Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

OAeE 711. 424

IEAOEI

Ieaia Iao??aia

IEAIOAAEUeII-EIIIICEOe?EIEE OEEAAe

IINAEAIUe I?IAOeUeEEO IA?ANAEAIOe?A A AAEE*EI?

E?IOess XVIII — II*AOEO OO NOIE?OUe

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 18.00.01

Oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oa ooaeiaei?o iniia a?o?oaeoo?e
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaioIao?eoei Aaeeia
Iao??aia

eaoaae?a
?noi??? oa ooaeiaei?o iniia a?o?oaeoo?e Aea?aeaaiee

oi?aa?neoao
„Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i.i.n. Oeiio??iei
Aieiaeeie?

?aaiiae/
?inoeooo ?i. I. ?eeuenueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai??

iaoe Oe?a?ie
(i. Ee?a).eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio

*a?iye ?ai? sseiae/ Euea?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee

oi?aa?neoao, aeaeai a?o?oaeoo?iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa -Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oai??? oa ?noi???
a?o?oaeoo?e ? i?noiaoaeoaaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao
aoae?aieoeoaa, a?o?oaeoo?e ? aeeoeiai? iie?oeee (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «29» aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo

i «10.00» aiae ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E 35. 052.11. i?e
Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»: i. Euea?a, aoe.
N.Aaiaea?e, 12 aoae. 226

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo „Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (i. Euea?a, aoe. I?ioani?nueea,
1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «27» aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee eaiae. a?o., aeioe. Aaac I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

?noi??y noni?euenoaa aaaaoa yaeuaie, ye? ia’?eoeaii caeeoeee ii nia?
ne?ae, a oaeiae aieeioee ia ??ci? noi?iie aeeooy, a o./. ia noai
a?o?oaeoo?e. No/ania iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? ? iineeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioaeo?a aenoaa? iio?aao ii?yae c aea/aiiyi oe?a?inueei?
a?o?oaeoo?e aea/aoe ? caa??aaoe oai?/o niaaeueio ?ioeo ia?iae?a, ui o
iaai? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee aeeee ia ?? oa?eoi???. Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaaeueie
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a aea? ciiao ?ice?eoe ?? naiiaooi?noue oa e?aua
c?icoi?oe i?ioeane a oe?a?inuee?e o?aai?noeoe? ia??iaeo e. OV??? — ii/.
O?O no. ? aeine?aeeoe aca?iiaieeae ??cieo eoeueoo?.

Oeae ia??iae a ?a?ii? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny no?oeoo?iith ?ai?aai?caoe??th
?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaaieo ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo? ie?aieo i?no oa oai?aoe/iei
ii?aoethaaiiyi iiaeo i?eioeei?a caeeaaeaiiy iinaeaiue. A Oe?a?i? aaaaoa
niaaeueia oeueiai ia??iaeo a ?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy
caeeoa?oueny ii??aiyii iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeaiith. Iniaeeai a
ii?aoethaaiiyo, i?enay/aieo Aaee/ei?, aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy
a?aeia?aaeaiiy noeeth a ie?aieo ia’?eoao, ia oi?eath/enue
o?aai?caoe?eieo caeeaaeaiue, i?eeeaaeaie yeeo ?
eiiiiceoe?eii-ieaioaaeuei? oeeaaee iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a
e. OV??? — ii/. OO no.

Oae caaia aa?a?ia eieii?caoe?y ooai?aiiai a?ae 1772 ?. o neeaae?
Aano??enueei? iiia?o?? Ei?iiiiai E?ath Aaee/eie ? Aieiaeeie?ueie aoea
iaeiei c i?iya?a iiai? o?aai?caoe?eii? iie?oeee Aano??enueei? ?iia???,
yea o?aeooaaea nai? iia? no?aei? i?ia?ioe?? ye neaaicanaeai? ?
i?iieneiai a?aenoae? oa?eoi???. Oea aeicaieyei o?yaeo ca?aeii c
i?aeaea?aeaaiei aeiaiai?ii ia?anaeyoe i?ioe?a c I?ai?/ii? I?ia//eie,
Iaae?aeiiy, Iaeaoeiaoo oiui. E?iaoeue XVIII no. aoa /anii caaaeueiiai
iaioaaiiy a o?yaeiaeo noa?ao «iiioeyoe?eii?» oai???, yea i?iiaaoaaea
ca?eueoaiiy ianaeaiiy ye aeaea?aea iiaeaoeiai? ? a?enueeiai? neee
aea?aeaae. Ia a?aei?io a?ae caoiae?a, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny ia ?ioeo
oa?eoi??yo ?a?iie, aano??enueea eieii?caoe?y o a?aeiinii aonoicanaeai?e
Aaee/ei? iieyaaea o aeiiiaiaii? ?nioth/i? nenoaie ?icnaeaiiy iiaeie
iinaeaiiyie, a e?euee?noue ia?anaeaieo ca aanue ia??iae e. OV??? — ii/.
OO no. o n?euenueeo i?noeaa?noue i?ioe?a noaiiaeea aeecueei 2 % anueiai
ianaeaiiy. Aaee/eia ia iaea aaeeeeo caiaeue, i?eaeaoieo aeey
eieii?caoe??, oiio iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo ia?aae? i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaiue
aoee iaaecae/aeii iaiaaeaieie.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeaii, ui caaaeueia e?euee?noue
iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a Ei?iiiiai E?ath Aaee/eie ?
Aieiaeeie?ueie a 1772-1918 ??. noaiiaeea 360. Ia?aaaaeia ?o a?eueo?noue
?icoaoiaoaaeanue o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ?aa?iio. Anueiai o iaaeao
no/anieo Euea?anueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei? oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeanoae
aoei caeeaaeaii aeecueei 200 iiaeo iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a —
o. ca. eieii?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean ?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie ?c ?ioeie
e?a?iaie ?a?iie niiioea? iiaa?iooeny aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai niaaeueie
??cieo aoiin?a, ye? i?iaeeaaee ia ?? oa?eoi???. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny 4-ia aieiaieie
iieiaeaiiyie:

— aenieei ??aiai aea/aiino? eieii?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a a ?a?ii? o na?.
OV??? — O?O no. oa iaaeinoaoiueith aea/ai?noth aeaii? i?iaeaie a
Oe?a?i?;

— eaoano?io?/iei no/aniei noaiii iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a, yeeo
caeeoeeinue aeecueei 10 % a?ae caeeaaeaieo;

— ca?eueoaiiyi caoe?eaaeaiiy niaaeueiith i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a c aieo
?a?iie, ye? aeeeeeaee iioiee naioeiaioaeueii-aaeoeaoe?eiiai oo?ecio;

— iaiao?aei?noth iaa?oiooaaiiy oe?iiino? niaaeueie i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a aeey ianooiiiai ii?aoethaaiiy aa??aio?a aeei?enoaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai? oaie eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa ooaeiaei?o
iniia a?o?oaeoo?e — «Aea/aiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii? niaaeueie oa cia/aiiy
ooaeiaei?o aeenoeeie?i o oi?ioaaii? oai?/iai ieneaiiy a?o?oaeoi?a».

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aecia/aii? iniaeeainoae
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueiiai oeeaaeo iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a o
Aaee/ei? oa i?eioeeiiaiai ae??oaiiy ie?aieo nii?oae iai?ee?ioe? XVIII —
ii/aoeo XX no. a eiioaeno? caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeo a?o?oaeoo?ieo
i?ioean?a oeueiai ia??iaeo.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy.

1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio aea/aiino? a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueieo
iniaeeainoae i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e Aaee/eie oa ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

2. Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eieo i?eioeei?a
i?aai?caoe?? iinaeaiue o ??cieo i?iyaao eieii?caoe?eii? iie?oeee o
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae oa oai?aoe/ieo iniia
oi?iiooai?aiiy i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e Aaee/eie;

3. Aiae?c iniaeeainoae ?icoaooaaiiy iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a a
?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaai?e ia?aae? ?icnaeaiiy Aaee/eie oa i?eioeei?a ?o
oa?eoi??aeueii-ieaioaaeueiiai ae??oaiiy o ??cieo eaiaeoaooao.

4. Aena?oeaiiy oei?a a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueiiai oeeaaeo iinaeaiue oa
i?eioeeiiaiai ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueiiai ae??oaiiy nii?oae i?iaoeueeeo
ia?anaeaioe?a o Aaee/ei? oa iniiaieo aoai?a ?o aaiethoe??;

5. Aecia/aiiy i?noey i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e Aaee/eie na?aae ?a?iiaenueeeo
eieii?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa o ?a?iiaenuee?e ? oe?a?inuee?e ?noi???
o?aai?noeee oa a?o?oaeoo?e.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eia no?oeoo?a ? iniiai?
a?o?oaeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe iiaicaeeaaeaieo iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a
o Aaee/ei? e. XVIII — ii/. XX no. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
aecia/aii? caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?iioai?aiiy iinaeaiue oeueiai
ia??iaeo ? eiie?aoieo iniaeeainoae ?aaoey?iiai ieaioaaiiy iinaeaiue
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a a Aaee/ei?, ooai?aiiy oeiieia?/ii? aaie
iinaeaiue, iaoiae?a aienoaaiiy ?o a ?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaaio ia?aaeo
iinaeaiue oa aecia/aii? oei?a ? iniiaieo ooioe?iiaeueii-ieaioaaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee nii?oae a ?o aaiethoe??.

Iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy. *ania? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue e?iaoeue
OVIII — ii/aoie XX no., oiaoi ia??iae ?nioaaiiy Ei?iiiiai E?ath Aaee/eie
? Aieiaeeie?ueie o neeaae? Aano??enueei? oa Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia??e c
?icaeyaeii aaiethoe?? iinaeaiue aei no/aniiai noaio. Oa?eoi??aeueii
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?aa?ii iaiaaeo?oueny /anoeiith, yea nueiaiaei?
iaeaaeeoue Oe?a?i? oa i?aeii?yaeeiaaia no/aniiio aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio
iiae?eo, oiaoi Euea?anueea, Oa?iii?euenueea oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueea
iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aecia/aii iniaeeaino? a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueiiai
oeeaaeo iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a a Aaee/ei?. Aecia/aii iniiai?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? oeie nii?oae i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a oa ?o aaiethoe?y,
?ene nii??aeiaiino? oa a?aei?iiino? uiaei i?noeaaeo o?aaeeoe?e. Aia?oa
oe?iei aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a Oe?a?ie, Aano??? oa I?ia//eie iaoa??ae
i?i a?o?oaeoo?io niaaeueio i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a a Aaee/ei?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa?: — o aeiiiaiaii?
eeaneoeenoe/iiai ia??iaeo a ?noi??? ao?oaeoo?e oa o?aai?noeee Oe?a?ie; —
ii?aoethaaii? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii?
no?oeoo?e eieii?eieo iinaeaiue o ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioaeno?; — o cai??
oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo oa iinoaiiaoe? ieoaiiy i?i ioi?iio aeyaeaieo
iai’yoie o?aai?noeee e. OV??? — n. O?O no.; — iaa?oiooaaii? iiaeeeainoae
aeei?enoaiiy niaaeueie i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a o nueiaiaei?oi?o oiiaao.

I?aaeiaoii caoenoo ?:

— oeiieia?y ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eieo oeeaae?a iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a a Aaee/ei?;

— i?eioeeiiaa ooieoe?iiaeueii-ieaioaaeueia ae??oaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo,
aeeoeiaeo oa ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae oa ?o /ania? ci?ie;

— oai?aoe/ia iieiaeaiiy i?i i?noea iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a
Aaee/eie a oiae? aaiethoe?? ?noi??? o?aai?noeee oa a?o?oaeoo?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O i?aoeyo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?,
caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeeoue ii?aoethaaiiy a?o?aiiai iaoa??aeo, iaoo?i?
ianoaaeaiiy, o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? caaea/?, aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ? iaaiai?ai? ia oe?a?inueeeo, i?iaoeueeeo ?
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao: — i?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiaee
nai?ia? «I?iaoeuee? eieii?? a Aaee/ei?. ?noi??y — a?o?oaeoo?a —
eoeueoo?a», -Euea?a, 1994; — i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y «I?iaeaie
?aaaia?aoe?? ?noi?e/ii? caaoaeiae caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e ianaeaieo
ioieo?a a Oe?a?i?», -Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1994.; — V??, V???, ?O,
O iaoeia? nan?? Iaoeiaiai Oiaa?enoaa ?i.Oaa/aiea, -Euea?a, 1996, 1997,
1998, 1999; — i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y «A?o?oaeoo?a ye
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aeaieia??», -Euea?a, 1996; — i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y «E?ana a a?o?oaeoo??», -E?ae?a, 1997; — i?aeia?iaeiee
iaoeiaee nai?ia? «I?iaeaie eaiaeoaooii? a?o?oaeoo?e oa naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa», -Euea?a, 1997; — oe?a?inueei-aano??enueeee iaoeiaee
nai?ia? «?noi??y Aaee/eie a Aano?i-Oai?nueeee ia??iae», -Euea?a, 1997; —
i?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee nai?ia? «?noi?e/ia, ienoaoeueea oa
a?o?oaeoo?ia niaaeueia AEiaeae: i?iaeaie ioi?iie, ?anoaa?aoe?? oa
aeei?enoaiiy», -AEiaeaa, 1998; — iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y „Ea?oia?ao?/ia
niaaeueia Oe?a?ie», -Euea?a, 1998 ?.; — aeiiia?aeue o „Aeiyo i?iaoeueei?
eoeueoo?e o Eueaia?» -Euea?a, 1998; — ca?o-aeiiia?aeue i?i ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue 1.-30.11.98 ?. o Aa?aea?-?inoeooo? o Ia?ao?ao/I?ia//eia;
— iieiae?aeiee eoeueoo?iee nai?ia? caiaeueiiai oiaa?enoaa A?nee-Aa?oe,
-A?naaaeai/I?ia//eia, 1998.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, ?enoie?a, aeiaeaoe?a, i?noeoue 150 noi??iie oaenoo aeeth/ii
30 noi??iie ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo oa ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

?icae?e ?. Noai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie Eieii?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
Aaee/ei?

e. OVIII — ii/. OX no.

O caaaeuei?e ?noi??? o?aai?noeee a?oioiaii aeine?aeaeaii canaaee
?aaoey?iiai i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Iaeiei ?c i?iya?a ?aaoey?iiai
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy ? oai?e eieii?caoe?eiiai ?ooo, yeee iia’yco?oueny ia?o
ca ana ?c a?enueeiaeie ae?yie oa ?c canioaaiiyi ia?aae? iiaeo iinaeaiue.
?c ao?aoith iinaeaiiyie iai?iiii? ooieoe?? iniiaiith ?o oa?aeoa?enoeeith
caeeoeeanue ?aaoey?i?noue, ui aeicaieyei i?iaiaeeoe eieii?caoe?eio
aeoe?th o oaeaeeiio oaii?, ia iniia? /?oeeo «i?eien?a» ? ?aaeaiaioaoe??.
Iiaiiinoae? nenoaie ?icnaeaiiy iin?aeaee ???a?o?ciaaio nenoaio oei?a
iinaeaiue. Iae/ano?oa aeei?enoiaoaaiith ieaioaaeueiith no?oeoo?ith aoea
i?yiieooio-a?ao/anoa, yea iioiaeeoue a?ae ?aea? ?einueeiai oaai?o.
Ai?iaiaaia a ?noi???, oey noaia noa? caaaeueiina?oiaith ? a ??ciee /an
a?aeoai?th?oueny. I?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aeine?aeiee?a
aena?oeeee ??ci? ?aae?caoe?? oai??a ?aaoey?iiai i?noiaoaeoaaiiy oa
eieii?caoe?eieo caoiae?a. Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith aeine?aeaeaiiy
eieii?caoe?eieo ?oo?a ? iieiaiiy aiae?co ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?
n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue. Oaeiae o e?oa?aoo??, i?enay/ai?e aeine?aeaeaiith
iinaeaiue o Aaee/ei?, iinaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a caaaeothoueny
c??aeea ? o?aaiaioa?ii.

O ?a?ii? a e. XVIII no. i?eeeaaee ianooaaieo o?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a
ciaoiaeeii a ?noi??? Aano??enueei?, I?onueei? oa ?in?enueei? ?iia??e.
Ianiai caeeaaeaeenue oeiia? iinaeaiiy c i?yiieooii-a?ao/anoeie
no?oeoo?aie, i?iiecai? aca?iiia?iaiaeeeoey?ieie aieiaieie oeyoaie, ui
aeicaieyei ca?eueooaaoe iinaeaiiy iaoiaeii ia?iuaiiy. Caeiiii??iino?
ae??oaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae oa ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo? i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?caoe?eieo iinaeaiue ia??iaeo na?. OV??? — ii/. O?O no. a ??cieo
caieyo Na?aaeiuei? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie — I?on??, Iiii?’?, N?eac??,
Aaiao?, oa o Aieei?, I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?, Iiaieaeae? aeine?aeaeaii
ie?aieie aaoi?aie. O eiaei?e ?iia??? aeo?eioaaeanue iaaia e?euee?noue
oei?a ieaioaaeueieo ae??oaiue iiaicaeeaaeaieo iinaeaiue, ye?
anioe?thaaeenue c iiaei, caa?aeiii e?auei ii?yaeeii. I?ioyaii i?onnueei?
eieii?caoe?? aoei caeeaaeaii /eneaii? ae??ai? n?euenuee? iinaeaiiy
e?i?eiiai oa?aeoa?o c oeiiaith caaoaeiaith. Ia caieyo Oai?ueie aoei
oa?aeoa?iei caeeaaeaiiy o i?eei?aeiiieo caieyo e?oiieo n?euenueeeo
iinaeaiue, noi?uaieo c a?enueeiaeie, c ?aaoey?ieie no?oeoo?aie oa
ia?aaeaa/oaaiei i?inoi?iaei ?icaeoeii. Ia?aaaaeath/ee ?icaeoie a
iinaeaiiyo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? iaea?aeaee i?yiie?i?eia oa oaoiaa
?icaeaea aoee/ii? ia?aae?. Ia Aieei?, I?aaei? Oe?a?ie oa o Iiaieaeae?
ooai?eeeny eiiiaeoi? a?oie ?icnaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a.

