*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?i. TH.OAAeUeEIAE*A

NAI*OE A?eoi??y Eaiio??aia

OAeE 940.28 (4-13)

I?AAeAIIINEIA’ssINUeE? E?A?IE O IIE?OEOe? ?A?IIAENUeEEO AeA?AEAA

IA??IAeO AAEEAINUeEEO E?EC 80-o ?ie?a O?O no.

07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*A?I?AOe? – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? anana?oiuei? ?noi??? ? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?AeIssINUeEEE Noaiai Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo anana?oiuei?
?noi??? ?

i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?IssI Na?a?e Noai?neaaiae/,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iie?oieia?? oa
nioe?ieia??

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EIEANIEE A?eoi? Iaioaeaeiiiiae/,

Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi???
na?oiaeo oeea?e?caoe?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi??? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 15 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 a *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith: 274000,
i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2 (14-e ei?ion).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a ( 274000, i. *a?i?aoe?,
aoe. Ean? Oe?a?iee, 25).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 12 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Ea?ii A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iaeaea ona O?O oa ii/aoie OO no. – oea ia??iae, eiee «a?/ia No?aeia
ieoaiiy» i?aeoe/ii ia noiaeeei c ii?yaeeo aeaiiiai i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei ?a?iie. O nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei 70-80-o ?ie?a O?O
no. oeaio?aeueia i?noea iin?aeaa aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiee ?aa?ii. O
oeae ia??iae ?noi?e/ia ?i?oe?aoeaa ia?aeoea aei i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo
ia?iae?a, ye? c ia’?eoo oi?a?a ? oaiae i?ae aaeeeeie aea?aeaaaie
ia?aoai?eeeny ia noa’?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Naia o 70-o? ?iee O?O no.
ie?aneeeenue iia? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo No?aeiiai ieoaiiy, yea a
i?ioean? ooai?aiiy ia Aaeeaiao iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa, o oiio /ene? ?
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo, o?ainoi?ioaaeiny o aaeeainueea ieoaiiy.

Oeaio?aeueia i?noea o ai?iouea? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ca aieeae ia Aaeeaiao
? Aeecueeiio Noiae?, o aeieyo ia?iae?a I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie
iaeaaeaei Aaeee?e No?aei?e e?ec?, i?aenoiee yei? i?aea?a o 1878 ?.
i?aeia?iaeiee oi?oi aea?aeaa – Aa?e?inueeee eiia?an. Iaea?eueo aaaiiei
?acoeueoaoii «Aa?e?inueei? nenoaie» aoei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aieaa?nueei?
aea?aeaaiino? oa i?aeia?iaeia aeciaiiy Na?a?? ? *i?iiai???. ?acii c oeei
nenoaia on?eyei ni?eyea aeniain?? aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo nee ia Aaeeaie ?
I?aaeaiiee No?ae oa ia?aoeiaeaeaea ooai?aiith o ?aa?ii? iacaeaaeieo
aea?aeaa.

Aiane?aeie aeaooo iacaaeiaieaiiy on??? aieaa?nueei? a?iiaaenueeino?
a?ae?aco i?ney Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano oa ii/aoeo caaaeueiiia?iaeiiai
?ooo ca ia’?aeiaiiy I?aaeaiii? ? I?ai?/ii? Aieaa??? aeieeee i?aeia?iaei?
e?ece, ui o?eaaee c aa?aniy 1885 ?. aei aa?aciy 1888 ?., ? io?eiaee a
?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iacao aaeeainueeeo aai aieaa?nueeeo.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny iaiao?aei?noth aecia/aiiy ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy i?noey ? ?ie? i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o iie?oeoe?
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie ia??iaeo e?ec ia Aaeeaiao 80-o ?ie?a O?O no.
Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe iineeth?oueny oei, ui naia a oeae ia??iae
aaeeainuee? e?ece aoee anaioiiethth/eie ? iaee aieaa?nueeee,
aaeeainueeee ? i?aeia?iaeiee aniaeoe. O a?eueo aocueeiio ?icoi?i- i? –
aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?? ianaiia?aae o iaoeiaiio aena?oeaii?
iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiiai eiiieaeno iie?oe/ieo ? aaino?aoaa?/ieo i?iaeai,
ui aeieeee ia Aaeeaiao o 80-o? ?iee O?O no. ? ye? o aaeee?e i???
aieeaaee ia ae?iaeaiiy na?oiai? iie?oeee aaeeeeo aea?aeaa – ?in??,
I?ia//eie, Aano?i-Oai?ueie, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, ?oae??.
Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aecia/a?oueny oaeiae iayai?noth iaaeinoaoiuei
aeine?aeaeaieo ieoaiue ai?ioueae aea?aeaa ia Aaeeaiao o inoaii?e o?aoei?
O?O no. Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oaeeo aoceiaeo i?iaeaiao oaie: iiceoe?y
aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa o ia??iae Aaeeei? No?aeii? e?ece oa i?ney
Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano; ?ieue aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o ?ie?a o aecia/aii?
iiceoe?e oa ae?iaeaii? iie?oeee aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie oa i?noea
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o i?e. Ia?aoo?, aecia/ath/e aeooaeuei?noue
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aa?oi iaaieineoe, ui aac aeeaieiai ?
anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy i?iaeai oa ?noi?e/ieo ?aae?e
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai

ia??iaeo iaiiaeeeai c?icoi?oe nueiaiaeaiiy aino?eo eiioe?eoieo
neooaoe?e ia Aaeeaiao — iaeiiio ?c iaeneeaaei?oeo aaiiie?oe/ieo ?aa?ii?a
na?oo -, ye? nai?i ei??iiyi nyaathoue iiae?e 70-80-o ?ie?a O?O no. O
oeueiio i?inoaaeo?oueny ianooii?noue iiae?e ia Aaeeainueeiio i?aino?ia?
oa ?o ?ieue o na?oia?e ?noi???.

Aeine?aeaeoaaia i?iaeaia ? neeaaeiaith eiiieaenii? oaie, ui
?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith ?noi??? ??aiainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Neia’yinuee? e?a?ie o i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiineiao O?O-OO no.», ? i?aai?/ii iia’yco?oueny c eiiieaeniith oaiith
a?aeae?eo anana?oiuei? ?noi??? ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie «Oe?a?ia oa ?a?iia: ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??
aca?iei oa i?iaeaie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ia no/aniiio aoai?».

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeai? eiai oaiaoe/iith
ni?yiiaai?noth ? ioiieththoue ia??iae 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. Aea o ?yae?
aeiaaee?a aeena?oaio caa?oa?oueny aei iiae?e 70-o ?ie?a. Oeae ia??iae ?
aecia/aeueiei o ?noi??? No?aeiiai ieoaiiy ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.
Aaeaea naia o 70-o? ?iee i?ia?aei? e?a?ie ?a?iie a o?e /e ?io?e i???
aoee aoyaioo? aei oae caaii? No?aeii? e?ece, ai?oeaio?ii yei? noaee
Aaeeaie. O oeae ia??iae aeieth i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, ye? ca?eueieeeny a?ae
iniainueeiai iaioaaiiy, ii/aee ae??ooaaoe aaeee? ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae.
Iaeiae ?ica’ycaoe aaeeainueeo i?iaeaio ie?iei oeyoii ia aaeaeiny. ??
/anoeiai ae??oeea ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueea a?eia 1877-1878 ??. ?
Aa?e?inueeee eiia?an 1878 ?. C iiaith neeith No?aeia ieoaiiy (oaia? o
oi?i? aeaio aaeeainueeeo e?ec) iinoaei o 80-o ?ieao, ? iniiao eiai
neeaaeaea aieaa?nueea i?iaeaia, iaaeiei yei? ?icai?ioeany ai?ioueaa
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie. Oea aoa ia??iae, eiee a oiiaao iaaecae/aeii
aino?eo i?aeia?iaeieo oneeaaeiaiue ia Aaeeaiao aea?/? ?nioaaea
eiia??i?noue aeaooo ?a?iiaenueei? a?eie. Iaeiae ? oiae? aaeeainueea
i?iaeaia aoea ae??oaia «?a?iiaenueeei eiioea?oii» ia ia ei?enoue
Aieaa???, Na?a??, *i?iiai???, Aini?? ? Aa?oeaaiaeie. ?ioa?an aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa aei Aaeeai oei/aniai i?eooieany, ? aaeeainueea i?iaeaia ia
aeayeee /an c?eoea c a?aie ?a?iiaenueei? aeeieiiao??.

