IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO E?OA?AOO?E ?i. O.A.OAA*AIEA

OAeE 883:82-6 /091/

EOCUeIAIEI Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

IENUeIAIIEOeUeEEE AI?NOIEss??E

A OE?A?INUeEIIO E?OA?AOO?IIIO I?IOeAN?

20 — 50-o ?ie?a OO no.

10.01.01. — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio
IAI

Oe?a?ie AeII*EE A?oae?e
A?eai?iae/, ?inoeooo

e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee

a?aeae?eii oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe AAA?AA A??a

Iaae?aia, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao «Ee?ai-

Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y»,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?eieia??;

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? EIAAEUe*OE

Ieaenaiae? Aa?aneiiae/,
I?aeeinueeee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.A.Aiaiey,
caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith

oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e;

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
EIAeAE Ieeiea Ieeeiiae/,

?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e
?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
a?aeae?eo oai???

e?oa?aoo?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, eaoaae?a
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 28 » ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 10 00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 178. 01 a ?inoeooo?
e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie ( 252001, Ee?a,
aoe.A?ooaanueeiai,4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,
I.I.Noeeia

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

C A A A E Ue I A O A ? A E O A ? E N O E E A ? I A I O E

A E O O A E Ue I ? N O Ue O A I E

AEiaei? niiaaaee no/aniee?a, aeiaeai iocae ia caeaoiee oae a?aeoai?eoe
aoiinoa?o, a ye?e aeea ? i?aoethaaa ienueiaiiee, ye oea iiaea c?iaeoe
eiai eenooaaiiy. Ai?noiey??e ieooey, oeae caianeiaaiee «aioo??oi?e
ae?aeia aaoi?a ?c aeaniith nia?noth», iaaecae/aeii aaaaoi aea? ia eeoa
aeey a??ia?aeiiai oyaeaiiy i?i ia?eiao?? iniaenoiai aeeooy ienueiaiieea,
a e iiaeeaeth? iao? ciaiiy i?i aiioo, i?i iinooi ooaeiaeiuei? aeoiee,
i?i aca?ieie i?ae e?oa?aoo?ieie e a?iiaaenueeeie ae?y/aie.

Inoaii?i /anii a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? cia/ii iineeeeanue
oaaaa aei ienueiaiieoeueeiai eenooaaiiy. I?aeoe/ii oea aeyaeeiny a
??cieo aniaeoao. Ianaiia?aae ?ioa?an aei ai?noiey?ieo iai’yoie
iicia/eany ia ianiaiio aeaeaii? i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe??
ienueiaiiee?a-eeanee?a oa iaoeiaiio eiiaiooaaii? oeeo oai??a; ie?aei?
iiooee e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a ni?eyee oe?iiei ciao?aeeai iiaeo ai?noiey?ieo
iaoa??ae?a ? ?o ii?eethaeiaiith a /aniienao, ca??ieeao oiui. C’yaeeanue
iecea niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, aea aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aeaea?aeiciaanoaa oa
oaenoieia?? ?icaeyaeathoueny e??cue i?ecio ienueiaiieoeueeiai eenooaaiiy
c iiceoe?e no/aniiai e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Ia?aoo?, oey oaiaeaioe?y
iiceoeaii a?aeaeeany ia c?inoaii? caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e, aeeaei? aiae?co
e neioaco iiaeo ?ic?iaie, ine?eueee «eiaeia ca?iyoei oaeoe/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? a oaeeo ni?aaao iinoaa? aea/aiiy iaoi? e?oa?aoo?e iaia?aae».

? ana ae oey eii?oea ?iaioa, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue o aeaoaeyo aea/aoe
aaaaonoai aeooiaiiai na?oo ieooey, iio?aao? iiaeaeueoeo coneeue ? oaaae
aeine?aeiee?a. Iaeia?oa naia

ioae?eaoe?y ienueiaiieoeueeeo eeno?a ona ua i?inoaa?oueny iaaeoi
iia?eueii. Aei oiai ae aeiae?athoue ? ae?oeothoue, ye i?aaeei, eeoa
aea?ai? ai?noiey?i? oai?e, ia?aaaaeii a?aeaeaeaiiai o?iiieia?/iiai
ia??iaeo (eenoe ?.Eioey?aanueeiai, O.Oaa/aiea, I.Eoe?oa, Ia?ea Aia/ea /e
Ean? Oe?a?iee). Oea, aacia?a/ii, ia? nai? ia?aaaae (ia’?eoeai?oee
a?aea?? oaea «a?aenoiyieo» oaeno?a; ye cacia/a? ?.I?ioi?ia, ii nia?o?
ienueiaiieea iio??aia iaaia «?noi?e/ia aeenoaioe?y», /e, ca aeneiaii I.
*oaeaeiai?, nai???aeia «eoeueoo?ia iaoca» ia?aae ii/aoeii aeoeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?/iai a?o?ao ieooey). Iaeiae oaeee i?aeo?ae iana e
?noioi? iaaeie?ee (neaae?ii, oneeaaeaiiy eiiaiooaaiiy eeno?a «ia
a?aenoai?», eiia??i?noue ao?aoe ?oeiieniiai aeaea?aea ? o.i.). Iaoa
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai caai?aoaaei oaeiae ? ia?aae aaoi?aie, /ey ai?noiey?ia
niaaeueia oae ? «ia ae?aaeany ?c oa’yciaiiy» (I.AEoeeinueeee): eenoe,
uiaeaiieeia? caiene oa ?io? iaoa??aee aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a ua
e iei? i?eeoo? aei noaeaae?a oae caaieo niaoenoia?a, ?icii?ioai? ii
/eneaiieo a?o?aao oa i?eaaoieo c?a?aiiyo ? /aeathoue oi/a a
iiia?aaeiuei? nenoaiaoecaoe??, iaecaaaeuei?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee e
inieneaiiy.

Na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueeeo
eeanee?a, oaea ii?eethaeiaii? /e ae?oeiaaii? nueiaiaei? a ia??iaeeoe?,
ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue noaiiaeyoue /eneaii? noaoo?, eiiaioa??, aea
iiaeathoueny oaeoe/i? a?aeiiino? i?i ioae?eiaai? eenoe, ooi e eiee ?o
a?aeiaeoia oiui. A na?eici?oeo i?aoeyo (oeio anooiieo noaoae aai
i?ei?oie aei aeaaeai?/ieo aeaeaiue eeno?a eeanee?a) aeaii ii??aiyii
??oioiai?oee aiae?c ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie ieooe?a oa ?? cia/aiiy aeey
aea/aiiy iniae ienueiaiieea ? eiai oai?/ino?. Uiaei ni?ia oe?e?niiai
?icaeyaeo ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??, oi (ca
aeiyoeii aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue I.Iaca?oea oa E.Aaoe?a) ?o ua
ia aoei a no/ani?e iaooe? i?i e?oa?aoo?o. Iaaeiaaeeiai TH.Oa?ao oe?eeii
iaeiicia/ii noaa?aeaeo?: «Iiaoeea ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o ia ii?aoeueiaaia.
?noi??? eenooaaiiy ia Oe?a?i? ua ia iaienaii.»

A oiiaao ?aaeyinueeiai oioae?oa?ecio, eiee iai?aiee o iaooe?
i?i e?oa?aoo?o nioe?ieia?/iee iaoiae iine?aeiaii caiaeea ooaeiaeith
oai?/?noue aei eeaniaiai aea?aaeaioo, iicaaaeya ?? anoaoe/iiai e
aoe/iiai ci?noo, aeei?enoaiiy an?eyeiai ?iaeo aeiiii?aeieo iaoa??ae?a,
ye io: eenooaaiiy, a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, iaioa??a oiui aoei ae?ae
iaiaaeaia. Oea coiiaethaaeinue ye noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie, oae ?
aeayeeie aioo??oi?ie i?e/eiaie. Aa?oe a?ae/oaaee a?ae?aco aei eenooaaiiy
c eiai i?aeiniaiaith cae?eo?noth, ine?eueee i? ia?ethno?aoe??, i?
iia?oaaiiy aee?eoeie i?eaaoieie ei?aniiiaeaioe?yie ia aeiieoao o IEAN
(IAeA-EAeA) ia caaacia/oaaee «aeiaaeueiiai eiio?ieth». Aei oiai ae
aeaaea ia iiaea aeiionoeoe ii?eethaeiaiiy caeioaa/oaaeueieo
ia?oiaeaea?ae i?i naith cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue uiaei aeaniiai ia?iaeo.

O iac??aiyiii aea?aei?oiio noaiiaeu?, eiee eaeaoueny i?i
naiaiaeo aeneiao — oniiai, ienueiiaiai e ae?oeiaaiiai, ia?aaoaaea
oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a, iicaaaeaia oaeiai oioaeueiiai eiio?ieth c aieo
aea?aeaae. Uii?aaaea, nai oaeo ?nioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai
?ai?aneaiiai iaoai?cio noiniaii oeo, /e? ??aei? oa aeecuee? ethaee
iieieeeny ca ei?aeiiii, iaeeaaeaa iaai? iaiaaeaiiy ia ioae?/ia
?icaieioaiiy eiie?aoieo ?iai, oaeo?a, ianoaaei, aae ia ia?aaeaoe ia
iaaaciaeo eiainue ?c i?ae?aaeyinueeeo a?iiaaeyi. ? ana ae oe?a?ioe? ca
ei?aeiiii o nai?o ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo iiaee iaaaaaoi oe?oa e ?iceoo?oa
aeneiaethaaoe aeani? noaeaeaiiy, naith ?iaeea?aeoaeueio i?e/aoi?noue aei
aeeooy Oe?a?ie oa na?oo. Caaaeyee oeueiio iiaeaii oaa?aeeoe, ui
oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a ?noioii caaaaoeea iaoe?iiaeueio aeooiai?noue o
aaeoc? «ethaenueeiai aeieoiaioo» : iaioa??a, uiaeaiiee?a oa
ai?noiey?ieo oai??a.

Inue /iio nueiaiaei?, eiee a?o/eciyia iaoea iinooiiai
iiiiaeth? ?ic??aai? ca’ycee ?c ooaeiaei?i iaaeaaiiyi oe?a?inueei?
ai?a?aoe??, iinoa? iio?aaa nenoaiii inieneeoe iaoe?iiaeueia ienoaoeoai
ii iaeaeaa aiee ei?aeiio ye iaae?eeio oe?e?ni?noue, c’ynoaaoe aioo??oi?e
ca’ycie oa niaaeei?ii?noue i?ae aeaiia aeene?aoieie noaiaie oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e. Iaia?an?/ia ?ieue o oeueiio i?ioean? a?aeaiaeeoueny
ienueiaiieoeueeiio ai?noiey??th, aaaeeeaiio ye aeey ?icoi?iiy ooaeiaei?o
oai??a oa aa??aio?a oaeno?a, oae ? aeey aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano
caaaeii. I?eaaoia eenooaaiiy — iaaecae/aeii oe?iia aaoaioe/ia
ia?oiaeaea?aei aeey inieneaiiy oai?/i? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? ieooey c
on?i niaeo?ii iiiyoue oe??? no?oeoo?e : iniaeno?noue, na?oiaeyae,
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee noeeue oiui. C oaeeo iiceoe?e aeoiaeeee o nai?e
aaeeoe?ei?e i?aeoeoe? aeaeaoi? oe?a?inuee? a/ai? e ienueiaiieee :
I.Eoe?o, ?. O?aiei, N. ?o?aiia, I. Oe/eia, I. ?eeuenueeee oa ?i.

No/aniee i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, aeeeeeaiee ci?iaie a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, coiiaea
iaiao?aei?noue eiioeaiooaeueiiai ia?ainieneaiiy ?noi??? a?o/eciyiiai
ienueiainoaa OO no., cie?aia oae caaiiai ia??iaeo oioae?oa?ecio.
Iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoea iei? iio?aaa ??oioiaiiai, eaae?o?eiaaiiai
aiae?co ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie ieooe?a, ye? oai?eee ca oiia
?aeaieia?/iiai i?aneiao e oeaico?e a aeiao noae?i?cio.

Aino?ioa i?iaeaie aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aeaea?aeueiee ei?ion
ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?noiey??th, eiei ei?aniiiaeaio?a, oa?aeoa?
eenooaaiiy, anoaoe/ia eiai cia/aiiy, a?ia?ao?/ia oa eoeueoo?ieia?/ia,
?noi?e/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y, cina?aaeaeaia a iueiio, ? naiino?eiei i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue
ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueeeo aae?anaio?a ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.,
cie?aia ia??iaeo 20 — 50-o ?ie?a, o e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? naiai /ano.

I A O A aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o aecia/aii? niaoeeo?ee
ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o oa ooieoe?e i?eaaoiiai ienueiaiieoeueeiai
eenooaaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 20 — 50-o ??. OO no.,
ia??oiooaaii? niaaeei?iieo ca’yce?a iaoe?iiaeueii? ai?noieia?ao?? c
?a?iiaenueeith ai?noiey?iith o?aaeeoe??th, aeyaeaii? iiaeeeainoae ?
ia?niaeoea eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ienueiaiieoeueei?
ei?aniiiaeaioe?? a ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiio aniaeo?.

I?e oeueiio noaaeyoueny oae? eiie?aoi? C A A Ae A I I ss:

anoaiiaeoe cao?eniaai? a eenooaaii? oi?ie e ianooaae aeooiaiiai iii?o
yne?aaeo oai?/eo iniaenoinoae oioae?oa?i?e nenoai?, ?aaeeiia?;

?ice?eoe ?ieue ai?noiey?ii? e?eoeee a e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 20 – 50-o
?ie?a OO no. ca oiia eiai oeaico?ieo ?aaeaiaioaoe?e;

aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeeneon?e ? iieai?ee a eenooaaii? ?
a?aee?eo?e i?an?;

aecie/eoe niaoeeo?eo ia?aaeienaeueiiai ieneaiiy a ai?noiey?i?e
ioae?oeenoeoe? oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a;

?icoe?eoe oyaeaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?? aeai?o a?aee?eoiai
eenooaaiiy ye ??ciiaeaeo ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee;

aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? oai?/iai i?aeoiaeo a?o/eciyieo e?oa?aoi??a
icia/aiiai ia??iaeo aei ooaeiaeiueiai inieneaiiy ae?eniino? a
ai?noiey?ieo oai?ao.

O ? I I I E I A ? * I ? ? A I E E aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 20 –
50-o? ??. OO no. (ia??iae noae?i?cio). Eiai ieaeiy iaaea iaoiiaeth?oueny
caii/aoeiaaiei o 20-o ?ieao i?ney ?aaiethoe?eieo nioe?aeueieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo ? aeooiaieo nionoioaiue oe?a?inueeei ?aianainii, ui noaa
iiaeeeaei ia caaaeyee, a anoia?a/ ooaa?aeaeaiith «aeeeoaoo?e
i?ieaoa??aoo». Iao?eaea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?iiciaanoaa, cie?aia e
iaoe?iiaeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, aoei ?ica?iieaia o 30-o? ?iee. Ae?oaee aoai
(/e i?aeia??iae) iia’ycaiee c iao??ioe/iei ? iaa?oue
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iei i?aeianaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo o
ai?ioueae i?ioe oaoecio a 1941 – 1945 ??., ui ?aeaioeo?eoaaeinue o
ooaeiaei?o caeiaooeao ienueiainoaa. ?, ia?aoo?, ?icaeyaea?oueny
iiai?iiee e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean e?ioey 40 – 50-o ?ie?a, yeee aeyaeany, ii
noo?, «aace?ath niooiei aac/annyi a oe?a?inuee?e an?e ?aaeyinuee?e
e?oa?aoo??». I?ioa cia/ii no?ee?oei aei a??ono eii’thieoo?iino? e
oi?o?eaoe?? ?aeeiiai nioe?aae?noe/iiai ienueiainoaa aeiae noae?i?cio
aoei i?eaaoia eenooaaiiy ieooe?a (ia?aaeon?i caaaeyee aaoaioe/iino?
ai?noiey?iiai aeaea?aea oa i???ioaoe?? ia eiie?aoiiai ? aeia?a ciaiiai
aae?anaoa) .

