy oeeo neaiae?a, c’yniaai? ?o iaoai?cie.
Iniaeeaino? neaiae?a IAss? iiyniai? neaaeith IOA IOe oaeiai oeio c
yae?aie ioi/aiiy, ui iiaea aooe ni?e/eiaiei neeueiith i?inoi?iaith
eieae?caoe??th oaeeueiai? ooieoe?? aeaoaeo?a oeueiai oeio.

5. Ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??y AI? oa IAss? oiiia?ao?e.
Caienai? ae?ace aeey oiiia?ai o aeiaaeeao noaeiai oa iiaeoeueiaaiiai
a?aae??io?a iaai?oiiai iiey. ?ic?iaeai? AII i?ia?aie aeey iaea?aeaiiy c
oiiia?ai ?iciiae?eo ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a acaeiaae c?acea.

6. Ca aeiiiiiaith AI? oiiia?ao?? ciaeaeaii i?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?e
?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a a ieanoeieao coaii? aiae?, ii?ii?iaieo – ?
?aioaai?anueeeie i?iiaiyie oa aeaeo?iiaie c aia?a?yie 1.5 oa 3.8 IaA.
Aeyaeaia nooo?aa caeaaei?noue ?iciiae?eo aeaoaeo?a a?ae oeio
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa eiai aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Ia iniia? oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iaoiae AI? aeiceiao??? c aecia/aiiyi
aeice ? oeio aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui ae?yei ia ia’?eo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe??
?acoeueoaoe ?icoe?ththoue iiaeeeaino? oaoi?/iiai canoinoaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoa??ae?a. Cie?aia, cai?iiiiiaaia ?icoe?aia iiaeaeue
Pb-oeaio??a a ii?enoiio e?aii?? aoaea ei?eniith i?e anoaiiaeaii?
caaaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?ioa?oaeno Si/SiO2, ui iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia
i?e aeaioiaeaii? c?ace?a c iaaieie iioe/ieie oa aeaeo?e/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Aeai? i?i ?aae?aoe?ei? aeaoaeoe a coai?e aiae?
aeathoue ciiao aaeineiiaeeoe aeiceiao?e/i? iaoiaeeee ia ?? iniia?. A
aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii ? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae ?ao?iniaeoeaii?
aeiceiao???, yeee aeicaiey? ca aeiiiiiaith oiiia?ao?/ieo aei???a
aecia/eoe ia o?eueee aeico ii?ii?iaiiy ia’?eoo, a e oei aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
ui ae?yei ia iueiai. Iaoiae iiaea aooe canoiniaaii aeey aeiceiao?e/iiai
iii?oi?eiao a *i?iiaeeuenuee?e cii?. Ia??aai? ca’ycee, ciaeaeai? o
ooea?eoao aeathoue ciiao, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?o ye ciiae, eiio?iethaaoe
ye?noue ooea?eo?a i?e ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?yo (iaea?aeaiiy,
eaaoaaiiy, a?aeiaee oiui). Anoaiiaeai? caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? neaiae?a
IAss? a?ae ia??aaieo ca’yce?a aeicaieythoue a?eueo ?acoeueoaoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeae iaoiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaa?aeeo o?e oa
eiio?ieth ca ?o i?e?iaeanoeainoyie. ?ic?iaeai? AII i?ia?aie
ca?eueoothoue aoaeoeai?noue IAss? aei???a oa oiiia?ao?/ieo iaoiaeee.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a i?iaaaeaii? aei???a AI? oa IAss?;
oai?aoe/iiio iien? niaeo??a, ?o eiii’thoa?i?e ia?iaoe? oa aecia/aii?
?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo ia?aiao??a; o/ano? a aiae?c? io?eiaieo aeaieo ?
iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i no?oeoo?o aeaoaeo?a oa i?e?iaeanoeaino?
ii?enoiai e?aii?th, coaii? aiae? oa ooea?eo?a; aeine?aeaeaii?
iniaeeainoae IAss? a?ae ia??aaieo ca’yce?a, aeae?eaii? neeaaeiaeo
?aciiainiiai neaiaeo oa anoaiiaeaii? ?o iaoai?ci?a; ?ic?iaoe? AII
i?ia?ai aeey IAss? aeine?aeaeaiue oa oiiia?ao?/ieo aei???a, ?ic?iaoe?
iiaiai iaoiaeo ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia eiioa?aioe?yo: i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y
“?aaeeiniaeo?ineiie/aneea iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey a oeceea, oeiee,
aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeia” (Ee?a, 1993), XXVIIth Congress AMPERE “Magnetic
resonance and related phenomena” (Eacaiue, 1994), I International
conference on material science of chalcogenide and diamond-structure
semiconductors (*a?i?aoe?, 1994), I International autumn
school-conference “Solid state physics: fundumentals & applications”