I?iaeaia iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a a Aaee/ei? caeeoa?oueny
iaeiaea/aiith. E?oa?aoo?a aena?oeth? oea ieoaiiy eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a caii/aoeoaaee i?iaoeuee?
aaoi?e o iiioey?i?e o e. OV??? no. «iiaei?iaei?e e?oa?aoo??», aea
i?iaiaeeoueny noa’?eoeaiee aiae?c, ui aiaaea? a aea? e?aeiino?: aai
aaniethoecaoe?? i?iaoeueei? eoeueoo?e ia aaeeoeueeeo caieyo, aai
?ic/a?oaaiiy ?acoeueoaoaie eieii?caoe??. Ae?oaa oaeey caiie?oeciaaieo
iaeyae?a, aaoi?noaa i?iaoeueeeo oa iieuenueeeo ?noi?ee?a niinoa??aaeany
a e. XIX- i.XX no. Noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee ia??iaeo 1772-1918 ??.
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe aaee/eio eieii?e oa ia’?eoeaii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
yaeua eieii?caoe??. O aeaeaiiyo iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e 1918-1939 ??. aia?oa
c?iaeaii ni?iae ?icaeyiooe ie?ai? ieaioaaeuei? no?oeoo?e iinaeaiue.

Ciiao oaiaoeea i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaiue a Aaee/ei? i?aei?ia?oueny o II-e
iie.XX no. aeo?aeoeyie c eieeoi?o eieii?e o aeaeyae? niiaaae?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?o?aieo aeaea?ae. I?iaiaeyoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaiaaeia?/ieo no?oeoo? eieii?no?a, ?icaeoeo noni?eueii? i?aai?caoe??,
oe?eueieoeoaa, iaoiae?a aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, aoiia?ao??
oiui. A i?ioan?ei?e e?oa?aoo?? inoaii?o ?ie?a caaaeothoueny eeoa ie?ai?
eieii?? aac aeaoaeueiiai ?o aiae?co. Aia?oa eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a a Aaee/ei? aoei i?iaaaeaia o 90-o
?ieao.

?icae?e II. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a
a Aaee/ei?

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiiai oa a?o?oaeoo?iiai ae??oaiiy
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e ia oa?eoi??? Aaee/eie ye yaeua o ?a?iiaenuee?e
i?aeoeoe? ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy noeoiiino? iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia ii??aiyeueiiio oa ?noi?e/iiio aiae?cao, a
iaaeao yeeo ii?aoeueiaai? ? canoiniaai? oae? iaoiaee:

1. Iaoiae oeiieia?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe??, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ieaioaaeuei?
no?oeoo?e eieii?e iiae?eythoueny ia ie?ai? oeie oa i?aeoeie,
aeyaey?oueny aaiethoe?y ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?, ciaoiaeyoueny ?o
aca?iiaieeae oa ca’ycie ?c ?a?iiaenueeith i?aeoeeith ?icaeyaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo.

2. Iaoiae ia?oiaeaea?ae, a yeiio a?aeaea?oueny ia?aaaaa caa?oaiith aei
i?ea?iae?a (iai?eeeaae, eaaeano?ia? ea?oe na?. O?O no. ye caaaeueiee
c??c aeey an?o eieii?e), a ?io? iaoa??aee (iaoo?i? iii?i? ieaie /e
ie?ai? ioae?eaoe??), ui iathoue aaaaoi iiieeie, aee?eaeaiue, i?iione?a,
aeiiene?a ? iaa??ieo o?aeooaaiue, i?eeiathoueny eeoa ye aeiiii?aeiee
iaoa??ae.

3. Aaiethoe?eiee iaoiae canoiniaaii aeey aeaoae?caoe?? ieaioaaeueii?
no?oeoo?e eieii?e. Aaiethoe?eiee aiae?c aeiiiaieiae?iue aeiiiiaaa?
aecia/oe caaoaeiao ae?eyiie oa ?? oeiiaa ae??oaiiy aeey ??cieo
aaia?aoe?e — oae naii, ye ? ?ioeo aeae?a caaoaeiae i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e.

4. A?aoi-aiae?oe/iee iaoiae oa noaoenoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy aeaieo
aeei?enoaii aeey ii??aiyiiy ia’?eoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee eieii?e oa ?o
i?noey o ?a?iiaenuee?e i?aeoeoe?.

Aaciaei aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo iaoe oa caaaeaiue ? aiae?c
a?ao?/ieo ? ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae. Oea:

a) ii?aoethaaiiy iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a, i?enay/aieo iinaeaiiyi
i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a;

a) iiooee aaia?aeueieo ieai?a eieii?e, neeaaeaieo i?eneaieie a Aaee/eio
aano??enueeeie ?iaeaia?aie o e. OV??? — ii/. O?O no. (a?o?ai? ciao?aeee
? ie?ai? ioae?eaoe??);

a) ii?aoethaaiiy eaaeano?aeueieo ieai?a eieii?e na?. O?O no., ye?
o?enothoue noai ?aae?ciaaieo eieii?e oa aaiethoe?th ?o ieaioaaeueieo
no?oeoo? ? caaoaeiae (oiiae eaaeano?aeueieo ea?o Oeaio?aeueiiai
Aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?). C?iaeaii aiae?c
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a ? ca?aeii c iei ii?aoeueiaaii aeecueei 60 aea?aieo
eaaeano?aeueieo ieai?a, c yeeo: — an? aaeee? eieii??, aeey yeeo aoee
ii?aoeueiaai? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? eiioeaioe?? caeeaaeaiiy; — a?eueo?noue
na?aaei?o, aeey yeeo aoee ii?aoeueiaai? iaoeiia? eiioeaioe??
caeeaaeaiiy; — ie?ai? ae??ai?, aea ianiai aeei?enoiaoaaeinue oeiiaa
i?iaeooaaiiy;

a) aiae?c iii?ieo ieai?a eieii?e, ye? o?enothoue nueiaiaei?oi?e noai
eieii?e oa ci?ie o ieo (a?o?a Oi?aae?iiy a?o?oaeoo?e ? i?noiaoaeoaaiiy
Euea?anueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??);

ae) aeyaeaiiy aaia?aeueieo ieai?a ?icaeoeo ie?aieo eieii?e, ye?
a?aeia?aaeathoue a iniiaiiio ia?aae?ciaai? ?aea? ?o aaeaioaoe?? aei
nioe?ae?noe/ieo oiia 70-80-o ?ie?a (a?o?a Oi?aae?iiy a?o?oaeoo?e ?
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy Euea?anueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??);

a) iaoo?ia ianoaaeaiiy noaio ?icieaioaaiiy oa caaoaeiae eieii?e.

Aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiiai oeeaaeo iinaeaiue
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a ia?aaeaa/athoue iine?aeiai? e?iee, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue iaai? ??ai?:

— ??aaiue ?icnaeaiiy c iaoith aecia/aiiy i?noey eieii?e a
?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaai?e ia?aae? ?icnaeaiiy Aaee/eie;

— ??aaiue ieaioaaiiy iinaeaiue a aaei?i?no?aoeaieo a?aieoeyo (oiaoi
?acii ?c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa?aeaeyie) c iaoith aecia/aiiy
i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai ?aaoey?iiai caeeaaeaiiy o eaiaeoaoo?;

— ??aaiue ieaioaaiiy iinaeaiue ye caieiaieo ia’?eo?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy
?o eiiiiceoe?eieo iniaeeainoae;

— ??aaiue aoae?aaeueii? ae?eyiee ye oi?iioai?/iai aeaiaioo ieaioaaiiy;

— ie?ai? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe — a?o?oaeoo?i? ia’?eoe eieii?e.

Aiae?c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaoo?i? ianoaaeaiiy noaee a?oioii aeey
a?aeoai?aiiy eiioeaioe?e ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eieo oeeaae?a eieii?e.
A?iioaoe/i? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia?a?niiai ieaioaaeueiiai caeeaaeaiiy
aecia/athoue oeiieia?th ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo? eieii?e, ?ice?eaathoue
neeaaeia? ?o eiiiiceoe?? ?c a?aooaaiiyi aaaaoia?aiiino? iiaeyae?a aiioe.
Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i oi?aa?naeuei?noue
eeaneoeenoe/iiai ae??oaiiy iiaiai iinaeaiiy oa iiaeeeainoae eiai
canoinoaaiiy a ?ioeo aiioao.