I A ‘ ? E O I I Ae I N E ? Ae AE A I I ss ? iioae?eiaaia eenooaaiiy
A.Aeiie/aiea, I.Oe/eie, I.?eeuenueeiai, Inoaia Aeoi?, I.Ca?iaa,
I.Oaeeueiaiai, I.Eoe?oa, I.Aeiaaeaiea, TH. ssiianueeiai, ?.Aaa?yiiai c
aeei?enoaiiyi ii?eethaeiaieo ? iaa?aeiieo ?ai?oa eeno?a ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a, ui oai?eee ye a oiiaao i?aeoeaico?ii?
?aaeyinueei? ae?eniino?, oae ? ia ai?a?aoe?? ai?iaeiaae 20–50-o ?ie?a OO
noi??//y.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ia iaa ia iao? aeine?aeeoe yeiiiaa
oe?oee ?a?no? ai?noiey?ieo oai??a icia/aiiai /ano, a aeiae?aa oeiiaee ?
iieaciaee iaoa??ae, yeee aeaa iiaeeea?noue iienaoe niaoeeo?eo
ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o ? aecia/eoe eiai ooieoe?? a e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean?
iacaaiiai ia??iaeo.

O A I ? A O E E I – I A O I Ae I E I A ? * I ? C A N A Ae E Ae E N
A ? O A Oe ? ? ii?aeiothoue o nia? ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee, nenoaiiee,
oeiieia?/iee oa anoaoe/iee i?aeoiaee e niiniae i?i/eoaiiy oa iaoeiaiai
aiae?co ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a oioae?oa?ii?
aeiae. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a? inieneaiiy ??cieo a?aiae
aaaaoianiaeoiiai ai?noiey?iiai aei?iaeo ienueiaiiee?a, aiae?c ? neioac
?acoeueoao?a eiie?aoieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca oai?/ith aaiethoe??th ieooe?a
o ia??iae oeaico?ieo ao?o/aiue ? caai?ii. Oai?aoe/io aaco aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? ?ic?iaee E.Aaoe?a, A.Aeoaeea, I.Aenea?a,
O.Eineaii??i?, AE.Eyoiai?, I.Iaca?oea, A.Nayoiaoey, ?.N?eoo??na,
A.Niaoai?ia, O.Oiaeaea ???, O.Oe?iaiia oa ?ioeo a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo ai?noieia?ao?a; i?aoe? c oai??? e?oa?aoo?ii? e?eoeee
?.O?aiea, Ean? Oe?a?iee, a oaeiae TH.Ai??aa, A.A?thoiaaoeueeiai,
?.A?ii’yea, I.Aecaaa??ia, A.Aeii/eea, I.AEoeeinueeiai, I.Ieueieoeueeiai,
TH.Eiaae?aa, A.Iaeueieea, A.Ii?aioey, E.Iiae/aiea, A.Iai/aiea,
A.Neaieiiy, I.Noeeie, I.Oaae/aiea, A.Ooiiy, a yeeo iaa?oioiao?oueny
iiaeyae ia e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeith e?eoeeo ye niaoeeo?/iee oei ieneaiiy
? aeae anoaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aaoi? i?iiiiiaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
nie?aany oaeiae ia a?aeiia?aei? i?aoe? A.Aaa?ai?, ?.Aecthae,
I.Eiaaeue/oea, I.Eiaeaea, A.Einothea, I.Eioethaeinueei?, ?.Eioae?aoey,
I.Ia?iea, ?.Iaoe?ea, Ae.Ieo/aiea, A.Oea/aiea, O.Naeeae, TH.Oa?aoa, ia
nooae?? ?ioeo iaoeiaoe?a c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano
20–30-o ?ie?a, ia??iaeo a?eie oa i?neyai?iiiai /ano, oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee
yeeo aeiiiiiaee oae?aciaiith ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?noiey??th aeiae
noae?i?cio.

I A O E I A A I I A E C I A ? I A I O E iieyaa? o oiio,
ui aia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? cae?enith?oueny oe?e?niee
?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iee aiae?c ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie a?o/eciyieo
ienueiaiiee?a ia??iaeo 20–50-o ?ie?a OO no. ye niaoeeo?/iiai yaeua;
?ice?eaathoueny ?? nooi?noue ? ooieoe?? a oiai/aniiio e?oa?aoo?iiio
i?ioean?; ia??oioiao?oueny ea?aeeiaeueii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aeai?iai?
eiioeaioe?? ai?noiee: ye aei iie?oii?/iiai aeai?iaiai ooai?aiiy
(e?oa?aoo?iiai oa ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aeyao iaeii/anii), ui a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeai? iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?noiey??th
ia oae o ieai? oaeoia?ao?/iiio (oeae aniaeo iaeiiai?oa aea/aiee), ye o
ineoieia?/iiio e anoaoe/iiio. Iiaei ? oaeiae ?aeo?n aiae?co
ai?noiey?ieo oai??a e??cue i?ecio ia?aaeienaeueiiai ieneaiiy
ienueiaiiee?a, iiaii-noeeueiaiai ae?aiaciio, aca?iii?iieeiaiiy
eia?/iiai ? ia?aciiai aniaeo?a o i?eaaoieo ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo.

I ? A E O E * I A C I A * A I I ss Ae E N A ? O A Oe ? ?
.Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiai iaia?an?/iiai yaeua a oe?a?inueeiio ienueiainoa?,
ye eenooaaiiy ieooe?a o eiioaeno? e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano oioae?oa?ii?
aeiae, aeanoue iiooiao aei aea/aiiy, ioae?eaoe?? oa eiiaiooaaiiy aein?
ia c?a?aii? ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie I.Ieany, I.Ai?iiiai, A.Aeiie/aiea,
?.Iaeaithea, O.Inueia/ee oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaoi??a. C?iaeai?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ni?eyoeiooue iiaeaeueoei iaoeiaei nooae?yi c ?noi???
a?o/eciyiiai, cie?aia ienueiaiieoeueeiai eenoa, aea/aiith eiai aeai?iaeo
iniaeeainoae oa iiaoeee. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e,
e?oa?aoo?ii? e?eoeee, oai??? e?oa?aoo?e, a eaeoe?eieo eo?nao ?
niaoeeo?nao aeey nooaeaio?a-o?eieia?a.

A I ? I A A Oe ? ss ? I A I O E. Iaeaaaeeea?o? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeo? a oai?aoe/ieo, ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ieo,
eoeueoo?inionueeeo ioae?eaoe?yo: iiiia?ao?yo, noaooyo, ?icae?eao
eieaeoeaieo i?aoeue, iin?aiee?a, aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo oa neiaieeiaeo
noaooyo, o aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, a oaeiae o eo?n?
eaeoe?e, i?i/eoaieo oi?iaeiaae 1992-1998 ??. o Ee?anueeiio
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?i. A.A??i/aiea,
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i. A.Neiai?iaee.
Ie?ai? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?? ? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?eiio iaaiai?thaaeenue
ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy ?inoeoooo
e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii a 26 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo; c ieo 24
– iaeiiin?aieo. Caaaeueiee ianya iniaenoiai aianeo neeaaea? iiiaae 40
ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

I A N ss A ? N O ? O E O O ? A ? I A I O E.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a.

I N I I A I E E C I ? N O.

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/a?oueny
noai ?? aeine?aeieoeueeiai ii?aoethaaiiy, oi?io?oueny iaoa e caaaeaiiy
?iaioe. Anooi i?noeoue oaeiae noeneo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ai?noieia?ao??
ia??iaeo 20-50-o ?ie?a OO no..

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noiey?ii?
niaaeueie ienueiaiiee?a» – ?icaeyaeathoueny aieiaiei /eiii iniiai?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i???ioe?e oe?e?nii-nenoaiiiai aiae?co
ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ienueiaiiee?a ye aaoaioe/iiai aeaea?aea aea/aiiy
?oiuei? oai?/i? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?; ia eiie?aoiiio iaoa??ae? i?eaaoiiai
eenooaaiiy aae?anaio?a ia??iaeo «?icno??eyiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy», ai?iiiai
/ano oa i?neyai?iiiai aeanyoee?ooy aena?oeth?oueny i?iaeaia niaoeeo?ee
ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o.

I?aee?anethth/e iaia?an?/ia cia/aiiy oa aaaeeea?noue iiia?aaei?o
?ic?iaie oai??? ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o (i?aoe? A.A?iaia, AE.Iania?i c
?noi??? eenoiaieo aca?iei noa?iaeaai?o ?aeioyi; ?iaioe I.Aaaa?a,
?.Eioaeooeiia, O.Oth?i-Aeaiaea, A.Oiaiaaea uiaei ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie
aaa?eiioe?a oa an???eoe?a; ioae?eaoe?? ?.N?eoo??na, A.Niaoai?ia i?i
niaoeeo?eo a?caio?enueei? ei?aniiiaeaioe??; aeine?aeaeaiiy E.A?inniaia,
A.?e?no?aoiai?, E.?iecaiciia c ?noi??? ai?noiey?ieo eiioaeo?a OIO no. ?
o.i.), ia iiaeia ia a?aecia/eoe, ui aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano aaoi?e
iaoeiaeo nooae?e i?e aea/aii? eenooaaiiy ye ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai
aeaea?aea ia a?aee aei oaaae aeayeeo iiiaio?a. Oae, neaae?ii, i?eaaoi?
ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ia a?aeie?aiethaaeeny c-iii?ae ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a ?
a?oi aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae, a ii/anoe i?ae aeaeyaeii eeno?a
aiae?coaaeenue ? oae? oai?e, ye? cian?i ia iaeaaeaoue aei ai?noiey?iiai
aeai?o. Ia??aeei oaeiae iaa?oue aeina?ae/ai? oao?aoe? ia iiaee
anoaiiaeoe aeaoo iaienaiiy ei?aniiiaeaioe?? o ca’yceo c o?oaeii?noe?noth
i?ioeano ao?eaooe?? eeno?a, ?oiueiai aeaooaaiiy oa ia?ic?iaeai?noth
naii? iaoiaeeee iiae?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaeiae iaaeaoiaaia eenooaaiiy,
ye a?aeiii, ao?a/a? naith aeieaciao neeo. Naia /a?ac oea cia/iee ianea
i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe??, iniaeeai eenooaaiiy aioe/ii? aiioe oa
Na?aaeiueia?//y, caeeoaeeny iica oaaaith iaoeiaoe?a.

Iei? ae o aaeoc? oai??? ai?noieia?ao?? a?aeaoeeny iaai? iiceoeai?
c?ooaiiy. Eaeaoueny ia?aaeon?i i?i ?ic?iaeo i?ea?iaeueii? iaoiaeeee
aeaooaaiiy aoaeue-yeiai eenoa ia iniia? oi?ioeueiiai aiae?co oa c
o?aooaaiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy ai?noiey?ieo oi?ioe o eiie?aoieo
o?iiieia?/ieo iaaeao. Iayai?noue onoaeaieo ne?a aai neiainiieo/aiue o
eenooaaii? – oaeo iacaia?a/iee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o?oaeoii?ee
noa?ia?aoeueeiai ai?noiey??th o XX no. i?iaiaeeeinue naia ia iniia?
aeie?aieaiiy noaiaea?oieo, o?aoa?aoieo neiainiieo/aiue. Aeineoue
caaaeaoe oi/ ae oae? ?iaia, ye A.Aa?oa?ae, O.Aeaeaa?, I.Aenea?,
O.Eineaii??i?, I.?ieea?, O.Oe?iaii. O na?e /an O.Eaiaeoa ?aeaioe/i?
neiaa oa o?ace, ui iiaoi?ththoueny o eenoao, iaceaaa — formulaire de
letters. I.?aeea? ?iaioaaa ?x das Formular der Briefe, a A.Aa?oa?ae
aeei?enoiaoaaa aeey oeueiai iacao die Formel — one?ae ca ?.Aaaeai,
eio?ee canoiniaoaaa oa?i?i formula. O.Oe?iaii oa?a iiiyooy — formula
sollemnus (caaaeueiii?eeiyoa oi?ioea), a X.Noii cai?iiiioaaa
neiainiieo/aiiy le cliche epistolaire (ai?noiey?ia ee?oa).

I?ioa eeoa o O.Eineaii??i? iiaeeao?ii ia??oiooaaiiy ??cieo oi?i
ai?noiey?ieo neiainiieo/aiue. Cie?aia, a?i aaeeaa? aeaa oa?i?ie uiaei
icia/aiiy onoaeaieo ae?ac?a o eenooaaii? — «ai?noiey?ia oi?ioea» oa
«ai?noiey?ia o?aca». I ?iaeoue ni?iao i?ioenoaaeoe iaeia iiiyooy ?ioiio.
Ao?i, caaaeaia ni?iaa eeoeeanue iaaaeaeith, ine?eueee, ca neiaaie
naiiai O.Eineaii??i?, ii/anoe oi?ioee iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye o?ace, a
ie?ai? o?ace ?aeaioe/i? oi?ioeai. sse o?, oae ? ?io?, iathou oeiiaa,
no?eaeiaaa neiai.

Iacaia?a/ia ?ieue o aecia/aii? ci?noo iiiyooy “ai?noiey?ia oi?ioea”
iaeaaeeoue A.Niaoai?io, yeee a?aeaea? ia?aaaao inoaiiueiio oa?i?io c
iaeyaeo ia eiai o?aaeeoe?ei?noue (ua caaeiaai aei O.Eineaii??i?
iineoaiaoaaeeny A.Aaa?aaeuae, E.?ie?iaa?, O.Oe?iaii oa iioi). Ia aeoieo
?in?enueeiai a/aiiai, ai?noiey?ia oi?ioea ia? o?e ??ciiaeaee:
1)o?aca-ee?oa; 2)o?aca c? no?eaeiaaei neiaii; C) o?aca aac no?eaeiaaiai
neiaa. O?aca-ee?oa — iaci?iia noa?aioeiia aeneiaethaaiiy aai, oi/i?oa c
e?iaa?noe/iiai iiaeyaeo, oi?ioea. Ai?noiey?ia oi?ioea ae?oaiai
??ciiaeaeo — aeneiaethaaiiy o a?euei?o?e oi?i?.

I?ioa iaia’yceiaei ?? eiiiiiaioii ? no?eaeiaaa neiai ye naiaioe/iee
oeaio? o?acaia?aie. Ia?aoo?, o?aca aac no?eaeiaaiai neiaa – a?eueii
iiaoaeiaaia neiainiieo/aiiy. Oioiaeiee niene, ye iaa?ae’?iia iciaea
oaei? o?ace, ia?aoiaeeoue c eenoa o eeno. Eiaeai ?c ??ciiaeae?a iiaea
iaoe e?euea oei?a. Oeie oi? naii? ai?noiey?ii? oi?ioee ia?oiai
??ciiaeaeo ?ic??ciythoueny ia?anoaiiaeith eiiiiiaio?a, a?aenooi?noth
yeiainue eiiiiiaioo, aa??aioaie. Oeie ai?noiey?ii? oi?ioee ye ae?oaiai,
oae i o?aoueiai ??ciiaeaeo, oa?aeoa?ecothouny niaoeeo?eith iioea?a.