(Oaeai?iae, 1994), 4th International Symposium on ESR dosimetry and
application (Ithioai, I?ia//eia, 1995), 18th International conference on
defects in semiconductors (Naiaea?, ssiii?y, 1995), 11th International
conference on solid state dosimetry (Aoaeaiaoo, 1995), International
school-conference on physical problems in material science of
semiconductors (*a?i?aoe?, 1995), I Ana?inneeneay eiioa?aioeey ii
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaieth e oeceei-oeie/aneei iniiaai oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey
eaae?iaaiiuo e?enoaeeia e?aiiey (Iineaa, 1996), International conference
on biodosimetry and 5th International Symposium on ESR dosimetry and
applications (Iai?inuee / Iineaa, 1998), I?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia?
“?aaeeiniaeo?ineiiey eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo n?aae” (Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 22 ioae?eaoe?yo:
9 noaooyo a iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, 2 noaooyo oa 11 oacao a
iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iniiaii? /anoeie, yea iiae?eaia
ia 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 126
iaeiaioaaiue. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 143 noi?., a oiio
/ene? 35 ?enoie?a, 5 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aii iaoo
oa caaea/? ?iaioe, a?aecia/aii ?? iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ia? iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa?. A iueiio ?icaeyiooi o?ce/i?
iniiae iaoiaeo IAss?, iienai? o? eiai aeaee, ye? iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a naia: IAss? a e?enoaeao, IAss? ia
ii?ioeao, iao?e/iee IAss?, aeaeuei?e IAss?, I?-AI?. Iieacaii, ui IAss? ?
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii aeey aea/aiiy i?e?iaee oa no?oeoo?e
aeaoaeo?a o oaa?aeio?eueieo iaoa??aeao. A?i aeicaiey? c aenieith
oi/i?noth aei??yoe eiinoaioe IOA IOe c yae?aie aoii?a ioi/aiiy,
anoaiiaeoe i?inoi?iaa iieiaeaiiy oeeo aoii?a ? oaeei /eiii aecia/eoe
i?noea ciaoiaeaeaiiy aeaoaeoo a a?aooe? e?enoaeo. Oaeiae c?iaeaii iaeyae
?ia?o ii IAss? ia ia??aaieo ca’yceao, c yeeo aeoiaeeoue, ui iniaeea?noth
IAss? a?ae IOe oaeiai oeio ? eieae?caoe?y ?aciiainieo e?i?e ia yaea?ieo
ea?ii??anueeeo /anoioao. Oe? e?i?? ? neeaaeaieie ? i?noyoue a nia?
neaiaee IAss? ??ciiai oeio. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeieie i?aoaiaeaioaie, ui
iiaeooue i?eeiaoe o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? e?i?? IAss? a?ae ia??aaieo
ca’yce?a, e??i cae/aeiiai e?enoae?/iiai IAss?, ? ii?ioeiaee IAss?,
iao?e/iee IAss? oa aeaeuei?e IAss?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaia aia?aoo?a, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aeey
aei???a oa aeiaeaoeia? oaoi?/i? i?eno?i?, ?ic?iaeai? a i?ioean?
aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iienai? oaeiae oiiia?ao?/i? iaoiaeeee
oa AII i?ia?aie, ui aoee noai?ai? aeey ia?iaee niaeo??a IAss? oa
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?e oeaio??a ca
aeiiiiiaith oiiia?ao?/ieo iaoiaeee. ?icaeyiooi iaoa??aee oa c?acee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe AI? oa IAss? aeine?aeaeaiue
ii?enoiai e?aii?th (por-Si). Aiae?c AI? niaeo??a iieacaa, ui
aeii?ioth/ei ia?aiaai?oiei aeaoaeoii a c?aceao ? Pb-oeaio? (aeaoaeo ia
?ioa?oaen? Si/SiO2) – ia??aaiee ca’ycie aoiio Si a e?aii??, ui
ni?yiiaaiee a SiO2 acaeiaae iai?yieo [111]. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy aeaoaeoo ?ic??ciythoue aeaa oeie Pb-oeaio??a:
Pb0-oeaio? c o?ueiia aoiiaie e?aii?th a iaeaeeae/iio ioi/aii? (g=
2.0016, g=2.0090) oa Pb1-oeaio?, aeaa ca’ycee aoiio e?aii?th yeiai
niieo/ai? c aeaiia aea?aaeaioieie aoiiaie Si, a o?ao?e – c aoiiii eenith
(g1=2.0058 (H [011]), g2=2.0029 (H [211]), g3=2.0069 (H [111]). A
c?aceao por-Si c iecueeith ii?eno?noth (64%) ca?a?no?iaaii eeoa AI?
neaiae a?ae Pb0-oeaio?o, a a c?aceao c aenieith ii?eno?noth(85%) –
niaeo?e AI?, ui iaoiiaeai? iaiia oeiaie oeaio??a. Oa?i?/iee a?aeiae
c?ace?a (aei 8000N) i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?aeiiniiai i?aeneeaiiy neaiaeo
a?ae Pb1-oeaio?o.

