4

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?*IIAI I?IAIICOAAIIss

Iaeueiee A?eoi? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 336.2.027 : 658

Iiaeaoee oa ?oi?e aieea ia ae?iaieoeoai

08. 04. 01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*a?iyanueeee Ieaenaiae? Iaaeiae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?iain?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieicaiei Aeieo?i Aaneeueiae/,

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee o?iainiaee ?inoeooo
i?e I?i?noa?noa? o?iain?a Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ei?ioeaae/ Ieueaa Aanee?aia,

?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a o?iain?a, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 14-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.239.01 a ?inoeooo?
aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252011, i. Ee?a-11,
aoe. Iaiana Ie?iiai, 26.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, 252011, i. Ee?a-11, aoe. Iaiana
Ie?iiai, 26.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee: “22 ” ethoiai 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eaa/oe I. ?.

C A A A E Ue I A O A ? A E O A ? E N O E E A ? I A I O E

Anooi. Iai?yieii ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee nueiaiaei? ? ia?ao?ae
aei ?eieo. Oeae i?ioean aeyaeany iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiei ? iaa?oue
aie?niei. Ana oneeaaeieee ua e i?i?aooiee, aeiiouai? ia ii/aoeo ?aoi?ie.
?ethc?y naii?aaoeueiaaiiai noeo?eiiai ?eieo caeiaea iai?aia i?noea a
oyaeaiiyo iaoiai ea??aieoeoaa, a oie /an ye e?a?ie c ae?enii ?eieiaeie
a?aeiineiaie aeaaii aaea iaa/eeeny ?aaoethaaoe aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane,
aecia/ath/e ?i iio??aiee iai?yiie.

Iaeiei ?c aieiaieo ?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ? iiaeaoee. Ne?ae
i?aee?aneeoe, ui cao?aei? e?a?ie oaeiae ia a?ae?aco ae?eoee oeueiai
aeniiaeo. Aea oai aeineoue aeaaii c?icoi?ee, ui iiaeaoee ia iiaeii? iaoe
aeeeth/ii o?neaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Ciaioaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ?
caoiaeii, ni?yiiaaiei ia ?icoe?aiiy iiaeaoeiai? aace c iaoith iie?auaiiy
iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aea nei?i/aiiy
iiaeaoe?a ?ieiee iiaea e caaaeaoe caeoe?a aeiiii?oe? oa noni?euenoao.
Oea ? aeiaiaeeoue iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaii?
oaie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iao? ciaiiy o noa?? iiaeaoe?a ? ia aeineoue
oe?ieeie. Aaeaea aeanyoe??//yie aaaaeaeiny, ui oea a?oa?/ia oi?ia
ia?a?iciiae?eo noai?aiiai i?iaeoeoo, yea a?aeie?a?. Iiaeaoee c
th?eaee/ieo in?a aoei cai?iaii ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? a?ae?aooaaiiy aei
athaeaeaoo, iiaeaoee c o?ce/ieo in?a noyaoaaeenue iaeaea aeeeth/ii /a?ac
aooaaeoa??? i?aei?e?inoa ? onoaiia i?e aeieao? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. Iio?i
an? ie aiaeii/an noaee ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a, ?, cae/aeii, aeyaeeeny
iai?aeaioiaeaieie aei oeueiai. Aeineoue oaeaeeeie oaiiaie aoei
iai?aoeueiaaii iiaeaoeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai, i?aeaioiaeaii o?iainia? eaae?e
aeey i?aei?e?inoa, noai?aii iiooaeio iiaeaoeiao neoaeao e?a?ie.
Cae/aeii, oea caeiiiaeaanoai iiee ui iaaeineiiaea ? ia? aaaee. Aea oea
i?e?iaeii ca oiiae a?aenooiino? aeina?aeo. Noai?aiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie
aeiaaaei aea/aiiy caei?aeiiiiai aeina?aeo, yeee aeiaaee /an
aena?oethaaany o ian eeoa c iaaaoeaii? noi?iie. Iini?oia eiai
eii?thaaiiy (o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao) oaeiae ia aeaei iiceoeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Oaea neeaaeia aeiiii?/ia yaeua, ye iiaeaoee, ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe c
?noi?e/ii? oi/ee ci?o, ocaaaeueithth/e aeina?ae ?ioeo aea?aeaa. Oei
a?eueoa, ui i?ae /an oai?aiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie iinoathoue i?iaeaie,
ui i?eoaiaii? aeiiii?oe? aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie na?oo. Oea — i?ioe??//y i?ae
iio?aaaie a iiaeaoeiaeo aeioiaeao ? iiaeeeainoyie ?o io?eiaiiy. Ae??oeoe
oeth i?iaeaio iiaeia eeoa ca oiiae aea/aiiy aieeao iiaeaoe?a ia
aoaeoeai?noue oa ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa. Aino?ioa oeueiai ieoaiiy
nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? aeiaaa? eiai iaeoaeaeoiai ae??oaiiy. Oea e
iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
aeooaeuei?noue, iaoo ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae oei, ui i?iaeaiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?enay/othoueny i?aoe? oaeeo a?aeiieo a Oe?a?i? a/aieo,
ye Oaaeinia A. I., Aaneeee I. Ae., Eo/a?yaaiei I. I. oa ?i.. Ca
ei?aeiiii aiae?c oaeeo ieoaiue i?iaaaeeany A. Eaooa?ii, Ae. *a?i?eii,
A.?iae?iiiaith, A. A?ecaae?iei, I. Iinoiaei, ?. ?ai?iaei, TH. Iao?iaei
oa ?i.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia o ?aieao eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Iaoiaee ae?aaiinoeee oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaaaoi??aiaaiai iaoai?cio i?aeo?eiee ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?”, caoaa?aeaeaii? iaeacii I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe ?271 a?ae 15.08.1996?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o aiae?c?
a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? ?ic?iaoe? ia
oe?e iniia? i?iiiceoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oa iineeaiiy eiai
?aaoethth/iai ? noeioethth/iai aieeao ia ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe nooi?noue iiaeaoe?a ye iaoai?cio aeoioeyoe??
aeioiae?a aea?aeaae oa ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, aeine?aeeoe ?icaeoie
oai??? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ii??aiyoe
?? ?c ca?oa?aeieie oa aee?eoe neeuei? ? neaae? noi?iie o?neaeueiiai ?
?aaoethth/iai iaoai?cio;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe a?aeiia?aei?noue a?o/eciyii? nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aei
oai?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae;

— iaa?oiooaaoe ca’ycie i?ae iiaeaoeaie ? ianyaaie oa aoaeoeai?noth
ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ?ic?aooaaoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe iieacieee iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ye a
oe?eiio, oae ? ia ie?ai? i?aei?e?inoaa ae?iaie/i? noa?e;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ? ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oeueiai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
eiioeaioe??, aeyaeaii? oaiaeaioe?e oa aecia/aii? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie iaoeiaeie ?acoeueoaoaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

· iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeeiiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co a?aeiia?aeiino?
a?o/eciyii? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie caaaeueiei oai?aoe/iei i?eioeeiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy;

· aecia/aiiy neeueieo oa neaaeeo noi??i iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ia
i?aenoaa? ii??aiyiiy ?c ca?oa?aeiei aeina?aeii oa ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co
a?aeiia?aeiino? oe??? nenoaie aei oai?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
ui aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe iai?yiee ?? iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy;

· iaaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aiae?co ??aiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a, a yeeo cai?iiiiiaaii ye
aaciaee iieaciee aeey ia?aooaaiiy IAeA aeei?enoiaoaaoe aaeiaee
aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo cai?noue aaeiaiai aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeicaiey?
oieeiooe iaoi/iinoae, ni?e/eiaieo aieeaii noi i?ii?aeiiai niiaeeaaiiy ia
iae?i?ic?aooiee;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iaea?eueo i?eeiyoieo o a?o/eciyieo oiiaao iaoiae?a
aiae?co iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?aooie?a eiai iieaciee?a:
aeie? i?eaooeo, ui ni?yiiao?oueny ia nieaoo iiaeaoe?a; iieaciee?a ??aiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a, iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo ia
ie?aieo ieaoiee?a;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy i?yiiai ? cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae ??aiai iiaeaoe?a oa
aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth ? ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa;

· ?ic?iaea oa a?aoiaioaoe?y nenoaie eiie?aoieo caoiae?a uiaei iiaeieaiiy
iaaei??iino? iiaeaoe?a oa iineeaiiy ?o ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia
ae?iaieoeoai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanueeiai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai eieaaeaeo i?e aeeeaaeaii?
eo?n?a “Iiaeaoee ? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy”, “?aa?c?y ? eiio?ieue ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa”, “O?iaine”. Aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaeaeenue
Aea?aeaaiith iiaeaoeiaith aaei?i?no?aoe??th Iaeanueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae
ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee”
(i. Eai-Aeae, O?aioeocueea ?anioae?ea) a ?aieao i?ia?aie ?a?iiaenueei?
ni?eueiioe “OEMPUS-TACIS”.

I?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e i?iaaaeaii? a?o/eciyieo ?aoi?i.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ?ic?iaee, aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoe?? naiino?eii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e o?iain?a
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
o?ueio iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oiai ae oi?aa?neoaoo, ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee” (i. Eai-Aeae,
O?aioeocueea ?anioae?ea) a ?aieao i?ia?aie ?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe
“OEMPUS-TACIS”, i?aaenoaaeyeenue ia ?icaeyae Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? a Iaeanuee?e iaeano?.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a 6 ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei ianyaii 2 ae.a..