?icae?e ???. Oi?ioaaiiy ia?aae? iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a a
Aaee/ei? oa ?o IEaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiiai oeeaaeo

?icoaooaaiiy eieii?e a ?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaai?e nenoai? ?icnaeaiiy Aaee/eie
a?aeaoaaeinue oeyoii ?yaeo aea?aeaaieo oa i?eaaoieo aeoe?e, yeei
a?aeiia?aeathoue iaai? ia??iaee. Aoaie aea?aeaaii? eieii?caoe??: 1-e
ia??iae — 1774-1781 ??. (Ia??y Oa?ac?y) — ioiiethaaa o?eueee i?nueeo
eieii?caoe?th, i?ioa iia? iinaeaiiy ia caeeaaeaeenue; 2-e ia??iae —
1781-1785 ??.(Eineo II) — oe?iea eieii?caoe?eia iie?oeea ia?aaeaa/aea
n?euenueeo eieii?caoe?th. Ia oeae /an i?eiaaea? iaea?eueoa oaeey
i?iaoeueeiai ?icnaeaiiy; 3-e ia??iae — 1785-1802 ??. (Eaiiieueae) ? 4-e
— 1802-1805 ??. (O?aioe ??) — niaae eieii?caoe?eiiai ?ooo, e?euee?noue
eieii?no?a noaiiaeea aeecueei iaei??? o?aouei? iinaeaioe?a
Eineo?inueeiai ia??iaeo. Aei 1830 ?. o iaaaeeeeo e?eueeinoyo iinaeyee
i?ioe?a ia aea?aeaaieo a?oioao, iaoii?noue i?eaaoi? caieaaeanieee aoee
caoe?eaaeai? a iinaeaii? eieii?no?a, ii/eiath/e a?ae 1783 ?. aei 1870
?., aea o a?aeiinii ae??ai? eieii??.

Noaoon aaoiiiiieo iinaeaiue io?eiaee iinaeaiiy ia?oi? aaia?aoe??:
Stammsiedlung (ei??ii?) oa Tochtersiedlung (aei/??i?). I?ci?oa caaoaeiaa
i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a ?icoaoiaoaaeanue a noa?eo oe?a?inueeeo /e
iieuenueeeo naeao na?aae naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa, o. ca. Einsiedlung
(eieii?ei? anaeaiiy). A?aeiinii aei ?nioth/iai naea iinaeaiiy
i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a ooai?thaaee: 1- naiino?eio aaoiiiiio iaueio c?
nai?ie a?oioaie (Eai?anao, Eicaonaa?a, A??a?aeao oiui); 2 —
iiaicaeeaaeaia naei (ye i?en?eie) a ?nioth/?e iauei? (Eineo?a,
Aaecaiaa?a); 3 — e?eueea ae??aieo iinaeaiue a iaaeao ie?aii? iaueie
(iaaeiei Ai?iaeea, Eieiie?, ?aaeaoiaa); 4 — i?iaeiaaeaiiy ieaioaaeueii?
no?oeoo?e naea acaeiaae ?nioth/eo aoeeoeue (Oaa?onoaeue — n. N?aea ); 5
— aeenia?nia iioe?aiiy ie?aieo caaoaeoaaiue a ?nioth/iio nae? (n.
Ia?ae/?).

A ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo ia?aae? ?icnaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a aei
1918?. ia oa?eoi??? Euea?anueei?, ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? ? Oa?iii?euenueei?
iaeanoae na?aae aeecueei 200 iinaeaiue 55% neeaaeaee ae??ai? eieii?? c
e?euee?noth ianaeaiiy 30 — 100 in?a, 34% — na?aaeiueiaaeee? — 101 — 300
in?a, 11 % (23 eieii??) aaaaeaeenue aaeeeeie — 301 — 1000 in?a.

I?eioeeie oa?eoi??aeueiiai oa ieaioaaeueiiai ae??oaiiy eieii?e
aacoaaeeny ia «Aieiaieo ii?iaeyo aeey iinaeaiue», ye? o Aano??enuee?e
?iia???, iiae?aii ye aeey i?no o ia??iae ?aianaino, ?aaeaiaiooaaee
i?eioeeie ieaioaaiiy eieii?e ? oeie caaoaeiae. Eieii?? aoee caeeaaeai?
ia aea?aeaaieo caieyo, ye? aoee io?eiai? oeyoii naeoey?ecaoe??
eea?eeaeueieo caiaeue, a oaeiae o iaaeao i?eaaoieo ia?oe?a, ia ia/eneaio
e?euee?noue iinaeaioe?a. Aiie a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae i?noeaaeo n?e
iniaeeainoyie ?icoaooaaiiy, iai?eeeaae, ia naeoey?eciaaieo caieyo
?icoaoiaoaaeenue ana?aaeei? i?iiai ianeao, oae, uia iiea aoei
i?iaeiaaeaiiyi caaoaeiaaiiai aeai?o, a ?ioeo aeiaaeeao — ia caieyo, ui
ca?aeii ?c o?aaeeoe??th a ?aa?ii? ia canaeyeenue — oea aa?o?a’y a?yae ?
iaai?a?a, aai ae ia caieyo, ye? i?aeeyaaee inooaiith /e ei?/oaaiith.
Nenoaia ?aaoey?ieo iieueiaeo aei??a iioe?thaaeanue aei iaae iinaeaiiy.
Aeecueei?icoaoiaai? eieii?? niieo/aeenue i?yiie?i?eieie,
iiaii?io?aniaaieie oeyoaie, ia’?aeioth/e ?iceeaeai? eieii?? o ia?aeii?
no?oeoo?e ?c a?iiaaenueeei o aieiaiiio iinaeaii? oeaio?ii oa
i?aeii?yaeeiaaieie ae??aieie eieii?yie. Aeaiaioe nenoaiiino? iinaeaiue
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a ia?aaeaa/aee ia?aaeo ?ae?a?eieo oa ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a ?c aeaniith ???a?o??th.

A iniia? eiiiiceoe?eii-ieaioaaeueieo oei?a eieii?e iieeaaeaii e?i?eiee
oei iinaeaiiy. An? iinaeaiiy a?aecia/athoueny i?yiie?i?ei?noth ?
cia/iith oe?eiith aieiaieo aei??a. I?e ?icieaioaaii? ae?eyiie
aeei?enoiaoaaany i?eioeei aeca?eaeueii? neiao??? a?aeiinii in? aieiaii?
aoeeoe?. Aaiiao?e/ii i?aaeeuei? ieaioaaeuei? no?oeoo?e eieii?e,
caeeaaeai? o Aaee/ei? c aeei?enoaiiyi iaiaaeaiiai /enea oei?a,
a?aecia/athoueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth ae??oaiue. sse ? i?e ?ioeo
eieii?caoe?eieo caoiaeao, a?eueo?noue eieii?e Aaee/eie iaeaaeaoue aei
e?i?eiiai aoee/iiai oeio. Iii?oia caeaaei?noue eeaneo?eaoe??
ieaioaaeueiiai ae??oaiiy iinaeaiue a?ae ?o aaee/eie. Oae, ae??ai?
iinaeaiiy ae??oothoueny aeeeth/ii ye e?i?ei?, na?aaei? — e?i?ei? aai
eiia?iiaaii? no?oeoo?e, aaeee? ? i?eeeaaeaie canoinoaaiiy aiiai? c??eeo
eeaneoeenoe/ieo oai??e oi?iioai?aiiy. Aeey iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a Aaee/eie i?e ciaia’ycoth/eo aei?noeeo ?aaoey?ieo noaiao
i?eoaiaiia aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue ae??oaiue oa i?aoeec?ei?noue
ii?aoethaaiiy eiaeiiai ie?aiiai aaia?aeueiiai ieaio.

?icae?e IV. Oeie a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
ia?anaeaioe?a a Aaee/ei?

O ca’yceo c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith i???ioaoe??th ainiiaea?noaa
iinaeaiiy iaaoaathoue aaeeeeo ?ici???a c iaeith u?euei?noth caaoaeiae:
ieiua oeiiai? ae?eyiee eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0,1 aei 0,4 aa caeaaeii a?ae
aaee/eie aeae?eaii? oa?eoi??? ? e?eueeino? iinaeaioe?a. AEeoeia?
aoaeeiee ?icoaoiaoaaeenue acaeiaae aoeeoe? c iaeeie ??aiii??ieie
a?aenoaiyie. O ae??aieo ae?eyieao, aea aeeoeia? aoaeeiee ooai?ththoue
?aeeiee eiiieaen c? noaeiyie, aiie ?icoaoiaai? oi?oeai aei aoeeoe?. O
e?oii?oeo iaae?eao ie?ai? aeeoeia? aoaeeiee ?icoaoiaothoueny aieiaiei
oanaaeii aei aoeeoe?, a ainiiaea?nueea caaoaeiaa — ia?aeaeueii, iicaaeo
iiaea??’y, ?icaeaath/enue a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao o ia?eiao?aeueio
caaoaeiao. Ai?iaee aoiaeeee o /enei iaia’yceiaeo ieaioaaeueieo
aeaiaio?a. O no?oeoo?? e?i?eieo iinaeaiue ?c aocueeei o?iioii ae?eyiie
aiie ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi naaeeae. O eieii?yo c oe?ieei o?iioii ae?eyiie
ai?iaee ieaioaaeenue ?acii ?c naaeeaith.