Oaeei /eiii, aecia/aiiy /?oeeo e?eoa???a iiiyooy «ai?noiey?ia oi?ioea» ?
?ic?iaea ia iniia? oi?ioeueiiai aiae?co iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy eeno?a ??cieo
aiio aeicaiey? iei? ai?noieia?aoai aeineoue oi/ii anoaiiaethaaoe /an
iaienaiiy aoaeue-yei? ei?aniiiaeaioe??. Oea ia? iaaaeyea i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, aaeaea a niaoe?ae?no?a c’yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue caeo/aoe aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoi? ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?ii? ieioaoeie oaeoe/ii eiaeio
ai?noiey?io ?ae?ea?th, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, aea, eiee e ia /iio aiia
aoea cao?eniaaia: o Noa?iaeaai?e A?aoe?? /e ia Eieei? a aeiao
noae?iueie, ia aa?ano? /e ia ia?aaiaio?, ia aenieiye?niiio iaia?? /e ia
no?i? eaia?e nia?oiee?a o eiioeoaai??.

I?aee?aneeii, ui c onueiai ?icia?ooy i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe??
iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue eenoe
ienueiaiiee?a. I ia o?eueee /a?ac iiaeeea?noue aeineiiae?oa i?ciaoe
iniaeno?noue ?oi?o aaoi??a, noa?o ethaenueeeo ii/oaaiue ? noinoie?a.
Eenooaaiiy ieooe?a ? oaeiae nai???aeiei aaoieiiaioa?ai aei ?oiuei?
oai?/ino?. A a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ai?noiey?i? oai?e e?oa?aoi??a
noaiiaeyoue naiino?eiee ?ioa?an aeey ?aoeei??io?a ye iiaiiaa?o?nia
ienoaoeueea yaeua.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ?icae?e? aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? coieiy?oueny ia
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oaeeo aeii?iaio i?eaaoii? ienueiaiieoeueei?
ei?aniiiaeaioe?? :

I?eaaoiee eeno (ye, i?ae ?ioei, ? aaoia?ia?ao?y, uiaeaiiee oa ?i.)
aeeeeea? caeaa?eueoiai ?ioa?an i??ith i?enooiino? a iueiio iniaenoino?
aaoi?a.

I/aaeaeii, ? nain aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui a eeno? ia?aaaaeathoue ?iciiai?
?ioiiaoe??, iaeiae «noeeue eenoa e ?iciiaia iiaa ?acii c oei ia oa
naia». O eeno? a?aeia?aaeathoueny oae? aeanoeaino? ?iciiaii? iiae, ye
iai?aeaioiaeai?noue (niiioaii?noue), iaaeiooai?nou, aaciina?aaei?noue
ni?eeoaaiiy. I?ioa aeuacacia/ai? aeanoeaino? ?iciiaii? iiae a eeno? eeoa
a?aeaeaathoueny /a?ac nai???aeia aaoi?nueea caeiieaiiy. Aaaaoi
ienueiaiieoeueeeo eeno?a ieoaoueny aac /a?iaoie, aac o?eaaeiai
iiia?aaeiueiai iaaeoioaaiiy eiaeii? o?ace. I ana ae i?ioean iaienaiey
ienueiaiieeii i?eaaoiiai eenoa aeiaaa? ei?aaoaaiiy eiaeii? aeoiee.
Iaa?oue ia ciath/e oi?ioe ai?noiey?iiai aoeeaoo, aaoi? ei?aniiiaeaioe??
oae aai ?iaeoa caieneth?oueny iaae o?acaia?aiith caa?oaiiy aei
aae?anaoa, iaae a?aeai?ii oaeo?a aeey ienueiiaiai iia?aeiieaiiy, a
aieiaia — iaae iiaiei ioi?ieaiiyi.

Niaoeeo?ea i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? i?inoaaeo?oueny oaeiae i a
niiniaao aaoi?nueei? iiia?ae?. Iai?eeeaae, o ?iciiai?e iia? iiaeeea?
i?/ei ia iia’ycai? i?ae niaith (/anii ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaei?)
ia?aoiaee a?ae iaei??? oaie aei ae?oai?. A eieaeieo noeeyo iiae ia?ao?ae
a?ae aeoiee aei aeoiee cae?enith?oueny, ye i?aaeei, ieaaii, iinooiiai. O
eeno? ae ci?ia oai a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo
ne?a-«neaiae?a»: «aei ?a/?», «uia ia caaooe», «a oaia? i?i ni?aae» ? o.
?i. oa ca aeiiiiiaith iinone?eiooi?a.

Iaeiae niiioaii?noue, iaaeiooai?noue, aaciina?aaei?noue ni?eeoaaiiy — o?
«ia?aiao?e», ye? aeey ?iciiaii? iiae ? aecia/aeuieie, aeey eenoa
aeyaeythoueny aaaeeeaeie, aea ia ae/a?iieie iciaeaie eiai noee?noe/iiai
caaa?aeaiiy. Aeey ai?noiee oa?aeoa?ia eiioai?iaoe?y picieo aeaiaio?a
iiae — eieaeieo ? ?iciiaieo.

I?eaaoiee eeno ienueiaiieea ?ic?aoiaaiee ia eiie?aoiiai ?, aieiaiei
/eiii, aeia?a ciaiiai aae?anaoa. Cae/aeii, ooaeiaei?e oa?? oaae
?ic?aoiaaiee ia oyaiiai «aae?anaoa» — /eoa/a, aea, ye i?aaeei, /eoa/a
aano?aeoiiai, ?aoeei??ioa aiii?iiiai e ia?aaaaeii eieaeoeaiiai.
I?eaaoiee eeno, ia a?aei?io a?ae ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o, iana a nia?
noa’?eoeaiee ia?ac eiie?aoii? iniae, aea /a?ac nai???aeia aaoi?nueea
caeiieaiiy, e??cue «i?ecio aaoi?nueei? iaioaeueiino? ? ?aoeaen?e».

Iaienaiiy cae/aeiiai iiaooiaiai eenoa — oai?/ee aeo. Ua a?eueoa i?aenoaa
noaa?aeaeoaaoe oea, eiee ia?ii ia oaac? i?eaaoiee eeno ienueiaiieea,
aeey yeiai ?iaioa iaae neiaii — uiaeaiia i?aoey. O iiaooiaeo
ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo ethaeae, iaae?eaieo ienueiaiieoeueeei iaaea?oaaiiyi,
ia??aeei cono??/a?ii ni?aaaei? ooaeiaei? a?aee?eooy, noai?ai? ca an?ia
caeiiaie e?oa?aoo?ii? iaenoa?iino? (neaae?ii, eenooaaiiy
I.Eioethaeinueeiai, A.Noaoaieea, I.Ai?iiiai, I.Eoe?oa, I.Aeiaaeaiea,
I.Ieueaee/a oa ?i.). Ia?aaaae ai?noiey?ii? oai?/ino? iaaaeye? : ia o?aaa
ae?oeo, iaia? oeaico?e, nei?i/aiee aei i?i?ioio oeyo aei /eoa/a.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea? oaeiae ieoaiiy i?i aeao?i?oe?? oaeeo
iiiyoue, ye «eeno», «ai?noiey?iee noeeue», «ai?noiey?iee aeai?»,
«ai?noiey?ia oi?ia», «ai?noieia?ao?y» i o. ae., ine?eueee ua e aein?
iaia? iaeiinoaeiino? o iiaeyaeao noiniaii ?oiuei? noo?. Ia?ic?iaeai?noue
oai??? ai?noiey??th (a, cia/eoue, ? iiiyo?eiiai oa oa?i?iieia?/iiai
aia?aoo, c yeiai, aeania, ?icii/eia?oueny aea/aiiy aoaeue-yei? iaoeiai?
aeenoeeie?ie) noai?th? cia/i? o?oaeiiu?, iniaeeai a oe?eueiiio iaa/aii?,
naia niaoeeo?ea yeiai ciaia’yco? aei /?oeino? oi?ioethaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
iieiaeaiue, oei ia/a aeao?i?oe?e.

A.Niaoai?i, ??oioiaii i?iaiae?coaaaoe iniiai? iiaeyaee iaoeiaoe?a uiaei
eeth/iaiai a ai?noieia?ao?? iiiyooy “eeno”, ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
aeiaeia c a?aeiieo iei? aeaoai?oe?e ai?noiee ia iaceaa? ?? aieiaii?
iciaee – niaoeeo?ee a?o?oaeoii?ee, no?oeoo?e, iiaoaeiae. O?eueee
inoaiiy, i?aee?aneth? a/aiee, aeicaiey? iaae?eii a?aeie?aieoe aeania
eeno a?ae ?ioeo ??ciiaeae?a aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae aai aeoiaeo
iaoa??ae?a. Ca A.Niaoai?iei, «eeno — oea ienueiiaa iia?aeiieaiiy aaoipa
aae?anaoo, iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? oeiieia?/ii? a?o?oaeoii?ee iaaiiai /ano
«.

I?ioa iacaaia aeao?i?oe?y oaae ia a?aeaeaa? aaeaeaaoii noo?
ai?noiey?iiai oai?o, ine?eueee cian?i ia aa?a aei oaaae, ie??i
«oeiieia?/ii? a?o?oaeoii?ee» iaaiiai /ano,- «iniiaii? iciaee eiicoiee»,
?ioeo, ia iaio aaaeeeaeo ?? iciae: noa’?eoeaiiai aaoi?nueeiai aa/aiiy
ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino?, niaoeeo?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eenoa, ye?
aeicaieythoue eiai aaaaeaoe ?acoeueoaoii naia oai?/iai i?ioeano, a ia
nooi iaoai?/iei «iia?aeiieaiiyi». Aei oiai ae «iniiaia iciaea ai?noiee»
— iiiyooy a?aeiinia, aaeaea oa /e ?ioa ye?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaeiaoa,
yaeua ? o.i., aieiaiei /eiii, noa? «iniiaiith» eeoa a neeo
noa’?eoeaiino? aaoi?nueeeo i?aeoiae?a. Neaae?ii, c iiaeyaeo ?noi?eea
A.Niaoai?ia oaeith o eeno? iiaea aooe eiai «niaoeeo?ea a?o?oaeoii?ee»,
ai oea aea? ciiao aeineou oi/ii anoaiiaethaaoe /an iaienaiiy oai?o (ca
eiai a?aenooiino? a i?ea?iae? ) ?, oaeei /eiii, aaiaeeoe eeno o iaoeiaee
ia?a ia??ai? c ?ioeie ?noi?e/ieie aeieoiaioaie. «Ai?noieia?ao?y, — ieoa
A.Niaoai?i, — ye niaoe?aeueia icoi?e/ia aeenoeeie?ia aea/a? eenoe ia ye
iniaeeaee aeai? e?oa?aoo?e, a ye nai???aeia ?noi?e/ia aeaea?aei».

3 iei ia iiaiaeaeo?oueny Ae.Aoeai?i, yeee a?aenoith? aeoieo i?i oa, ui
oa?i?i ? eiiieaen ioiieaieo iei iai’yoie iiaeiai ia?aaeaa/aoe
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ee aniaeo oa i?aeaeaaaoenue o?eieia?/iiio aiae?co,
inienethaaoenue ia eeoa o caaaeueiiio eoeueoo?iiio aniaeo?, a — i ye
ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a.

Oaeiai ae iiaeyaeo aeio?eio?oueny i a?o/eciyiee iaae??a?no I.Iaca?oe,
yeee iaeiei ?c ia?oeo a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? caa?ioany aei
aea/aiiy noa?i? ai?noiey?ii? i?ice. «Iniiaiith iciaeith» eenoa a?i
aaaaea? ia?aaeon?i iayai?noue o oai?? ii/oooy. Eiee aiii a eeno? ?,
aaaea? aeine?aeiee, oiae? aa/eii aeia?a (na?aeiii /e ia na?aeiii)
neiiiiiiaaio ooaeiaeith ??/, ui aeeeeea? o /eoa/a anoaoe/io ?aoeaioe?th.
O oaeeo eenoao ia?aaaaeathoue oaie?nou oa ue??noue noinoie?a i?ae
ei?aniiiaeaioaie. Ioaea, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo iayai?noue o eeno? ue?iai
ii/oooy naia oiio noa? eiai aeii?ioth/ith iciaeith, ui aeicaiey?
caoenieeia? eiioeaioe?? ai?noiee ye e?oa?aoo?iiai aeai?o ca oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo ia ca?aoiaoaaoe aei ai?noiey?ii? i?ice /eiaeo e?euee?noue
iineaiue — o?aeoao?a oa ?ioeo oaeno?a ?c iaae?acii ie?aneaieie
ooaeiaei?ie ia?aiao?aie. Uii?aaaea, o nai?e aeao?i?oe?? eenoa caaaeaia
aieiaia eiai iciaea ia i?icao/aea. Ao?i, iiaeeao?ii ooo oaea
«?acoeueoao» a?aeai?o aeieoiaioaeueieo iai’yoie ia iniia? cacia/aii?
aeua «iniiaii? iciaee» : «Eeno — aeai? ai?noiey?ii? i?ice na?aaeiueiai
noeeth o oi?i? i?yiiai eiioaeoo ei?aniiiaeaionueeeo ia?».

Ioaea, iiaeyaee A.Niaoai?ia oa I.Iaca?oea uiaei aeai?iai? i?e?iaee eenoa
? eiai aieiaii? iciaee iathoue iaeaea ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeiee
oa?aeoa?. Ia?oee ?c iacaaieo iaoeiaoe?a noeeueiee ?icaeyaeaoe ai?noieo
aeeeth/ii ye ?noi?e/ia aeaea?aei ?ioi?iaoe??, ae?oaee — ca?aoiao? ?? aei
ooaeiaeiui? e?oa?aoo?e ( oi/a e ia aaccanoa?aaeii : iiaeya, eeoa oae?
ai?noiey?i? iai’yoee iiaeia aaaaeaoe e?oa?aoo?ieie, yeei i?eoaiaiia ue?a
ii/oooy i o.ae.).

Iaeiae, A.Niaoai?i, ianoithth/e eiioeaioe?th eenoa ye ?noi?e/iiai
aeaea?aea, cian?i ia aa?a aei oaaae anoaoe/io cia/ei?noue ai?noiey?ii?
niaaeueie. Aiaeii/an i?eaaoia eenooaaiiy ieooe?a — oea cia/ii a?eueoa,
i?ae cae/aei? iiaooia? ae?aeiae «ia a?aenoai?». Ienueiaiiee, iiao
oai?eoue ca caeiiaie e?ane (caaaeaeii o I.Ai?iiiai: «A ye iiao — aac
ia?aiiie y noaaeo oai?/ino? caeiie …»). A?aeoae i a eenooaaii?
ieoaoeue iaeia?oa caeeoa?oueny ieooeai. *e ia oiio ie?ai? ai?noiee
I.Eioethaeinueeiai, JIeci Oe?a?iee, A.Noaoaieea, I.Eoe?oa,
A.I?aeiiaeeueiiai, I.Aeiaaeaiea, A.Eaieiai oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a i?i/eoothoueny ye ooaeiaei? oai?e.