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe neeaaea? 178 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 9
oaaeeoeue ia 14 noi??ieao oa 11 ?enoie?a ia 11 noi??ieao, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia 9 noi??ieao, yeee iae?/o? 113 iaeiaioaaiue.

I N I I A I E E C I ? N O

Aeena?oaoe?y a?oioo?oueny ia i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiyo c
ieoaiue ?aaoethth/iai oa noeioethth/iai aieeao iiaeaoe?a ia noa?o
ae?iaieoeoaa.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? eaeaoueny i?i oa, ui iia? oiiae ye i?eiee aeiaaathoue
caa?iooeny aei oai?aoe/ieo iaaeaaiue oa ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ? c?iaeoe
aeniiaee uiaei aieeao iiaeaoe?a ia ae?iaieoeoai.

?nio? caeaaei?noue i?ae aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth i?aei?e?inoa,
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio oa ??aiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. *ei aeuee
??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oei a?eueoa /anoeia aeioiae?a i?aea ia nieaoo
iiaeaoe?a, oei iaio? noie i?eaooe?a caeeoathoueny o ?icii?yaeaeaii?
i?aei?e?ioe?a. I?ioa, ye a?aeiii, i?aei?e?iaoeue ioe?ith? aoaeo a?ae
naiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca oeie noiaie i?eaooe?a, ye? caeeoaoueny o eiai
?icii?yaeaeaii? i?ney cae?eniaiiy an?o iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. Aea oaeee
yaiee ?acoeueoao ia? eeoa ae?y i?yieo iiaeaoe?a, ieaoieeaie yeeo ?
i?aei?e?inoaa. Iai?yi? iiaeaoee, a oaeiae i?yi? c o?ce/ieo in?a,
a?ae??ciythoueny i?eoiaaiei aieeaii. I?aeaeuaiiy i?yieo iiaeaoe?a c
o?ce/ieo in?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei nei?i/aiiy iii?iaeueieo, a ?acii c oei, ?
?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy. Cae/aeii ae, nei?i/o?oueny iiieo
ianaeaiiy ia oiaa?e, ae?iaeai? i?aei?e?inoaaie. Ca oiiae iaci?iii?
i?iiiceoe?? oeeo oiaa??a, oe?ie ia ieo iaiaei?iii aiaaeooue.
Nei?ioyoueny e i?eaooee i?aei?e?inoa. Oea icia/a?, ui i?aei?e?inoaa
aoaeooue ciooai? iiaea?oaoaaoe /anoeiith i?eaooe?a (yeui oea iiaeeeai)
?, caaeey caa?aaeaiiy iaci?iiiai ??aiy i?eaooeiaino?, aoaeooue
nei?i/oaaoe caaaeuei? aeo?aoe /a?ac ciaioaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny neooaoe?y e c ?ioiai aieo: ine?eueee oe?ia
?iai/i? neee aecia/a?oueny iaai?ii aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeieo aeaa, oi caaeey
caaacia/aiiy ?nioaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a c? ca?eueoaiiyi aea?aeaaieo iiaeaoe?a
ia ?o ca?ieaoo i?aei?e?ioe? aoaeooue ciooai? i?aeiyoe e naio ca?ieaoo
(i?aeaeuaiiy iii?iaeo aeaui noaa?e?co? ?aaeuei? aeioiaee, ui
cieaeothoueny aiane?aeie iiaeaoe?a). Oaeee e?ie i?ecaiaeeoue aei
c?inoaiiy ae?iaie/eo cao?ao. I?eaooee ii/eiathoue oaeiae nei?i/oaaoenue.
I?aaio/e caiia?aoe oeueiio, i?aei?e?ioe? aoaeooue i?i?i?coaaoe aeo?aoe
oeyoii nei?i/aiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa. sse i?aaeei, i?e i?aeaeuaii?
iiaeaoe?a c o?ce/ieo in?a iathoue i?noea iaeaea? ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
neooaoe?? iaeii/anii. Aiaeia?/ii ae?thoue ? iai?yi? iiaeaoee, ine?eueee
e?ioeaaei ?o ieaoieeii oaeiae ? ianaeaiiy.

Aieeaath/e ia aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaeaoee oei naiei
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ci?ie eiai ianya?a (cai?oaiiy /e ?icai?oaiiy). ?nioth/e
caaeey io?eiaiiy i?eaooe?a, ae?iaieoeoai aeoaea /ooeeai ?aaao? ia ?oi?
nei?i/aiiy, iniaeeai /a?ac iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Oaea caeaaei?noue i?ae
aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth i?aei?e?inoa, ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa oa ??aiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue aea?aeaa? ?aaoethaaoe ae?iaieoeoai
/a?ac naith iiaeaoeiao nenoaio. Oeae oaeo oaeiae icia/a?, ui i?e
iiaoaeia? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, a yeiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii? aiia ciaoiaeeoueny c ae?iaieoeoaii.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ia??iae 1991 — 1997 ?.?. a Oe?a?i? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ye ia??iae iiooeo oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.
Iniiaiei eiai iaaeie?eii ? oa, ui i?e i?iaaaeaii? aoaeue-yeeo ci?i
aeiaeiiai ?aco iiee ui ia aoee iine?aeiaii a?aoiaai? i?eioeeie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? ua A. Ni?oii. A ?o aeio?eiaiiy ?
iaaaeueiith iaiao?aei?noth, ? iniaeeai o no/anieo oiiaao. Aiie
a?aeia?aaeathoue oaiaeaioe?? no/anii? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee,
i?iaeeeoiaai? eia?eith ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai ? noni?eueiiai aeeooy,
?ioa?anaie o?neo, aea?aeaae acaaae?. O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c a?aeiia?aeiino? oeei i?eioeeiai oe?a?inueei? nenoaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

I?eioeei ia?oee. Eiai nooi?noue iieyaa? a oiio, ui iiaeaoee iiaeii?
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eyoenue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici??o aeioiae?a.

An? aeaea?aea aeioiae?a iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia o?e iniiai? a?oie:
caiaeueia ?aioa; i?eaooie ia eai?oae; ca?ia?oia ieaoa.

Aei iniiaieo iiaeaoe?a, yeeie a Oe?a?i? iiiaeaoeiaothoueny aeioiaee,
io?eiai? c iacaaieo aeaea?ae, a?aeiinyoueny (ii a?oiao a?aeiia?aeii):
ieaoa ca caieth; iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoa oa i?eaooeiaee
iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi (a /anoei? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?aei?e?ioe?a-o?ce/ieo
in?a); i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi.

E??i oiai, an? o?e a?oie aeioiae?a ye ia’?eoe niiaeeaaiiy
iiiaeaoeiaothoueny iai?yieie iiaeaoeaie (IAeA, aeoeeciee ca??, ieoi).

Caeiiii, ui ae?ya a Oe?a?i? aei 1. 01. 1997 ?., ieaoa ca caieth
anoaiiaethaaeanue ca iaeeieoeth ieiu? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?iaeth/ino?
a?oioo oa i?noey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ae?eyiee. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieea?
aeae?eueea ieoaiue.

Ii-ia?oa, caeiiii aoea aecia/aia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y noaaie ieaoe ca caie?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy o?eueee ii iaeanoyo. Aeae?,
ca?aeii c i?eeiyoei iaoai?ciii, iaeani? ?aaee aeeoa?aioe?ththoue noaaee
ca a?oiaie a?oio?a. I?e oeueiio aaniethoii ia a?aoiaoaaeinue i?noea
ciaoiaeaeaiiy ae?eyiee a?aeiinii ?eie?a caooo i?iaeoeoe?? (a naia —
a?aeaeaeai?noue a?ae aaeeeeo i?no). Aeeoa?aioe?eia ?aioa ia?oiai
ii?yaeeo o ainiiaea?noa, ui ciaoiaeyoueny o aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino?
a?ae iaeanieo oeaio??a, cia/ii aeua ca oa naia aeaea?aei aeioiae?a
ainiiaea?noa, a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae iacaaieo ianaeaieo ioieo?a. Oey ??cieoey
iiaeiia aeieaoeny iiaeaoeiaeie iaoiaeaie. Aeey iaoi? e?a?ie a iiiaio,
eiee aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ae?iaiee?a aino?i iinoaei ieoaiiy
iaeiie/aiiy eai?oaeo, oaea ia??ai?noue o ?ici??ao ?aioe ia? aaeeea
cia/aiiy. A iaeaooiueiio, a oiiaao iineeaiiy ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe??, aiia
iaiaei?iii aeyaeoue naaa. C ia?aoiaeii aei ia/eneaiiy ieaoe ca caieth a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? a?ioiai? ioe?iee oeae iaaeie?e iiaeia iiaeieaoe, aea
yeui ioe?iea aoaea a?aoiaoaaoe i?noea ciaoiaeaeaiiy ae?eyiee iiaiith
i??ith. Iiee ui oeueiai neacaoe ia iiaeia.

Ii-ae?oaa, noaaee ieaoe ca caieth ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ecia/aiiy a?aeiinii ae?eyiie, ?ici?uaieo o iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a,
aeeoa?aioe?thaaeenue a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy. Aea ca
/enaeueiino? aeeoae?a a 1 oeny/o /e 2-3 i?eueeiie /ieia?e aiie
??ciyoueny anueiai o 3 ?ace, oiae? ye ?aioa, ui io?eio?oueny a?ae oeeo
caiaeue, a?ae??ciy?oueny o aeanyoee ?ac?a. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i
ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e iiaeaoe?a i?e iiiaeaoeoaaii? caiaeueii? ?aioe.
Aei ?a/?, inoaiith aaaeo ia iiaeieaii ? a iia?e ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio,
aaaaeaiiai a ae?th c 1. 01. 1997 ?. (noaooy 7 — a?aeiinii caiaeue,
a?ioiao ioe?ieo yeeo ia anoaiiaeaii).