Ia iniia? oe?ieiai eiea ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae, o ia?oo /a?ao a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a ? ioae?eaoe?e aeieoiaio?a, iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e,
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a, ia??iaee/ii? i?ane,
iayaieo aeena?oaoe?e aaoi? i?eeoea aei aeniiaeo: cacia/aiee ia??iae
cian?i ia aeine?aeaeaii o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??, aeaui e?aua iacaaia
i?iaeaia aena?oeaia o ?in?enuee?e oa aieaa?nuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, iaeiae
o ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? oe?e?nia iaoeiaa iiiia?ao?/ia ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oiio neeaaeiee aocie ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c ai?ioueaith
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie ca aeeeth/iee aieea o i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo
e?a?iao ? i?aeia?iaeieie a?aeiineiaie a ?aa?ii? o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
70-o-80-o? ?iee O?O no., ? noaa i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaeniee aiae?c ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei iaaeiei aaeeainueeeo neia’yinueeeo e?a?i o cacia/aiee ia??iae,
eeth/iaeo aniaeo?a aaeeainueei? iie?oeee ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa
oa aecia/aiiy ?? aieeao ia aeieth i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo
ia?iae?a. O ca’yceo c oeei caaaeaiiyi aeena?oaoe?? ? ?ice?eooy iiceoe?e
iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie, aeine?aeaeaiiy
?oi?o i?ia?ai oa ae?yeueiino? noiniaii i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o
oiae? ?icai?oaiiy e?ec ia Aaeeaiao 80-o ?ie?a O?O no., ni?yiiaaieo ia
caaacia/aiiy aeanii? aaeeainueei? iie?oeee, a oaeiae eiyc?a ? o?yae?a
Aieaa???, Na?a??, *i?iiai??? o cae?eniaii? ieie iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
o ?aa?ii?:

— o oeaio?? aaeeainueeeo iiae?e ia?aaoaaea o oie /an ?in?y, oiio
aecia/aeueia i?noea o aeena?oaoe?? iin?aea? aiae?c ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
oea?nueei? ?iia??? o ?aa?ii?;

— aaeeea oaaaa o aeine?aeaeaii? a?aeaaaeaia ie?aneaiith
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo eo?n?a I?ia//eie, Aano?i-Oai?ueie, Aaeeeia?eoai??,
O?aioe?? oa ?oae?? cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo, ni?aaaeiy iaoa yeeo o aaeee?e
i??? noaeueneo?eiaaia cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th;

— o aeena?oaoe?? i?inoaaeothoueny i?e/eie ooai?aiiy iiaeo iie?oe/ieo
oa?oioaaiue o ?a?ii? o 70-80-o? ?iee, iie?oeei-no?aoaa?/i? ? aeiiii?/i?
oe?e? yeeo aaciina?aaeiuei oi?eaeeny aeine?aeaeoaaieo o ?iaio? i?iaeai,
– aano?i-?in?enueei-i?iaoeueeiai aeieo «Nithc o?ueio ?iia?aoi??a»,
aano?i-?oaei-i?iaoeueeiai O?i?noiai nithco, a i?ney aiaei-aano??enueeiai
caeeaeaiiy oa aeeieiiaoe/ieo eiia?iaoe?e eaioeea?a i?iaoeueeiai ?aeoo –
aano?i-aiaei-?oae?enueeiai aeueyino – ia?oi? oa ae?oai?
na?aaecaiiiii?nueei? Aioaioe c /?oei ae?aaeaiith aioe?in?enueeith
ni?yiiaai?noth, ui nooo?ai aieeioei ia iiao ?icnoaiiaeo nee o ?a?ii?.

Aiaeii/an aaoi? ia i?aoaiaeo? ia ae/a?iiee ?icaeyae i?iaeaie ? ia
aena?oeaiiy o iiai?e i??? on?o ia?aieo?e aeeieiiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ye
aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, oae ? i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i.

Ie cina?aaeaeo?ii oaaao ia aieea? i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o
oi?ioaaii? aaeeainueei? iie?oeee aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo nee oa
i?noe? ? ?ie? aaeeainueeeo neia’yi o oe?e iie?oeoe?. Aeena?oaio
aiaeii/an ia noaaeoue ca iaoo aeine?aeeoe iie?oeeo ia neia’yinueeeo
e?a?i Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa, ai aiia ia iaea, ia a?aei?io a?ae
iie?oeee aaeeeeo nee, iniaeeai aecia/aeueiiai aieeao ia aeieth
i?aaeaiiiai neia’yinoaa o oeae /an. Caaaeaiiy aena?oeaiiy iie?oeee on?o
e?a?i aaeeainueeiai ?aa?iio oa aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie ? Oo?a//eie
iineeueia eeoa eieaeoeao a/aieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

— aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa oe?e?niiai
aiae?oe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. o
nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia iniia? oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace, ui
? iaaiei aianeii o aena?oeaiiy aaeeei? oai?aoe/ii? ? iie?oe/ii?
i?iaeaie;

— o ?iaio? cae?eniaiee i?aeo?ae c iiceoe?e no/aniiai ?noi?e/iiai
ieneaiiy aei aena?oeaiiy iie?oeee aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie, ?oiuei?
ai?ioueae ca aieeae ia Aaeeaiao oa i?noey ? ?ie? o i?e i?aaeaiiiai
neia’yinoaa; ?ie? ?aa?iiaeueieo e?ec oa ?o aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
?icnoaiiaee nee ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?;

— o ?one? aaeeainueei? iie?oeee aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa
?aae?noe/ii ?ice?eoi iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo i?aaey/eo e?e iieiaeeo
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue coiiaeei
caeo/aiiy aei ?ice?eooy oaie aaeeei? e?eueeino? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa
ioae?eaoe?e aeieoiaio?a, iiaeo aei?iaie ?noi?e/ii? iaoee,
nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa aiae?c yeeo aeicaieeee aaoi?o ia o?eueee a?eueo
oe?iei ie?aneeoe i?iaeaio oa ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei ioe?iie iie?oeee
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie, Iniainueei? ?iia??? oa i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo
e?a?i o oiae? ?icai?oaiiy aaeeainueeeo e?ec, aea e aeine?aeeoe ?yae
iiaeo aeey a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeai: iie?oeea ?in??,
Aano?i-Oai?ueie, I?ia//eie, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, ?oae?? o
aieaa?nueeiio ieoaii? 80-o ?ie?a oa noinoiee ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa c
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeie e?a?iaie ? Ii?oith o e?ioe? 70-80-o? ?iee; aieea
aaeeainueeeo e?ec ia iiao ?icnoaiiaeo nee ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? ea?oaaeany aeiiaaie no/anii? ?noi?e/ii?
iaoee ? iaoeiai? iaoiaeieia??. O iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaiee
i?eioeei ?noi?ecio, yeee iaoe?eth? aaoi?a ia eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee
i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy on?o aniaeo?a i?iaeaie, e i?eioeeie iaoeiaino? oa
ia’?eoeaiino? o aena?oeaii? oaie; aiie o?nii ii?aeiothoueny c iaoiaeii
iie?oieia?/iiai aiae?co neooaoe?? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? o oiae?
?icai?oaiiy aaeeainueeeo e?ec. Aaoi? aeei?enoiao? ?iaeoeoeaiee iaoiae
cae?aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeo?a; nenoaiaoecaoe?y iaoa??ae?a, ye?
aena?oeththoue iie?oeeo aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie uiaei
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o ia??iae e?ec ia Aaeeaiao ae?oai? iieiaeie
70-80-o? ?iee O?O no., i?iaiaeeeany ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei
i?eioeeiii, ui aecia/a?oueny iinoaaeaieie o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiiyie.
O ?iaio? oaeiae canoiniaai? eiie?aoi? iaoiaee iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue (aeei?enoaiiy ioae?eaoe?e aeieoiaio?a ? a?o?aieo
aeaea?ae; i?e aea/aii? aeaea?aeueii? aace ? aeeeaaeaii? ?noi?e/ieo
iiae?e neoaoaaee i?eioeeie eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ? aeueoa?iaoeaiino?, ui
c?iaeei iiaeeeaei cae?eniaiiy iaoeiaeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa aeniiae?a;
iaeyae aeaea?ae oa iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie
cae?enithaaany ca o?iiieia?/iei ? no?oeoo?ii-oaiaoe/iei i?eioeeiaie
?noi??ia?ao??).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe??, ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ii ??
oai?, iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a, ui iiaeai? o ieo, iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaoe ?o aeey ae??oaiiy aaaeeeaeo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo caaaeaiue,
aeey iaienaiiy ye ocaaaeueithth/eo, oae ? niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue c
anana?oiuei? ?noi???, ?noi??? i?aaeaiieo neia’yi oa i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei o ?a?ii?; aiie noaiooue i?aeoe/iith aeiiiiiaith aeeeaaea/ai o
i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a, niaoeeo?n?a, i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo
caiyoue c? nooaeaioaie oa ani??aioaie, ui iaa/aoeiooueny ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth «anana?oiy ?noi??y».

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? ? ?aae?ciaai? o aeiiia?aeyo ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo o Ee?a? (a?oaeaiue 1998 ?.), Iaean?
(aeiaoaiue 1998 ?.), i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? (??aia,
eenoiiaae, 1997 ?.) oa ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ??aiainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo (ea?oaiue 1997 — 1998 ??.), ??aiainueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aoiai?oa?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (o?aaaiue 1999 ?.), o iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aeena?oaioa.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo anana?oiuei?
?noi??? ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie
oa ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ?noi??? iiaiai oa iia?oiueiai /ano
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a. Iniiaiee
ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee o ainueie ioae?eaoe?yo: a?ioo??, i’yoe
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, o iaoa??aeao i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y iiaoaeiaaia ca
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, ui iiae?eythoueny ia i?ae?icae?ee, aeniiae?a (ianya ?oeiieno
167 noi??iie), i?ei?oie (caaaeueia e?euee?noue 558 iaeeieoeue ianyaii 35
noi??iie), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (575 iaeiaioaaiue
ianyaii 37 noi??iie).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? ? aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/aii o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, i?aaeiao, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeacaii ia iaoeiao iiaecio ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??, c’yniaaii ca’ycie oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c
iaoeiaeie ieaiaie oa eiiieaenieie ?iaioaie a?aeae?eo anana?oiuei?
?noi??? oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie
oa eaoaae?e ?noi??? ??aiainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aoiai?oa?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?? oa ?noi??ia?ao?y
i?iaeaie» cae?eniaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c aeaii? oaie oa c?iaeaii aiae?c
aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icae?e neeaaeathoue aeaa
i?ae?icae?ee.