Aeeneon?eia e iiceoe?y I.Iaca?oea, yeee ?icaeyaea? eenoe o?eueee ye oaeo
e?oa?aoo?e. I?ioa ua caaeiaai aei iueiai aiaeia?/i? noaeaeaiiy
aeneiaethaaa ?.N?eoo??n, aaaaeath/e ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ai?noiey?iei
aeai?ii ooaeiaeiuei? neiaaniino?. I?ae oei A.Oiiaoaanueeee neooii
cacia/aa, ui «eeno iiaea aooe e?oa?aoo?iei oai?ii, aea iiaea iei i ia
aooe». Ai?noiey?iee aeai? e?oa?aoo?e aei oiai ae ia ioiieth? an???
noeoiiino? eeno?a, a aeeth/a? eeoa ooaeiaei?e eeno.

I?aenoiiaoth/e neacaia, iiaeia eiinoaeooaaoe, ui aeiaeia c aeao?i?oe?e
eenoa ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei oyaeaiiyi i?i niaoeeo?eo ai?noiey?ii?
eiioi?eaoe??. ? ni?aaa ooo ia a oiio, ui ??cieie aeine?aeieeaie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?oiuei? i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? /e iniaenoeo
oiiaeiaaiue, aeie?aieththoueny ye?nue «ia o?» aieiai? iciaee
ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ye oaei?. C?aooith, nooue iieyaa? a ?ioiio. Iii?e iaai?
iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a aaeoc? ai?noieia?ao??, ioneii aeciaoe, ui i?ioyaii
inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ iaoeia? eiioeaioe?? noiniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
ai?noiey??th eeoaeenue iaeiiiai?oieie e iaci?iieie. O e?auiio aeiaaeeo
eenoe ?icaeyaeaeeny ii/anoe e ?icaeyaeathoueny iei? eeoa e??cue i?ecio
yei?nue iaei??? iaoeiai? aeenoeeie?ie: e?iaa?noeee, ?noi??? aai
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa ? o.ae. I?ae oei niaoe?ae?noe ??cieo aaeocae aeaaii
aaea iii?oeee iie?oii?ci ai?noiee.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny ea?aeeiaeueii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ?icaeyaeo
oeuiai iie?aeai?iaiai oaiiiaio. Eeno ienueiaiieea — oea oa??
e?oa?aoo?iiai oa ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aeai?o, iicia/aiee yne?aai
ae?aaeaiith ineoieia?/iith ?io?iniaeoe??th oa iniaeno?niei noaaeaiiyi
aaoi?a aei ae?eniino? e eiie?aoiiai aae?anaoa, iaienaiee c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee ei?aniiiaeaioe?? iaaii? ?noi?e/ii? aeiae.

A?aoiaioii ia ei?enoue cai?iiiiiaaii? eiioeaioe?? iiaea aooe, cie?aia,
oa ianoaaeia, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeiai
ienueiainoaa i?eiee ia caiaeeea naith aeeoo?ao i?n?th o?eueee aei
ienaiiy ooaeiaei?o oai??a. ?aaeueia ae?eni?noue /anoi i?eioooaaea
?icaoaeiaoaa/?a iaoi? e?oa?aoo?e i?aenoaaeyoe iea/? i?ae oyaa?? ?ioeo
ni?aa – a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo, ina?oi?o, aeaeaaie/eo ? o.ae. Ca?aaee
oeueiai aeiaiaeeeiny, eaaeo/e neiaaie ?.O?aiea, caaaeaieie Eanath
Oe?a?ieith a iaeiiio c eeno?a aei iueiai, “ne?o/oaaoe aieiae” caaeoiai
nai?o ooaeiaei?o oai??a.

Cie?aia, ?.O?aieia? noaeeeiny noaoe ia o?eueee aeaeaoiei oe?a?inueeei
ienueiaiieeii e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., a e iaeiii?oi?oei a?o/eciyiei
a?iiaaenueei – iie?oe/iei ae?y/ai icia/aii? aeiae. Ua a?eueoa i?aenoaa
ia?ii aeey oeueiai oaa?aeaeaiiy, eiee caaaea?ii aeeoo?aee oeyo
O.Oaa/aiea, eio?ee, ca ?.O?aieii, ia eeoa “noaa aaeaoiai o oea?noa?
ethaenueei? eoeueoo?e”, a e “aeey an??? ?in?? c?iaea a?eueoa, i?ae
aeanyoue ia?aiiaeieo a?i?e”.

Uiaei XX no., iiaeia iacaaoe oi/a a A.Aeiie/aiea — aeaao oe?a?inueiai
o?yaeo a /ane OI? aai A.Noona — i?aaicaoenieea oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a
oiiaao oioae?oa?iiai «canoith». I oie oaeo, ui i?ioyaii aaaaoueio
aeanyoee?oue aaeeea e?euee?nou ai?ioiey?ieo iai’yoie oe?a?inueeiai
ienueiainoaa ia aoea aaaaeaia a iaoeiaee ia?a, iaeia?oa iiynith?oueny
iaia?an?/iith ?ieeth ieooe?a o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? naiai ia?iaeo. A
iaeieo aeiaaeeao caai?iia ii?eethaeithaaoe oe? aeaea?aea aoea ni?e/eiaia
«e?aiieueieie» i??caeuaie ei?aniiiaeaio?a, a ?ioeo — i??caeuaie
aae?anao?a, ua a ?ioeo — i??caeuaie, ui caaaeoaaeeny o oaenoao eeno?a ?
o.ae. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aoei ao?a/aii aaee/acio ?ioi?iaoe?th, acyoo «c
ia?oeo ono», i?i o? /e ?io? yaeua, iiae??, iniae ? o.i. Oea i?ecaaei aei
oiai, ui nueiaiaei? o?aaa iaaeieoaeoaaoe ao?a/aia, a oaeiae
ia?aaeyaeaoe ioe?iee aaaaouio oaeo?a.

A?aeoae ieoaiiy — /iio naia ?icaeyaeaoe ai?noiey??e ye aeai?
?noi??ia?ao?? — caea?oueny iai i/aaeaeiei: «Aiia — ?noi??y — ia ?nio?
«aeanue oai» ye yeanue Ding as Sich (??/ o nia?), a, iaaiaee,
i?iyaey?oueny — aai caoueia?th?oueny — caeaaeii a?ae oiai, ye ie coi??ii
i?aai?coaaoe, ia?ao?aaeoe, inieneeoe iano oaeo?a ? oaeno?a, ye? aei oiai
? o?eueee ne??aoeai, a ia ?noi???th. I, aeania, oiio, ui ?noi??y,[…]
oe? ?noi??ia?ao?/i? oi?ioethaaiiy ? eiioeaioe?? aeiaaathoue iino?eii?
?aa?c??.»

Aiaeii/an i?eaaoiee eeno — oea oaeiae ? e?oa?aoo?a, oai?/?noue, «eiee
aoaeue-yea a?aiioia ethaeeia, oae iaa?oue ia ei?ioeee /an noa?
ienueiaiieeii» (ye?ac oiio a aeao?i?oe?? eenoa aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?,
ui oea — oa??). Ca?nii, oea ia caaaeaee e?oa?aoo?a o aeaniiio ?icoi?ii?
— ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue, a “aoi?eiiee uiaei ooaeiaeiino? iaoa??ae, aea
oaeee, yeee ia? cia/iee ca?yae ooaeiaeiino?, ? ui iaeaieiai?oa – a?i
iana a nia? aeeooy iniaenoino?”.

O naith /a?ao iniaeno?noue aaoi?a, caaaeyee ?ii?ia?caoe?eiino? eenoa,
ciaoiaeeoue aaaaoia?aiiee aeya o eiai anoaoe/ieo no?oeoo?ao:
eiiiiceoe??, nenoai? o?ii?ee, iaecaaeieo caiaeueiaeao oiui.

Ioaea, eeno iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ? ye oaeo e?oa?aoo?e. A oaeiio ?ac?
ai?noiey??e ieooey iinoa? o eiioaeno? aeaio oa??a, ui
aca?iii?iieeathoueny: ?aaeueii? ae?eniino? o noa’?eoeaiiio ni?eeiyoo?
aaoi?a ? noai?thaaiiai ia ?? iniia? ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo ieooey, eiai
anoaoe/ii? oe?iiino?.

Eeno ienueiaiieea, oaeei /eiii, — oea oa?? e?oa?aoo?iiai oa
?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aeai?o iaeii/anii.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy – “?a?iiaenueea ai?noiey?ia o?aaeeoe?y oa
oe?a?inueea ai?noieia?ao?y”. O eiioaeno? aeena?oaoe?eii? oaie aoei
aaaeeeai i?inoaaeeoe aaiacen a?o/eciyii? ai?noieia?ao?? o niaaeei?iieo
ca’yceao c ?a?iiaenueeith ai?noiey?iith o?aaeeoe??th, ine?eueee aoaie
noaiiaeaiiy ienueiaiieoeueeiai eenooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, eiai aaiethoe?y oa
ooieoe??, cie?aia a e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? OO no., aein? ia c’yniaai?.
“O caaaeuei?e oi?i? iiaeaii nia? oyaeoe, ui eiaeiee eeno aeieea? ?c
ni?aa?e aeaio iniaenoinoae, aaoi?a ? aae?anaoa, — eiinoaoo? TH.Oa?ao. –
O caaaeuei?e oi?i? cia?ii, ui noeeue eeno?a yeinue ioneoue aooe
ca’ycaiee c e?oa?aoo?ieie noeeyie aeiae. Aea ye eiie?aoii oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny, cian?i ia aea/aii”.

?noi?e/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo eenooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aecia/eee eiai iaia?a?aiee
ca’ycie c aenieith ai?noiey?iith eoeueoo?ith Noa?iaeaaiuei? A?aoe?? oa
?eio. *a?ac ia?aeeaaeio e?oa?aoo?o a?caio?enueeiai oa aieaa?nueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy aeaaiuei?onuee? eieaeieee iaee a?aeiiino? i?i aioe/io
i?oieia?th, o?einio?th oa ienueiainoai, oaeoii yeiai aoea e
ai?noieia?ao?y.

Aaee/aciee ianea i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? eeoeea o niaaeie iauaaeeai
a?caio?enueea aiioa. Aeniei oe?ioaaee oaeiae ienoaoeoai eenooaaiiy
aoiai?noe aeiae ?aianaino. Ioae?eaoe?? eeno?a aeaeaoieo ?a?iiaenueeeo
ayiai?no?a (A?acia ?iooa?aeainueeiai, I.Iaee?aaae? oa ?i.) noaaaee
cia/iith iiae??th a eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie.

Ia?oei a?aeiiei iai c? na?oiai? ai?noieia?ao?? eenoii o iaeaooi? noaa
eeno “Iauaaeeai” O.Iao?a?ee. I?ney iueiai o i?ci?o? /ane iiaoe aoaeooue
aeineoue /anoi caa?oaoenue aei iauaaee?a (“? ia?oaei, ? aeeaei, ?
iaia?iaeaeaiei caieyeai ii?i a Oe?aei? ? ia a Oe?aei? ii? ae?oaei??
iineai??” O.Oaa/aiea, “Eeno o OOO a?e” ?.?iaeaeanoaaineiai oiui). I?ioa
i? aei Iao?a?ee, i? i?ney iueiai, aae aei oe?a?inueeiai “?icno??eyiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy” a OO no., i?ooi e i?eiee ia caa?oaany aei
/eoa/a-iauaaeea a aeai?? i?eaaoiiai eenoa.

A?o/eciyia ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia oeueiai ia??iaeo (TH.Ae?iaiae/,
I.?onei ?c E?inia, N.I??oianueeee), yea oai?eeany eaoeinueeith iiaith,
oaae ia iicaaaeaia ?ioa?ano aeey no/aniiai aeine?aeieea. A i?e
ii?aeiaeeny ye aieeae «aoeeaoieo oi?ioe» a?caio?enueei? o?aaeeoe??, oae
? iia?oi? npaaiaiiy aei ?ice??ia/aiiy aeoiee, aei ooaeiaeiuei? ia?iaee,
ui noaaaei e?eoa???i aeiaa?oaiino? eenoa.

E?iaoeue OVI-ii/. OVIII no. o aeaai?e oe?a?inuee?e ai?noieia?ao??
iicia/aiee i?aeianaiiyi iieai?/iiai e aoii?enoe/ii-naoe?e/iiai aeai??a.
Aeineoue caaaeaoe oi/a a «Eenooaaiiy yaii?iaeoe?a c oo?aoeueeei
noeoaiii», ui c’yaeeinue ye ia?iae?y ia aeeieiiaoe/iee ai?noiey?iee
aoeeao XV-XVI no., cie?aia ia eenoe oo?aoeueeeo noeoai?a i e?einueeeo
xai?a. Iineaiiy noaei ia?oei oai?ii a?o/eciyiiai ienueiainoaa, yeee aoa
ii?eethaeiaiee ia Caoiae? 1683?. a ia?aeeaae? i?iaoeueeith iiaith.

Ai?noiey?i? niaee ina?/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? o iiaeaeueo?
aiioe aecia/aeenue ia?aaaaeii oiai/aniith ai?noiey?iith o?aaeeoe??th, ui
ia?aaoaaea i?ae cia/iei aieeaii io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai iiaeaiiy.

Aecia/iei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ai?noiey??th noaei eenooaaiiy
O.Oaa/aiea ??aeiith iiaith. sseui o ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo iiia?aaeiee?a
Eiaca?y (?.Eioey?aanueeee, ?.A?aa?iea, A.Ea?oea-Iniia’yiaiei) ia?aaaaeii
?i?ooaaeanue eii?/ia iaia?a ?iciia?ae?, a aeiai?? neiaanieo cania?a
aeii?ioaaee oaiaeaioe?? noaooia?cio, aoiia?ao?cio, ia an? eiiiiiaioe
aeeai? ia?iaeii? iiae aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aa?iii?eii ? iiaii, oi a
eenooaaii? Oaa/aiea ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy an? aniaeoe aaaaoia?aiieo
noni?eueieo aca?iei, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy ??aeiith iiaith a
eie? ina?/aieo ethaeae.

3 ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. aeeaa oe?a?inueea iiaa aeineoue aeoeaii
i?iieea? o i?eaaoi? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ina?/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy,
«iaieio/a ie?oa?aoo?ithth/enue» (E.Eaiaoeue, I.Ieeeinueeee). Oeae oaeo,
cie?aia, cana?ae/othoue iioae?eiaai? iei? eenoe caieye?a aei O.Oaa/aiea,
eenooaaiiy I.Eoe?oa, Ia?ea Aia/ea oa ?ioeo aaoi??a.

Ia?ace noai?eo ioi?iioe?a /enoioe oe?a?inueei? iiae iinoathoue ia?aae
iaie c eeno?a Ean? Oe?a?iee, ?.Ia/oy-Eaaeoeueeiai, I.Eioethaeinueeiai,
A.Noaoaieea oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaoi??a. I?ei??ii, Eany Oe?a?iea ia ?ac
iaaieiooaaea ia oiio, ui ia iiaeia, iineeath/enue ia iieiae?noue iaoi?
e?oa?aoo?e, i?aeoiaeeoe aei ?? ioe?iee c iiceoe?e iiaeaaeeeaino? ?
iaaeaaeuenoaa, c aieo e?oa?aoi??a. Iiaoana aaaaeaea iiaeii?noth
eiaeiiai, «ooi ieoa aipoi ia aeey caaaai/ee o?eueee, aeiae?aoe e?aui?
oi?ie» (c eenoa aei I.Iaeiaay a?ae 28 o?aaiy 1893?.).