I?eaooie ia eai?oae o ian oaeiae iiiaeaoeiao?oueny ia??aiii??ii.
Aoaeue-yea i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue (ye c ?a?no?aoe??th
th?eaee/ii? iniae, oae ? aac ia?) iio?aao? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue. A
i?eaooie, io?eiaiee a?ae ieo, iiiaeaoeiao?oueny ca ??cieie noaaeaie. O
e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiith aeiiii?eith naia oae aiii ? ?. Aea ne?ae
iai’yoaoe, ui aeey iaoeo a?iiaaeyi ca?ac a?aeaoaa?oueny aoai aeoioeyoe??
eai?oaeo aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?iaanooaaiiy (eiai iiaeia iacaaoe ia?aeiiei
iaeiie/aiiyi). A?ae eiai ?acoeueoao?a aoaea caeaaeaoe iiaeaeueoee noai
iaoi? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. Oiio iai ne?ae noai?eoe iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeey ia?aeiiiai iaeiie/aiiy.

Aea, o ?ac? ?a?no?aoe?? th?eaee/ii? iniae noaaea iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie
noaiiaeoue 30 a?aenioe?a, a i?aei?e?ioe? — o?ce/i? iniae niea/othoue
i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie ca i?ia?aneaiith oeaeith, ? eiai ?ici?? iiaea
aeinyaoe 40 a?aenioe?a. Oea noai?th? o?oaeiiu? i?e iaeiie/aii? eai?oaeo,
iaiao?aeiiai aeey ?a?no?aoe?? th?eaee/ii? iniae o iaeaooiueiio c iaoith
i?aai?caoe?? na?eiciiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a cia/eoue, ooiaoa? ieaoiee?a aei
i?eoiaoaaiiy iiiaeaoeiaoaaieo aeioiae?a.

Uii?aaaea, aaaaeaiiy a 1998 ?. o?eniaaiiai iiaeaoeo a?ae 20 aei 100
a?eaaiue ia i?nyoeue ? oeyoii aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie, aea, ia iao
iiaeyae, eeoa /anoeiaiai ae??oaiiy.

Iaeiei c iaeaieth/?oeo ieoaiue nueiaiaei? ? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe. I?ioeaioi? noaaee i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo, ui canoiniaothoueny a
iao?e oeae?, aeei?enoiaothoueny aaaaoueia e?a?iaie. Aea a?aie/i?
cia/aiiy noeoiiiai iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai aeioiaeo a ian cia/ii ieae/?: ie
noyao?ii iiaeaoie aaea c noie, ui o?eueee ia?aaeuo? 17 a?eaaiue, a ?c
noie, ui ia?aaeuo? 1700 a?eaaiue, noyao?oueny aae 40 a?aenioe?a
iiaeaoeo. Oea oiaiiaeeeaeth? caeo/aiiy cia/ieo aeoe?iia?ieo eai?oae?a
a?ae ianaeaiiy. E??i oiai, nei?i/o?oueny ieaoini?iiiaeiee iiieo
ianaeaiiy, a ca iei ? ae?iaieoeoai. Oaeee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy icia/a?
oaeiae cieaeaiiy caoe?eaaeaiino? a ?acoeueoaoao i?aoe?.

Ana oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? noeioeththoue
i?aoeth nai?o ?ia?oiee?a, aaaeathoue i?aeaeueoe ?oith caoe?eaaeai?noue
oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?oiuei? i?aoe?, ciooai? aeiea/oaaoe ca?ia?oio ieaoo
c “/i?ii? eane”, oiaath/enue a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

Iiaeaoee ia niiaeeaaiiy, ui canoiniaothoueny a Oe?a?i? (IAeA, aeoeeciee
ca??, ieoi), iiaeii? aieeaaoe ia an? aeaea?aea aeioiae?a. Aea ooo ne?ae
a?aooaaoe oie oaeo, ui iaea?eueoee oyaa? oeeo iiaeaoe?a eyaa? ia
e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaa/a ? eiai ca?ieaoo. Oeeie iiaeaoeaie ie iaea?eueoa
nei?i/o?ii ieaoini?iiiaeiee iiieo ianaeaiiy, a cia/eoue, ? ianyae
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy. ? ciiao ae caaaey/oaaoe
o?aaa naia ia??aiii??iiio ?iciiae?eo iiaeaoe?a i?ae aeaea?aeaie
aeioiae?a. Cae/aeii, ?iaeoa iai?yi? iiaeaoee aieeaaoe ia iiaeooue. Aea
iii’yeoeoe oeae aieea iiaeia, iai?eeeaae, ca ?aooiie aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
noaaie IAeA ii a?oiao oiaa??a.

I?eioeei ae?oaee iaaieioo?, ui iiaeii? aooe oi/ii aecia/ai? /an nieaoe,
niin?a noyaiaiiy ? ?ici?? iiaeaoeo.

sseui aeio?eioaaoeny aeine?aiiai oi?ioethaaiiy, aeaiiai A. Ni?oii, oi ?
/an nieaoe, ? ?ici?? aoaeue-yeiai iiaeaoeo, ? ii?yaeie eiai ia/eneaiiy
aecia/ai? iaoei caeiiiaeaanoaii oa i?aecaeiiieie aeoaie. Aea c /an?a A.
Ni?oa i?ieoee noi??//y, i?ioyaii yeeo ci?ieeiny iaee//y ? aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai, ? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Aeiee oe?eee ?yae iiaeo i?iaeai. Noiniaii
no/aniiai aoaio, ? cie?aia oe?a?inueei? ae?eniino?, ae?oaee i?eioeei
iio?aao? iacia/iiai ooi/iaiiy, yea a?aoiaoaaeinue aaaaoueia oai?aoeeaie
i?e eiai iiyniaii?. Iiaa eaea i?i caa/anio aecia/ai?noue — aei oiai, ye
ii/iaoueny ia??iae ae?? oiai /e ?ioiai iiaeaoeo. Iaoa ae aea?aeaaa
i?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo iacaeaaeiino? /an a?ae /ano aaiaeeea o ae?th
noaaee iiaeaoe?a caaei?i /eneii. Aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y neeaaeaeany e c
aaaaeaiiyi /e neanoaaiiyi aeayeeo i?euea ? o. ?i.. Caeiie a aaeoc?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ni?oii i?eeiaeenue, ii/eiaee ae?yoe, a ?o ioae?eaoe?y
i?iaaaeeeanue c aaeeeei a?ae?eaii o /an?. Iaee i?noea aeiaaeee, eiee
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe aaea canoiniaoaaeenue ia i?aeoeoe?, a ?ino?oeoe??
uiaei ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia aoee i?aeaioiaeai? e iaaeoiaeeee aei
aeeiiaaoe?a /a?ac oeaei?, a oi e /a?ac i?nyoe?. Ana oea ii?iaeaeo?
ieooaieio, iino?eio iaiao?aei?noue ia?a?aooie?a, ui noaiiaeoue aaeee?
o?oaeiiu? a ?iaio? o?iainiaiai aia?aoo i?aei?e?inoa. Oaea
iaaecia/ai?noue i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui ieaoiee a?aeaea?oueny ia
naaaieth cae?a/a. Oea — iaeia c i?e/ei ei?oioe?? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo.
Iaa?oue iacia/ia iaaecia/ai?noue /e iayni?noue o iiaeaoeao, ca neiaaie
A. Ni?oa, ni?e/eiy? a?eueo? caeoee, i?ae ?oi?e ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e.

I?eioeei o?ao?e: /an ? niin?a noyaiaiiy iiaeaoeo iiaeii? aooe c?o/ieie
aeey ieaoieea.

O ieoaiiyo c?o/iinoae oa?i?io oa niinia?a oo?eiaiiy iiaeaoe?a ni?aae o
ian ii??aiyii iaiiaai?. Oeueiio ni?eythoue ? i?eeiyo? no?iee nieaoe, ?
iaoai?ci noyaiaiiy, ? i?aeoeea canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai e?aaeeoo. Aea c
iaeyaeo ia niiniae noyaiaiiy iiaeia ?icaeyiooe ua ?yae ieoaiue uiaei
ie?aieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iai?eeeaae,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei i?aei?e?inoaai ?ieiee aeinoaoiuei aaaeei
nai?/anii ?ic?aooaaoenue c athaeaeaoii o a?ioia?e oi?i?. Oey i?iaeaia
aeieea? /a?ac iaieaoaae? iieoioe?a (a oiio /ene? e naii? aea?aeaae), a
oaeiae cia/iith i??ith /a?ac naciii?noue ae?iaieoeoaa. Ca oiia, ui
neeaeeny, iiaeia ?icaeyiooe iiaeeea?noue iaoo?aeueieo iinoaaie aea?aeaa?
?c ca?aooaaiiyi iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a. Oea aeiiiiiaei a ae??oeoe c?aco
aeae?eueea i?iaeai: a?eueo iiaii oa nai?/anii caaacia/eoe noai?aiiy
aea?aeaaieo ?aca?a?a i?iaeiaieuenoaa; nei?ioeoe aaeee? aeo?aoe
athaeaeaoo ia noai?aiiy oeeo ?aca?a?a (ui oaeiae iathoue, caeaa?eueoiai,
naciiiee oa?aeoa?); /anoeiai iii’yeoeoe iane?aeee ieao?aeii? e?ece
oeyoii onoiaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ia?a?aooaaiiy eioo?a aei athaeaeaoo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ia nieaoo iiaeaoe?a ?,
iaaiaee, c athaeaeaoo oei aea i?aei?e?inoaai ia iieaoo iinoaaeaii?
aea?aeaa? i?iaeoeoe??. Aea oeae iaoiae ?ic?aooie?a ne?ae canoiniaoaaoe,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee i?aeo?ae (eeoa o aeiaaeeo ianoa/?
a?ioiaeo eioo?a o ieaoieea).