Aeey ?ice?eooy iaoe oa ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue o aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoai? ??ciiiai?oi? ca oa?aeoa?ii ? ci?noii aeieoiaioe. Oaiaoe/ia,
oaoiaa oa i?iaeaiia ni?yioaaiiy ?iaioe aecia/eei ?? aeaea?aeueio aaco.

A ia?oo /a?ao i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie aoee aeei?enoai? aeeieiiaoe/i?
aeieoiaioe: io?oe?eiee aeoiaee iaoa??ae (a?o?aiee oa iioae?eiaaiee), ui
aeeth/a? o naaa aeiaiai?e, oaiaee, iaii?aiaeoie, iioe, i?ioieiee
eiioa?aioe?e, aenooie i?ia?aeieo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a, aeiiia?aei?
caienee, ?ino?oeoe??, aeiianaiiy, eenoe, oaeaa?aie oiui.

Iniiaia /anoeia caeo/aieo aei aeena?oaoe?? aeieoiaio?a aoea
aeyaeaia iaie o a?o?aieo oiiaeao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??: A?o?a?
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?in?enueei? ?iia??? (ACI??), ?in?enueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio ai?iii-?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? (?AeA?A), Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (AeA?O), A?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a ?in?enueei?
aea?aeaaii? a?ae?ioaee (A??AeA). O ?yae? oiiae?a iacaaieo a?o?a?a
i?noeoueny iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiee iaoeiaoeyie iaoa??ae, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?ine?aeeoaaoe ia o?eueee iie?oeeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???, aea
e cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ? Ii?oe noiniaii noaiiaeua
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a o ia??iae e?ec ia Aaeeaiao, a oaeiae
aioo??oi? noaiiaeua i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i.

Na?aae oiiae?a ACI?? iniaeeai oe?iieie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeeeny
«Eaioeaey?ey», «Io/aou IEAe», «Iinieuenoai a Eiinoaioeiiiiea (Oo?oeey)»,
«Iieeoa?oea», «Nae?aoiue a?oea ieieno?a», «Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee Aeaaiue
a?oea, O-A2», a oaeiae oiiaee aeeieiiaoe/ieo aaainoa, i?aaenoaaieoeoa ?
iinieuenoa o noieeoeyo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa oa o
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?iao, iaoa??ae yeeo iana ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
ae?yeuei?noue aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa oa Ii?oe noiniaii
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, ?oith iie?oeeo
o oiae? ?icai?oaiiy aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o ?ie?a. Oe?eaa? o oeueiio
ieai? aeieoiaioe i?noyoueny ? o ?yae? oiiae?a ?AeA?A, ye? aeathoue ciiao
a?eueo oe?iei i?iaiae?coaaoe aaeeainueeo iie?oeeo ?in?? oa /anoeiai
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Na?aae ieo ia
iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiaothoue oiiaee «Aieaa?ey», «?onnei-oo?aoeeay
aieia», «Aiaiii-o/aoiue a?oea», «Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa»
oa ?i. Ia iaio aaaeeeaeie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeieoiaioe oiiae?a AeA?O
«Aeaenaiae? ???», «Eaiaoueaa I.I.», «Eaicaei?o A.I.» oa ?i., aea ia
iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? eenooaaiiy ?iia?aoi?a c a?aeiieie iie?oe/ieie
oa a?iiaaenueeeie ae?y/aie oiai /ano I.A??nii, I.?aiaoue?aei,
I.Eaoeiaei, iineaie ?iia??? o ??cieo e?a?iao noiniaii i?iaeai
aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiiai ?aa?iio, aeeianoe/iiai ieoaiiy o Aieaa???
oa Na?a??, ?ie? ?in?? oa cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa o aeie?
i?aaeaiieo neia’yi. O A??AeA iaoo oaaao i?eaa?ioee oiiaee iniaenoiai
iioiaeaeaiiy: «N.I.Aaieia», «I.I.Eaoeia», «Ee?aaau-Iiaeeiau».

O i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae ieoaiiyi ?ie? a?iiaaenueeino? ? ia?iaeieo ian
Oe?a?ie o oiae? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a i?aaeaiieo neia’yi ? o
ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy ?o iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa, aoee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie (OeAe?AO).

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ioae?eaoe?? aeeieiiaoe/ieo
aeieoiaio?a ??cieo e?a?i, aiae?c yeeo aeicaieea ie?aneeoe aaeeainueeo
iie?oeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo eaa?iao?a ? Iniainueei? ?iia???, a oaeiae
aeine?aeeoe iie?oe/i? i?ia?aie o?yae?a i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i.
Nthaee a?aeiineii ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a, ui aeeoee o na?e /an a
N?N?, a oaeiae oae caai? «eieuei?ia? eieae» oa aaaaoioiii?
aeaeaiiy o?yaeiaeo aeieoiaio?a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa. Na?aae
inoaii?o ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? ioae?eaoe?y A.I??a?aia, o ye?e
i?noyoueny aeoyae ?c aeieoiaio?a aa?e?inueeeo oa a?aeainueeeo a?o?a?a,
ui iniaeeai i?eneoaeeeeny i?e ?ice?eoo? ieoaiue ooai?aiiy iiaeo
iie?oe/ieo aeie?a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa. Ia iaio oe?iieie aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaiaoe/i? aeaeaiiy ?in?? oa ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, ca??ieee
aeieoiaio?a, ui aena?oeththoue aeeieiiaoe/io ?noi??th Na?a?? ? Aieaa???,
ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? oa na?anueei-aieaa?nueei? a?eie.

O ?iaio? oaeiae aeei?enoai? aeaea?aea iniaenoiai iioiaeaeaiiy (iaioa?e,
uiaeaiieee, eenooaaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo oa a?enueeiaeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
?in?? – I.I.?aiaoue?aa, TH.I.Ea?oeiaa, A.I.Eaicaei?oa, Ae.I.I?etho?ia,
I?ia//eie – I.A?nia?ea, E.?aaeia?oea, A.Aaeueaea?ca?, ?oae?? – O.E??ni?,
Oo?a//eie – noeoaia Aaaeoe Oai?aea, aaeeeiai a?ce?y Eyi?eue-iao? oa
?i.), ye? aeicaieeee i?inoaaeeoe caeoe?nio ae?yeuei?noue oa ?io?eae
aeeieiiao??, iiaeyaee aeaeaoieo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a oa aeaye? aniaeoe
ae?yeueiino? ?a?iiaenueeeo eaa?iao?a o aaeeainueeiio ieoaii?. Iaioa?ia
e?oa?aoo?a oa ioae?oeenoeea aieaa?nueeeo ? na?anueeeo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a
E.??no?/a, I.O??no?/a, ?.Oeaiiaa, I.Iaiaeaea?iaa, O.?eiiiiiaa,
O.Aaneeiaa oa ?i. ia?aaaaeii a?aeia?aaea? ai?ioueao ca aeaaeo i?ae
ia?o?eieie oa?oioaaiiyie c i???ioaoe??th ia ?in?th /e ia Cao?aeio
?a?iio, oi/a o iaai?e i??? ? ?ice?eaa? neooaoe?th o na?aaeei? oeeo
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i oa ?o ?ieue o i?aeia?iaei?e iie?oeoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?? o iiai?e i??? aea?
iiaeeea?noue ?ice?eoe aeine?aeaeoaaio i?iaeaio. O ?iaio? aia?oa
aeei?enoaii ?yae aeieoiaio?a a?o?a?a ?in?? oa iia? ioae?eaoe??
aieaa?nueeeo ? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeieoiaio?a, ui aeicaieeei aaoi?o
aeaoe a?eueo aeeaieo ioe?ieo iie?oeee i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie o
aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiiio ?aa?ii? oa c’ynoaaoe iie?oeeo Ii?oe oa
o?yae?a i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie ia? o nia? e?eueea ?icae?e?a.

O oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, ia aeaeue, ia i?aaenoaaeaii ye caaaeueieo
i?aoeue, oae ? eiie?aoieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? No?aeiiai ieoaiiy ?
aaeeainueei? i?iaeaie cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo. O caaaeueieo i?aoeyo ii
?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?in?enueeeo
?noi?ee?a ?ice?eoi nooue No?aeiiai ieoaiiy oa eiai ?ieue o
ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/iiio eo?n? ?in??, iiaeaii ioe?ieo ae?yeueiino?
?in?enueei? ? cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? aeeieiiao??, a oaeiae
aecia/aii i?noea ? ?ieue aaeeainueeeo e?ec o nenoai?
?a?iiaenueeeo ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei.

O iaea?eueoiio ianyc? aei aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caeo/ai?
i?aoe? iaoeiaoe?a ??cieo e?a?i, ui oi?eathoueny i?noey oa ?ie?
i?aaeaiieo neia’yi o iie?oeoe? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie o ia??iae e?ec ia
Aaeeaiao 80-o ?ie?a.