A oiiaao caai?ii oe?a?inueeiai ae?oeo a Oe?a?i?, a?aenooiino? uiaeaiii?
? niaoe?aeueii? oe?a?inueei? i?ane ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue
ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?oiey??th iniaeeai c?inoa?. Ei?aniiiaeaioe??
e?oa?aoi??a e?ioey XIX-ii/. OO no. i?noyou aaaeeea? noaeaeaiiy i?i
iioi/iee e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean, eiie?aoi? oiai/ani? aeaeaiiy,
aeiiiaiththoue iao? oyaeaiiy i?i i?aeoeaico?ia e?oa?aoo?ia aeeooy.
I?eaaoi? ienueiaiieoeuee? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ia??ai? c aeo?iaeueieie
ioae?eaoe?yie aeiiiiiaaee eieaaai o e?oa?aoo??, aeoeaii aieeaaee ia
?icaeoie oai?/iai i?ioeano. ssne?aaei na?ae/aiiyi oeueiio iiaea aooe
oi/a a eeno ?.O?aiea aei A.E?ooaeuieoeueeiai a?ae 6 /a?aiy 1904?.
Ei?aniiiaeaioe?y iaienaia c i?eaiaeo i’?ne ae?aiaoo?aa «Aea na?oea
iia/eoue …». Aeae?eeaoe aeaa «eai?oaeuei?» iaaeie?ee, — a?aenooi?noue
iiae?? ? oa, ui i’?na ioaeia, I.O?aiei i?aenoiiao? : «/eoaa, iia eai?iiy
i?ae ai?o oyaaa». Oeae eaeii?/iee eeno-a?aeaoe, yeee O?aiei cae?i/ea
a?aeiiaith iaae?oeoaaoe oa?? A.E?ooaeueieoeueeiai o
«E?oa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaiio a?nieeo», aeaa oe?eeii aiioeaiaaiee ?acoeueoao. 8
/a?aiy 1906 ?., caaaeoth/e e?eoe/iee a?aeaoe O?aiea ia oeth ae?aio, ??
aaoi? eiinoaooaaa: «Naiai /ano Ae iaienaee iai?, uii?aaaea aeoaea
caaaeuii, aea oae aeo/ii ioe?ieo eiiaae?? ?c i?uainueeiai aeeooy, ui y,
oi/ i?iaoaaa ?ue c iath uanoy, i?ney aeayeeo iniiaieo ci?i, inoaoi/ii
caiaeeany nai c Aaoei iiaeyaeii ?, aeaeath/e inoaii?e ?? aeo (i?ci?oa
iaienaiee), «Cyo?», ?aooo cieuea». Oea iaeei ?c /eneaiieo aeieac?a
?acoeueoaoeaiino? ai?noiey?ieo eiioaeo?a o aeeaiio e?oa?aoo?iiio
i?ioean?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “Niaoeeo?ea ai?noiey?ii? oai?/ino?
oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a o oioae?oa?ieo oiiaao 20-50-o ??. OO no.”
neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a: “Ai?noiey?ia e?eoeea”,
“Ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea”, “A?aee?eo? eenoe ienueiaiiee?a” oa
“Ooaeiaei? eenoe”. Aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ice?eaa? ?ieue eiaeiiai c oeeo
aeai?iaeo ??ciiaeae?a ienueiaiieoeueeiai eenooaaiiy a e?oa?aoo?iiio
i?ioean? ca oiia eiai oeaico?ieo iaiaaeaiue, a?aenooiino? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
ia??iaeeee.

O i?ae?icae?e?, ui ia? iacao “Ai?noiey?ia e?eoeea”, aiae?co?oueny
i?eaaoia ei?aniiiaeaioe?y ienueiaiiee?a ye iniaeeaa oi?ia aeneiao
e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ieo ioe?iie ca iaaieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ianoaaei.

Inoaii?i /anii o a?o/eciyiiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? aeaaeae? /ano?oa
caoiaeeoue iiaa i?i oaiiiai ienueiaiieoeueei? e?eoeee, ?? niaoeeo?eo,
?ene ? aeai?e (Aeea.i?aoe?: A.A?thoiaaoeueeiai, I.Ino?eea, TH A.Neaieiiy
oa ?i.). Iaoeiaoe? oiiaii iiae?eythoue e?eoeei-aeine?aeieoeueeo
i?iaeoeoe?th a e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? eiie?aoiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo
ia “oaoiao ? ienueiaiieoeueeo (aeaa e?eea iaeiiai i?aai?cio)”. Iaeiae
aein? ua caeeoa?oueny aeeneon?eiei ieoaiiy i?i oa?i?iieia?/ia iaiiaiaiiy
naiiai iiiyooy “ienueiaiieoeueea e?eoeea”. O ?iaio? ia??oiiao?oueny
iiaeyae uiaei aeeth/aiiy a oea iiiyooy ia eeoa aenooi?a, aaciina?aaeiuei
i?enay/aieo iioi/iiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioeano, a e iaoa??ae?a iaioa?iiai
(iaeia?oa uiaeaiiee?a oa eenooaaiiy ieooe?a), ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai e
iaa?oue oai?aoe/iiai ieaio, ine?eueee ? a ieo ienueiaiieee noaaeyoue
ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy aeooaeueii-e?eoe/i?, ui noinothoueny no/aniiai
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano.

Noiniaii ai?noiey?ii? e?eoeee o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? i?i e?oa?aoo?o
onoaeeeany aeoiea, ui oea «aiae?c ? ioe?iea oai??a e?oa?aoo?e c iiaeyaeo
no/aniino?, oi?uai? a eenoao». ?icaeyaeath/e ei?aniiiaeaioe??
ienueiaiiee?a i?ae oeei eooii ci?o, aeine?aeieee aeeoa?aioe?ththoue
eenoe ye aeai? e?oa?aoo?ii? e?eoeee ? i?eaaoi? eenoe c oi?uaiith a ieo
e?oa?aoo?iith e?eoeeith. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeiinyoue, cie?aia,
«Ienoeueeo» I.Aoeaea-A?oaiianueeiai aei ?aaeaeoi?a «Oe?aeineiai
aanoieea», «Noie?eo aei iaia ?caeaoaey» oa eeno aei ?aaeaeoi?a «?onneiai
aanoieea» A.Ea?oee-Iniia’yiaiea, «A?aee?eoee eeno aei Ao. i.
A.Aeaaaoeueeiai» ?.Aaa?yiiai oa ?i. Ae?oao a?oio ?ai?acaioothoue
ienueiaiieoeuee? eenoe, a eio?eo cao?eniaaia oai?/a ?noi??y a?aeiieo ?
iaeiiii?oieo oai??a e?oa?aoo?e; i?noyoueny ioe?iee oai??a ooaeiaeiuei?
neiaaniino?, a?aeaeo? noinoiee ienueiaiiee?a i?ae niaith, c
?aaeaeoi?aie, aeaeaaoeyie oa ?i.

O oai?/?e i?aeoeoe? I.Ai?iiiai, I.Ieany, A.Aeiie/aiea, I.Ca?iaa,
I.Eoe?oa, I.Oaeeueiaiai, I.Oe/eie, I.?eeuenueiai, O.Inueia/ee,
?.Iaeaithea, I.Aaa?yiiai oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo ienueiaiiee?a, ui aaee
aeaaaa eenooaaiiy o 20-50-o ??. ye a Oe?a?i?, oae ? iica ?? iaaeaie
na?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??, iayai? c?acee
ai?noiey?ii? e?eoeee iaio iacaaieo a?oi. I?e/iio i?eaaoieo
ienueiaiieoeueeeo ei?aniiiaeaioe?e c oi?uaieie a ieo e?eoe/ieie
noaeaeaiiyie uiaei iioi/iiai e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano a aeanyoee ?ac?a
a?eueoa, i?ae e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ieo nooae?e, iaienaieo o oi?i? eeno?a.

Aaaeeea?noue ai?noiey??th iaaieiii c?inoa?, eiee a?aooaaoe, ui
eenooaaiiy o oioae?oa?iee ia??iae yeithnue
i??ith iaaeieoaeoaaei eiio?ieueiaaio “eiiiaoaioieie i?aaiaie” naiaiaeo
(iani?aaae? ianaiaiaeo) neiaa. I oi/a c iaeyaeo ia ia?ethno?aoe?th
ei?aniiiaeaioe?? caiaeeeeny aei ae?eiaiai i?i?ioio, oa ua e /anoi-aonoi
iaaeiaiai?thaaiiai, ienueiaiieoeueea eenooaaiiy iaa?oue o oe?e neooaoe??
iaaoei ia?oi?yaeiiai cia/aiiy, ni?eyei i?e?iaeiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith
eeoa?aoo?ii? e?eoeee.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio i?ae?icae?e? ?iaioe ia iniia? iiaiciaeaeaieo aeena?oaioii
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a (eeno I.Ai?iiiai aei I.Ooaeiaa a?ae ii/aoeo 30-o
?ie?a OO no., eenoe I.?eeuenueeiai aei I.Ooaeiaa oa ?ioeo aae?anao?a) ?
ii?eethaeiaiiai eenooaaiiy A.Aeiie/aiea, I.Oaeeueiaiai, I.Oe/eie,
TH.ssiianueeiai, ?.Aaa?yiiai oa aeayeeo ?ioeo ienueiaiiee?a
aiae?co?oueny ai?noiey?ia e?eoeea oai??a ?oi?o no/aniee?a,
c’yniaothoueny ?? aeaee, oi?ie aeyao ? ooieoe??. Cie?aia, aeena?oaio
aeae?ey? oae? a?oie ienueiaiieoeueeeo ei?aniiiaeaioe?e: eenoe, a yeeo
aae?anaioe aaciina?aaeiuei aeneiaeththoue nai? ?icoi?iiy oai?o /e
noaaeaiiy aei eiai aaoi?a; eenoe-aaoieiiaioa??; ei?aniiiaeaioe??, o yeeo
cina?aaeaeaia e?eoeea ia?aeeaae?a oa ?ic?iaea iaaaeueieo i?iaeai oai???
? i?aeoeee ooaeiaeiueiai ia?aeeaaeo; ai?noiey?i? oai?e c oi?uaiith a ieo
ianoaaieoeueeith e?eoeeith.

O i?aenoieao aei ia?oiai i?ae?icae?eo, cie?aia, cacia/a?oueny:
eiioeaio?oth/e e?eoe/i? caoaaaeaiiy ? eiie?aoi? ii?aaee, ui ia??oioiaai?
?noi?e/ieie iieiaeaiiyie oa ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iei eiioaenoii,
ienueiaiieoeueea eenooaaiiy o ia??iae 20-50-o ?ie?a OOno. oiai/ith?
aeeaieo oo?aioo e?aueo iaeno??a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e i?i ye?noue
ooaeiaeiuei? i?iaeoeoe??, c?inoaiiy oaeaiiaeoiai iiiiaiaiiy. Oea –
c?acie aeiiaeeai?, i?eioeeiiai? ? ienoaoeueee aa?o?nii?
e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ii? oai?/ino?.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e ?iaioe – “Ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea”. Icia/eaoe
ioae?oeenoeeo ye nai???aeio e?oa?aoo?io ae?yeuei?noue, aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?? oei naiei aeie?aieth? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ai?noiey?io
ioae?oeenoeeo ye i?iaeoeo iaeiiai c ??ciiaeae?a oe??? ae?yeueiino?, ui
cao?eniaaia a ai?noiey?i?e oi?i?.

O iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo, i?enay/aieo aena?oeaiith aaaeeeaeo noi??i ?
a?aiae ae?yeueiino? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane, oaeaaa/aiiy oa ?aae?iiiaeaiiy a
iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?, ianoaiaea?oia ieneaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
ia?aaeoiiaa e aiaeii/an ye neeaaeiaa aeo?iae?nonueei? iaenoa?iino?,
aeania, e ienueiaiieoeueei? iaenoa?iino? oaeiae.

O ca’yceo c oeei aeena?oaio caa?oa?oueny aei ia?aaeienaeueiiai ieneaiiy
a oe?a?inuee?e ai?noiey?i?e ioae?oeenoeoe? ia??iaeo 20-50-o ?ie?a OO
no., ine?eueee ye?ac ia?aaeienaeueia ieneaiiy /anoi aenooiaei aioeiiaeii
aei oeo eaiii?a, ye? iaioaaee o a?o/eciyi?e ioae?oeenoeoe? ai?iaeiaae
ieioeeo aeanyoee?oue.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aena?oeth? ieceo i?eeeaae?a
ia?aaeienaeueiiai ieneaiiy a i?eaaoieo ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo A.Aeiie/aiea,
I.Oaeeueiaiai, TH.ssiianueeiai, I.Aeiaaeaiea oa ?.Aaa?yiiai,
ai?noiey?iee aeina?ae yeeo ni?aaea cia/iee aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoie aeai?o ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee, i?eneoaeeany aeiiaai /ano,
aeoiaaiith iaoe?iiaeueieo ii/ooo?a, i?iyniaiith ?noi?e/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo
neooaoe?e.

Cia/ia oaaaa, cie?aia, i?eae?eaia ?ice?eooth ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee
I.Oaeeueiaiai, ine?eueee naia a?i noaa ia na?aaeeio 20-o ?ie?a aecia/iei
e?aea?ii oe?eiai e?oa?aoo?iiai iieie?iiy, aeania, caii/aoeoaaa ciaiaieoo
e?oa?aoo?io aeeneon?th 1925-28 ??. ? “aoa iaci?iiei aeaoiiaoi?ii aino?i?
e?eoe/ii? iieai?ee i?i oeyoe ?icaeoeo iiaeiaoiaai? oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e”. ?ioa?an aei i?eaaoiiai eenooaaiiy I.Oaeeueiaiai ni?e/eiaiee
ua e oei, ui a oeeo “aeieoiaioao aeiae” yne?aai ?aeaioeo?eo?oueny ia
eeoa ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea, a oaeiae ? ?? ?icaaeoaeaiiy, aeai?ia?
??ciiaeaee. ?icaeoie aeai?o a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeaio iai?yieao: ia?oiio, c
oaea onoaeaiith e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ith iacaith “ai?noiey?ieo oeeee?a”
(“Eenoe aei e?oa?aoo?ii? iieiae?”, ia’?aeiai? o oeeee “Eaii a?yaeaoe”,
oeeee iaioeao?a “Aeoiee i?ioe oa/??”, ”Aiieiaaoe iena?ecio” oa ?i.), ?
ae?oaiio, ae?aaeaiiio o oi?i? a?aee?eoeo eeno?a (“Iaeaa?oee eeno aei
Aieiaeeie?a Ei?yea” oiui). Ai?noiey?i? oeeeee e a?aee?eo? eenoe o nai?o
ciai?oi?o i?iyaao ?ic??ciythoueny nooiaiai ocaaaeueiaiiy aae?anaoa. Aiie
noiyoue i?ae ia ??cieo iiethnao oeaee iaeeie/iiai /e caaaeueiiai : o
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui oiiaii canoinoaaoe oe? aano?aeoi? oa?i?ie,
ia?aaaaea? caaaeueia, o ae?oaiio — iaeeie/ia aeii?io? iaae caaaeueiei.