I?eioeei /aoaa?oee: ia noyaiaiiy iiaeaoe?a iiaeiii cao?a/oaaoenue
yeiiiaa iaioa a?ioae ? aiie yeiaeoaeaeoa iiaeii? iio?aieyoe aei eacie.
Oi?ioethth/e eiai, A. Ni?o iaa ia oaac? aeaa iiiaioe:

— iiaeaoie iiaea aeiaaaoe a?ae ieaoieea a?eueoo e?euee?noue a?ioae, i?ae
oa, ui i?iaeeeoiaaia iio?aaaie eacie, /a?ac caiaaeoi ?icaeooee ooao
/eiiaiee?a-cae?a/?a;

— aenieee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaea ni?e/eiyoe iaiaaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa ? caeiyoino?, ui iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao aeey
caaacia/aiiy caniaaie ?nioaaiiy cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy.

? ia?oa, ? ae?oaa ia? i?noea a iao?e ae?eniino?. Ooaoe aeayeeo
i?ae?icae?e?a iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae Oe?a?ie caiaaeoi ?icaeoo?. ?oi?
?icoe?aiiy, cae/aeii, iaei iaa?oiooaaiiy. Iaeiei c oaeeo aoei
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ii?ooaiue iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aea,
ii-ia?oa, aeoaea cia/ia /anoeia oeeo ii?ooaiue iia’ycaia c
iaaecia/ai?noth a noa?? iiaeaoe?a, i?i yeo caaaeoaaeinue aeua;
ii-ae?oaa, niieono aei iaiaio c aieo ieaoiee?a ii?iaeaeo? iaaei??i?noue
iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y. Oiaoi, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oea i?aeoe/ii
oe?eeii eyaa? ia naio aea?aeaao.

A ?iaio? oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaaii ae?th/ee a Oe?a?i? ii?yaeie ni?aaeyiiy
iniiaieo iiaeaoe?a oa iaaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy eiai ?c ca?oa?aeiei
aeina?aeii.

Iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeiaeaii? aa?oino? o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao o ii??aiyii? c
Oe?a?iith ia? oae? iniiai? a?aei?iiino?:

— ieae/ee ??aaiue noaaie, ui caaacia/o? iaioee oene ia ieaoiee?a;

— aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y noaaie oa oe?oa canoinoaaiiy i?euea, ui ?iaeoue
ae??a?oei ?aaoethth/ee oa noeioethth/ee iaoai?ci.

Ci?ie e iiaiaaaaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? a Oe?a?i? a 1997 ?ioe? a /anoei?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeiaeaii? aa?oino?, ia iao iiaeyae, ia i?eaaee aei
iiaeieaiiy iniiaieo i?iaeai, ui ?nioaaee. Caa?aaeeny oae? iaaeie?ee:

— aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y noaaie aeoaea iaiaaeaia (iiaeia neacaoe iaeaea
a?aenooiy). Oea ia aea? iiaeeeaino? ae??oeoe i?iaeaie iineeaiiy
?aaoethth/iai oa noeioethth/iai aieeao oeueiai iiaeaoeo;

— ?nioth/ee ??aaiue noaaie ? caaenieei c iaeyaeo ia iiaeeeaino?
ieaoiee?a. sseui ana ae ae??oaii caa??aaoe eiai iaaeae?, oi iaaeoi
?icoe?aiei ? iiiaeaoeiaoaaiee iai?io, yeee aeeth/a? neeaaeieee, ui ia ?
aeiaeaiith aa?o?noth, — aii?oecaoe?th, aeoeeciee ca??, cai?e aei
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a oa ?io? iiaeaoee, ui aeeth/athoueny aei
nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??;

— iaaeaenieee oene ia o?ce/ieo in?a — ieaoiee?a IAeA, yeee aeeeeeaii
a?aenooi?noth i?aaa aeai?o i?ae IAeA oa iiaeaoeii ia aeioiaee
(i?eaooeiaei), ui iaaea?oueny o aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo.

Oea caaaaea? nooo?aiio cieaeaiith ??aiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, yea
i/?eoaaeinue. A oie aea /an a?aei?ia IAeA ? cai?ia eiai ?ioei iiaeaoeii
(iai?eeeaae, ye i?iiiioaaeiny — iiaeaoeii c i?iaeaaeo), ?
iaaeioe?eueiith. Aaeaea oeae iiaeaoie ? iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae
aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo. Eiai ieoiia aaaa a caaaeuei?e noi? aeioiae?a
neeaaeaea a 1992 ?. — 39,6%; a 1993 — 34,7%, a 1994 — 24,8%; a 1995 —
21,9%; a 1996 — 20,7%; a 1997 — 28,0%. I?aaaea, oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i
aeayea ciaioaiiy ?ie? IAeA a aeioiaeao athaeaeaoo. Aea IAeA nei?i/oaaany
e o a?aenioeao aei AAI. Oea icia/a?, ui eiai nei?i/aiiy ii a?aeiioaiith
aei caaaeueii? noie aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo iia’ycaia c? ciaioaiiyi
iiiaeaoeiaoaaieo iai?io?a aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy o?iueiaiai naeoi?a
aeiiii?ee, eio?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy oaeoe/iiai ??aiy cai?o
oeueiai iiaeaoeo.

Ui noino?oueny aeoeeciiai cai?o, oi eiai /anoeith a aeioiaeao athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ia cia/ii iinooia?oueny ?ioei e?a?iai. Ine?eueee oeae iiaeaoie
canoiniao?oueny caeaa?eueoiai aei i?aaeiao?a ?iceioo, aai i?aaeiao?a
oe?ieiai aaeeoeo, ui ia ? aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeie, a aeaye? c ieo iaa?oue
ni?aaeythoue oe?aeeeaee aieea ia caei?ia’y, oi ooo ? ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy
noaaie. Oea ni?eyei a iiiiaiaiith caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie. A
oe?eiio ae o ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ia aeyaeaii nooo?aeo iaaeie?e?a.

O?ao?e aeae iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a – ieoi – ia? iaaenieo o?neaeueio
aoaeoeai?noue uiaei aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo. Iaoii?noue eiai
?aaoethth/a ?ieue iaeia c iaeaeueo na?aae iiaeaoe?a acaaae?.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co iaoai?cio ni?aaeyiiy ieoa, ui canoiniao?oueny a
Oe?a?i?, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaee, ui a?i ae?enii a?aeiia?aea?
i?aeia?iaeiei noaiaea?oai, aea, aeoiaey/e c oe?a?inueeeo oiia, ia? ?yae
iaaeie?e?a. Ia?o ca ana, a?i caeeoa? oaine aeey ianieaoe aai
ianai?/anii? nieaoe aeoeeciiai cai?o oa ieoieo cai??a. Aeey oeueiai
ioi?ieth?oueny, iai?eeeaae, o?aiceo /a?ac oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie, oi/a
oiaa? aeae? ia aeaiceoueny, a caa??aa?oueny ? ?aae?ciao?oueny a
Oe?a?i?. Aeey iiaeieaiiy oeueiai O?yaeii Oe?a?ie ai?iaaaeaeaii ?yae
caoiae?a, aeeiiaiiy yeeo iieeeeaia ia?ae?eoe oeyo eiio?aaaiae? oa
i?aeaeueoe eiio?ieueio ? ?aaoethth/o aoaeoeai?noue ieoa. Na?aae ieo
iniiaieie ?:

— caoaa?aeaeaiiy Iieiaeaiiy i?i iaaeaiiy o?iainiaeo aa?aio?e ieoiei
i?aaiai iacaeaaeieie o?iainiaeie iina?aaeieeaie uiaei aeinoaaee oiaa??a
aei ieoieoeue i?ecia/aiiy, ca?aeii c yeei aaaaeaii o?iainiaa
caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e oeyoii oeeaaeaiiy no?aoiaiai aeiaiai?o aai oeyoii
io?eiaiiy a?ae ia?aa?cieea canoaae;

— aii?yaeeoaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ieoieo e?oeaic?eieo neeaae?a,
caoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o ia?ae?eo oa aaaaeaiiy ui??/ii? ia?a?a?no?aoe??,
ia?aaea/a ieoiei i?aaiai aea?aeaaieo neeaae?a;

— iioe?aiiy oiia, ui noinothoueny noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ia a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia?aaicyoue o?aiceoii ai??e/ai? ae?iae,
aeia, othothiia? ae?iae;

— aaaaeaiiy iiia?aaeiuei? aaioaaeii? ieoii? aeaeea?aoe?? ia
i?aeaeoeeci? oiaa?e oa ni?aaeyiiy iaeaaeieo ieaoaae?a i?ae /an ??
ioi?ieaiiy.