O a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? a?aenooi? eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie /e iaa?oue aea/aiiy ie?aieo ?? aniaeo?a. O ?iaioao A.Aaee?na oa
N.N?aeaeueieeiaa ?ice?eaa?oueny eeoa ieoaiiy ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? oa
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae o oiae? eiai cae?eniaiiy. Aaoi?e iaeaea
ia oi?eathoueny i?iaeaie i?noey oeeo iiae?e o nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei, a, yeui ? ?ice?eaathoue iiceoe?th ?in?? o oeueiio ieoaii?, oi
ia iniia? aeineoue iaiaaeaii? aeaea?aeueii? aace.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ?icaeyaeathoueny o i?aoeyo
?in?enueeeo iaoeiaoe?a I.E?iyi?ii?, E.Io?ca?ai?, N.Aeai/aiei,
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.O??aoiaa oa E.No?oeiai?.

O eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie iniaeeai aa?oi aeae?eeoe
iiiia?ao?? ? aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Eineea, ye? ? ia?oith
ni?iaith aaci?eno?aniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (oieeioaoe iie?oecaoe??
?noi???) ?in?enueei? iie?oeee o Aieaa??? 1878-1896 ??., a oaeiae
i?aoe? I.Cieiooo?ia, yeee iaea?eueo ?aae?noe/ii ?ice?ea aaeeainueeo
iie?oeeo ia eeoa ?in??, aea ? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa oa Ii?oe
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Aea eiei i?iaeai, ye? aea/a? o ieo
iaoeiaaoeue, ioiieth? oaanue aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiee ?aa?ii, ui ia
aeaei ciiae ?noi?eeo oe?eeiaeoi cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia i?iaeaiao
i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, ?o i?noe? o iie?oeoe? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa.

Iiae?? 80-o ?ie?a ia Aaeeaiao o?aaeeoe?eii caeiathoue iniaeeaa i?noea o
aieaa?nuee?e oa na?anuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??. Aeeieiiaoe/ia ?noi??y
ia’?aeiaiiy, aeeianoe/ia ieoaiiy, aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i? oa i?aeia?iaei?
aniaeoe e?ec, iie?oe/i? i???ioaoe?? aieaa?nueeeo ? na?anueeeo eiyc?a oa
o?yae?a, a?aeiineie i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo eiyc?anoa c aaeeeeie
aea?aeaaaie noaee i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy ?noi?ee?a oeeo e?a?i N.?aae?aa,
?.Iaiaeioiaa, O?.O?enoiaa, E.I?o?aa, A.Iaio?aa, I.Noao?eiai?, I.Eaeeiaa,
?.Iiiiaa, N.Aeaiyiiaa, I.?aaeaeaoiae/a, Ae.AEeaieiae/a, A.Ai/aae/a oa
aaaaoueio ?i. Aea c ia?a?aoiaaieo aaoi??a eeoa ?.Iaiaeioia o nai?o
i?aoeyo noaaea ca iaoo aeiaanoe aecia/aeueio ?ieue aieaa?nueeiai ieoaiiy
o nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. Oa oey i?iaeaia
oae ? ia aoea ?ice?eoa iei o aeinoaoi?e i??? e c iiaiei iaa?oiooaaiiyi.
Iaea?eueo ?aae?noe/iee i?aeo?ae aei ie?aieo aniaeo?a aeecueeino?aeii?
iie?oeee aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa i?ine?aeeiao?oueny o ?iaio?
N.?aae?aa. O iiiia?ao?? ?.Iiiiaa aeine?aeaeo?oueny aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia
ianoaiiaea o Aieaa??? ia??iaeo ?aaaionoaa (1886-1887 ??.) oa ie?ai?
aniaeoe aeeieiiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa o aieaa?nueeiio
ieoaii?. Iiaei iiaeyaeii ia ?ice?eooy noo? iie?oeee aeai?aeeii? iiia?o??
o aieaa?nueeiio ieoaii? a?ae??ciy?oueny iiiia?ao?y I.Eaeeiaa, o ye?e
aaeeeith i??ith aeiaiaeyoueny ni?aaaei? iai??e ea??aieoeoaa
Aaeeoaocieaoe.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy na?anueeeo aaoi??a noaee a?aeiineie
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo eiyc?anoa Na?a?? oa *i?iiai??? c aaeeeeie
?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie. Aea iaeaea /a?ac on? aeine?aeaeaiiy
na?anueeeo ?noi?ee?a i?ioiaeeoue aeoiea i?i oa, ui naia iie?oeea
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo oa eiai noaaeaiiy aei ?ioa?an?a Na?a?? ye aei
ae?oai?yaeiiai noa’?eoo o ae??oaii? ieoaiue aeanii? aaeeainueei?
iie?oeee i?ae /an Aaeeei? No?aeii? e?ece, i?aeooiaoioea eiyc?anoai aei
oaiao aeiiii?/ii? ? iie?oe/ii? caeaaeiino? a?ae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
eiae?oe??, a iniaeeai a?ae Aano?i-Oai?ueie.

Cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aeine?aeieee e?ec ia Aaeeaiao o 80-o? ?iee ?
aeecueeino?aeii? iie?oeee ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa o nai?o i?aoeyo
aeaui oaeueneo?eothoue oaeoe, aeaeath/e Aaeeeia?eoai?th oa
Aano?i-Oai?ueio caoenieeaie iacaeaaeiino? i?aaeaiiiai neia’yinoaa ? ie?o
o ?a?ii?, ii?aaaeiaothoue aeeieiiaoe/i? eiia?iaoe?? i?iaoeueeiai
?aeoneaioeea?a o oiae? i?aeia?iaeieo e?ec o ?aa?ii?, a ?in?th aeaeathoue
ca aa?ani?a oa caaa?aieea, aeacoth/e ia oeaeaoeuee? iaoiaee oa caniae
eeoa oea?nueeiai o?yaeo. Iaea?eueo ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c iie?oeee
i?iaoeueeiai ?aeoo o No?aeiiio ieoaii? iiaea? o nai?e i?aoe? i?iaoeueea
aeine?aeieoey C.Aaaia?-Ei?oan.

Inoaiith a?oio ?noi??ia?ao?? neeaea niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a, yea
iiina?aaeeiaaii oi?ea?oueny aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai, aea aeicaiey?
c’ynoaaoe ie?ai?, ia iaio aaaeeea? ?o aniaeoe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «I?aaeaiiineia’yinuee? e?a?ie ? aaeee? aea?aeaae
?a?iie o aaeeainuee?e e?ec? ia?oi? iieiaeie 80-o ?ie?a O?O no.»
?ice?eaa?oueny nooue oa?i?ia «No?aeia ieoaiiy», aeine?aeaeothoueny
iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oa aeeieiiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie iaia?aaeiaei? ? o ia??iae No?aeii? e?ece
70-o ?ie?a oa i?ney ?? cae?i/aiiy, iiaea?oueny nenoaiiee aiae?c ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei o aaeeainueeiio ieoaii? a?ae ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a
O?O no. aei cae?i/aiiy Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano 1878 ?. oa o ia??iae i?ney
?a?iiaenueeiai oi?oio aea?aeaa, ui ia?aaeoaaei ? aoei ia?aaeoiiaith e?ec
ia Aaeeaiao o 80-o? ?iee. Oaeiae ie?aneaii iie?oeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa o ia??iae ia?oi? aaeeainueei? e?ece 80-o ?ie?a, eiiieaenii
?icaeyiooi aieaa?nueeo i?iaeaio, ui noaiiaeea iniiao aaeeainueeeo e?ec,
ye? aieeioee ye ia aeieth i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, oae ? ia iiceoe?th
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie oa ia ?icnoaiiaeo nee ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?; o
caaaeueieo ?enao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y o
Aieaa???. ?icae?e neeaaeathoue o?e i?ae?icae?ee.

O ia?oiio – «No?aeia ieoaiiy 70-o ?ie?a – ia?aaeoiiaa
aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o ?ie?a» ?ice?eaa?oueny iie?oeea ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa ia??iaeo Aaeeei? No?aeii? e?ece noiniaii i?aaeaiieo neia’yi,
iniiaieie iiae?yie yeiai aoee iianoaiiy o Aini?? ? Aa?oeaaiaei? 1875 ?.,
Ea?oiaaa iianoaiiy 1876 ?. o Aieaa???, a?eia Na?a?? ? *i?iiai??? i?ioe
Oo?a//eie 1876 ?. oa ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueea a?eia 1877-1878 ??.
Aecia/aeueiith ?enith e?ece aoei ca?eueiaiiy aaeeainueeeo neia’yi oeyoii
?o ca?ieii? ai?ioueae ? o ?acoeueoao? ia?aiia ?in?enueei? a?i?? iaae
Iooiiainueeith Ii?oith oa ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeieo neia’yinueeeo aea?aeaa o
?aa?ii?. O i?ioean? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy i?aaeaii? neia’yie ??oo/a
aenooiaee ca ia?aaeyae aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a, ? oey aeiiaa iaaaeiac?
noaea no?eaeiai ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie.

Aea?aeaae «?a?iiaenueeiai eiioea?oo», oi/a ? ia?ane?aeoaaee aeani?,
ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaei? ?ioa?ane, ana ae noiaeeeeny aei ?aeeii?
oi/ee ci?o – ie?iiai ae??oaiiy No?aeii? e?ece. Aea i?ney ii?acee
Ea?oiaaiai iianoaiiy o Aieaa??? oa i?iaaeo ?yaeo i?aeia?iaeieo oi?oi?a
cae?i/eany ie?iee ia??iae o ?icaeoeo No?aeii? e?ece.