Oeiiaee niaeo? IAss? c?ace?a por-Si neeaaea?oueny c aeaio neiaeao?a, ui
?icoaoiaai? ia ea?ii??anueeeo /anoioao yaea? 1H oa 19F. Aiaeiaaee
neiaeao iieno?oueny ei?aioeaaith oi?iith e?i?? c oe?eiith 250 eAoe i?e T
= 4.2 K ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie o?eniaaiiai iaai?oiiai iiey. Iaio
?ioaineaiee 19F neiaeao ?a?no?o?oueny eeoa i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 4.2 K oa
ieae/eo ? iieno?oueny ei?aioeaaith oi?iith e?i?? c oe?eiith 125 eAoe.
?ioaineai?noue neaiae?a IAss? caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie o?eniaaiiai
iaai?oiiai iiey ? ?? iieueiaa caeaaei?noue iiaoi?th? neaiae AI?
iiaeeiaiiy Pb0-oeaio?o aeey an?o e?enoae?/ieo i???ioaoe?e. Oea icia/a?,
ui neaiaee 1H oa 19F IAss? a por-Si iaoiiaeai? aca?iiae??th inoaiiueiai
c yae?aie ooi?o oa aiaeith. I?e ?iioeueniiio caoaeaeaii? yaea?ieo
ia?aoiae?a neaiae IAss? niaaeaa c /anii aeaeo?iiii? ?aeaenaoe??. Aiae?c
niaeo??a IAss? iieacaa, ui aeii?ioth/ee aeeaae a ieo aiineoueny
iao?e/iei IAss?.

I?e iecueeeo iiooaeiinoyo ?* oa IA* ia oii? neaiaeo iao?e/iiai IAss?
a?ae Pb0-oeaio??a niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?? iaio ?ioaineaieo e?i?e c
oe?eiith aeecueei 40 eAoe. Oe? e?i?? ?icoaoiaai? neiao?e/ii a?ey
ea?ii??anueei? /anoioe i?ioii?a ? ?o niaeo?aeueia iieiaeaiiy caeaaeeoue
a?ae i???ioaoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey. Iayai?noue a niaeo?? IAss? e?i?e c
eooiaith caeaaei?noth ?o niaeo?aeueiiai iieiaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui aiie
iioiaeyoue a?ae aca?iiae?? IOe c i?ioiiaie, ye? caeiathoue iaai?
o?eniaai? iieiaeaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei iania?aiiai aeaeo?iio
(e?enoae?/iee IAss?). Aeey oiai, uia a?aeianoe e?i?? oeueiai niaeo?o aei
iaaieo noa? i?ioii?a ? aecia/eoe iaaeoiie? eiinoaioe, aoee ciyo? eooia?
caeaaeiino? a ieiuei? (110).