An? oe? caoiaee iiceoeaii aieeioee ia a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieea. Aaeaea,
iaiaaeoth/e eiio?aaaiaeo oa iaaeia?inia?nio eiieo?aioe?th, aea?aeaaa
caoeua? oe?a?inuee? i?aei?e?inoaa.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe iiaee ii?yaeie ni?aaeyiiy iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie, iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaee, ui a?i ia? oaeiae ?yae neeueieo ? neaaeeo noi??i.
Aacoiiaii, i?ia?aneaiei ? caoaa?aeaeaiiy oaeeo iieiaeaiue, ye? nooo?ai
ciaioothoue iiaeaoeiaee oyaa? ? ?icoe?ththoue noeioethth/ee aieea:

— aeeeth/aiiy c aaeiaeo aeioiae?a noi aeioiae?a, ui iaeiie/othoueny ia
iain?eieo ?aooieao a iaaeao iaoai?cio aeiaeaoeiaiai iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy;

— aeeth/aiiy aei neeaaeo aaeiaeo aeo?ao noi aeo?ao ieioeeo ia??iae?a,
ye? ia aoee a?aoiaai?; noi aaciaae?eii? caai?aiaaiino?; noi niea/aiiai
IAeA ca oiaa?e aeey i?aei?e?inoa, ye? ia ? ieaoieeaie IAeA; noi aeo?ao
ia aa?aio?eiee ?aiiio oa cai?io oiaa??a aei 10 a?aenioe?a aa?oino?
?aae?ciaaieo oiaa??a, oa?i?i aa?aio?? yeeo ia ieioa; aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio
(aac iaiaaeaiue o a?aenioeao, ye oea aoei ?ai?oa); aeo?ao o ca’yceo c?
nieaoith a?aenioe?a ii ai?aao aac iaiaaeaiue ii iae?eia?e noaaoe? IAO;

— iaaeaiiy ieaoieeo i?aaa aeai?o iniaeeaiai ii?yaeeo iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?, ui cae?enith?oueny ca aeiaaino?ieiaei
eiio?aeoii;

— ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?
aeeoy/iai oa?/oaaiiy, yeee ni?yiiao?oueny ia ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
oeueiai i?iaeoeoo;

— i?eueaiaa (50 a?aenioe?a noaaee) iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo a?ae
?aae?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?iaeoeoo;

— iaaeaiiy i?aaa ciaioaiiy noie aaeiaiai aeioiaeo o ?ac? cao?eiee iieaoe
iieoioeai;

— aeciaiiy aeaoith ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia aeaoo nienaiiy, a aeaoo iieaoe
/e ii?eaooeoaaiiy oiaa??a, ?ia?o, iineoa;

— a?aeianaiiy noi i?ino?i/aii? e?aaeeoi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino? ia
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao aei aaeiaeo aeioiae?a, a ia iiaia aeeo/aiiy
?o aei athaeaeaoo, ye oea aoei ?ai?oa;

— iaaeaiiy i?aaa ieaoieeai naiino?eii i?iaiaeeoe ?iaeaenaoe?th iniiaieo
oiiae?a o ca’yceo c ?ioeyoe??th.

Iaaeie?eaie iiaiai ii?yaeeo iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?:

— iaeee a?aenioie aeicaieaieo aeo?ao ia iie?auaiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a (5
a?aenioe?a ia ??e a?ae ?o aaeainiai? aa?oino?). Oeae a?aenioie aoa ae
aeinoaoi?i, yeae ia?e iaeaaeiaiiy ia aoa iano?eueee canoa??eei.
Nueiaiaei? a?i iio?aao? iie?auaiiy iaeaea o iiaiiio neeaae?. A i?e oaeeo
ii?iao oeae i?ioean caoyaiaoueny ia aeanyoe??//y. Ooo, cae/aeii, iiaeia
caoaaaeeoe, ui aeo?aoe ia iie?auaiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a iiaeia a?aeiineoe
ia o?eueee ia aaeia? aeo?aoe i?aei?e?inoa, — ? e ?io? aeaea?aea. Aea o
iaoeo i?aei?e?inoa aiie iaaeoi iaiaaeai?. Iiaeaoeia? ae i?eueae /e
iiaeaoeiaee e?aaeeo ia oae? iio?aae ia ia?aaeaa/ai?. E??i oiai,
aaeainiaa aa?o?noue aaea ia aecia/a?oueny ye ia?aeiia, a cia/eoue
5-a?aenioeiaee ??aaiue /a?ac aeayeee /an icia/aoeia aeoaea iaeo noio.
Oei ia/a, ui iia? iniiai? oiiaee aoaeooue aeiaaaoe iie?auaiiy c ieeiii
/ano, eiee ?oiy aaeainiaa aa?o?noue, ?ic?aoiaaia ca?aeii c iiaei
ii?yaeeii (ca i?ionii aii?oecaoe??) aoaea aaea iecueeith. ?acii c oei
oio?einy a caoaaaeeoe, ui iiaee ii?yaeie ?ic?aooieo aaeainiai? aa?oino?
oaeoe/ii i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io aii?oecaoe??, iacaaaeath/e
ia aeineoue aenie? ii?ie a?ae?aooaaiue. Oea ciiao ae icia/a? nooo?aa
aeanoeioethaaiiy i?ioeano iiiaeaiiy ia?eo iaeaaeiaiiy. Nei?i/aiiy
iacaaiiai oa?i?io iiaei a aeinyaaoeny i?e caa?aaeaii? o?aeooaaiiy
aaeainiai? aa?oino? iniiaieo oiiae?a ye ia?aeiii?;

— ia ia?aaeaa/aii ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iiaeaoeiaiai e?aaeeoo, a oaeiae i?euea
ia /anoeio i?eaooeo, ui ?iaanoo?oueny (?a?iaanoo?oueny) o ae?iaieoeoai.
Oea i?aee?aneth? neaae?noue ?aaoethth/iai iaoai?cio;

— iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeea?aeaiae?a ca noaaeith 30 a?aenioe?a, ui aeioeoeueii
aaea?eoue ii ae??aieo aeoe?iia?ao ? a?ae/ooii aieeia ia ?oith
ieaoini?iiiaei?noue, nei?i/aiiy yei? a naith /a?ao aieeia ia iiieo, a
cia/eoue ? ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa;

— a?aenooi?noue iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o;

— a?aenooi?noue iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano, yeee
canoiniao?oueny a a?eueoino? e?a?i (iai?eeeaae, cieaeai? noaaee
iiaeaoeo);

— aaaaeaiiy iiaeo ii?i aii?oecaoe?? ia 1997-1998 ?.?. ia a iiaiiio
ianyc?, a ?c canoinoaaiiyi eiao?oe??ioo 0,7 oa 0,6, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iaaei??iiai aeeo/aiiy i?eaooeo /a?ac iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie (aeioiaee) ia? aeineoue aenieo o?neaeueio
aoaeoeai?noue. A 1993 ?. a?i caaacia/oaaa 29,2% aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai
athaeaeaoo, a 1997 – 21,0%. Nei?i/aiiy ieoiii? aaae aeacaiiai iiaeaoeo a
aeioiaeao caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo iiynith?oueny e?eueeiia i?e/eiaie:
nei?i/aiiyi iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai iai?ioo aiane?aeie iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa ?
eiai aoaeoeaiino?; ia?aoiaeii a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a aei
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo; aeayeei iineaaeaiiyi oiia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
i?eaooeo. Ne?ae oaeiae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui a 1993 ?. ieoiia aaaa
iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae iiaeaoeo ia aeioiaee i?aei?e?inoa a aeioiaeao
caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo aoea aeuith a?ae aiaeia?/iiai iieacieea a 1992 ?.
(29,2% a 1993 ?. ? 22,7% a 1992 ?.). Oea iiynith?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi
noaaie iiaeaoeo c 18% aei 22%.

Aeoaea cia/iee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
ni?aaeythoue oaeiae cai?e aei Oiiaeo *i?iiaeeth, ia iaia’yceiaa iain?eia
oa nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy. Aiie iathoue ? aenieo o?neaeueio
aoaeoeai?noue. Iai?eeeaae, o aeioiaeao eiinie?aeiaaiiai athaeaeaoo 1995
?. iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Oiiaeo *i?iiaeeth neeaaeaee 5%, aei Iain?eiiai
oiiaeo — 20,2%; a 1996 ?. — a?aeiia?aeii 4,9% ? 23,8%. Iaiao?aeii
i?aee?aneeoe, ui oe? cai?e iathoue iai?yio ae?th. Aaeaea aiie
aeeth/athoueny aei nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??, aoiaeyoue aei oe?ie ?
ia?aeeaaeathoueny o ?? neeaae? ia ianaeaiiy. Caaaeyee oeueiio eaea
nei?i/aiiy ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaa/a, a cia/eoue,
cai?oaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ? nei?i/aiiy noeoiieo i?eaooe?a a?ae iueiai.

Aei aiaeia?/ieo iane?aee?a i?ecaiaeyoue ? iiaeaoee c ianaeaiiy.
A?aei?ii?noue eeoa a oiio, ui aiie ni?aaeythoue i?yio ae?th ia aeioiaee
niiaeeaa/a.

An? ?io? iiaeaoee ? cai?e iathoue iaaaeeeo o?neaeueio aoaeoeai?noue ?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a?eueoa c iaoith ?aaoethth/iai aieeao. I?e/iio
a?eueo?noue ?c ieo ae?thoue ia ia an?, a eeoa ia /anoeio noa’?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? uiaei aea?aieo ia’?eo?a.