AEeoeia? aoaeeiee ca /an ?nioaaiiy eieii?e caciaee iaea?eueoeo ci?i.
Caeeaaeaiiy aoaeeie?a i?iaiaeeeinue ca?aeii ?c «Iaoaioii iinaeaiiy»,
ii?aoeueiaaiei o?yaeii Aano??? o 1787 ?. AEeoeiaee aoaeeiie, i?iaeo
yeiai ?ic?iaeyany ?acii c aaia?aeueiei ieaiii, iiaeiai aoa caeiaoe o
ieai? uiiaeiaioa 6,5 i ia 8,5 i. A aoaeeieo aoee ia?aaeaa/ai? aeeoeiaa
e?iiaoa, niaeueiy oa eooiy, iaeaaeiaia i?//th c io?iaaiei aeeia?ai.
Ii/aoeiai caaoaeiaa eieii?e aoea aea?aa’yiith aai ia iniia? aea?aa’yiiai
ea?eano (oaoaa?eo) ?c caiiaiaiiyi oeaaeith-ne?oeai /e aeeii-nieii’yieie
aaeueeaie. Oey eiino?oeoe?y no?i iaeaeiaoa caa?aaeany a ainiiaea?nueeeo
nii?oaeao. Ae?oaa aaia?aoe?y aoaeeie?a c’yaey?oueny o na?. O?O no., ui
cana?ae/othoue eaaeano?aeuei? ieaie. Aoaeeiee ia ni?aiaaeathoue ?c
i?noeyie ?icoaooaaiiy ia?a?nieo aoaeeie?a, aeeiiai? ?c o?eaae?oeo
iaoa??ae?a oa cia/ii a?eueoeo ?ici???a (8 i ia 16 i). O?aoy aaia?aoe?y
(e. O?O no.) — caaoaeiaa oeaaeyia, yea a?aoiaoao? ?aa?iiaeueio
a?o?oaeoo?o. I?ney ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie c’yaey?oueny /aoaa?oa
aaia?aoe?y aeeoeiai? caaoaeiae. AEeoeia? aoaeeiee caiaeyoueny ia?aaaaeii
c oeaaee. Aeiiii?aeii-ainiiaea?nueea ooieoe?y ia noi?uo?oueny ?c
aeeoeiaith. ?ici??e aoaeeie?a noathoue iaioeie, a i?iii?oe??
eiiiaeoi?oeie.

A?iiaaenuee? nii?oaee o eieii?yo aoee ia/eneaii?. Iaia’yceiaeie aoee
ii/aoeia? oeiee/Volksschule — ia?aaaaeii iaeii- oa aeaieeani?, ui
?icoaoiaoaaeenue o cae/aeieo, iiae?aieo aei aeeoeiaeo, aoaeeieao. Ie?ai?
ae?eyiee, ye i?aaeei, a?aeaiaeeeenue aeey «I?iaoeueeiai aeiio» —
«Deutsches Haus», aoaeeie?a a?eoa oa ianoi?a.

Ia ii/aoeo eieii?caoe??, a oaeiae a ae??aieo eieii?yo cai?noue e??o
neoaeeee iieeoiai? aoaeeiee aai eaieeoe?, ?icoaoiaai? na?aae ?yaeiai?
caaoaeiae /e ia ia?eoa??? iinaeaiiy. E??oe ? iieeoiai? aoaeeiee
ii/aoeiai caiaeeeenue ia iniia? aea?aa’yiiai ea?eano, iin?aeath/e iciaee
eeaneoeenoe/iiai noeeth. Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. nae?aeuei? nii?oaee
ia?aaoaeiaothoueny a oeaaeyieo eiino?oeoe?yo. Ca?aeii c iaioth/eie
noeeyie o na?oia?e a?o?oaeoo??, a eieii?yo caiaeeee iaeiaeiai i?ino?
iaeiiiaaia? e??oe c aineaeith, ae??oai? a iaiaioe/ieo oa iai?iiainueeeo
o?aaeeoe?yo, ?c nooi?i/anoei o?iioiiii, eiio?oi?naie, i?ee?aoai?
neaiaoo?eaie aai c oeaio?aeueiith aaaeath iaae i?eoai?ii. Oanaaee
ae??ooaaeenue eaeii?/ii i?inoi. Ae??ai? eieii?? c ianaeaiiyi
?eii-eaoieeoeueeiai ia?yaeo aeanieo nae?aeueieo nii?oae ia iin?aeaee.

Aaia?aeuei? ieaie eieii?e ia?aaeaa/aee i?aai?caoe?th aeaaiono?ith,
icaeaiaiiy, caaaeaiiy iaeeo a?o?oaeoo?ieo oi?i. Aoee/ia ia?aaea o
eieii?yo ia?aaeaa/aea ooieoe?iiaeueio ? oeiieia?/io aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. A
e?i?eieo eieii?yo iniiaa ieaioaaiiy — aieiaia aoeeoey — a iaaeao
iinaeaiiy cia/ii ?icoe?thaaeanue, aei?yieyeanue ? aeeiioaaea ooieoe??
ieiu?. O iinaeaiiyo c? neeaaei?oeie ieaioaaeueieie no?oeoo?aie ia
ia?ao?ano? aieiaieo aoeeoeue oi?ioaaeany ieiua ye eiiiiceoe?eiee oeaio?
ieaioaaeueiiai caeeaaeaiiy, a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ia ia?aoei? iniiaieo
inae caiaeeeanue e??oa. Aieiaia aoeeoey nyaa? oe?eie 15 i, c iaio noi??i
i?ieeaaeaii o?iooa?e, a?aeae?eai? a?ae i?i?aeaeaei? /anoeie
aiaeia?aea?aeieie ?iaaie.

Aeey nenoaie aiaeicaaacia/aiiy ii?iaoeae ia?aaeaa/aee, ie??i e?eieoeue o
eiaeiiio aeai??, ia eiaeieo 8 aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a iaeio a?iiaaenueeo
e?eieoeth. E?eieoe? o iaeeo iinaeaiiyo ?icoaoiaoaaeenue ana?aaeei? n?e,
ia?aaaaeii ia ia?ao?anoyo, o aaeeeeo — aeiaeaoeiai ia inoaii?e
/aoaa?oei? aoeeoe? ia e?ioe? naea.

sse oeiiaee aeaiaio ia oa?eoi???, aea i?iaeeaaee ?eii-eaoieeee,
eieii?noe i?eiineee cae/ae caeeaaeaiiy i?eaei?iaeieo o?ano?a, ye?,
aeeiiai? c aea?aaa, eaiaith aai iaoaeo, noiyoue ia an?o i?aenooiao aei
iinaeaiiy.

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie c /anii i?eaiaeeee aei ao?o/aiiy a ieaioaaeueio
no?oeoo?o eieii?e. O aaeeeeo eieii?yo aeeoeia? ae?eyiee aeeoiiaoaaeenue
i?ae a?iiaaenuee? ia’?eoe, iai?eeeaae, aeey i?aai?caoe?? eiiia?aoea?a,
aeey oeiee.

?icae?e V. Noai caa?aaeaiino? eieeoi?o iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a
i?ney 1939 ?ieo

Aaiethoe?y ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo? oa caaoaeiae eieeoi?o i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?e a 1940-1997 ??. iineoue caaaeii ?aa?aneaiee oa?aeoa?. I?ney
aenaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a o 1939 ?. aei 1944 ?., a /anoi ? aei
1950-o ??. eieii?? caeeoeeenue iacanaeaieie. I?ci?oa aiie aoee canaeai?
ia?anaeaioeyie c aoi?/ieo oe?a?inueeeo iaeanoae, ui a?ae?eoee aei
Iieueu? oa ?c i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?ie. Ie?ai? c ieo aoee
ia?aoai?ai? o c?aceia? naea-?aaeainie. sse i?aaeei, o ia?oo /a?ao
canaeyeeny e?oii? eieii??, aea aoea i?eaeaoiith cia/ia /anoeia
aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo ? iiaeia aoei ai?iaaaeeoe eieaeoeaia ainiiaea?noai,
ae??ai? ae iinooiiai ?oeioaaeeny. O ?aaeyinueeee /an iinaeaiiy
i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a iiaoi?eee ?noi??th ?ioeo n?e Oe?a?ie, eiee
cieeiaiiy aaaaoueio ae??aieo ianaeaieo ioieo?a ?icaeyaeaeiny ye aaeeea
aeinyaiaiiy a oaeineiiaeaii? n?euenueeiai ?icnaeaiiy. Ia iniia? oaei?
eiioeaioe?? an? ianaeai? ioieoe ?iciiae?eyeeny ia ia?niaeoeai? ?
iaia?niaeoeai?. Aei ia?niaeoeaieo aoee a?aeianai? oeaio?aeuei? naaeeae
ainiiaea?noa ? oeaio?e a?eaaae (a o./. iaea?eueo? eieeoi? i?iaoeuee?
eieii?? Aaee/eie, oiaoi ae. 5%), iaia?niaeoeai? ae i?aeeyaaee
e?ea?aeaoe??, a /enei yeeo iio?aieea ? a?eueo?noue iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a.