Aiae?c ie?aieo c?ace?a ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee I.Oaeeueiaiai
ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui ?nio? o?niee aca?iica’ycie i?ae oeiii iniaenoino? ?
aeai?iaeie oiiaeiaaiiyie ioae?oeenoa. Noeeue Oaeeueiaiai-iaioeaoenoa —
nai???aeiee, iaiiaoi?iee. Aaoi? «Eeno?a aei e?oa?aoo?ii? iieiae?» oa
a?aee?eoeo iineaiue ? ooo caeeoa?ouny naiiaooi?i ooaeiaeieeii. Eiai
ioae?oeenoe/ia i?ica aeiaiaeeoue, ui aeei?enoaiiy iaei??? c
iae?ioeii?oeo oi?i ethaenueiai ni?eeoaaiiy, oi?i ei?aniiiaeaioe??
iaei??? ethaeeie aei ae?oai? /e iaa?oue aei ianiaiai /eoa/a, iiaea
neoaoaaoe aeyaeaiith oai ? i?iaeai oe?ieiai nioe?aeueiiai cia/aiiy.
Naiiaooi?noue ooaeiaei?o cania?a, ui aeanoeaa I.Oaeeuiaiio ye
ooaeiaeieeo neiaa, caaaa/o? ? eiai ai?noiey?io ioae?oeenoeeo. Aeey ia?
oa?aeoa?ia ?iiaioe/i?noue noeeth c aeeaiieni?noth ia?aco e nieiaeo?noth
neiaa, yne?aa?noth aeaoaeae ? ?icia?o?noth iaoaoi?. Caa?oa? ia naaa
oaaao oaeiae ? a?aee?eoa i?aee?aneaiiy aaoi?nueei? i?enooiino?. A iiiaae
on?i oeei ia?aaaaea? i?eno?anoue aei ia?aaeienaeueiiai ieneaiiy, ui
i?iyaey?oueny ? a iaeaa?o?e eiinoaoaoe?? aeaiiai oaeoo (»Eiee aiai?eoe
ia?aaeienaeueii, oi oienoianueeee iioei?ci ana-oaee aeoiaeea c
ianei?cio, «aeeaeeiai?iaeiai aiaieneaoaey»). I a aoi?enoe/iino?
aeneiaeaieo aanae («?a?iia /e I?ina?oa?»; «O?aaa aeoe a naio nooue»;
«Oe?a?ia /e Iaei?in?y?» oa ?i.)., ? a ienthii?iiieo ae?acao
(«Ac?aonueeee ?aianain — oea aiioa ?a?iiaenueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy …»;
«Aeey an?o ynii, ui ie aeanue iiieey?iinue, a naia aea — /i?o eiai cia?»
oiui).

Iiaeaeiee eiai ia?aaeiene oi?ioeththoueny o aeaeyae? aoi?ecio,
aeecueeiai aei ia?iaeiiai i?ene?a’y («Ai?noeio ia?aoeo?ea naaa»/,
eaeaiao?o /»Aei /i?oa i?aeaie e i?aea?e! Oae aoaea «ei??ionueea»
eieiia!»), ?iiae? aaeeaathoueny ye neeaaeiee iiae e?oa?aoo?ieo
ia?niiaae?a («Aeeneon?th aaaeooue ethaee, a «ethaeeia ? ethaeeia», ye
aiai?eoue ia?niiaae ?c «Naiaoi??eii? ciie» …(aai ?aaeueieo in?a )»Oia.
Ieeeiaiei ieoa: «Oae ii-oi?ioiio, ii-iaiaoeinueeiio: o/enue, aeeoeiei,
ieaaaoe, iiaea, e ia iioiiao»), ie?anethth/e ?oi? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
iniaeeaino?. E??i oiai, eenooaaiiy ienueiaiieea iicia/aia aeeneo/ith
a?oaeeoe??th, ae?aieaiiyi o oaenoe eiai iaioeao?a aoi?eci?a eaoeiith,
o?aioeocueeith, i?iaoeueeith iiaaie. An? oe? oa aaaaoi ?ioeo ?en
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeth I.Oaeeueiaiai-iaioeaoenoa cana?ae/othoue, ui
ai?noiey??e aeey ienueiaiieea aoa oai?/ith eaai?aoi???th, a ye?e
ii?iaiaoaaeenue iia? cia?aaeoaaeueii-ae?aaeaeuei? caniae.

Aiae?c ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee ?ioeo aaoi??a, ui aeeee e i?aoethaaee
a oiiaao oai?/i? ianaiaiaee ia??iaeo oioae?oa?ecio a iao?e e?a?i?,
iieaco?, iane?eueee aaaiiee ooaeiaei?e aei?iaie o oi?i? i?eaaoieo
ei?aniiiaeaioe?e caeeoeee iauaaeeai o niaaeie e?au? iaeno?e
oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. ?oi? a?aee?eo?
(iaeaa?o?) eenoe e eenoe aac aae?ane, ai?noiey?i? oeeeee e ie?ai?
iineaiiy-iaioeaoe, caa?iaiiy, caeeeee ? o.i. aoee aeeaiei cayei?aieie a
iie?oe/i?e i?iaeaiaoeoe? OO no. ? iaeia?oa a iaoe?iiaeuei?e —
oe?a?inuee?e. Naia c ia? aiie /a?iaee nai? iaooiaiiy, ? oaiaoeeo, ?
ia?ace. An?i nai?i aeooii, on?i ni?yioaaiiyi, on?ia ?aeayie, ii/oooyie,
oa?aeoa?aie aiie iaeeaeyee e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean 20-50-o ?ie?a XX no. ye
ia ai?a?aoe??, oae ? a Oe?a?i?, ? aeaee /eiaeo ieceo ienoaoeueeeo
oaeo?a, ye? ia ciiaea ia?eoe iica oaaaith aeiaeai ia’?eoeaiee ?noi?ee
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e iia?oiuei? aeiae.

Aoaeo/e aeai?ii aeeaiei i?eno?aniei, aiioe?eiei ? noa’?eoeaiei,
ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea cina?aaeaeo? a nai?o oaenoao ia?aaeian?i
ioe?ieo ?ioi?iaoe??, iiyniaiiy ? niiioeaiiy ia a?aei?io a?ae nooi
?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeai??a, eio?? iiaoaeiaai? caeaa?eueoiai ia eiinoaoaoe??
oaeo?a.

sse ? ?io? aeai?e ioae?oeenoeee, ai?noiey?ia oaeiae ia?aaeeaa? nai?
ia??iaee i?aeianaiiy ? niaaeo, ia /a?aoaaiiy yeeo aieeaathoue, c iaeiiai
aieo, caieoe nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ii? ae?eniino?, a c ae?oaiai,- aioo??oiy
aaiethoe?y aeai?o. I?ioa caeeoa?oueny i/aaeaeiei oie oaeo, ui ? a
20-50-o ?ieao XX no., o /an oaeaa?ai, oaeaoiiieo ?iciia ? iia?aoeaieo
ai?iieo iia?aeiieaiue, aea eaeii?/i?noue aoea cae/aei?noth e
iaiao?aei?noth, ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea ei?enooaaeanue cia/iith
iiioey?i?noth ? oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeany a iioi/i?e i?aeoeoe? ia eeoa
aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?ane, a e aeo?iae?noeee oioae?oa?ii?.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?ouny iaeei ?c
iaeiioe?ai?oeo ??ciiaeae?a ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee — a?aee?eoee eeno
ienueiaiieea. A?i ia? naith ?noi??th ? aeeaie? o?aaeeoe?? ye a
oe?a?inuee?e, oae ? a ?a?iiaenuee?e ioae?oeenoeoe? oa ai?noieia?ao??.

E?au? c?acee oeueiai aeai?o iei? aeia?a a?aeii? oaioaaeueieeaie
ienoaoeoaa neiaa. Aeineoue caaaeaoe oae? o?anoiiao?ei? oai?e, ye
a?aee?eo? eenoe I.Iaeneiiae/a aei A.Ea?oee-Iniia’yiaiea, a?aee?eoee eeno
“O?aioeocueeei ienueiaiieeai O?O noie?ooy” Aaeuecaea, “Caceaiee eeno aei
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??” I.Eoe?oa, “Eenoe c Oe?a?ie
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?” A.A??i/aiea ? “Eenoe ia Oe?a?io Iaaeaei?i?yinueeo”
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, «Ia iiaeo iia/aoe !» E.Oienoiai.

Aiaeii/an, oi/a oea e ia?aaeienaeueii,- icia/aiee ??ciiaeae eenoa
iaeaaeeoue aei iaeiaio ?ic?iaeaieo o e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa?, o oai???
ioae?oeenoeee oa a ai?noieia?ao??. I?e/iio aino?ee aeao?oeeo iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue a?ae/oaa?oueny ia eeoa a ae?eyioe? oai??? aeai?o, a e o oea?ei?
?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?i?e, ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i iaiaeue, a oi e acaaae? iiaio
a?aenooi?noue aeine?aeaeaiue i?i ai?noiey?io ioae?oeenoeeo XX no., ?
cie?aia no/aniee ?? noai.

Eiee ae ? ca yeeo oiia o ienueiaiieea c’yaey?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
caa?iooeny aei aeai?o a?aee?eoiai eenoa? I?e/ei ooo iiaea aooe aaaaoi
(aace?/), ? a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai aeiaaeeo aiie an?
??ci?. I?ioa, yeui aiai?eoe i?i i?e/eie ?noioi?, oi i?iaaaeaiee
aeena?oaioii aiae?c iieacaa, ui ?o a iniiaiiio o?e.

1.Iaeia?oa. O aeeaiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? ia??aeei o?aieythoueny
neooaoe??, eiee ienueiaiiee i?ae a?aaeaiiyi iniaenoeo eiioaeo?a c
iie?oeeaie, aeaeaaoeyie, ?aaeaeoi?aie /aniien?a, c?aooith, aiane?aeie
cono??/ae c oe?ieeie eieaie /eoa/?a, a?ae/oaa? aino?o iio?aao ia?aianoe
?iciiao ia noi??iee a?iiaaenueeiai ae?oeiaaiiai i?aaio. Aea ca oiiae,
yeui ieoaiiy, ii?ooai? a ioae?/iiio caa?iaii? ieooey aei eiie?aoiiai
aae?anaoa, iaoeiooue ia i?eaaoiee oa?aeoa?, a aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
a?iiaaenueeino?. Aei oiai ae iiae?ai? aenooie a i?an? c’yaeythoueny, ye
i?aaeei, o?eueee i?ney iiia?aaei?o eiioaeo?a c aae?anaoii, ui ia aeaee
aaaeath/iai iane?aeeo.

I?eeeaaeaie oaeeo a?aee?eoeo eeno?a iiaeooue aooe iineaiiy A.Aeiie/aiea
aei I.Ai?ueeiai (“Iaeaa?oee eeno A.Aeiie/aiea aei I.Ai?ueeiai”, «Aoea, ?
e aoaea»), «A?aee?eoee eeno Ieo.A?ooaanueeiai, caei?aeiiiiai aeaeaaaoa
OIN? Aieia? ?aaee Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a oe?a?inueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee O.A.?aeianueeiio» a?ae 15 eenoiiaaea 1921?. oa
?io? oai?e, ui aeineoue ?iceiai eiiaioothoueny aeena?oaioii.

2.I?aaiaiiy iaienaoe a?aee?eoiai eenoa iiaea c’yaeoenue o a?aeiia?aeue
ia a?aee?eoee eeno. ? oea, c?aooith, c?icoi?ei, aaeaea iaee?auei /eiii
ia a?aoiaioiaaia iineaiiy iiaeia a?aeiia?noe o?eueee oaeei aea
aeieeaaeiei iineaiiyi, oiaoi aaeaeaaoii. Oae aoei, iai?eeeaae, c
I.Oaeeuiaei, aaoi?ii «Iaeaa?oiai eenoa aei Aieiaeeie?a Ei?yea.» Aeania,
eeno c oeueiai e ii/eia?oueny: «Oaiiaiee oiaa?euo, — aeii??o iiaa?ioany
c oe?eaai? iiaei-?iae? e iini?oath, oi/ ? c aaeeeei cai?ciaiiyi,
a?aeiia?noe Aai. Naiai eenoa y oio?a ae ii/aoe oaeeie ae ni?eeaeie
?ii?an?ii?noe/ieie iaceaie, yeeie Ae naiai ii/aee …».

sse a?aeiia?aeue ia noaooth i?ieaoa?nueeiai e?eoeea A.Io?aa?/a «A?eia
iaoe?iiae?ciia?. Oia?i?noe/ia i?iiia?aeue o aeo?iae? «AEeooy e
?aaiethoe?y». «Inaaeieee ia noiae? Oe?a?ie», aai, ui ienueiaiiee
Aioiiaiei-Aeaaeaeiae/ aa/ea ia Aeiiaan?» («Eiiniiieaoeue Oe?a?ie» a?ae
15 na?iiy 1929 ?.) c’yaeany ? a?aee?eoee eeno A. Aioiiaiea-Aeaaeaeiae/a
i?ae iacaith «Eeno aei ?aaeaeoe??. A?aeiia?aeue ia noaooth «A?eia
iaoe?iiae?ciia?» («Eiiniiieaoeue Oe?a?ie» a?ae 10 aa?aniy 1929 ?.).

3.Ia?aoo?, i?e aea/aii? ?aaeueieo oaeo?a aeeooy o ienueiaiieea iiaea
aeieeiooe ia?aeiiaiiy a oiio, ui a iaai?e neooaoe?? iaiao?aeii eeoa
ioae?/ii caa?iooenue aei eiie?aoiiai aae?anaoa (/e iaa?oue eieaeoeao) e
cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia aena?oeaii? iiceoe?? aai ae?yiue oe??? iniae
(a?oie, eieaeoeao), ia iane?aeeao o/eie?a, ui aaea iaee i?noea /e
noaiooue iiaeeeaeie, ia iio?aa? oeo /e ?ioeo aeoe?e ? o.i. ?aeaioe/ia
neooaoe?y aeieea?, ye i?aaeei, ca oiiae, eiee iiia?aaei? eiioaeoe c
aae?anaoii ia aeaee aaaeaieo iane?aee?a, eiee aaoi? a?aee?eoiai eenoa
cia?, ui aeiaei? a?aoiaioe oa ia?aeiiaiiy ia aae?anaoa ia iiae?thoue. O
oaeeo aeiaaeeao ienueiaiieeia? aeiaiaeeoueny ?ic?aoiaoaaoe caeaa?eueoiai
o?eueee ia i?aeo?eieo a?iiaaenueeino?.

I?eeeaaeii iiae?aiiai oai?o iiaea aooe «A?aee?eoee eeno aei aee?aeoe??
«Aieino Aia?eee» c i?eaiaeo aaaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeith iiaith», iaienaiee
?aaiii Aaa?yiei ? iioae?eiaaiee ienueiaiieeii o aacao? «Oe?a?inuee?
a?no?» (Iiaee Oeuei, I?ia//eia) 30 aa?aciy 1950 ?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee?eoiai eenooaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a
iaaiaeeoue ia aeoieo i?i oi?eaeuei?noue oeueiai ioae?oeenoe/iiai
yaeua,i?i iiaaoi?nueeee oa?aeoa? aeai?o, iiooeiaee nain yeiai a e?ecia?e
iie?oe/i?e oa e?oa?aoo?i?e neooaoe?? 20-50-o ?ie?a OOno. caaaeaee aoa ia
a?no?? /ano, a ?iiae? e aeia?aaeaeaa eiai. I naia caaaeyee nai?e
iaoe?iiaeui?e, ni?aaae? oe?a?inuee?e ni?yiiaaiino?. A oiiaao
oioae?oa?ecio ai?noiey?i? oai?e I.A?ooaanueeiai, A.Aeiie/aiea,
I.Oaeeueiaiai, I.?eeuenueeiai, A.Aioiiaiea-Aeaaeaeiae/a oa aaaaoueio
?ioeo ieooe?a, ii?eethaeiai? ye o a?o/eciyieo /aniienao, oae ? a
caei?aeiiieo aeaeaiiyo, ni?eyee iiaeieaiith oia?i?noe/ieo ?iia?nueeeo
ei?aeii?a ia oa?ai? aea?eueiaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae iineianueei? oa
aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? /oaeicaiii? caeaaeiino?, caeeeeaee aei inieneaiiy
aeanii? aeie?, a/eee «/ooe naaa oe?a?ioeyie».