I?aenoiee aeiaaio?eaaeiai noia?ieoeoaa ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ia
Aaeeaiao i?aea?a Aa?e?inueeee eiia?an. A?i, ea?oth/enue iie?oe/ieie,
no?aoaa?/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa,
ia acya aei oaaae ?ioa?an?a aaeeainueeeo neia’yi; i? No?aeia ieoaiiy
acaaae?, i? aaeeainueea i?iaeaia cie?aia aei e?ioey ae??oaieie ia aoee.
*a?ac iai?eie?aii? noia?a/ee aiaei-aano??enueeiai aeieo oa ?oi?o
nithciee?a c ?in??th, ui niiioeaeeny i?iaoeueeei ?aeoneaioeea?ii,
aaeeainueea e?eca ciiao aeeoea ia ?noi?e/io a?aio o 80-o? ?iee, a ??
iniiao neeaei aieaa?nueea ieoaiiy.

Oaeiae o i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaeeainueea iie?oeea aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa ? ?o a?aeiineie c i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeie e?a?iaie o ia??iae
i?ney cae?i/aiiy Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano, iaia?aaeiaei? iiaeo
oneeaaeiaiue o ?aa?ii?. O iueiio cacia/a?oueny, ui aaeeainueea iie?oeea
«?a?iiaenueeiai eiioea?oo» o oeae /an caciaea nooo?ai? ei?aeoe??.
O?aeoao 1878 ?. noai?ea iiao iie?oe/io nenoaio ? iia? aeiiii?/i?
a?aeiineie ia Aaeeainueeiio i?aino?ia?. Aea ? o oeae ia??iae No?aeia
ieoaiiy caeeoaeiny iniiaiei o i?aeia?iaei?e iie?oeoe? ?in??,
Aano?i-Oai?ueie, I?ia//eie, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?aioe??, ?oae??. I?ney
Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano Aaeeainueeee i?aino??a iinooiiai
ia?aoai?thaaa-ny o «ii?ioiaee eueio ?a?iie». Ia ci?io y?ia
Oo?a//eie aeey aaeeainueeeo neia’yi aeieeea iiaa caa?ica caeaaaeaiiy ?o
oeea?e?ciaaiith ?a?iiith. Oa aaea 80-o? ?iee ianee o nia? iaaaciaeo
iaiiei?e i?aaeaiiiai neia’yinoaa ?a?iiaenuee?e eiae?oe??.

O i?ae?icae?e? c’yniao?oueny ?ieue a?iiaaenueeino? oa ia?iaeieo ian
Oe?a?ie o ai?iouea? i?aaeaiieo neia’yi ca naiaiaeo ? iacaeaaei?noue ? o
ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy iieiaeeo neia’yinueeeo aea?aeaa Aaeeainueeiai
i?aino?iaa, ui ni?eyei neeaaeaiith oiia aeey iiaeaeueoiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa iie?oe/iiai ?o ?icaeoeo ? i?aeianaiiy
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy ia?iae?a, ca?eueiaieo a?ae iniainueeiai
iaioaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? «I?aaeaii? neia’yie oa “?a?iiaenueeee eiioea?o” o
ii/aoeiaee aoai ia?oi? aaeeainueei? e?ece» i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae ca aeiiiiiaith ??oaiue Aa?e?inueeiai
eiia?ano ia o?eueee oneeaaeieee i?ioean eiinie?aeaoe?? neia’yinueeiai
ianaeaiiy Aaeeai, aea ? noai?eee ooo aeaea?aea eiioe?eo?a, ye? a?ae?aco
noaee a?ae/ooieie. Aiie, ooo/ii ?icae?eeaoe ?aeeio Aieaa?nueeo
aea?aeaao, i?aaioee oaeei /eiii cae??ieoe nai? aieeae ye o nai?e e?a?i?,
oae ? o ?aa?ii? a oe?eiio oa aeo?nieoe ?in?th c Aaeeainueeiai
i?aino?iaa. Aea caaino?aiiy i?ioe??/ iaaeiei aieaa?nueeiai ieoaiiy oa
ia’?aeiaa/? oaiaeaioe?? o iaio /anoeiao e?a?ie cioneee ?a?iiaenueeo
aeeieiiao?th ni?eeiaoe ?nioaaiiy I?aaeaiii? Aieaa??? o neeaae?
Iniainueei? ?iia??? ye oei/aniaa yaeua oa iiaiaeeoenue c oei, ui o
aoaeue-yeee iiiaio aiia ia’?aeia?oueny c i?ai?/iith /anoeiith e?a?ie.
Oiio caoe?eaaeai? ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae i?aaioee noai?eoe oaeo
iie?oe/io ianoaiiaeo ia Aaeeaiao, i?e ye?e aiie iiaee a iaee?aua
aeei?enoaoe o aeanieo oe?eyo iaieio/a ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa???.

O e?ioe? i?ae?icae?eo cacia/a?oueny, ui i?iaieioaiiy o i?/ c 17 ia 18
aa?aniy 1885 ?. ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? i?ae ne?iao?ii eiycy Aaooaiaa?aa
aoei oi?iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi Aa?e?inueeiai o?aeoaoo, a oiio aieeioei ye
ia aioo??oiueiiie?oe/io neooaoe?th o na?aaeei? e?a?ie, oae ? ia iiceoe??
aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa.

Iie?oeeo «?a?iiaenueeiai eiioea?oo» a?ae /ano i?iaieioaiiy ia’?aeiaiiy
Aieaa??? aei io?oe?eiiai aeciaiiy oeueiai oaeoo ?a?iiith aeieeaaeii
i?iaiae?ciaaii o i?ae?icae?e? «Ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? oa eiai aieea ia
iie?oeeo aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa». Cacia/a?oueny, ui i?ney
ia’?aeiaiiy cia/ii oneeaaeieeany ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia ianoaiiaea o e?a?i?
? cia/ii iineeeeany ai?ioueaa i?ae ?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie ca aieeae
o i?e. Oaeiae ie?aneththoueny iiceoe?? aaeeeeo nee o ca’yceo c
aeieeiaiiyi na?anueei-aieaa?nueeiai a?enueeiaiai eiioe?eoo oa
i?inoaaeo?oueny iie?oe/ia e?i?y «?a?iiaenueeiai eiioea?oo», ni?yiiaaia
ia ae??oaiiy ?oiae?enueeiai ieoaiiy oeyoii i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??.

O e?ioe? ?icae?eo aaoi? ?acthio?: iia??oeaoe ??oaiiyie Aa?e?inueeiai
eiia?ano noaiiaeua i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, aaeee? ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae,
ea?oth/enue aeanieie ?ioa?anaie, ia ae??oeee aaeeainueei? i?iaeaie, ia
i?aeo?eiaee aecaieueieo i?ioean?a i?aaeaiiiai neia’yinoaa. Ana oea noaei
ia?aaeoiiaith e?ec ia Aaeeaiao o 80-o? ?iee.

Cae?enieaoe aiae?c oaeo?a ? iiae?e, aaoi? i?eeoea aei aeniiaeo, ui
ia?oa aaeeainueea e?eca 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. aoea aeeeeeaia aicc’?aeiaiiyi
Aieaa?nueeiai eiyc?anoaa ? No?aeii? ?oiae?? ? ni?iaieiaaia i?ia?aeieie
?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie. Aiiaa?i e?ece noaea a?eia i?ae aeaiia
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeie ia?iaeaie, yea iiaea ia?a?inoe o ?a?iiaenueeo o
?ac? aoyaiaiiy aei ia? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa. Oiio c iaoith oieeiaiiy
a?enueeiaeo c?oeiaiue iie?oe/i? ae?y/? i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie
i?aaioee caeaaiaeeoe eiioe?eo aeeieiiaoe/iei oeyoii.

5 ea?oiy 1886 ?. aoei i?aeienaii aeieoiaio, ui icia/aa i?aeia?iaeia
aeciaiiy ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa???. I?ioa aeeaieeo i?ioe??/ i?ae aaeeeeie
aea?aeaaaie ?a?iie noiniaii aaeeainueei? i?iaeaie Oiioaiaenueeee aeo
ia ae??oea. sse cacia/aii o ?iaio?, aiie anooiaee o /a?aiao noaae?th
caaino?aiiy, iniiaiei aeaea?aeii yeiai ciiao aoea Aieaa??y,
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia ianoaiiaea o ye?e iaaani?-ae?oeo

1886 ?. ni?e/eieeany aei aeieeiaiiy iiai? i?aeia?iaeii? e?ece.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Ae?oaa aaeeainueea e?eca 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. ?
i?noea e ?ieue o i?e i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i oa aaeeeeo aea?aeaa
?a?iie» ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aaeeainueeo iie?oeeo aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie o
ia??iae /a?aiaiai caaino?aiiy i?ioe??/ i?ae ieie o
aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiiio ?aa?ii?, ui ni?e/eieei aeieeiaiiy ae?oai?
aaeeainueei? e?ece, oeaio?aeueia i?noea a ye?e ciiao a?aeaiaeeeiny
aieaa?nuee?e i?iaeai?. Oaeiae o ?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny o?ae
?ica’ycaiiy aeeianoe/iiai ieoaiiy o Aieaa???, Na?a?? ? *i?iiai??? o
ia??iae oe??? e?ece. ?icae?e neeaaeathoue aeaa i?ae?icae?ee.