O 80-o? ?iee ia?aeaoooaaiiyi aoee ioiieai? eeoa oeaio?aeuei? naaeeae
?aaeaini?a ? eieaini?a. Aeey aeae?eueeio e?oiieo eieeoi?o eieii?e
iai?ee?ioe? 60-o — ii/aoeo 70-o aoee ?ic?iaeai? aaia?aeuei? ieaie, ye?,
iaeiae, ia aoee ?aae?ciaai?. A iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao i?iaeoaie
?aeiino?oeoe?? ioiiethaaany iii?iee ieai iiai?noth, a a?eueoino?
ia?aaeaa/aeiny noai?aiiy eiiiaeoieo iinaeaiue, ui caeiaee o?eueee
oeaio?aeueio /anoeio iii?iiai ieaio naea.

Ie?ai? e?oii? eieii??, ye? aoee caae?yi? o ae?iaie/? a?aeiineie,
caa?aaee iniiao ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ? /anoeio noa?iai aeeoeiaiai
oiiaeo. A oaeeo iinaeaiiyo i?iaiaeeeinue aioo??oi? ia?aieaioaaiiy.
Ae?eyiee, ye i?aaeei, iiae?eai? ia aea? /anoeie o ca’yceo ?c ci?iith
ii?ioaaiiy i?enaaeeaiiai iaae?eo. Ci?ieeinue aioo??oi? ?icieaioaaiiy
ae?eyiee ca ?aooiie ci?ie ooieoe?e. O no/aniiio aeeoeiaiio oiiae?
eieeoi?o i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e noa?a aeiai?iia caaoaeiaa noaiiaeoue
iacia/io /anoeo (iai?. o eieii?? Aei?ioaeueae — 25%). Iia? aoaeeiee, ye?
ii/aee caiaeeoe o 70-? ?iee, io?eiaee cia/ii ae??ai?oee ianooaa.
?aaoey?ia ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a aoea aeiiiaiaia iiaeie ae?iaie/eie oa
aeeoeiaeie eiiieaenaie. A oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? noai?thaaeenue o.c.
a?iiaaenuee? oeaio?e, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ae?eyiee ia’?aeioaaeenue i?ae
aoae?aieoeoai aaei?i?no?aoeaieo nii?oae, aeaaiono??e caiaiaa, ye ?
nenoaia a?iiaaenueeiai aiaeicaaacia/aiiy. I?ei?uaiiy oe?e i?ney
/anoeiaeo ?aiiio?a i?aeeyaathoue aeei?enoaiith o no/anieo oiiaao.
Iaa?eueoeo ci?i caciaee nae?aeuei? nii?oaee, ye? o ?aaeyinueeee /an
i?aeeyaaee ianeaiiio cieuaiith. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a ie?aieo
iinaeaiiyo i?iaiaeeoueny ia?aaoaeiaa ? ia?aaeaoooaaiiy eieeoi?o e??o aei
iio?aa i?aaineaaiiai aai a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai ia?yaeo (Eicaonaa?a,
Aaa?inaa?a, Aaeiaa?aai), aai ae ia i?noeyo eieeoi?o e??o aaaeaoueny iiaa
aoae?aieoeoai (Aei?ioaeueae, Eai?anao, Aaeuecaiaei?o).

Aioo??oiuei?a?iiaenuee? eieii?caoe?ei? i?ioeane a oe?eiio ? aaaeeeaei
yaeuai, ine?eueee a ?o iniia? aoea aioo??oiy eieii?caoe?y, yea iieyaaea
o i?aeiyoo? oa inai?ii? iiaeo caiaeue, ui aeicaieeei aeiaanoe
caainiiaea?thaaiiy caiaeue e?ath aei aeuiai ??aiy. Uiaei Aaee/eie, oi o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? i?iaoeueea eieii?caoe?y iaea eieaeueia
cia/aiiy. Aea ye i?eeeaae a a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?,
noaea yaeuai iii?oiei ? oe?eaaei. Iinaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a
iaeaaeaoue aei ia??iaeo eeaneoeecio, yeee o ieaioaaeueieo caeeaaeaiiyo
?aa?iio neaai ?icaeioany. Ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie ?aaoey?iiai ieaioaaiiy,
i?eaianaieo aano??enueeeie o?yaeieeaie ? iioe?aieo i?e ieaioaaii?
iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a, caeeaaeaeenue oaeiae iiaiiinoae? naea
a iainueeeo ia?oeao.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eieii?? caeiathoue
i?ii?aeia i?noea a oiae? aaiethoe?? o?aai?noeee e. OV??? — O?O no. a?ae
eeaneoeenoe/ieo ieaioaaiue aei ?ia?oie/eo eieii?e oa ?aea?
„i?noa-naaeo». Uiaei Aaee/eie, oi ci?ia, iia’ycaia ?c aoiaeaeaiiyi aei
neeaaeo Aano??enueei? ?iia???, noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
iiaiai „?aeaaeo», „iiaiai ii?yaeeo», iiaeo ii?i caieaaieiae?iiy ? iiaeo
ii?i i?iaeooaaiiy. Oiio ieaioaaeueia ae??oaiiy iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a ia iaei i?aenoaa aeey aaciina?aaeiueiai iiaoi?iiai
aeei?enoaiiy i?e ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo ono?iyo.

Ia nueiaiaei? caa?aaeenue eeoa o?aaiaioe iinaeaiue oa caaoaeoaaiue
i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a, ui yaeythoue niaith cia/io ?noi?e/io oa
eoeueoo?io oe?ii?noue, aeiaaathoue iniaeeaeo caoiae?a uiaei ?o
iaeaooiuei? caa?aaeaiino?. Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a ? iniiaith aeey aianaiiy oeeo ia’?eo?a o ?a?no? iai’yoie
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy ? a?o?oaeoo?e c iaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeiiai noaoono ioi?iie
? aeei?enoaiiy.

Aeniiaee

1. Ia??iae e. OV??? — ii/. O?O no. a Oe?a?i? ? iaeiaio aena?oeaiei a
?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy o ii??aiyii? aei ?ioeo ia??iae?a.
O i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo Aaee/ei?, aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy a?aeia?aaeaiiy
noeeth a ie?aieo a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eoao, ia oi?eath/enue o?aai?caoe?eieo
caeeaaeaiue aeaiiai ia??iaeo, i?eeeaaeaie yeeo ? ieaioaaeuei? ae??oaiiy
iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a e. OV??? — ii/. OO no. Oae naii
i?iaoeuee? aaoi?e iin?aeathoue eeoa ?icii?ioai? o?aaiaioa?i? aeai?.
I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiaith aeey aaaaeaiiy a
iaoeiaee ia?a oa aianaiiy oeeo ia’?eo?a o ?a?no? iai’yoie
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy ? a?o?oaeoo?e c iaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeiiai noaoono ioi?iie
? aeei?enoaiiy.

2. ?icoaooaaiiy iiaeo iinaeaiue i?ae /an eieii?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
?a?ii? a ?aa?iiaeueieo ?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaaieo nenoaiao ?icnaeaiiy
a?aeaoaaeiny ye iiaiith cai?iith nenoaie ?icnaeaiiy (Iae. Oai?ueia,
I?on?y), oae ? aeenia?niei iioe?aiiyi iiaeo iinaeaiue (Aieeiue).
Eieii?caoe?ei? caoiaee uiaei caeeaaeaiiy iiaeo iinaeaiue a OV??? — O?O
no. o ?a?iiaenuee?e i?aeoeoe? iie?aeenue ia ?aaoey?i? ieaioaaeuei?
no?oeoo?e, ye? ?noi?e/ii ?icaeioeenue a aioe/iee ia??iae a A?aoe??,
Ao?one?? ? ?einuee?e ?iia??? ? noaee iniiaith ?icieaioaaiue a ia??iae
?aianaino oa eeaneoeecio, oiaoi ia iniia? i?yiieooii-a?ao/anoeo no?oeoo?
?c aca?iiia?iaiaeeeoey?ieie inyie.