A?aee?eo? eenoe ienueiaiiee?a, ui /anoi iii?e oeaico?i? caai?iie
oi?oaaee oeyo aei /eoa/a (iai?eeeaae, «Iaeaa?oee eeno A.Aeiie/aiea aei
Ai?ueeiai» /e a?aee?eo? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ?.Aaa?yiiai, nai oaeo
ia?ciaiiino? c yeeie i?a i?ecaanoe aei aaaeeeo iane?aee?a), ye?ac ?
i?aeo?eioaaee i?iyae iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ni?iae aoaeoaaoe
oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o ia ??oio? na?oiaiai ienoaoeueeiai aeina?aeo, ia?o?
ia?inoee iie?oe/iiai ieth?ae?cio oa aeaiie?ao??, aeneiaethth/enue
no/aniith iiaith.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ii?ooo?oueny ieoaiiy i?i ooaeiaei? eenoe
ienueiaiiee?a, ui noaee oi?iith aeyao ia o?eueee eiioi?eaoeaii?, a e
anoaoe/ii? iio?aae aae?anaio?a.

O nai?e noeoiiino? ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e 20-50-o ?ie?a OO no.
noaiiaeoue niaith ??ciiiai?oi? aeai?ia? oi?ie eenoa c? nai?th
noee?noeeith, yea ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaoi?a oa eiai
aae?anao?a. A i?ae aeaiia e?aei?ie iiethnaie ai?noiey?ieo ??ciiaeae?a
(eenoii ooaeiaei?i ? eenoii iiaooiaei) – aaaaoi ia?ao?aeieo uaae?a, ?
eiaeai c ieo oe?eaaee ii-nai?io.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny, cie?aia, a??oiaai? ei?aniiiaeaioe??.
I?e/iio oeae aeai?iaee ??ciiaeae oa?aeoa?iee ye aeey aaoi??a, ui
naii?aae?coaaeenue o iiaoe/i?e aaeoc? ienueiainoaa (I.Ieanue, I.Oe/eia,
I.?eeuenueeee, I.Ae?ae-Oia?a, ?.Iaeaithe, I.Ieueaee/ oa ?i.), oae ? aeey
i?ica?e?a(TH.ssiianueeee, Inoai Aeoiy, I.Noaeueiao, I.Aii/a? oa ?i.) ?
ae?aiaoo?a?a (I.Eoe?o, ?.Aei?i?ianueeee, I.Ei?i?e/oe oa ?i.).

Ia i?aoaiaeoth/e ia aenieo ienoaoeueeo aa?o?noue, iiaoe/i? ai?noiee
caaaeaieo aaoi??a ?acii c ?oi?ie i?iciaeie eenoaie /?oei aeieoiaioothoue
/an ? aeiao, a oaeiae aeathoue aaaiiee iaoa??ae aeey aeyaeaiiy
aaiethoe?? iiaeyae?a eiie?aoieo e?oa?aoi??a. Ciaeiinoai c a??oiaeie
ai?noieaie I.Ae?ae-Oia?e (“Eeno aei Ienaie”), I.Eoe?oa (“Eeno aei
I.Ei?i??ai?”, iaienaiee 20 eenoiiaaea 1924?.), ?.Iaeaithea (“Iaoaei/oe?
E?aeoeuee?e”), E.Iinaiaeca (“Eeno”) oa ?ioeo aaoi??a noai?th? ?ethc?th
aaciina?aaeiuei? eiioi?eaoe??, aea? ciiao oyaeoe aeeaee ia?ac
ienueiaiieea o ?aaeueiiio ioi/aii?.

Ie?aio a?oio ienueiaiieoeueeeo eeno?a noaiiaeyoue caiaeueiaee (ye
a??oiaai?, oae ? i?icia?), ui ciaeoee naith iiaeaeueoo ?aae?caoe?th a
e?oa?aoo?ieo oai?ao. Iiae?aieo ei?aniiiaeaioe?e /eiaei a oai?ao aei?iaeo
I.Aeiaaeaiea (Eeno aei iaoa?? oa nano?e a?ae 9 eenoiiaaea 1946?.; eenoe
aei A.Oea/aiei, iaienai? ia ii/aoeo 50-o ??.). O caaaeaieo
ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo ieooey i?inooiathoue ane?ce iaeaooiuei? “Ca/a?iaaii?
Aeanie”. “Ooaeiaei? ai?aae” a ai?noiey?ieo oai?ao Aeiaaeaiea na?ae/aoue
i?i oa, ui eenoe aoee aeey iueiai nai???aeiith oai?/ith eaai?aoi???th,
aea i?iaiaeeeeny e?oa?aoo?i? aeine?aee, oe?ooaaany noeeue,
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaeenue cia?aaeoaaeueii-ae?aaeaeuei? caniae.

Neacaia iaaiith i??ith noino?oueny ? eenooaaiiy I.Ieueaee/a. A
ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo iiaoa (Eenoe aei I.Ieany a?ae aa?aciy 1921?., a?ae 17
eeiiy 1931?. oa ?i.) iiaeia cono??oe ye caiaeueiaee (a??oiaai? e
i?icia?) ea?oei ? ia?ac?a, ui ciaeoee naith iiaeaeueoo ?aae?caoe?th a
ooaeiaei?o oai?ao, ia/a?ee iiac?e, iiia?aeaiue, noeai, oae ? e??e/i?
ia?acee, aothaee ? o.i., ui iacaaaeaee caeeoeeenue “iaia?iaeaeaieie
ae?oueie”.

Ii/anoe ei?aniiiaeaioe?? I.Ieueaee/a aaeaeaaoi? e??e/iei uiaeaiieeiaei
caienai. O oaeeo eenoao “c i?iaeiaaeaiiyi” iiao a?yaee-aiaee cacia/a? ia
eeoa aeaoo, a e aeaiue oeaeiy ? iaa?oue /an aai ii?o aeiae. Oea oaeiae
oa?aeoa?ii ? aeey eenooaaiiy I.Oae?ae, ?.Iaeaithea oa ?ioeo aaoi??a.

I?ae?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “Ooaeiaei? eenoe” caaa?oo?oueny aiae?cii
o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey oe?a?inueei? ai?noieia?ao?? oi?i aoii?o e naoe?e,
ni?oiai? eoeueoo?e a ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo I.Eoe?oa, I.Ieueaee/a oa aeayeeo
?ioeo aae?anaio?a. Aeaiaio eii?/iiai o oai?ao caaaeaieo ienueiaiiee?a –
oea, ia?aaeon?i, oi?ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy eiaeiiai c ieooe?a ye oai?/i?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a oiiaao oioae?oa?ii? oi?o?eaoe??, ?, ?acii c oei,–
iniiaiee can?a aoe/ii? e anoaoe/ii? ioe?iee noia?a/eeai? aeiae. Ca
na?ae/aiiyi, neaae?ii, I.Eoe?oa, ni?o aeey iueiai – “Oea aeiu aeey
canioei? caie?”.

Ni?oiaa eoeueoo?a a eenoao I.Eoe?oa, I.?eeuenueeiai, ?.Aaa?yiiai oa
aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaoi??a aaaaoianiaeoia ca ci?noii ? oi?iith ?
caeaa?eueoiai aeaoa?i?iiaaia ia eeoa ineoio?ce/iith niaoeeo?eith
iniaenoino? aaoi?a (Inoai Aeoiy), a e iniaeeainoyie nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
nenoaie eiai aiioe.

O caeeth/iiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “A?aeia?aaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano a ai?noiey?i?e niaaeuei? ienueiaiiee?a” iaea?eueoa
aeine?aeieoeueei? oaaae i?eae?eaii i?iaeai? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy iniaeeainoae e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy 20-50-o ??. OO no. o
i?eaaoieo ei?aniiiaeaioe?yo ieooe?a.

Aia?aaeaioi?noue aeoiie ? ii/oaaiue, aie?niee oeyo a?ae ?aaiethoe?eii?
aeoi??? aei i?aaaee aoooy, ?icoi?iiy aeeooy ye “i?ioeano, ?ooo, a?/ii
iiaiai noaiiaeaiiy”, noii?ae, a oi e a?ae/ae uiaei e?oa?aoo?e, yea
“oaia? neoaith, a ia oicyeeith aeeaa”,- ana oea c a?aie/iith ue??noth
cao?eniaaia ia?aaeon?i o ienueiaiieoeueeiio ai?noiey??? 20-30-o ?ie?a,
ia??iaeo iao?eaeiai oe?a?inueeiai ?aianaino oa eiai ?ica?iio. I?eaaoia
eenooaaiiy ieooe?a oeueiai /ano, aonoi “ianaeaia” ??cieie iniaenoinoyie,
ui oaeiae no?aaeaeathoue o ca’yceo c aeeaieeie
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie i?e/eiaie, iaiia aaaaointhaeaoiee
??ciiieaiiaee ai?noiey?iee ?iiai. Oe?iea iieioii c e??e/ieie a?aenooiaie
(ii/anoe ? c a?aenooiaie “a?ae aaoi?a”), c? cieuaieie aaoi?aie e
caaoaeaieie ?icae?eaie: aaeaea eenoe oe??? ii?e ae?eoee aei ian aeaeaei
ia a iiaiiio ianyc? e, a??iaiaeii, ao?a/ai? iacaaaeaee.

C? anoaiiaeaiiyi a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i? oeyoe aaaaoueio
a?o/eciyieo ienueiaiiee?a i?ieyaee ca ei?aeii. A.Aeiie/aiei, iai?eeeaae,
aeeaa o Ioaeai? (O?aioe?y), I.Ieanue inaey?oueny o I?ac?, n?i’y
I.A?ooaanueeiai – o A?aei?, a caiaeii — o i?noa/eo Aaaeai?, iiaeeco
A?aeiy. ??ceee ia?aeii iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e a??eee oe?a /oaeeie
ii-??ciiio aieeioee ia iie?oai?a?aio?a c Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae ai?noiey?i?
aeaea?aea iani?inoiaii na?ae/aoue, ui oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y i?eiee
oai?/i ia ii?eaaea c Oe?a?iith. Ia?aaoaath/e a Aa?e?i? /e Aa?oaa?, a
aeaeaeiio Iueth-Ei?eo aai Iaeueao?i?, e?au? i?aaenoaaieee ae?anii?e
caaaeaee aoee niiaiai? iaa?oue o iai?inoeo oiiaao /oaeeie aeae? neoaeeoe
oe?a?inuee?e eoeueoo??. Aiie aaie?aaee ca ?icaeoie ?? e?oa?aoo?e,
i?aeo?eioaaee oaeaiiaeoeo ? /anieo ieooe?a. Iiae?ai? oaeoe aaaeeea? aeey
oe?e?niiai ni?eeiyooy oe?a?inueeiai ienueiaiieoeoaa ye yaeua
iaia?a?aiiai a nai?io anoaoe/iiio ?icaeoeo (eiai ooo/ii ia?a?eaaee !),
ai oea eoeueoo?e ?aeeiiai ia?iaeo.

Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c, iai?eeeaae, eenooaaiiy oa’yciaieo oe?a?inueeeo
ieooe?a ia??iaeo 20-30-o ?ie?a (A.I?aeiiaeeueiee, Inoai Aeoiy, E.Eo?aan,
I.Eoe?o oa ?i.) aea? i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui ienueiaiieoeueeee
ai?noiey??e a?aeaeaa? aeeaieo ineoieia?/io ?io?iniaeoe?th aaoi??a,
i?ioe??//y ieooe?a (eiioe?eo i?ae “y” ? “alter-ego”, c aeanieie oai?aie,
?c noni?euenoaii).

Nai???aeio aiaoii?th ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e ? aiaeii/an o?einionueea
inieneaiiy o?aa?/ieo oaeo?a noaiiaeoue niaith ienueiaiieoeueeee
ai?noiey??e ia??iaeo 2-? na?oiai? a?eie. O aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyaeathoueny, cie?aia, i?eaaoi? ai?noiey?i? oai?e I.Aeiaaeaiea,
ai?iiiai ei?aniiiaeaioa. Eiai “Eeno aei io?oea?a i?iaoeueei? a?i??”, a
yeiio /e ia aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? ii?oooaaeanue i?iaeaia
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai aoiai?cio, aeiiiiaaaa /eoa/aa? ia ao?a/aoe a nia?
a?ae/oooy i?enooiino? ethaeeie, a?ae/oooy ni?aa?aeianaiiy naaa c?
na?oii, ianaiia?aae ?c ethaenueeei ?iaeii.

I?iyaeeenue o oeueiio eeno? e oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ai?noiey?iiai
noeeth Aeiaaeaiea. Ieoaoeue ia iiaea e ia oi/a oiaaoe nai? i?ace?noai e
ciaaaao aei ai?iaa ca aeooeaieie aoeeaoieie oi?ioeaie ai?noiey?ii?
aeeieiiao??. A oiio e o?aaeeoe?eia aeey eenooaaiiy a on? aiioe
ia?aieaiiy c ii/aoeiai? oi?ioee caa?oaiiy o i?ane?eio? ? caaa?oaeueii?,
e?ioeaai? oi?ioee i?iuaiiy a eeaocoe? aeeiiaia aaoi?ii aaeaeaaoii
aeiiaai /ano: “I?e iai?ioaiee e?eaaaee ainoth”, “i?e a?aaea” oiui – inue
o? no?eaeiaa? neiaa o?acaia?aie, ye? aecia/athoue caaaeueio
oiiaeuei?noue ei?aniiiaeaioe??.

O?iioia? eenoe I.Aii/a?a iicia/ai? ?aae?yie ai?iii? aeiae, aiioe?eiith
“aeieoiaioaeuei?noth”, ni?eeiathoueny ye i?aeaioia/ee iaoa??ae aei
iaeaooi?o ooaeiaei?o iieioai. Naia oiio i?aai?/iith aeey ?yaeo eiai
i?neyai?iieo oai??a noaia ai?noiey?ia oi?ia (“Ioi/ainuee? eenoe “aa?iy a
“Ethaeei? ? ca?i?” oiui).

Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo iiioey?ieo aeai?iaeo ??ciiaeae?a ai?noiey?ii?
ioae?oeenoeee ai?iiiai /ano aoee ? ?aae?ieenoe. Aiie neeaaeai? a aeon?
“aoeeaoo” caii??cueeeo eicae?a o ?oiueiio eeno? aei oo?aoeueeiai
noeoaia. O oeeo ai?noiey?ieo oai?ao i?iyaeeeny ia?aaeon?i naiiaooi? ?ene
oe?a?inueei? aoii?enoeee oa ni?oiai? eoeueoo?e.

O ienueiaiieoeueeiio ai?noiey??? iiai?iiiai /ano i?enooi? oaea neeaaeia
e iaiaeiicia/ia yaeua ye ai?noiey?ia aeeieiiao?y. “O?ii?/ia”
iaaeiaiai?thaai?noue, i?aeoaeno, ??ciiiai?oi? iaoyee, i?eoiaai?
aeooeaieie noee?noe/ieie o?acaia?aiaie, oiui – iaci?ii? ao?eaooe
ai?noiey?ieo oi?ioe o i?eaaoiiio eenooaaii? e?ioey 40-o– ii/aoeo 50-o
??.