sse a?aeiii, ca’ycai? aoiie aiaeith caaaeaee i?enooi? a oa?i?/ii
ieeneaiiio oa por-Si o aeaeyae? SiH, SiH2 oa SiOH niieoe. Aeey aiae?co
eooiaeo caeaaeiinoae aoea aeei?enoaia oae caaia ?icoe?aia iiaeaeue
Pb0-oeaio?o. Ca?aeii oe??? iiaeae? aoiie e?aii?th ia ?ioa?oaen?
(111)Si/SiO2 ooai?ththoue aeaiaei??io a?aoeo c ia?aiao?ii aL = 0.384 ii,
a Pb0-aeaoaeoe ?iciiae?eai? ii oe?e a?aooe? aeiaaeeiai. Aiae?coaaeenue
o?e aeiaaeee, eiee i?ioii, ui aca?iiae?? c IOe, oi?io? Si-H, Si-O-H oa
H-Si-H ca’ycee. Aoiie, ui ca’ycai? c aoiiii e?aii?th, ?icoaoiaoaaeenue
acaeiaae iai?yieo [111], a aeiaaeeie ca’yce?a Si-H, Si-O-H oa H-Si-H
aeae?aeenue 0.148 ii, 0.161 ii oa 0.105 ii, a?aeiia?aeii. Eoo Si-O-H
aaaaeaany oaeei aea, ui ? aeey ca’yce?a Si-O- Si, oiaoi 1480. Iaee?auee
iien aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a aeinyaiooi a ?aieao iiaeae? Si-H
ca’yce?a.

Aeai? aenia?eiaioo aiae?coaaeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi ni?i-aai?eueoii?aio,
ui i?noeoue aeaeo?iiio ca?iai?anueeo, iaaeoiieo oa yaea?io ca?iai?anueeo
aca?iiae??:

H = HgS – gnnH + SAI (1)

Aaaaeaeinue, ui IOA ia? aen?aeueio neiao??th acaeiaae iai?yieo IOe-yae?i
? eiinoaioe IOA caienoaaeenue /a?ac eiinoaioe ?cio?iiii? oa?i??anueei?
(a) oa ai?cio?iiii? aeeiieue-aeeiieueii? (b) aca?iiae??. Oiae?
eiiiiiaioe oaici?a IOA o aeani?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao iathoue aeaeyae: Axx
= a – b, Ayy = a – b, Azz = a + 2b, a an? iaae?aaiiaeuei? /eaie ??ai?
ioeth. *anoioe IAss? a ia?oiio ii?yaeeo oai??? cao?aiue aeey aeiaaeeo
aeaeo?iiiiai ni?io S = 1/2 ? eiee yaea?ia ca?iai?anueea aca?iiae?y
cia/ii ia?aaaaea? IOA aecia/athoueny ??aiyiiyi:

(2)

aea I – aaee/eia iaai?oiiai iiey, – eoo i?ae eiai iai?yieii oa
iai?yieii ia yae?i.

Aaaaeaeinue, ui aoiie e?aii?th ia?oi? eii?aeeiaoe?eii? noa?e IOe
ca’ycai? c aoiiaie eenith, a i?ioiie iiaeooue aooe ?icoaoiaai? a?ey
aoii?a II, III oa IV noa? o aeaeyae? Si-H ca’yce?a. Aeey eiaeiiai c
oaeeo i?ioii?a, ui aca?iiae?? c iaeiei c /ioe?ueio iiaeeeaeo a por-Si
iaai?oii iaaea?aaeaioieo IOe, ia iniia? ??aiyiiy (2) aoee io?eiai?
ae?ace aeey ?aciiainieo /anoio o eaai?aoi?i?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao.
Cia/aiiy iaa?aeiieo ia?aiao??a a oa b aeey eiaeii? noa?e ciaeaeai? c
ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo /anoio IAss? aeey iaaieo
i???ioaoe?e iaai?oiiai iiey. Cia/aiiy eiinoaio iaaeoiiei? aca?iiae??
aeey ??cieo noa? iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Ia?aiao?e IOA Pb0-oeaio?o c i?ioiiaie ??cieo eii?aeeiaoe?eieo noa?.