Aiae?c ie?aieo iiaeaoe?a ia aea? iiaeeeaino? ?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i ?oi?e
noeoiiee aieea ia ae?iaieoeoai. Oiio a ?iaio? oaeiae ?ic?aoiaaii ?
i?iaiae?ciaaii iieacieee iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y.

Aeaye? aeiiii?noe i?iiiiothoue ?icoi?oe i?ae iiaeaoeiaei oyaa?ai
aaee/eio iiaeaoeiai? noie, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a i?eaooeo. Oiaoi,
i?ae oeei oa?i?iii ?icoi?thoue aeieth i?eaooeo, ui eaea ia nieaoo
iiaeaoe?a. sse iieacothoue ?ic?aooiee, oaeee iieaciee a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii
1992-1997 ?.?. iaaieiii ca?eueooaaany ? neeaa a 1997 ?. 56,7%. sseui
ii??aiyoe eiai ?c ?yaeii ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, oi a?i a Oe?a?i? aeaeaei ia
iaeaeuee. Oae, aeiey i?eaooeo, ui ni?yiiao?oueny ia nieaoo iiaeaoe?a,
neeaaea?: a I?ia//ei? — 70,8%; a ssiii?? — 64,1%; o O?aioe?? — 60,9%; o
Oaaoe?? — 58,0%; a ?oae?? — 46,4%; a NOA — 45,3%; a Eaiaae? — 44,4%; o
Aaeeeia?eoai?? — 35,0%.

Aea oaeee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ? ae?ae iaaeineiiaeei,
ia aea? ?aaeueii? ioe?iee noaio ni?aa a iiiaeaoeoaaii? ? ia iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee aeey aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co. Ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa, a cia/eoue
? ianyae i?eaooe?a, caeaaeaoue ia o?eueee a?ae i?yieo iiaeaoe?a,
aeaea?aeii nieaoe yeeo ? i?eaooie, a e a?ae iai?yieo, ui
ia?aeeaaeathoueny ia niiaeeaa/a ? nei?i/othoue iioaioe?eiee iiieo. Aiie
i?ecaiaeyoue aei cai?oaiiy iioaioe?eieo ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ?
nei?i/aiiy noeoiieo iioaioe?eii iiaeeeaeo i?eaooe?a i?aei?e?inoa.
Aiaeia?/ii ae?thoue ? iiaeaoee c ianaeaiiy, ??ci? cai?e, ui
canoiniaothoueny a Oe?a?i?.

A ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c, caniiaaiee ia aeei?enoaii? iieacieea ??aiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy th?eaee/ieo ? o?ce/ieo in?a (iaaeae? — ??aaiue
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy). A?i caeaaeeoue a?ae aei?noeino? oeaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
yea aecia/a?oueny ye na?aaeiueicaaaeaia iaaaioaaeaiiy ii iniiaieo
iiaeaoeao, a oaeiae a?ae ??aiy cai?o oeeo iiaeaoe?a, yeee ioe?ith?oueny
?o noia?iith /anoeith o AAI. I?e ?ic?aooieo na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy aaciaei iieacieeii aeey ia?aooaaiiy IAeA (i?e ?ic?aooieao
ia iae?i??ai?) cai?iiiiiaaii i?eeiyoe AAI, a ia aaeiaee aeione
i?iaeoeoe??, yeee aeeth/a? i?ii?aeia niiaeeaaiiy. I?ii?aeia niiaeeaaiiy
nei??oa iiaeia i?eeiyoe ca aaco aecia/aiiy iiaeaoeiaiai e?aaeeoo ii IAeA
(i?e ?ic?aooieao ia iae?i??ai?). ?ic?aoiaaii eiao?oe??ioe ??aiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ye? neeaee: o 1992 ?. – 0,462; o 1993 – 0,496; o 1994 –
0,633; o 1995 – 0,670; o 1996 – 0,934; o 1997 – 1,04. sse aeaeii c
iaaaaeaieo aeaieo, ca aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae oeae iieaciee iino?eii
c?inoaa. Oaiie oeueiai c?inoaiiy a ??ci? ?iee aoee iaiaeiaeiaeie, aea
aei 1997 ?. a?i c??n o ii??aiyii? c 1992 ?. a 2,25 ?aca. O oie aea /an
?aioaaaeuei?noue i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie cieaeoaaeanue ii i???
i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue oaeeie ??aiyie: 1992
?. — 30,3%; 1994 — 24,7%; 1995 — 16,6%; 1996 — 8,9%. C?inea e?euee?noue
caeoeiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. I?e/ei oeueiio aaaaoi, ? iaei??th c ieo ?
aenieee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Ia?aeaeueii eoei e nei?i/aiiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? — aaeaea /a?ac iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeeo/a?oueny /anoeia aeioiae?a i?aei?e?ioe?a. *ei aeuee ??aaiue
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oei iaioee i?e??no aea? eai?oae i?aei?e?ioeyi, a
a?aeoae, ia io?eioth/e i/?eoaaieo i?eaooe?a, inoaii? cai?oathoue
ae?iaieoeoai. Oei a?eueoa, ui ca aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae ??aaiue ?ioeyoe??
a aaaaoi ?ac?a ia?aaeuoaaa ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? (iai?eeeaae, o 1996
?. — a 4,5 ?aca). Oiaoi, ?aaeueiee i?e??no o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
i?aei?e?inoa a?aenooi?e, iaaiaee — ia? i?noea ?o nei?i/aiiy. Ana oea ia
caaaeaee icia/a? coieieo ae?iaieoeoaa, a /ano?oa ia?aaeaa/a? eiai
ia?ao?ae ia iaeaaaeuei? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

A ?iaio? aeei?enoiao?oueny ua iaeei iaoiae ?ic?aooieo iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo
ia ieaoiee?a. Oea — aecia/aiiy iieacieea ??aiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia iniia?
aeiaeaii? aa?oino?. Aiii a?oioo?oueny ia oiio, ui aeaea?aeii on?o
iiaeaoe?a ? naia aeiaeaia aa?o?noue. Aaee/eia ??aiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaea
aooe aecia/aia iine?aeiaiei ciaioaiiyi aeiaeaii? aa?oino? i?iii?oe?eii
aei iiaeaoeiaeo noaaie.

?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui aeacaiee iieaciee a Oe?a?i? ca noaiii ia 1996
?. neeaa 68,4%. Ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao, ui iioeiaeueiith a nueiaiaei?oi?o
oiiaao i?ia?aei? ca?oa?aei? oa a?o/eciyi? a/ai? aaaaeathoue aaee/eio
??aiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, aeecueeo aei 40%. Neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? iiai?noth
aeeeth/a? iiaeeea?noue nooo?aeo ?iaanoeoe?e oa ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa.

C iaoith a?eueoiai iaaeeaeaiiy aiae?co aei ?aaeueii? ae?eniino? a ?iaio?
i?iiiio?oueny oaeiae i?iaanoe eiai ia iniia? iieaciee?a i?e?i??aiy.
Iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe iiaeaoeiaee oene ia ie?ai? i?aei?e?inoaa ye
a?aeiioaiiy ia?aoiaaieo ca ia??iae (??e) iiaeaoe?a oa cai??a aei
ae?iaeaii? aeiaeaii? aa?oino? (noie i?eaooeo ? aeo?ao ia iieaoo i?aoe?).
I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?aoiaaii iiaeaoeiaee oene ia o?e
i?aei?e?inoaa i?noa Iaeane (a?aee?eoa aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai “Iaeanueeee
ei?iaae”, Iaeanueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo (IIAe?) oaeaa?c?eii?
oaoi?ee, a?aee?eoa aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai “Noaeueeaiao”). ?ic?aooiee
i?iaaaeai? ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo ??/ieo ca?o?a oeeo i?aei?e?inoa ca 1996 –
1997 ?.?..

O 1996 ?. iiaeaoeiaee oene a?aeiinii AAO “Iaeanueeee ei?iaae” neeaa
104,2%. Oea icia/a?, ui ia eiaeio a?eaith noai?aii? ia i?aei?e?inoa?
aeiaeaii? aa?oino? iaiao?aeii aoei nieaoeoe 1,04 a?eai? iiaeaoe?a oa
cai??a. O 1997 ?. oeae iieaciee neeaa 68,9%. Oaea nooo?aa nei?i/aiiy
iia’ycaia c aeaiia iiae?yie: i?iaaaeaiiyi ci?i o ii?yaeeo
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; ?icoe?aiiyi ani?oeiaioo i?iaeoeoe?? ia i?aei?e?inoa? ?,
caaaeyee oeueiio, ca?eueoaiiy ianyao i?iaeaae. Ae?oaa iiae?y i?ecaaea
aei oiai, ui ciaioeany oene oaeeo iiaeaoe?a, ye ieaoa ca caieth,
iiaeaoie c aeaniee?a o?ainii?oieo cania?a oa ?ioeo, ye? ia ci?iththoueny
i?e c?inoaii? aeiaeaii? aa?oino? (“iino?ei? iiaeaoee”).

IIAe? oaeaa?c?eii? oaoi?ee i?aeaea?oueny iaioiio iiaeaoeiaiio oeneo
caaaeyee aeayeei i?eueaai noiniaii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oeae
iieaciee o 1997 ?. oaeiae nei?ioeany c 62,1% aei 56,4% caaaeyee ci?iai o
iiaeaoeiaiio caeiiiaeaanoa?.