3. Oe?iei caeo/aiee aei aeine?aeaeaiue a?o?aiee iaoa??ae ? i?iaaaeaia ia
eiai iniia? oeiieia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eieo
oeeaae?a iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a Aaee/eie, aiae?c
ia?oiaeaea?ae, canoinoaaiiy ii?oieia?/iiai oa a?aoi-aiae?oe/iiai
iaoiae?a aeicaieeee ia’?eoeaii anoaiiaeoe aaeeeo i??o naiiaooiino?
iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a oa ?o i?noea o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?
?aaoey?iiai ?icieaioaaiiy iinaeaiue o ia??iae e. OV??? — ii/. OO no.,
ye? neoaeeee i?ii?aeiei aoaiii a?ae i?noa -«iaaaeaao?a??»aei ieaioaaiiy
i?noa-naaeo e. O?O — ii/. OO no.

4. A iaaeao Aaee/eie a?aeaoeanue ?aeeia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
eieii?caoe?y, yea noi?ioaaea iacaeaaeio ia?aaeo ae??aieo iinaeaiue.
Iinaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a Aaee/eie ia ii?ooeee
?noi?e/ii-noi?iiaaio nenoaio ?icnaeaiiy, ooai?thth/e aeiiiaithth/o
aeenia?nio n?oeo iinaeaiue. ?o oa?eoi??y a?aecia/aeanue ?aoaeueiei
ii?aoethaaiiyi, ooieoe?iiaeueiith i?iaeoiai?noth oa no?aie?iiyi aei
eiiiaeoiino?, i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noth o?yaeiaei ii?iaoeaai. ?acii ?c
iinaeaiiyie ?aaoey?iiio ieaioaaiith i?aeeyaaee aa?ieaiaeoaooe. Oey
nenoaia aeicaieyea aoaeoeaii inaithaaoe iacaae?yi? ?ai?oa caie?.

5. Ieaie iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a a Aaee/ei? o ca’yceo c
iaiaaeai?noth a?oio?a ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aaee/eie, ooai?eee, ia a?aei?io
a?ae oeiiaeo ??oaiue, ye? aoee aeei?enoai? a ?ioeo e?a?iao, oe?ieo
oeiieia?/io aaio. Ia iniia? i?eioeei?a ?aaoey?iiai ieaioaaiiy
?icaeioeenue aeaa iniiai? oeie no?oeoo? eieii?e. ? — e?i?eia no?oeoo?a,
i?aaenoaaeaia /eneaiieie aoee/ieie ieaioaaeueieie noaiaie:
-iaeii?yaeiith; -aeai?yaeiith; -oneeaaeiaiith; -ooieeiaith caieiaiith;
-ia?aeaeueii-aoee/iith; -eaa?oaeueiith; -o?anoiiiae?aiith;
-eiia?iiaaiith. ?? — eiiiaeoia no?oeoo?a, ae?aaeaia
i?yiieooii-a?ao/anoeie, e?oaiaith oa iaioaaiiaeueiith ieaioaaeueieie
noaiaie. Na?aae ieaioaaeueieo caeeaaeaiue eieii?e aei iaee?aueo ac??oe?a
eeaneoeenoe/iiai ienoaoeoaa iaeaaeaoue eieii??: Eicaonaa?a,
Aei?ioaeueae, A??a?aeao, Eai?anao.

6. O iinaeaiiyo i?iaoeueeeo ia?anaeaioe?a aoee caaaeai?, ie??i naaeeae
(aeeoeiaee aoaeeiie c eiiieaenii ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae), oae? oeie
nii?oae: e??oa, oeiea, ia?iaeiee ae?i, aoaeeiie a?eoa, ia?ao?yeueiee
ae?i oa ie?ai? ae?iaie/? nii?oaee caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy. I?eioeeiiaa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-ieaioaaeueia oa eiino?oeoeaia ae??oaiiy naaeeae
eieii?no?a o nai?io ?icaeoeo i?ieoei 4 aoaie ?icaeoeo, iinooiiai
iaaoaath/e nii??aeiaieo ?en i?noeaai? a?o?oaeoo?e: 1-a aaia?aoe?y (e.
OV??? no.) — caaoaeiaa aea?aa’yia, caeeaaeaia ca?aeii c aea?aeaaieie
ii?iaie, yea aoea iiaaii i?enoiniaaia aei i?noeaaeo oiia ?
iaaeiaaia?/ia; 2-a aaia?aoe?y (n. O?O no.) — caaoaeiaa ia iniia?
aea?aa’yiiai ea?eano ?c ??cieie oeiaie caiiaiaiiy, caeeaaeaia ca?aeii
iaeiiaith noaio eieii?no?a, a?aoiaoth/e ia?iaei? cae/a? aaaeaiiy
ainiiaea?noaa oa i?noeaa? o?aaeeoe??; 3-y aaia?aoe?y (e. O?O no.) —
caaoaeiaa oeaaeyia, yea a?aoiaoaaea ?aa?iiaeueio a?o?oaeoo?o; /aoaa?oa
aaia?aoe?y (20 — 30-? ??. OO no.) — caaoaeiaa oeaaeyia, eiiiaeoii? oi?ie
aeuiai noaiaea?oo i?iaeeaaiiy.

Nae?aeuei? nii?oaee eieii?e, ye? ?icaeaaeenue a?aeiaaeiaaii a?ae
?aa?iiaeueii? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ieoee 3-e aoaie oi?ioaaiiy: a?ae oei/aniaeo
iieeoiaieo aoaeeie?a, ?icoaoiaaieo na?aae ?yaeiai? caaoaeiae (e. OV??? —
ii/. O?O no.), /a?ac e??oe eeaneoeenoe/iiai noeeth a aea?aa’yieo
eiino?oeoe?yo (n. O?O no.) ? aei io?iaaieo nii?oae, ae??oaieo aeey
i?aee?aneaiiy i?iaoeueei? naiiaooiino? a iaiaioe/ieo oa iai?iiainueeeo
o?aaeeoe?yo (e. O?O no.), ye? aoee eiiiiceoe?eieie oeaio?aie
ieaioaaeueieo caeeaaeaiue. A?o?oaeoo?ia ae??oaiiy ?ioeo nii?oae aoei
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia caaaeueiei oaiaeaioe?yi, ye? iaioaaee a oiai/ani?e
aeeoeia?e a?o?oaeoo?? i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e.

7. Ieaioaaeuei? no?oeoo?e iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a caaaeyee
i?aao iaiiae?eueiino? a?oio?a caeeoeeenue aac ci?i aei ii/aoeo ??-i?
Na?oiai? a?eie. A ?acoeueoao? ?aaeyinueei? iie?oeee ainiiaea?thaaiiy
oa?eoi??? aeecueei 37% eieeoi?o i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e o?aeooaaeenue ye
iaia?niaeoeai? naea. Aeey e?oii?oeo eieii?e aoee aeeiiai? aaia?aeuei?
ieaie ii ia?aeaoooaaiith, ye? ia aoee ?aae?ciaai?. Ci?ie ?o
ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e oa caaoaeiae a?aeaoaaeenue noeo?eii, i?ae
aieeaii ??cieo aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a oa ii?iaoeaieo aeaieo. Ia nueiaiaei?
a?eueo?noue eieii?e ? ao?a/ai?, eeoa o aeecueei 30-e caa?aaeenue
o?aaiaioe ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?, c ieo 7 ia oa?eoi??? Euea?anueei?
iaeano? iiaeia i?iiiioaaoe ye iai’yoee i?noiaoae?aiiai ienoaoeoaa:
Eicaonaa?a (n.Ei?inieoey Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai ?-io), Aei?ioaeueae
(n.Oa?iii?eey Ieeiea?anueeiai ?-io), A??a?aeao (n.Eai?aea No?eenueeiai
?-io), Oaeueeaiooaei (n.Nieie?aea Ionoiieo?anueeiai ?-io), E?aioeaa?a
(n.Aeoaeyie Naia??nueeiai ?-io), Eai?anao (n.??aia Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai
?-io). A ?aoo? eieii?e caa?aaeenue ie?ai? nii?oaee o ??ciiio noai?
caa?aaeaiiy, c yeeo aeayeei iiaeia i?iiiioaaoe iaaeaoe noaoon iai’yoie
?noi???.