Iie?oe/ia e?i?y i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie oa ?oi? noia?a/iino? o
aieaa?nueeiio ieoaii?, a oaeiae iiceoe?y «?a?iiaenueeiai eiioea?oo»
noiniaii i?aaeaiiiai neia’yinoaa o ia??iae a?ae aeciaiiy ?a?iiith
ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? aei ?ic?eao ?in?enueei-aieaa?nueeeo i?aeaea?aeaaieo
aca?iei (ea?oaiue-a?oaeaiue1886 ?.) ?ice?eaa?oueny o i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. O
aeine?aeaeaii? cacia/a?oueny, ui aecia/aeuei? ?ie? o oaeeo iie?oe/ieo
nooe/eao a?ae?a?aaaee, c iaeiiai aieo, ?in?y, a c ?ioiai –
Aano?i-Oai?ueia oa Aaeeeia?eoai?y. Ai?aaiei aee?eaaioii «?a?iiaenueeiai
eiioea?oo» aenooiaa iaano?i caeoe?nii? ?io?eae ?aeoneaioeea? I.A?nia?e.
Oe? oaeoi?e i?ecaaee aei aeeaiei? iie?oe/ii? e?ece o Aieaa???, a
ao?o/aiiy o ?? ae??oaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo eaa?iao?a aeeeeeaei caoyaeio
i?aeia?iaeio e?eco ia Aaeeaiao 1886-1888 ??.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia iiceoe?? aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa oa ia ae??oaiiy aieaa?nueei? i?iaeaie cia/iith i??ith aieeioei
aeeianoe/ia ieoaiiy, nooue yeiai, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iieyaaea o ciai?oi?e
oa aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe? Aieaa???, o iiia?o?/ieo i?eioao ? aia?oe?yo
eiycy Aaooaiaa?aa, o ai?iouea? aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ca
oe??ieaiiy nai?o iiceoe?e o Aieaa??? oa iaioaaiiy ia Aaeeaiao.

Eoeuei?iaoe?eiei iiiaioii o ?icaeoeo ia?oi? oace aaeeainueei? e?ece
1886-1888 ??. noaee eenoiiaaeia? aenooie aeaa o?yae?a Aaeeeia?eoai??,
Aano?i-Oai?ueie oa ?oae??, iane?aeeii yeeo iiaea noaoe a?eia i?ioe
?in??. ?ic?yaeea iai?oaeaio iie?oe/io aoiinoa?o o ?a?ii? ?ic?ea
?in?enueei-aieaa?nueeeo i?aeo?yaeiaeo a?aeiinei, ui caaeiaieueieei
noia?iee?a Iaoa?ao?aa ? aoei i?eaiaeii aei caaa?oaiiy ia?oiai aoaio
e?ece. Aiane?aeie oeueiai i?ia?aeia i?noea o Aieaa??? ia?aeoei aei
aano?i-aiae?enueeiai aeieo, cia/iee aieea ia iie?oeeo yeiai iaea
I?ia//eia.

O caeeth/iiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny iie?oeea i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa
?a?iie o ia??iae caaa?oaeueii? oace e?ec ia Aaeeaiao o 80-o? ?iee oa
iaa?oioiao?oueny iiaa ?icnoaiiaea ?a?iiaenueeeo nee ia i?aeia?iaei?e
a?ai?. Naia o ia??iae c n?/iy 1887 ?. aei aa?aciy 1888 ?. aeeieiiaoe/ia
ai?ioueaa iaaeiei aieaa?nueeiai ieoaiiy ia?aeoea o iiao, iaea?eueo
aino?o oaco, ui noaea caaa?oaeueiith aeey aaeeainueei? i?iaeaie o
oeueiio aeanyoee?oo? O?O no.

Aiae?c iie?oeee i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie aeicaieea aeacaoe ia
oa, ui ia na?aaeeio inai? 1887 ?. o oiae? no?eaeiaai? i?iaeaie
aaeeainueei? e?ece – aieaa?nueeiai ieoaiiy – a?aeaoany inoaoi/iee
?iciiae?e aea?aeaa ia aeaa oaai?e: Aano?i-Oai?ueia, Aaeeeia?eoai?y,
?oae?y, yeeo oaeoe/ii i?aeo?eioaaea I?ia//eia, — ? ?in?y oa O?aioe?y. O
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii, ui iniiaith ia?oiai iie?oe/iiai oa?oioaaiiy
aea?aeaa aoei i?aeienaiiy ia?oi? oa ae?oai? na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo Aioaio,
a ae?oaiai – caeeaaeaiiy ia?aaeoiia aeey iaeaooiueiai
?in?enueei-o?aioeocueeiai nithco.

Aeeianoe/ia e?eca o Aieaa??? iaaoea i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Caaa?oeeany aiia o aa?aci? 1888 ?. inoaiiueith aaconi?oiith ni?iaith
?in?? aeinyaoe aeeieiiaoe/iei oeyoii ae??oaiiy aeeianoe/iiai ieoaiiy ia
naith ei?enoue.

O e?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaie: e?ece 80-o ?ie?a ia Aaeeaiao
cae?i/eeeny ii?aceith ?in?enueei-o?aioeocueei? eiae?oe??; aieaa?nueea
ieoaiiy aoei oei/aniai ciyoa c? noeaie ?a?iiaenueei? iie?oeee; iai?aia
noaiiaeua ia Aaeeaiao oaia? ia?aeoei aei Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa
Aano?i-Oai?ueie, a iiceoe?? ?in?? o ?aa?ii? c ?yaeo ia’?eoeaieo ?
noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei aei 90-o ?ie?a aoee ao?a/ai?. O ?icae?e? oaeiae
ie?aneaii eiei iniiaieo iiiaio?a iie?oeee aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie o
a?aeiioaii? aei *i?iiai??? oa aei Na?a??, ae??oaiiy ieie aeeianoe/iiai
ieoaiiy Ia?aiiae/?a-Ea?aaa?a??ae/?a. Ia iniia? oeeo oaeo?a aoei ua ?ac
aeiaaaeaii, ui iie?oeea oa noinoiee i?ae aaeeeeie aea?aeaaaie ? oae
caaieie iaeeie e?a?iaie ia?aaoaathoue o o?niiio ca’yceo.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?c aieiaieo i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1) Aaeeea No?aeia e?eca 1875-1878 ??. ? aaeeainuee? e?ece
1885-1888 ??. aoee nenoaiieie yaeuaie ? aeii?ioaaee o i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiineiao ?a?iie, ?o iane?aeee iaeeaee a?aeaeoie ia ianooiio ?noi??th
No?aeiiai ieoaiiy; o ieaiao aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie ? o ?o iaaecae/aeii
aino??e ai?iouea? ca aieeae ia Aaeeaiao oeaio?aeueia i?noea
a?aeaiaeeeiny Aieaa???, yea caeiaea aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa no?aoaa?/ia
iieiaeaiiy o ?aa?ii?, a oiio naia aieaa?nueea ieoaiiy eyaei a iniiao
aaeeainueeeo e?ec;

2) aaaeeeaa i?noea o iie?oeoe? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa iaeaaeaei *i?iiai???,
yea noaea ia’?eoii noia?a/iinoae ca aieeae o ?aa?ii? i?ae Iaoa?ao?aii oa
A?aeiai;

3) noia?a/eeaith aoea iie?oeea «?a?iiaenueeiai eiioea?oo» noiniaii
Na?a??. I?ney Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano ? ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? o Aaea?aae?
ca i?aeo?eiee oa caioi/aiiy Aano?i-Oai?ueie aeiiooaaee ieaie
oa?eoi??aeueieo iaaeaaiue ca ?aooiie Aieaa???. Oea coiiaeei
iai?oaeai?noue o a?aeiineiao aeaio neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a ? i?ecaaei aei
na?anueei-aieaa?nueei? a?eie. Ii?acea Na?a?? o oe?e a?ei? ni?eyea iia?e
?icnoaiiaoe? iie?oe/ieo nee o ?a?ii?;

4) o aaeeainuee?e iie?oeoe? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie ia inoaiith ?ieue
a?ae?a?aaaea Aini?y ? Aa?oeaaiaeia. Naia o oeueiio
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeiio e?a? o 1875 ?. a?aeaoeeny iiae??, ye? ni?e/eieee
?ica’ycaiiy Aaeeei? No?aeii? e?ece – ia?aaeoiiae aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o
?ie?a. Ca ??oaiiyi Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano oe? i?aaeaiiineia’yinuee?
oa?eoi??? ia aeiaaee /an a?ae?eoee i?ae i?ioaeoi?ao ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a ?
aoee ia?oeie ?c i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo caiaeue o ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee
I.A?nia?ea «Ae?aia iao Inoai»;

5) aaeee? ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae o ia??iae aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o ?ie?a
caeiaee ??ci? iiceoe??, ? ?oiy iie?oeea aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ?ica’ycaiiy
e?ece o aeanieo ?ioa?anao:

— i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ?a?iiaenuee?e iie?oeoe? 70-80-o ?ie?a O?O no.
a?ae?a?aaaea ?in?y. I?e aaciina?aaei?e ? i?yi?e o/ano? oea?nueei?
?iia??? ae??ooaaeiny No?aeia ieoaiiy, ?ica’ycoaaeeny ? cae?i/oaaeeny
aaeeainuee? e?ece, aiia aieeaaea ia ?o o?ae ? iane?aeee, iino?eii
ia?aaoaath/e o oeaio?? iiae?e. Iiceoe?th cao?aeieo aea?aeaa ? Ii?oe o
aaeee?e i??? aecia/aee cayae ? i?aeoe/i? e?iee Iaoa?ao?aa. Aea iie?oe/i?
ae?? ?in?? ia Aaeeaiao ia aei?aaaeaee naaa, ? aiia iioa?i?ea ii?aceo o
ai?iouea? ca aieeae o ?aa?ii?. Iaeiae a?aeiineie io?oe?eiiai Iaoa?ao?aa
c ia?iaeaie i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i o 80-o? ?iee ia ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe eeoa e??cue i?ecio aeeeth/ii? iaaeia??e ? ai?iaeino?. ?in?y
iine?aeiaii a?aenoithaaea ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? ?ioa?ane Aieaa???,
Na?a??, *i?iiai???, Aini?? ? Aa?oeaaiaeie. Oiio oei/aniaa iia??oaiiy ?
?ic?ea ?in?enueei-aieaa?nueeeo a?aeiinei ia aoee iaieio/eie. O 90-o
?ieao ciiao iineeeany aieea ?in?? ia Aaeeaiao, a?aeiiaeeeny
aeeieiiaoe/i? ca’ycee c Aieaa???th. Neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy i?aino?iaa ia
ia?anoaaaei aeyaeyoe neiiao?e aei ?in?? ? iia’ycoaaei c iath ae??oaiiy
nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo caaaeaiue;

— aecia/aeueiee aieea ia aaeeainueeo iie?oeeo aaeeeeo aea?aeaa iaea
I?ia//eia, ?aeoneaioeea? yei? I.A?nia?e o iniiao nai?? aeeieiiao??
caeeaa oi?ioeo «o?eiaoe ? ia aeiioneaoe»: o?eiaoe o oa?aaoa?? nai??
iie?oeee ?in?th, Aano?i-Oai?ueio, O?aioe?th, ?oae?th, a caiaeii ?
Aaeeeia?eoai?th, a ia aeiioneaoe ?o ni?eueieo ae?e, ye? a iicaaaeee
I?ia//eio aaaaiii?? ia Aaeeaiao ? o ?a?ii?. «Cae?ciee eaioeea?»iino?eii
i?aaioa aeei?enoaoe No?aeia ieoaiiy oa aaeeainuee? e?ece o nai?o
iie?oe/ieo eiia?iaoe?yo, noai?thth/e aea?aei? eiio iie?oe/i? nithce
aea?aeaa;

— cia/ieo oni?o?a o aeiiii?/i?e ? iie?oe/i?e aeniain?? ia Aaeeaiao
aeinyaea Aano?i-Oai?ueia, o??oio yei? o ?aa?ii? o aaeee?e i???
caaacia/oaaea I?ia//eia. Iaeiae cae??ieoe nai? iaioaaiiy ia Aaeeaiao
Aano?i-Oai?uei? ia aaeaeiny /a?ac aeoeaio i?ioeae?th neia’yinueeiai
ianaeaiiy oa iino?ei? noia?a/ee ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, a a?aeiiaeaiiy o
1896 ?. ?in?enueei-aieaa?nueeeo a?aeiinei ? iaae?iiy caiaeii o Na?a??
i?iaano??enueei? aeeiano?? Ia?aiiae/?a iieeaei e?iaoeue aeii?ioth/iio
aieeao ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a o ?aa?ii?;

— aeoeaio iie?oeeo ia Aaeeaiao ? Aeecueeiio Noiae?, coiiaeaio
ci?oeiaiiyi aeeeth/ieo iiceoe?e Eiiaeiia a Eiinoaioeiiiie? e
anoaiiaeaiiyi eiai aieeao o aaeeainueeeo e?a?iao, i?iaiaeeea
Aaeeeia?eoai?y. O oiae? aaeeainueeeo e?ec, i?ae /an yeeo o oeaio??
aeeieiiaoe/ieo ?ai? Eiiaeiia iieieeany Aieaa??y, aiae?enuee?e
aeeieiiao?? aaeaeiny ae??oeoe nai? aieiaia caaaeaiiy – caaaeaoe oaea?o
ii iiceoe?yo ?in?? o oe?e i?aaeaiiineia’yinuee?e e?a?i? ? cai?ieoe aieea
Iaoa?ao?aa o ?aa?ii? aano?i-aiae?enueeei, a aeaaa a?eoainueeiai o?yaeo
ei?ae Nienaa?? aeieeaa iaeneioi coneeue aeey ?iceieo Nithco o?ueio
?iia?aoi??a. Ci?ia ?icnoaiiaee nee ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? coiiaeea
a?aeo?ae Aiae?? a?ae i?eioeeio caoenoo oe?e?niino? Iniainueei? ?iia??? ?
caiaeo Eiiaeiia aeiionoeoe I?ia//eio ia Aeecueeee No?ae ca oiiae
?iciiae?eo noa? aieeao o eieii?aeueiiio na?o?;

— o a?aaoethaaii? e?ec ia Aaeeaiao 80-o ?ie?a oa ae??oaii? aeie?
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo e?a?i iaaia i?noea iaeaaeaei O?aioe??, oi/a
i?aino??a ia?aaoaaa iica noa?ith ?? iie?oe/ieo ono?aie?iue.
O?aioeocuee?e aeeieiiao?? aeiaiaeeeinue iino?eii eaa??oaaoe i?ae
Aaeeeia?eoai??th ? ?in??th c iaoith caa?aaoe c iaiia aea?aeaaaie aeia??
a?aeiineie. Aea iinooiiai iiceoe?y Ia?eaea ci?ithaaeany ia ei?enoue
oea?nueei? ?iia???, ui aoei iniaeeai aaaeeeaei a oiiaao caaino?aiiy
eieii?aeueieo noia?a/iinoae O?aioe?? c Aiae??th oa ?oae??th. Ia
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th O?aioe?? aaeeeee aieea ?iaeea iino?eia
caa?ica i?aaaioeaii? a?eie c aieo I?ia//eie, oiio c?inoath/a ai?iae?noue
O?i?noiai nithco oa na?aaecaiiiii?nueei? Aioaioe aei ?in?? ? O?aioe??
ni?eyea ?in?enueei-o?aioeocueeiio caeeaeaiith o aaeeainuee?e iie?oeoe?,
ui cae?i/eeiny nithcii 1891-1893 ??.;

— iai?oaeai?noue ? oneeaaeiaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei 80-o ?ie?a ia
Aaeeaiao i?aaioea aeei?enoaoe ?oae?y, yea i?aeo?eioaaea iie?oeeo
aano?i-i?iaoeueeiai aeieo noiniaii i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, i?aaio/e oaeei
/eiii io?eiaoe a?eueo aeniea i?noea ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Oiio c
ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o ?ie?a ?ei ana aeoeai?oa ao?o/aany o ae??oaiiy
iie?oe/ieo ieoaiue o ?aa?ii?, ei?enooth/enue i?aeo?eieith nithciee?a –
I?ia//eie, Aano?i-Oai?ueie oa Aaeeeia?eoai??. A iniiao ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee ?oae?? aoa iieeaaeaiee i?eioeei aeinyaiaiiy i?anoeaeo e?a?ie o
?a?iiaenuee?e iie?oeoe? ? ?icoe?aiiy aeniain??;

6) oaeei /eiii, iie?oeea aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie ia?aaoaaea o o?niiio
ca’yceo c neooaoe??th, ui neeaaeaeany o iaeeo e?a?iao. Oae
iinooiiai o 80-o ?ieao aeoea?coaaany i?ioean ?aa?ii?caoe??
?a?iiaenueei? iie?oeee – ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiao?? aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa o aaeee?e i??? cina?aaeaeoaaeany ia
aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiiio ?aa?ii?. Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a aeeeeeaei aaeeeee ?ioa?an ?a?iiaenueeeo
iie?oee?a aei ieo ? ia?aoai?eei ?o ia iaeio ?c aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo.

sse aeiaiaeeoue ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? nueiaiaeaiiy,
aaeee? aea?aeaae caaaeaee a?ae?a?aaaee ? a?ae?a?athoue ae??oaeueio ?ieue
o aeieyo iaeeo e?a?i. Oeae oaeo noaa caeiiii??iei yaeuai anana?oiuei?
?noi???.

Iniiaiee ci?no ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii

o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Nai/oe A.E. Aieaa?nueea ieoaiiy o iie?oeoe? Nithco o?ueio
?iia?aoi??a.- ??aia,

1999.- 3,5 ae?. a?e.

2. Nai/oe A.E. Aieaa?nueea i?iaeaia o iie?oeoe? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa
?a?iie (70-

80-o? ?iee O?O no.) // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. ?noi?e/i? iaoee.- Aei.
1.- Eooeuee,

1998.- N.82-86 (0,5 ae?. a?e.).

3. Nai/oe A.E. Iie?oeea ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ia??iaeo Aaeeei?
No?aeii?

e?ece ye iaeia c i?e/ei aieaa?nueei? i?iaeaie 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. //
Ieoaiiy iiai? ? iia?oiuei? ?noi???.- Aei. 44.- E., 1998.- N.22-31 (0,5
ae?. a?e.).

4. Nai/oe A.E. Ia’?aeiaiiy Aieaa??? 1885 ?. ? aaeee? aea?aeaae ?a?iie //
Neia’yi-

nueeee a?niee.- Aei. 1.- ??aia, 1998.- N.66-73 (0,5 ae?. a?e.).

5. Nai/oe A.E. I?aaeaiiineia’yinuee? e?a?ie o iie?oeoe? aaeeeeo aea?aeaa
?a?iie

i?ney Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano 1878 ?. // Ca??iee
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo

iaoa??ae?a ? iaoeiaeo noaoae ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo AAeO.- Aei. 4.-
Eooeuee,

1999.- N.129-136 (0,5 ae?. a?e.).