Noa?a*enei yaea?A?aenoaiue, iia, eAoeb, eAoebaeae,
eAoeII60.681380248250III60.782201142165IV121.0271108473 Eiinoaioe b,
io?eiai? c aenia?eiaioo, oa baeae, ?ic?aoiaai? ia iniia? e?enoae?/ieo
aeaieo, ni?aiaaeathoue c oi/i?noth aei 15%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
i?aaeeuei?noue aea?aii? iiaeae?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? Pb0-oeaio?o c i?ioiiaie iaoiaeii
IAss? iieacaee, ui i?ioiie iiaeooue ?icoaoiaoaaoenue o II, III oa IV
eii?aeeiaoe?eieo noa?ao o aeaeyae? Si-H ca’yce?a. E?aii?? I
eii?aeeiaoe?eii? noa?e ca’ycai? c aoiiaie eenith. Aeiaeaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii IAssss? iieacaee, ui a?ey eiaeiiai IOe iiaea
?icoaoiaoaaoenue eeoa iaeei i?ioii.

Niaeo?e IAss? o a?aeiaeaieo c?aceao ?a?no?othoueny a cia/ii oe?oiio
ae?aiacii? IA* iiooaeiinoae a ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeieie c?aceaie. I?e
ca?eueoaii? iiooaeiino? IA* aei 5 ieAo niaeo? IAss? a iaa?aeiaeaieo
c?aceao cia/ii ciaioo?oueny ii ?ioaineaiino?, a oie /an ye o a?aeiaeaieo
c?aceao a?i c?inoa? oa caoaeo?oueny. Ie??i oiai, ia? i?noea caeaaei?noue
oe?eie e?i?? oeueiai IAss? a?ae cia/aiiy o?eniaaiiai iaai?oiiai iiey.
Oea iaaeaei iiaeeea?noue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e ?a?no?aoe?? niaeo??a
IAss? a?aeiaeaieo c?ace?a i?e a?eueo aenieeo iiooaeiinoyo IA* ie ia?ii
ni?aao c iiaei neaiaeii IAss?. Iayai?noue eooiai? caeaaeiino? eiai
oe?eie na?ae/eoue, ui a?i ia iiaea aooe neaiaeii aeaeueiueiai oa
iao?e/iiai IAss?. Ana oea iaaiaeeoue ia aeoieo i?i iiyao a niaeo?? IAss?
a?aeiaeaieo c?ace?a neaiaeo ii?ioeiaiai IAss? a?ae ?ioiai IOe.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oe??? a?iioace aoee i?iaaaeai? aeaoaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiaeaieo c?ace?a iaoiaeii I?-AI?. I?e iecuee?e IA*
iiooaeiino?, eiee a niaeo?? IAss? aeii?io? neaiae a?ae Pb0-oeaio??a,
niaeo? I?-AI? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth iiaoi?th? niaeo? AI? Pb0-oeaio??a. I?e
i?aeaeuaii? iiooaeiino? IA*, eiee a niaeo?? IAss? iineeth?oueny iiaee
neaiae, a niaeo?? I?-AI? c’yaey?oueny oe?iea e?i?y. Aiae?c ci?ie ??
oe?eie iieacaa, ui oey e?i?y ? a?aeiia?aeiee ?e neaiae ii?ioeiaiai IAss?
iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai? aei Pb1-oeaio??a.

?acoeueoaoe AI? oa IAss? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?enoiai e?aii?th
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iiaa?oiy ii? a por-Si oi?io?oueny
ieiueiaie oeio (111), a Pb-oeaio?e aenooiathoue ye ?o iaiao?aeiee
aeaiaio aeey ia?aoiaeo a?aoee e?aii?th a eiai ieneae. Aiaeaiue,
eiia??ii, aenooia? a ?ie? noaa?e?caoi?a nenoaie ia??aaieo ca’yce?a.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe AI? oa IAss? aeine?aeaeaiue
coaii? aiae?, yea aeeeeea? ?ioa?an ye iaea?eueo yne?aaee i?aaenoaaiee
eeano a?ii?ia?ae?a.