Cian?i ?ioa neooaoe?y neeaeany a?aeiinii AAO “Noaeueeaiao”, aea ca
aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae iiaeaoeiaee oene c??n c 87,5% aei 90,3%. Oea
iia’ycaii c iiaeaeueoei niaaeii ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aei?e?inoa?. O ca’yceo
c iei aeiaeaia aa?o?noue nei?ioeeany c 9643,4 oen. a?i. aei 4963,0 oen.
a?i.. Aeua aaea caaaeoaai? “iino?ei? iiaeaoee” i?ecaaee aei iineeaiiy
iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo. Oea na?ae/eoue ? i?i iayai?noue cai?ioiiai ca’yceo
i?ae aoaeoeai?noth ? ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa oa iiaeaoeiaei oyaa?ai
(oeneii).

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ciiao na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaeuaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai
iieacieea iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo (ye ?ai?oa caaaeoaaeinue – 40%) ? a 1996, ?
a 1997 ?.. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie i?i iaaeinoaoi?noue ci?i a
iiiaeaoeoaaii?, i?iaaaeaieo o 1997 ?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe ia i?aenoaa? ?ai?oa i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co
c?iaeai? iaa?oioiaoth/? ?ic?aooiee oa i?eaiaeyoueny aeiaaaeaiiy uiaei
aeai?o oeyo?a ?icaeoeo iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie, ci?i o i?e c iaoith
iineeaiiy ?aaoethth/iai ? noeioethth/iai aieeao ia ae?iaieoeoai.
?icaeyaea?oueny oa aeiaiaeeoueny iaiao?aei?noue iaenei??oiai ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai uiaei th?eaee/iiai ioi?ieaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.
Ia iniia? oeueiai iiaoaeiaaia nenoaia i?iiiceoe?e, iniiaieie c yeeo ?
ianooii?:

— aeeo/aiiy c iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai iai?ioo ii IAeA aeoeeciiai cai?o, cai??a
ia iaia’yceiaa iain?eia, nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy oa aei Oiiaeo
*i?iiaeeth;

— aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y noaaie IAeA (anoaiiaeaiiy cieaeaii? noaaee ia
i?aaeiaoe ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino? oa i?aeaeuaii? — ia i?aaeiaoe ?iceioo);

— aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y noaaie iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie (anoaiiaeaiiy cieaeaieo
noaaie aeey i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai a?ciano);

— cieaeaiiy noaaee iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie o /anoei? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeea?aeaiae?a;

— aaaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ia ?iaanooaaiiy i?eaooeo a ?aaeueiee
eai?oae (aai caaacia/aiiy noeioe?a uiaei oaeiai ?iaanooaaiiy oeyoii
nai???aeiiai e?aaeeoo /a?ac iaaeaiiy a?aeno?i/ee ii nieao? /anoeie
iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie);

— aeei?enoaiiy oae caaiiai “iaoai?cio eaaaeueiiai ooeeaiiy” a?ae
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?aei?e?ioe?a — o?ce/ieo in?a (iaaeaiiy ?i i?aaa aeai?o —
ieaoeoe IAeA /e i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie);

— aaaaeaiiy aeaiaioo ?aa?ano a oeaeo i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c ianaeaiiy
caaeey noeioethaaiiy eaaae?caoe?? iai?io?a i?aei?e?ioe?a — o?ce/ieo in?a
oa aeieao ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a?cianiaeie no?oeoo?aie;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie ?iaeaenaoe?? i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo.

Oe? caoiaee iiaeia i?iaanoe o iaeaeeae/? 3 ?iee. Ii cae?i/aiith oeueiai
ia??iaeo ne?ae i?iaanoe ua ?yae caoiae?a:

— cieaeaiiy noaaie cai??a ia iaia’yceiaa iain?eia, nioe?aeueia
no?aooaaiiy oa aei Oiiaeo *i?iiaeeth aei ??aiy, ui a noi? ia ia?aaeuo?
noaaeo iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy noeioethth/iai iaoai?cio aeey ieaoiee?a IAeA, ye?
ca?eueiyeenue a?ae iueiai i?ioyaii iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo /a?ac iae?
iai?ioe (ca?eueiaiiy ?o a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoeo e ia i?ioyc? ianooiiiai
?ieo, yeui ?oi? iai?ioe aaea ia?aaeuothoue i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue, aea ia
ia?aaeuothoue ae?oaee anoaiiaeaiee ??aaiue);

— ia?ao?ae a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noeoiiiai aeioiaeo a?iiaaeyieia aei
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noeoiiiai aeioiaeo n?i’? ?c canoinoaaiiyi oe?eueiaeo
i?euea ia i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e oa aeiooai? ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??.

Cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia ci?i ? noeioethth/ith a iai?yieo ?icoe?aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aea ci?ie ia ia?oiio aoai? ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ecaaaeooue
aei aeayeiai c?inoaiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo. Oea iia’ycaii c ?nioaaiiyi
/aniaiai eaao. Ia ia??iae eiai o?eaaiiy aea?aeaaa ia? iaeneiaeueii
caae?yoe iaiiaeaoeia? aeaea?aea eioo?a. Iaea?eueoei c ieo a Oe?a?i? ?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae i?eaaoecaoe??. Oiaoi, i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ci?i
noeioethaaoeia ?eieia? ?aoi?ie oeyoii iiaeeaeaiiy i?eaaoecaoe??,
ine?eueee cioneoue O?yae i?aeaeueoe ?? oaiie.

A E N I I A E E

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aieeao iiaeaoe?a ia ae?iaieoeoai oa ae?th/i? a
Oe?a?i? i?aeoeee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeaa ciiao c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai ieaio:

· iniiaiei iaaeie?eii o oi?ioaaii? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ? oa, ui
ia aoee iiaiith i??ith a?aoiaai? aacia? i?eioeeie ?? iiaoaeiae. Iiaeaoee
ci???ioiaai? a iniiaiiio ia aeeiiaiiy o?neaeueii? ooieoe??, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y;

· iacaaeia?eueiei ? noai i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo a?aeiinei.
Caeiiiaeaanoai cacia? caiaaeoi /anoeo ci?i oa aeiiiaiaiue, aeineoue
/anoi iathoue i?noea a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiino? oa noia?a/eea?noue.
Iie?aueoe neooaoe?th o noa?? oi?ioaaiiy oa ei?eaoaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/iai
iiaeaoeiaiai iiey a iao?e e?a?i? iiaea eeoa i?eeiyooy Iiaeaoeiaiai
eiaeaeno, ui iiaeiai ia?o ca ana noaoe iniiaith a?aaoethaaiiy nenoaie
a?aeiinei “ieaoiee – aea?aeaaa”;

· iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi ii/aoeiaiai aoaio iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie ia? aooe
eaaae?caoe?y ?nioth/eo iai?io?a. Caaeey oeueiai O?yae iiaeiai iaieineoe
aii?no?th uiaei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?ai?oa i?eiouai? ii?ooaiiy
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ia?aeaeueii c oeei ia? aooe iineeaia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?aoi?iaii? ii?ooaiiy;

· ciaioaiiy iiaeaoe?a ia iacia/i? noie aaea ia aeanoue aoaeoo. Iio??ai?
nooo?a? ia?aoai?aiiy, caeaoi? oaeiae ci?ieoe noi?iiaai? oyaeaiiy oa
ia?aeiiaiiy ieaoiee?a uiaei iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ci?ieoe ineoieia?th
“i?eoiaoaa/a”;

· aoaeue-ye? ci?ie a iiaeaoeia?e nenoai? iathoue i?iaaaeeoeny ia
i?aenoaa? ?aoaeueiiai aiae?co iieaciee?a iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aieea iiaeaoe?a ia ae?iaieoeoai. Iaeiei ?c ieo ?
??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. I?e eiai aecia/aii? ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye
aaciaee iieaciee aeey ia?aooaaiiy IAeA aaeiaee aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo
cai?noue aaeiaiai aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny iei?. Oea
aeicaiey? oieeiooe aieeao noi i?ii?aeiiai niiaeeaaiiy ia
iae?i?ic?aooiee;

· ci?ie a iiaeaoeia?e nenoai? Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? ia iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe
“?aaiethoe?eiei” oeyoii. Oea ia? aooe iinooiiaa ?aoi?ia aaiethoe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aaeaea aoaeue-ye? iiaeaoeia? ci?ie iiaeii? ii?iaiaoaaoeny ia
i?aeoeoe?. Iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei ? cai?iiiiiaaiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? aa??aio aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo iiaeaoe?a, yeee ia?aaeaa/a?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th noaaie IAeA ? iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie, aaeineiiaeaiiy
aace iiiaeaoeoaaiiy IAeA, ia?aaoaeiao oeaee noaaie i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo
c ianaeaiiy, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?eueaiaiai iaoai?cio.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1.Iaeueiee A. I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iiaeaoee // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1996. —
?10. – N.93-98.

2.Iaeueiee A. I. Aeaye? ieoaiiy iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie // ?eieia? aaaeae?
oa noeioee ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?/eo nenoai: Ca. iaoe. i?./ Eieaeoea aaoi??a
i?ae ea??aieoeoaii A. I. Ai?iaeaoiai, ae. a. i., i?ioani?a, aeaaeai?ea.
– Iaeana: ??AIO, 1997. — N.336-340.

3.Iaeueiee A. I. Aieea nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia noai oa ?icaeoie
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? // Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oa
i?iaeaie ?o a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eo?nao aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i. *anoeia 1:
Ca. iaoe. i?./ Eieaeoea aaoi??a i?ae ea??aieoeoai ae.a. i., i?ioani?a,
aeaaeai?ea A. I. Ai?iaeaoiai. – Iaeana: ??AIO, 1997. – N. 292-296.