8. Na?aae eieii?eieo ooai?aiue o ?a?ii? i?iaoeuee? eieii?? Aaee/eie
caeiathoue nai???aeia i?noea. Aiie i?iaeiaaeothoue ?a?iiaenuee?
i?noiaoae?aaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? eieii?caoe?eieo caoiae?a ia??iaeo
na?aaeiueia?//y ? iiaiai /ano, ui aacothoueny ia iaeii?aciaiio
caeeaaeaii? eiiiaeoieo eiiiiceoe?eii caaa?oaieo ?aaoey?ieo iinaeaiue,
aea ae??ciythoueny iaoeiiaei ae??oaiiyi. Aiie ? ?aae?caoe??th
eeaneoeenoe/ieo i?eeii?a ieaioaaiiy a Aaee/ei?, neoaeaoue i?noeii i?ae
Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, iia’ycoth/e a ?aeeia oe?ea iai’yoee oeueiai ia??iaeo
o ?a?ii?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? cia/aiiy aeey i?aeoeee ye o ieai? aeei?enoaiiy
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a i?e aena?oeaii? ?noi??? a?o?oaeoo?e Oe?a?ie OV???
— OO noie?oue ? canoinoaaii? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey
iiaeaeueoi? iaoeiai? ?iaioe, oae ? a ieai? aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a, ui
iiaeooue aooe aeeth/ai? aei nieneo i?noiaoae?aii? ? a?o?oaeoo?ii?
niaaeueie oa i?iaaaeaiiy ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ?aeiino?oeoeaieo ?ia?o ? aeei?enoaiiy oeeo ia’?eo?a aeey
aeoea?caoe?? ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeiiai oo?ecio.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue aaoi?a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

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7. Ieaoei I. ?noi?e/ia oa a?o?oaeoo?ia aa?o?noue ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?
iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a AEiae?aueie.//Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a
oe?.-iie. iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai nai?ia?o «?noi?e/ia, ienoaoeueea oa
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iinaeaiue Aaee/eie OV?? — OV??? no.//Oe?a?inueea o?anoieia?y.
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10. Petryszyn H., Oleszko O. Kategoria piekna w regularnych zalozeniach
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11. Ieaoei I. A?aeiiaeaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueieo no?oeoo?
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e a Aaee/ei? (ia i?eeeaae? n. Oa?iii?eey).//I?iaoeuee?
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12. Iao?eoei A., Ieaoei I. A?o?oaeoo?ii-i?noiaoae?aia niaoeeo?ea
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Oace aeiiia?aeae

13. Ieaoei I. Eiioeaioe?y i?noiaoae?aaeueii? ioi?iie ? aeei?enoaiiy
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e Aaee/eie.//„I?iaeaie i?noiaoaeoaaiiy Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie». Oace i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii?
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14. Ieaoei I. Aaeaioaoe?y iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a.//Oace
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15. Iao?eoei A., Ieaoei I. Oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe?? o?aai?noeee
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eieii?caoe?eieo iinaeaiiyo.//Oace I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
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Aacaoi? ioae?eaoe??

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17. Iao?eoei A., Ieaoei I. I?iaoeuee? eieii?? Aaee/eie.//Aacaoa
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18. Iao?eoei A., Ieaoei I. Eai?anao, Ao?oaaeue oa ?io?. Niiaaaee i?i
iaeaooi?.//Aacaoa «Aiein Oe?a?ie». -Ee?a, 12.03.1994, -C. 6.

Ieaoei I.I. «Ieaioaaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiee oeeaae iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo
ia?anaeaioe?a a Aaee/ei? e. OV??? — ii/. OO no.». — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.01. — Oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e, — Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao „Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»,
Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeyaeaiith iniaeeainoae
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ? iniiaieo a?o?oaeoo?ieo
eiiiiiaio?a iiaicaeeaaeaieo iinaeaiue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a o Aaee/ei?
e. OV??? — ii/. OO no. A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii iniaeeaino?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa iniiai? oeie nii?oae
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a. Anoaiiaeaii caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino?
oi?iioai?aiiy iinaeaiue ? eiie?aoi? iniaeeaino? ?aaoey?iiai ieaioaaiiy
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e Aaee/eie. Aeniiaee ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
ye iniiaa aeey iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy i?i ioi?iio aeyaeaieo iai’yoie
o?aai?noeee eeaneoeenoe/iiai ia??iaeo e. OV??? — na?. O?O no. oa
iiaeeeainoae ?o no/aniiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eieii?caoe?y, eeaneoeeci, i?ioe?-eieii?noe, Aaee/eia,
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a iinaeaiue, ?aaoey?ia ieaioaaiiy,
oeie nii?oae.

Ieaoei I.I. Ieaie?iai/ii-eiiiiceoeeiiiue oeeaae iinaeaiee iaiaoeeeo
ia?anaeaioeaa a Aaee/eia eiioea OV??? — ia/aea OO aaeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.01. — Oai?ey a?oeoaeoo?u, ?anoaa?aoeey iaiyoieeia
a?oeoaeoo?u, — Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao «Eueaeanueea iieeoaoieea»,
Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia auyaeaieth iniaaiiinoae
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iie no?oeoo?u e iniiaiuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo
eiiiiiaioia iiaicaeiaeaiuo iinaeaiee iaiaoeeeo eieiienoia a Aaee/eia e.
OV??? — ia/. OO aa. A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iie i?aaiecaoeee e iniiaiua oeiu nii?oaeaiee
iaiaoeeeo eieiienoia. Ii?aaeaeaiu iauea caeiiiia?iinoe oi?iiia?aciaaiey
iinaeaiee e eiie?aoiua iniaaiiinoe ?aaoey?iie ieaie?iaee iaiaoeeeo
eieiiee Aaee/eiu. Auaiaeu ?aaiou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ea/anoaa
iniiau aeey ?anniio?aiey aii?ina ia io?aia auyaeaiiuo iaiyoieeia
o?aaienoeee eeanneoeenoe/aneiai ia?eiaea e. OV??? — n?. O?O aa. e
aiciiaeiinoae eo nia?aiaiiiai eniieueciaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eieiiecaoeey, eeanneoeeci, iaioee-eieiienou, Aaee/eia,
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iay no?oeoo?a iinaeaiee, ?aaoey?iay ieaie?iaea,
oeiu nii?oaeaiee.

Oleshko O.P. Planned-composed formation of the settlements of German
settlers in Halychyna (Galicia) from the end of 18th to the beginning of
20th centuries. — Manuscript.

Graduation to obtain the scientific degree of Ph.D. of architecture in
speciality 18.00.01 „Theory of architecture, restoration of
architectural monuments». State University „L’vivs’ka Politechnika»,
L’viv, 1999.

This graduation is dedicated to inquire into the peculiarities of
architectural-planned and main basic architectural components of the new
founded settlements of German colonists in Galicia from the end of 18th
to the beginning of 20th centuries. In this graduation the peculiarities
of architectural-planned organisation and realised classification of the
buildings of German colonists are terminated. General regularities of
formation of these settlements and concrete peculiarities of regular
planning of German colonies in Galicia appeared. In difference to other
colonial settlements from the end of 18th and the beginning of 19th
centuries in Europe, the ground-plans of Galician colonies, in
combination with the limited extent of grounds, were created in broad,
manifold typology. In Galicia developed two main types of planned
structures of colonie settlements: — I. Linear, represented by manifold
street schemes: — single-row, — double-row, — crooked, — deadlocked, —
parallel streets, — quartered, — cross-similar, — combined. — II. —
Compact with right-angled latticed structures.

Among the planned establishment of colonies to the most beautiful
patterns of classicist art belong to the compact right-angled structures
of Josephsberg, Dornfeld, Brigidau, pentagonal Koenigsau,
street-crossform of Falkenstein and Wiesenberg, linear structure with
baroque reminiscence of Kranzberg. The main types of buildings employed
in the settlements of German settlers are terminated: farm
(dwellinghouse with a complex of economic buildings), church, school,
national house, parsonage and some particular constructed buildings for
common utilisation. In their development, the farms of German colonists
passed through four stages of development: First generation (end of 18th
century) — wooden construction, established in accordance with state
standards, which was poor employed because of local conditions and
unsteady; Second generation (middle of 19th century) — construction
based on wooden framework with different types of panel, established in
accordance with the pecuniary circumstances of the colonists, making
allowances for national habits of managing agriculture and local
traditions; Third generation (end of 19th century) — brick construction,
which made allowance for the regional architecture; Fourth generation
(1920th/1930th) — brick construction, compact form of higher living
standard. Also the ecclesiastic buildings in these colonies passed
through three formative stages: from temporary prayer-houses placed
among rowed buildings, through churches in classicist style and wooden
construction, to brick buildings, chosen for confirmation of German
peculiarity in neo-gothic and neo-romanic traditions, which were
compositional centres of the planned establishments. The architectural
decision for other buildings was subordinated to general tendencies,
which were planned in the living architecture of that time in these
German colonies.

Among colonisation arrangements in Europe, the German settlements in
Galicia take up a peculiar place. They continue European urbanistic
traditions of colonisation measures in medieval period and modern times,
which based on an unique establishment of compact completely, regular
settlements. In whole Galicia took place an unique agricultural
colonisation, which formed out an independent dispersed pattern of small
settlements. They are the realisation of classicist adaptation of
planning in Galicia, serving as a small bridge between East and West,
link to the only totality of monuments of this period in Europe.

This scientific research is important for practice:

— in intention to the employment of scientific results for enlightenment
of the history of architecture of Ukraine in 18th-20th centuries and for
use for elaboration of research methods for future scientific works,

— in intention to the definition of objects, which may enter in the
register of urbanistic and architectural heritage, and the
accomplishment of adequate reconstruction works based on research
results, and the utilisation of these objects for realization of the
development of international tourism.

Key-words: colonisation, classicism, German colonists, Halychyna
(Galicia), architectural-planned structure of settlement, regular
planning, types of buildings.

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