AI? niaeo? aeo?aeii? coaii? aiae? yaey? niaith oae caaiee “oiiiaee
neaiae” c g = 2.0045, oe?eiith Hpp= 0.6-0.8 iO aeey ??cieo c?ace?a oa
oi?iith, aeecueeith aei ei?aioeaai?. Iioiaeaeaiiy oeueiai neaiaeo
inoaoi/ii ia anoaiiaeaii. Aaaaea?oueny, ui a?i iaoiiaeaiee i?aai?/iith
eiiiiiaioith aiae?. Ii?ii?iaiiy aiae? ?ii?coth/ei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae noaa?eueiiai niaeo?o AI?, yeee a?eueo?noue
aaoi??a iienothoue aen?aeueiei g oaici?ii c eiiiiiaioaie g = 1.997, g =
2.0023, g c (c – aaenaaiiaeueia a?nue a?ae?ieneeaiaoeoo). Oeae neaiae
e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy aei aeic ii?yaeeo 105 A? ?
oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a ?ao?iniaeoeai?e AI? aeiceiao??? aeey
aecia/aiiy ?aae?aoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy ethaeae oa oaa?ei, a oaeiae a AI?
aeaooaaii? a?oaieia?/ieo ciao?aeie. A?i ? noia?iiceoe??th neaiae?a,
aieiaiei /eiii, a?ae ?aaeeeae?a, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeoue aoaeaoeue:
CO-, CO33-, CO3- oa CO2- c aeii?ioth/ei aeeaaeii inoaiiueiai. I?e/iio, a
aiae? ?nio? aeaa oeie NI2- ?aaeeeae?a – aii?yaeeiaai?, ui ?icoaoiaai? a
ia’?i? e?enoae?o?a aiaoeoo, oa ?icoii?yaeeiaai?.

I?ney oa?i?/iiai a?aeiaeo ieanoeiie aiae? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 250-4000N
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeiinia i?aeneeaiiy aeeaaeo aii?yaeeiaaieo NI2-
?aaeeeae?a ? a niaeo?aeueia iieiaeaiiy e?i?e AI?, cie?aia, aaea?oueny
iienaoe ae?acaie:

ie.zy H1,2r=k[g2+( g2 – g2)cos2( )]-1/2 (3)

ie.zx Hr=k[g2+( g2 – g2)cos2cos2 )]-1/2 (4)

ie.xy Hr=k[g2+( g2 – g2)sin2sin2 )]-1/2 (5)

aea Hr – ?aciiainia iiea, – eoo, ??ciee aeey ??cieo c?ace?a (ye i?aaeei
200 – 400), a?nue z ni?yiiaaia acaeiaae ii?iae? aei ieanoeiee, a a?nue y
ni?aiaaea? c e?i??th eaaeiai neieo, oa – eooe, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iai?yiie iaai?oiiai iiey a nenoai? eii?aeeiao x,y,z.