4.Iaeueiee A. I. Aeaye? ieoaiiy aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
a Oe?a?i?// A?niee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aei. 2 /
Iaean. aea?ae. aeii. oi-o; ?aaeeie.: aeaae. A.I. Ai?iaeaoee, oa ?i. –
Iaeana: AOCO ??AIOO, 1998, N. 112 — 116.

5. Iaeueiee A. I. Iiaeaoeiaee oyaa? oa iiaeaoeiaa ?aaoethaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1998. — ?2.
– N. 76 – 79.

6. Iaeueiee A. I. Iaeiaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea a Oe?aeia: ninoiyiea e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey// I?iaeaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? / A?aei. ?aae. E. O. Aeieaiei, —
Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — N. 44 -49.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaeueiee A. I. Iiaeaoee oa ?oi?e aieea ia ae?iaieoeoai. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.04.01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo. —
?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ice?eoi nooi?noue iiaeaoe?a, ?oi? ooieoe?? ?
cia/aiiy a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?. Aeine?aeaeaii ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie
iiaeaoeiai? oai??? oa ?icaeoie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae, ii/eiath/e c iaaoooy iacaeaaeiino?. I?iaiae?ciaaii
a?aeiia?aei?noue iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie oai?aoe/iei i?eioeeiai
iiaoaeiae ? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?c aeina?aeii ?icaeiaieo e?a?i.
C?iaeaii ?ic?aooiee iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ca ??cieie iaoiaeeeaie (aeiey
i?eaooeo, ui ni?yiiao?oueny ia nieaoo iiaeaoe?a; iieacieee ??aiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a, iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo ia
ie?aieo ieaoiee?a) oa iaea?aeaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie eiai aiae?c.
Aeine?aeaeaii ca’ycie i?ae ??aiai iiaeaoe?a oa aeiiii?/iith
aoaeoeai?noth ? ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaa?oioiaaii oa cai?iiiiiaaii
eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei iiaeieaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c iaaei??i?noth
iiaeaoe?a, ? iineeaiiyi ?oiueiai ?aaoethth/iai oa noeioethth/iai aieeao
ia ae?iaieoeoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaeaoee, iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia, iiaeaoeiaee oyaa?, ??aaiue
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iiaeaoeiaee oene, ?aioaaaeuei?noue, ?aaoethaaiiy,
noeioethaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaeueiee A. I. Iaeiae e eo aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaenoai. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.04.01 – oeiainu, aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo. —
Einoeooo yeiiiie/aneiai i?iaiice?iaaiey IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?ane?uoa nouiinoue iaeiaia, eo ooieoeee e
cia/aiea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Enneaaeiaaii enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea
iaeiaiaie oai?ee e ?acaeoea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey a Oe?aeia a ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae ia/eiay n ia?aoaiey iacaaeneiinoe. I?iaiaeece?iaaii niioaaonoaea
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu Oe?aeiu oai?aoe/aneei i?eioeeiai iino?iaiey e
i?iaaaeaii a? n?aaiaiea n iiuoii ?acaeouo no?ai. I?iecaaaeaiu ?an/?ou
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ii ?acee/iui iaoiaeeeai (aeiey i?eauee, iai?aaeyaiie
ia oieaoo iaeiaia; iieacaoaee o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey th?eaee/aneeo e
oece/aneeo eeoe, iaeiaiaiai aeaaeaiey ia ioaeaeueiuo ieaoaeueueeia) e
iieo/ee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aai aiaeec. Enneaaeiaaia naycue iaaeaeo
o?iaiai iaeiaia e yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth, a oae aea iau?iaie
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?iaaaeaiiua ?an/?ou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi a
Oe?aeia ca ia?eiae n 1992 ii 1997 a. iieacaoaeue o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe, caaenyuee io n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie iaa?ocee
ii iniiaiui iaeiaai e io o?iaiy nai?a yoeo iaeiaia, aic?in a 2,25 ?aca.
A oi aea a?aiy ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee oieueei ca
ia?eiae 1992 – 1996 a.a. nie?aoeeanue a 3,4 ?aca. Aic?inei eiee/anoai
oauoi/iuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ia?aeeaeueii oei e nie?auaiea iau?iia
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – aaaeue /a?ac iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea
ecuiaaony /anoue aeioiaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. *ai auoa o?iaaiue
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, oai iaiueoee i?e?ino aea?o aeiaeaiiue eaieoae. Ia
iieo/ea iaeeaeaaiua i?eauee, i?aaei?eieiaoaee nai?a/eaatho
i?iecaiaenoai. Oai aieaa, /oi ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae o?iaaiue
eioeyoeee cia/eoaeueii i?aauoae o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe (a 1996 a. – a
4,5 ?aca). Oi anoue, ieeaeiai i?e?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee
ia auei, iaiai?io – iaeeoei eo nie?auaiea.

A ?aaioa oaeaea ?ann/eoai o?iaaiue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia iniiaa iieacaoaey
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. Yoi a?aoiaioe?oaony oai, /oi enoi/ieeii anao
iaeiaia yaeyaony eiaiii aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue. A 1996 a. yoio
iieacaoaeue a niioaaonoaee n ?an/aoaie ninoaaee 68,4%. Aaaeouea
ca?oaaaeiua e ioa/anoaaiiua o/?iua n/eoatho iioeiaeueiie aaee/eio o?iaiy
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey 40%. Iiyoiio neooaoeey a Oe?aeia i?aiyonoaoao
?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa.

?an/?o iaeiaiaiai aeaaeaiey ia ioaeaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey oaeaea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?aauoaiee oaeoe/aneiai o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iaae
ii?iaoeaiui (?an/?o inouanoae?i ia aaca o??o i?aaei?eyoee ai?iaea
Iaeannu).

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec aeeyiey iaeiaia ia i?iecaiaenoai e aeaenoaothuae a
Oe?aeia i?aeoeee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iicaieee naeaeaoue a ?aaioa
neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

— iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii yaeyaony oi, /oi i?e iino?iaiee iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu iaoae no?aiu ia auee o/oaiu a iieiie ia?a iniiaiua oai?aoe/aneea
i?eioeeiu. Iaeiae i?eaioe?iaaiu oieueei ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae
ainoaea?noaa, oi anoue ia auiieiaiea oeneaeueiie ooieoeee;

— iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui yaeyaony ninoiyiea i?aaiaiai ioi?ieaiey
ioiioaiee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai neeoeii /anoi
iiaeaa?aaaony eciaiaieyi e aeiiieiaieyi, aeinoaoi/ii /anoi a i?i
ano?a/aathony ionoonoaea nenoaiiinoe e i?ioeai?a/eainoue. Neooaoeeth
iiaeao eciaieoue oieueei i?eiyoea Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena, eioi?ue
o?aaoee?oao nenoaio ioiioaiee ieaoaeueuee — ainoaea?noai;

— eciaiaiey a iaeiaiaie nenoaia Oe?aeiu naaiaeiy iaaiciiaeii i?iaiaeeoue
“?aaiethoeeiiiui” ioo?i. Yoi aeieaeia auoue iinoaiaiiay ?aoi?ia
yaiethoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a;

— a Oe?aeia ianooiee yoai, eiaaea iacia/eoaeueiua oiaiueoaiey iaeiaia ia
aeaaeoo yooaeoa. Ioaeiu nouanoaaiiua nie?auaiey, niiniaiua eciaieoue
noi?ie?iaaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey e oaaaeaeaiey ieaoaeueueeia ioiineoaeueii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

— aeaaiie caaea/ae ia/aeueiiai yoaia iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu aeieaeia auoue
eaaaeecaoeey nouanoaothueo iai?ioia. Aeey yoiai I?aaeoaeuenoai aeieaeii
iieoe ia iauyaeaiea aiienoee ioiineoaeueii ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?aiaa
aeiiouaiiua ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ia?aeeaeueii
aeieaeia auoue oneeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiey iinea?aoi?iaiiua.

Iainiiaaiu e i?aaeeiaeaiu eiie?aoiua ia?ii?eyoey ii oneeaieth
?aaoee?othuaai e noeioee?othuaai aeeyiey iaeiaia ia i?iecaiaenoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaeiae, iaeiaiaay nenoaia, iaeiaiaia a?aiy, o?iaaiue
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iaeiaiaia aeaaeaiea, ?aioaaaeueiinoue, ?aaoee?iaaiea,
noeioee?iaaiea.

ANNOTATION

Melnik V.N. For Taxes and their influence on production. — Manuscript.

Thesis scientific degree of candidate of economic sciences on specialty
08.04.01 — finance, money circulation and credit. — Institute for
economic forecasting, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences (UNAS),
Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis reveals the essence of the taxes, their function and
significance in market economy. The historical development of the tax
theory and development of the taxation in Ukraine in transitional period
is investigated, beginning from the date of independence. The
correspondence of this country’s tax system to the theoretical
principles is analyzed and comparison with the experience of developed
countries is conducted. The author calculates taxation burder with the
help of various techniques (share of the profit directed on tax payment;
the parameters of taxation level for legal and natural persons, tax
pressure on individual payers) and further analyses its development.
The connection between tax level and economic efficiency, and output is
investigated. The concrete measures to overcome the problems connected
with excessive tax level, and increase their regulating and stimulating
influence on the production are justified and proposed.

Key words: the taxes, tax system, of taxation burden, of the taxation
level, tax pressure, profitability, regulation, incentives.

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