6. Nai/oe A.E. Iie?oeea ?in?? oa Aaeeeia?eoai?? e aiaei-?in?enuee?
i?ioe??//y

o oiae? ia?oi? aaeeainueei? e?ece 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. // Ca??iee
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaoeiaeo noaoae ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo AAeO.- Aei. 5.- Eooeuee, 1999.- N. 133-139 (0,5 ae?.
a?e.).

7. Nai/oe A.E. A?iiaaenuee?noue Oe?a?ie ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo
aaeeai-

nueeeo neia’yi (70-o? ?iee O?O no.)// «Oe?a?ia ? Aieaa??y: a?oe
?noi?e/ii? ae?oaeae». Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii?
120-??//th aecaieaiiy Aieaa??? a?ae iniainueeiai ?aa (30-31 aeiaoiy 1998
?.).- Iaeana, 1999.- N.44-52 (0,5 ae?. a?e.).

8. Nai/oe A.E. Ca’ycee oe?a?inueeiai ? i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a o

ia??iae aecaieueieo i?ioean?a ia Aaeeaiao (70-o? ?iee O?O no.) //
«350 –

??//y Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai». Iaoa??aee

i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (15 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.).- O.??.-
E.,

1999.- (0,5 ae?. a?e.) (o ae?ooe?).

AIIOAOe?ss

Nai/oe A.E. I?aaeaiiineia’yinuee? e?a?ie o iie?oeoe?
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ia??iaeo aaeeainueeeo e?ec

80-o ?ie?a O?O no. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y. –
*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?i?aoe?,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii eiiieaeniiio aiae?co ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei iaaeiei neia’yinueeeo e?a?i Aaeeainueeiai
i?aino?iaa o 80-o? ?iee O?O no., eeth/iaeo aniaeo?a aaeeainueei?
iie?oeee ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, ?? aieeao ia aeieth
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a, ?ie? aaeeainueeeo e?ec 80-o ?ie?a o
aecia/aii? iiceoe?e oa ae?iaeaii? iie?oeee i?ia?aeieo aea?aeaa ?a?iie –
?in??, Aano?i-Oai?ueie, I?ia//eie, O?aioe??, Aaeeeia?eoai??, ?oae??. Ia
iniia? aaaaoi/enaeueii? aeaea?aeueii? aace ?ice?eaathoueny iiceoe??
iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aaeeeeo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, aeine?aeaeai?
?oi? i?ia?aie oa ae?yeuei?noue o a?aeiioaii? aei i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo
e?a?i o ia??iae ?icai?oaiiy e?ec ia Aaeeaiao o 80-o? ?iee O?O no., ui
aoee ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy aeanii? aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeii?
iie?oeee, c’yniaaii ieaie i?aaey/eo e?e Aieaa???, Na?a??, *i?iiai???,
Aini?? ? Aa?oeaaiaeie uiaei cae?eniaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee o
?aa?ii?. Aeiaaaeaii ae??oaeueio ?ieue aaeeeeo aea?aeaa o aeieyo iaeeo
e?a?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aaeaiiineia’yinuee? e?a?ie, aaeee?
aea?aeaae ?a?iie, No?aeia ieoaiiy, aaeeainuee? e?ece, aieaa?nueea
i?iaeaia, aeeianoe/ia ieoaiiy, aaeeainueei-aeecueeino?aeiee ?aa?ii,
i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie, ciai?oiy iie?oeea, aaeeainueea iie?oeea,
aeeieiiao?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nai/oe A.E. THaeiineaayineea no?aiu a iieeoeea aa?iiaeneeo
ainoaea?noa ia?eiaea aaeeaineeo e?ecenia 80-o aiaeia OIO a. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 – Anaie?iay enoi?ey. –
*a?iiaeoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a,
*a?iiaoeu,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco ?acaeoey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee aie?oa neaayineeo no?ai Aaeeaineiai
iieoino?iaa a 80-a aiaeu OIO a., eeth/aauo aniaeoia aaeeaineie iieeoeee
aaeeeeo aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, aa aeeyiey ia noaeueau thaeiineaayineeo
ia?iaeia, ?iee aaeeaineeo e?ecenia 80-o aiaeia a ii?aaeaeaiee iiceoeee e
au?aaioea iieeoeee aaaeoueo aea?aeaa Aa?iiu – ?innee, Aano?i-Aaia?ee,
Aa?iaiee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee, Eoaeee. Ia iniiaa oe?ieie
enoi/ieeiaaae/aneie aacu ?ane?uou iiceoeee iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa
aaeeeeo aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, enneaaeiaaiu eo i?ia?aiiu e
aeayoaeueiinoue ii ioiioaieth e thaeiineaayineei no?aiai a oiaea
?acaa?ouaaiey e?ecenia ia Aaeeaiao 80-o aiaeia OIO a., iai?aaeaiiuo ia
iaania/aiea naiae aaeeainei-aeeaeiaainoi/iie iieeoeee, auyniaiu ieaiu
i?aaeyueo e?oaia Aieaa?ee, Na?aee, *a?iiai?ee, Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu
ioiineoaeueii inouanoaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a ?aaeiia. Aeieacaia
?aoathuay ?ieue aaeeeeo ainoaea?noa a noaeueaao iaeuo aea?aeaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: thaeiineaayineea no?aiu, aaeeeea aea?aeaau
Aa?iiu, Ainoi/iue aii?in, aaeeaineea e?ecenu, aieaa?neay i?iaeaia,
aeeianoe/aneee aii?in, aaeeainei-aeeaeiaainoi/iue ?aaeii,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, aiaoiyy iieeoeea, aaeeaineay iieeoeee,
aeeieiiaoey.

ANNOTATION

Samchuk V.L. The Place of the Slavonic countries in the Balkans in the
policy of the European Great Powers during the period of the Balkan
crises in the 80-s in the XIX th century. – Manuscript.

The thesis for getting Chernivtsy Yu. Fedkovitch State University,
Chernivtsy, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to the composite analysis of international
affairs as to the Balkan Slavonic coutries in the 80-s XIX th century,
key aspects of the Middle Balkan poliny, adopted by Great European
Powers, their being influential on the fate of Slavonic coutries in the
Balkans, the role of the Balkan crises in the 80-s in the forming
leading European nations (Russia, Austro-Hungary, Germany, Great
Britain, France, Italy) policy. Having snrutinized a great
number of historical sources, there have been disclosed the positions
of the Great European Powers’ leaders, investigated their programmes and
activities towards the Slavonic territories in the Balkans while
developing political crises in that region in the 80-s XIX th century,
their will to ensure their national interests in the region.

The topicalness of the investigation was caused by the necessity to
study and to generalize the place and role of the South Slavic branch
nations in the policy of Great European Powers within the period of the
Balkan crises in the 80-s XIX th century, concerning Bulgarian, Balkan
and International affairs.

The particular attention has been concentrated on such nodal issues as
attitudes and approaches of the Great European Powers during the Great
Eastern crisis and after the Berlin Congress, the role of the Balkan
crises in the 80-s in defining European states’ policy, South Slavic
countries’ place in it.

The chronological settings of the investigation have been stipulated by
the subject trend. They embrace the period of the 80-s in the XIX th
century. But in some moments the author appeals to the historical
events, occured in the 70-s XIX th century. It was the period which
was to be defining in the history of the matter of the Orient and the
Balkan crisis among their number in the second part of the XIX th
century. The composite analysis of the development of the international
affairs as to the Balkan Slavonic countries, key aspects in the Middle
East policy of Great Powers, some points of their influence on the
South Slavic nations have become the purpose of the investigation.

The tangle of contradictions in the international affairs, linked with
the Great Powers’ aspiration for being predominant in the Balkan
region, and international affairs as such in the 70-80-s in the XIX th
century has become the major subject of the thesis.

The main principals of the work have been reduced to such tasks: the
analysis of Russia’s foreign policy towards the Balkans, adopted by
Germany, Austro-Hungary, Great Britain, France and Italy; the
comprehension of the reasons, caused the appearance of political unions
between European states in the 70-80-s XIX th century. These are the
goals which have been affected in the work.

The analytical investigation of the Balkan crises in the 80-s XIX th
century in the province of international affairs, based on historical
sources has been conducted in the Ukrainian historical science for the
first time. It has been done from the point of view of new approach to
studying Great Powers’ policy, their starving after domination in the
Balkans. The place of the international scene has been investigated
thoroughly. There also has been elaborated an issue on the distribution
of forces in the international scene. In addition there have been worked
out several problems, new for Ukrainian historiography. That is where
the novelty of the thesis lies.

The thesis has been written in conformity with the demands of new
historical science and scientific methodology.

In conclusion there has been infered the investigation. The
generalizing inference is: Great Powers’ foreign policy was intimately
connected with the situation in the small states. A process of
regionalization of European policy was rendered more active. This
mainstream was focused on the Balkan-Middle East region. The national
revival of the South Slavic nations roused great interest and made them
one of the most important constituents of the international affairs in
the period being investigated. Proceeding from the historical experience
and the events of the present one can conclude that Great Powers have
always had supremacy over small countries, predermining their destiny.
This fact is a natural phenomenon in the World History.

Key words: South Slavic countries, European Great Powers, the problem
of the East, the Balkan crises, the Bulgarian problem, the dynastic
problem, the Balkan-Middle East region, international affairs, foreign
policy, the Balkan politicians, diplomacy.

Похожие записи