Niaeo? IAss? ii?ioeo ii?ii?iaii? coaii? aiae? neeaaea?oueny c neiaeaoo
ia ea?ii??anuee?e /anoio? yaea? 31P oa aeoaeaoo ia /anoio? i?ioii?a 1H.
I?e ci?i? aaee/eie iaai?oiiai iiey oi?ia iaio e?i?e IAss? ia
ci?ith?oueny, a oie /an ye ?ioaineai?noue oinoi?iiai neiaeaoo iiaoi?th?
ii?ioeiaee AI? niaeo?, a ?ioaineai?noue aiaeiaaiai aeoaeaoo aeyaey?
aeayea a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oi?ie neaiaeo AI? a iecueeiiieueia?e /anoei?.
?icuaieaiiy aiaeiaaiai aeoaeaoo ca?eueoo?oueny ia iaio e?eeao niaeo?o
AI?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy caoooaiiy neaiae?a IAss? i?ney ?iioeueniiai
caoaeaeaiiy yaea?ieo ia?aoiae?a iieacaee ?o niaae c /anaie aeaeo?iiii?
?aeaenaoe??, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iao?e/iee oa?aeoa? neaiae?a IAss? ?
a?aenooi?noue neaiae?a aeaeueiueiai IAss?. ??cieoey oi?i i?ioiiiiai oa
oinoi?iiai IAss? (aeoaeao oa neiaeao) iiaea aooe iiyniaia ??cieoeath
?aeaenaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aiaeiaai? oa oinoi?ii? i?aenenoai oa
iaaieie iniaeeainoyie ?iciiae?e?a yaea? a iao?eoe?. Ci?ia aeoaeaoiiai
?icuaieaiiy i?ioiiiiai IAss? oa a?aeoeeaiiy iieueiai? caeaaeiino? eiai
?ioaineaiino? a?ae oi?ie neaiaeo AI? iiaeia iiynieoe iayai?noth a
neaiaeao AI? oa IAss? aeaio eiiiiiaio a?ae ??cieo ia?aiaai?oieo
oeaio??a. Ia?oa AI? eiiiiiaioa yaey? niaith aocueeee ?ioaineaiee neaiae.
A?i ia?aaaaea? a oeaio?? AI? niaeo?o ? a?aeiia?aea? ca e?i?th IAss? c
aeoaeaoiei ?icuaieaiiyi 1=100-140 eAoe. Aaee/eia 1 ci?ith?oueny o
aeacaieo iaaeao aeey ??cieo c?ace?a, i?ioa, aeey eiaeiiai c?aceo a
ae?aiacii? g = 1.9975 – 2.0021 aiia caeeoa?oueny iino?eiith. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue a?aeianoe caaaeaio eiiiiiaioo aei iniiaiiai (ia’?iiiai)
?aaeeeaeo CO2-. Ae?oaa AI? eiiiiiaioa yaey? niaith a?eueo oe?ieee ? iaio
?ioaineaiee neaiae. A?i aeii?io? ia e?eeao AI? niaeo?o ? ii?iaeaeo?
e?i?th IAss? c 2 = 260 eAoe. I?e?iaea oeaio?o, ui a?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca
oeae neaiae, iaa?aeiia. I?aoaiaeaioaie ia oeth ?ieue ? aeuacaaaeaiee
?icoii?yaeeiaaiee ?aaeeeae CO2-. Iayai?noue aeaio eiiiiiaio a niaeo??
i?ioiiiiai IAss?, ui iioiaeyoue a?ae ??cieo ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a,
i?aeoaa?aeeee ? aenia?eiaioe ii I?-AI?.

I?ney a?aeiaeo i?e 2500C ia i?ioyc? 45 oa. aeoaeaoi?noue i?ioiiiiai
IAss? cieeaea ? ia iaio neaiaeao, ye 31P, oae ? 1H, c’yaeyeanue
no?oeoo?a, iaoiiaeaia aca?iiae??th ?aaeeeaeo CO2- c yae?aie a?aoee
a?ae?ieneeaiaoeoo.

No?oeoo?a neaiaeo IAss? a?ae yaea? 31P neeaaea?oueny c aeaa’yoe
aeoaeao?a, eiiiiiaioe yeeo yaeythoue niaith noia?i? oa ??cie/i? /anoioe
IAss?. Cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o , ui a?aeia?aaea? a?aenoaiue i?ae iieiaeaiiyie
i?e?a aeoaeaoo, iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2. No?oeoo?a i?ioiiiiai IAss?
niinoa??aaeanue cia/ii a??oa, i?ae a oinoi?iiio IAss?. A i?e iiaeia
aeae?eeoe n?i aeoaeao?a. Oi?ia oeueiai niaeo?o ci?ith?oueny i?e ci?i? H,
i?ioa iaae?eii aecia/eoe ?c oeeo ci?i aaee/eie ci?uaiue i?e?a
iaaaea?oueny. Cia/aiiy , ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o i?ioiiiiai IAss?,
iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 3.

Aeey aiae?co niaeo??a IAss? a?aeiaeaii? aiae? aeei?enoiaoaaeanue oai??y
ii?ioeiaiai IAss?, ui aoea aeaoae?ciaaia aeey aeaiiai aeiaaeeo:
aen?aeueia neiao??y IOA acaeiaae iai?yieo IOe-yae?i, aen?aeueia neiao??y
g-oaici?o, iaea IOA a ii??aiyii? c yaea?iith ca?iai?anueeith
aca?iiae??th (a, b

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