C ae?oai? iieiaeie 50-o ?ie?a, ? iniaeeai a /an o?ouianueei? “a?aeeeae”,
anac?inoath/a ai?noiey?ia eiioaeooaaiiy ienueiaiiee?a ye iaeei c
aoaeoeaieo eaiae?a oai?/i? eiioi?eaoe?? aaei aei caaaa/aiiy ooaeiaeiuei?
oai?/ino? aae?anao?a. Iieaciaith ooo iiaea aooe oai?/a ?noi??y a??oa
“Aao eeno…” Ae.Ieo/aiea, aano?ae?enueeiai aae?anaoa
A.Aioiiaiea-Aeaaeaeiae/a; “A cao?ieo aeaeai?iiea” I.?eeuenueeiai oiui.

Oaeei /eiii, ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e — nai???aeiee ia’?eoeaiee
aeeoo?ien, a??ia?aeia ? iaeiiai?oa aeieoiaioaeueia aeaea?aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?/ino? ieooey, ine?eueee o?eno? ye ?aaeuei? iiae?? /e
oi a iiiaio oai?aiiy, aai iae?aco ae ii na?aeeo ne?aeao, oae ?
ineoieia?/io ?io?iniaeoe?th e?oa?aoi?a. Oea aaaeeeaee ?ao?iniaeoeaiee
/eiiee e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano, yeee, aacoiiaii, aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoiai
??oioiaiiai aena?oeaiiy. Aieea eiai ia ?oo e?oa?aoo?e, oa noai
oe?a?inueei? aeoiee aein? ua a?aeii ia ioe?iaii.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai iiooeo:

Aeineoue iiooaeia ai?noiey?ia eiioaeoi?noue a?o/eciyieo ienueiaiiee?a o
20-50-o ?ieao OO no. cia/iith i??ith caiiaieea aaeooi, ooo/ii noai?aiee
a?aenooi?noth a i?ae?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? a?eueii? a?ae oeaico?ieo
iaiaaeaiue oa caai?ii oaoiai? ia??iaeeee.

Oe?a?inueea ienueiaicoai, ?ieue yeiai o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? naiai
ia?iaeo i?eiee ia iaiaaeoaaeanue ae?yeuei?noth o aaeoc? e?oa?aoo?e,
caaaeaee aoei a oeaio?? ?noi?e/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo iiae?e ? a ia??iae
oioae?oa?ii? aeiae. Oiio eenooaaiiy a?o/eciyieo ieooe?a aea? oaeiae
aaaaoee iaoa??ae ? aeey ?noi??ia?ao?? naiai /ano, aiii ? oe?iiei
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iei aeieoiaioii.

Oe?e?nia aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noiey??th oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa ia??iaeo
20-50-o ?ie?a OO no., a?aoiaoth/e noa’?eoeai?noue i?eaaoiiai eenoa ye
aeaea?aea (uii?aaaea, aac oaeiai eiei?eoo ia iiaea aooe iniaeno?nieo
na?ae/aiue), iiaeeeaa eeoa a eiioaeno? iniiaiiai e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai
oiiaeo — ooaeiaei?o oai??a aaoi?a, eeno?a aei ienueiaiieea ? eeno?a i?i
iueiai, aeieoiaioaeueieo a?ia?ao?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, iaioa??a no/aniee?a
oiui.

Eeno ienueiaiieea iiaeia ? o?aaa ?icaeyaeaoe ia ye iiiie?oa?aoo?iee
aeai? (oea eeoa iacia/ia /anoeia ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie ieooe?a), a ye
aeai? iie?oii?/iee — e?oa?aoo?iee oa ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeii/anii.
Ea?aeeiaeueii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aeai?iai? eiioeaioe?? ai?noiee
aeicaieeoue a?aeae?aoe c onueiai ianeao i?eaaoii? ei?aniiaeiaioe??
ienoaoeueee aa?o?ni? oai?e, a yeeo iayaia ia eeoa ?ioi?iaoeai?noue, a e
ooaeiaeiuei-ioae?oeenoe/iee ??aaiue aeeeaaeo, noee?noe/ia ia?iaea oiui.
Aiaeii/an oaenoe iaeioe?eaa? o ooaeiaeiueiio aniaeo?, iacaaaeath/e ia
oa, ui ienai? ethaeueie, i?e/aoieie aei e?oa?aoo?e, iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny aeine?aeieeaie ye oaeo nooi ?noi??ia?ao?/iee: ia?aaaaeii
c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiueiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaiiaiaiiy.

Noeeue i?eaaoieo eeno?a aaciina?aaeiuei ca’ycaiee c e?oa?aoo?ieie
noeeyie aeiae. ?noi?e/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo eenooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aecia/eee
eiai iaia?a?aiee ca’ycie c ?a?iiaenueeith ai?noiey?iith o?aaeeoe??th.

A oiiaao aei?noeiai ?aeaieia?/iiai i?aneiao 20-50-o ?ie?a OO no.,
oioaeueiiai eiio?ieth e i?eiono ??cei c?inoa? ?ieue ai?noiey?ii? e?eoeee
a e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean?. Eenoe ienueiaiiee?a iaaiei /eiii
?aeaioeo?eoaaee caeaaei? a?ae iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e /aniiene, i?noy/e
ioe?iee iiaeo oai??a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, iicaaaeai? i???ioaoe?? ia
oeaico?i? ?aaeaiaioaoe??. Oei naiei ai?noiey?ia e?eoeea iaeiiai?oa
?aae?coaaea ia o?eueee ?ioi?iaoeaio oa anoaoeei-aen?ieia?/io, a e
nioe?aeueii-?aaoeyoeaio ooieoe?th.

Ai?noiey?iee aeai? ca nai?ie aioo??oi?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (iniaeno?nia,
a ia oi?o?eiaaia noaaeaiiy aei ae?eniino?, a?aenooi?noue oeaico?e,
nei?i/aiee aei i?i?ioio oeyo aei /eoa/a-aae?anaoa ? o.ae.) yeiiiaa
iiai?oa a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai aei ioae?oe?noeee oioae?oa?iiai ia??iaeo. O
ca’yceo c oeei aeieeee ia?aaeoiiae aeey aoiaeaeaiiy ai?noiey?iiai aeai?o
a aaeocue aeai?iaeo aeii?iaio oiai/anii? ioae?oeenoeee.

Iii?oi? c?acee ai?noiey?ii? ioae?oeenoeee (a?aee?eo? eenoe e eenoe aac
aae?ane, ai?noiey?i? oeeeee e ie?ai? iineaiiy — iaioeaoe, caa?iaiiy,
caeeeee, ?aae?ieenoe ? o.i.) A.Aeiie/aiea, I.Oaeeueiaiai, I.Aeiaaeaiea,
?.Aaa?yiiai oa ?ioeo aaoi??a noaee iane?aeeii ocaaaeueithth/i?,
oei?coth/i? ?iaioe aiae?oe/iiai e ia?aciiai ieneaiiy ienueiaiiee?a,
ieneaiiy ianoaiaea?oiiai — ia?aaeienaeueiiai. Naia oaea ieneaiiy aoei ia
o?eueee aioeiiaeii oioae?oa?ii? ioae?oeenoeee, a e cia?yaeaeyi
ineoieia?/ii-?ioaeaeooaeueiiai i?ioenoiyiiy oioae?oa?eciia?, aeaiiioaaeo
eiai ?aeaieia?/ii?, a, ioaea, e ?aeaieia?ciaaii? iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ii?
no?oeoo?e.

A oiiaao noae?inueei? ae?eniino? ia eiaeiee ienueiaiiee i?a iaienaoe (a
oei ia/a iaae?oeoaaoe) i?ea?iaeueiee oa??, aea eiaeiee (iaa?oue c
iaeyaeo ia aei?noe? iaiaaeaiiy o eenooaaii?, neaae?ii, a oaai?ao) i?a o
i?eaaoiiio eeno? cia?aceoe naaa e aae?anaoa, caae?yaoe i?e oeueiio
iae??ciiiai?oi?oee a?naiae ooaeiaei?o cania?a ? i?eioeei?a.

Ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e — iiaiiaa?o?nia ienoaoeueea yaeua a
oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 20-50-o ?ie?a OO no. Iaia?an?/ia
eiai ?ieue ? ye aeieoiaioaeueiiai a?ia?ao?/iiai aeaea?aea ia?oi?yaeii?
aaae, naiai ?iaeo eeth/a aei ?icoi?iiy ?aeaeii-ooaeiaei?o iiooe?a
ienueiaiiee?a ? oe?oa — aeooiaieo caieo?a aiioe.

O i?ioean? ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aeyaeaii ?yae
aniaeo?a,ui iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy:

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie iniiaieo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo i???ioe??a
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? ienueiaiiee?a;

— aecia/aiiy nooiino? oa ooieoe?e ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?noiey??th a
e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 60-80-o ?ie?a OO no.;

— ?ice?eooy aen?ieia?/iiai oa aiinaieia?/iiai aniaeo?a ooaeiaeiueiai
ieneaiiy e?oa?aoi?a a eiai eenooaaii? (ai?noiey?ia aca?ii?aoeaioe?y
ienueiaiiee?a c ??ciioeiiei neeaaeii aaoi?nueei? na?aeiiino?;
ai?noiey??e ye aeaea?aei aaiace a?aeiia?aeieo oi?i na?oiaeyaeo ieooey
oiui).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a :

1. Ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean?
20-50-o ?ie?a OO no. – E., 1998.- 305 n.

?aoe.: Anoao’?a I. I?i e?oa?aoo?o eeno?a // N?aa?yinueeee e?oiien. —
1999. — ? 2. — N.124.

2. A?iii iacaeieaieo ni?aoe?a. — E.: Oe?.ienueiaiiee, 1997.-281 n. (
Oii?yaeiee). — Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie: N. 3, 16 — 27, 180 — 191.

3. Neiaiee e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo oa?i?i?a. — E.: Oe?.ienueiaiiee,
1997.-230n. ( Noaoo?: Ai?noieia?ao?y; Ai?noiey?ia e?oa?aoo?a;
Ai?noiey?ia oi?ia oa ?i.)

?aoe.: Eiaaanaiei TH.?. Na?aae eiea //Anana?oiy
e?oa?aoo?a.-1998.-?2.-N.54; Oea/ I. “Neiaiee e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo
oa?i?i?a” — aac ?aeaieia?/ii? caaiaaaeiaaiino? // E?o. *a?i?a?a. — 1997.
— ? 11. — N.121 — 123; O?oniaa A. “Ia a?eoanue caaeyaeaoe o neiaiee…”
//A?o/ecia. — 1998. — ? 3-4. — N.145 — 146; Eeoaei A. Aeey a/eoae?a ?
noa?oieeaniee?a //Neiai ? /an. — 1998. — ?4-5. — N.96, N.104.

Oe?eueiee neiaiee c oe?a?iiciaanoaa.- E.: Oe?.ienueiaiiee, 1995.- 291n.
(O ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.Iioaiaieii).- Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 6,2 ae?.a?e.
( Noaoo?: A?ae?iaeaeaiiy; I.A?ooaanueeee; Ae?anii?a oe?a?inueea oa ?i.)

?aoe.: *ooe?a A. Neaiaeueiee i?ei??iee // E?o. Oe?a?ia.- 1995.-21
aa?aniy; *ooe?a A. “Oe?eueiee neiaiee c oe?a?iiciaanoaa” // Aa/??i?e
Ee?a.- 1995.-26 aa?aniy; *ooe?a A. Iia? eieae // *a?i?a?anueeee
a?noiee.-1995.- 13 aeiaoiy; Naaeaiue I. Ca u?aceii A?ieaaoca ? ?o?iia.-
Iiaeie Ai?iaeiyiueie.- 1996.-15 /a?aiy.

Iaa?aeii? aaoia?aoe c a?o?ao I.Ooaeiaa // N?aa?yinueeee e?oiien.- 1999.-
?2.- N.140-143.

Ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean?
20-50-o ?ie?a OO no. // Neiai ? /an.- 1999.- ?2.- N.58-61.

Ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e a aiioo eeaneoeecio // I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee.- 1999.- ? 109.- N.11-13.

Oe?a?inueea ai?noiey?ia ?aae?iioae?oeenoeea ia??iaeo 2-? na?oiai? a?eie
// Iaoeia? caienee I?aeeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ieeiee Aiaiey.-1999.-O.OOV.- N.76-81.

Ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e ye e?oa?aoo?iee oa ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aeai?
// Iaoeia? caienee N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “.-
1999.- O.O.- N.36 -41.

C iaoa?eea ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?noiey??th // Neiai ? /an. — 1999. — ?
4. — N.69-71.

A?/ia caaaaeea ethaia? : Iaoa??ae aei o?ieo ca iiaoe/ieie oa
ai?noiey?ieie oai?aie O. Iao?a?ee // Anana?oiy e?oa?aoo?a.- 1999.-
?3.-N.14-17.

Ana ii/eia?oueny c ethaia? aei ??aeiiai e?ath // N?aa?yinueeee e?oiien.-
1998.-?2.-N.141-143.

I?i aeaee ia?aeeaaeo, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?iaioe c iei // Anana?oiy
e?oa?aoo?a.- 1998.- ?6.- N.10-12.

Aeeo??aia /e ai?oao?y aeai?ia? // Neiai ? /an.- 1997.- ?2.- N.72-77.

Iae?iinanoe Ieeiee Ai?iiiai // Aeeaineiai.- 1996.- ?12.- N.13-17.

Ai?noiey??e oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa “?icno??eyiiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”
ye aeya aaoi?nueei? na?aeiiino? a oiiaao oioae?oa?ecio
//E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. A?ae?ia?ao?y. ?ioi?iaoeea : Aeiiia?ae? oa
iia?aeiieaiiy ??? I?aeia?iaeiiai eiia?ano oe?a?i?no?a.- Oa?e?a,1996.-
N.145-149.

N?aa?yinuee? aeaea?aea “iaei? i?ice” I.Oea/a // N?aa?yinueeee e?oiien.-
1996.- ?4.- N.144-147.

C oai?/iai niaaeeo Ieeiee Ai?iiiai // Neiai ? /an.- 1996.- ?3.- N.72-74

Ca ?yaeeii eenoa : C ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie Iaeneia ?eeuenueeiai //
Neiai ? /an.- 1994.- ?3.- N.62-64.

Aeiianoe aeoo i?ea?iaeo // Neiai ? /an.-1990.- ?2.- N.63-71.

“Iao?oaeaiiua iiciee noeoa”// Eeo.o/aaa.- 1990.- ?6.- N.145-147.

“Io aeooe e aeooa…”// ?aaeoaa.- 1987.- ?11.- N.144-147.

Aeiaeaoeia? ioae?eaoe??:

sse e?eoaaoe “a?iiciao oai?iao” a??oa //E?o. *a?i?a?a.- 1997.- ?10.-
N.110-117.

Iao?oaeaeai? iicie? “iaei?” i?ice /e iinoiiaea?i?ci ii-/a?i?a?anueee //
E?o. *a?i?a?a.- 1997.- ?11.- N.92-100.

“? canythoue aiie, ye ci??…” // E?o. *a?i?a?a.- 1996.- ?8.- N.43-51.

C ai?noiey?iiai niaaeeo Ieeiee Ai?iiiai // E?o. *a?i?a?a.- 1996.- ?9.-
N.52-61.

Eocueiaiei A.?. Ienueiaiieoeueeee ai?noiey??e a oe?a?inueeiio
e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 20-50-o ?ie?a OO no.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a.- ?inoeooo
e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

O ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny niaoeeo?ea ienueiaiieoeueeiai ai?noiey??th, eiai
ooieoe?? a oe?a?inueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean? 20-50-o ?ie?a OO no.
?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noiey?ii?
niaaeueie ieooe?a, aena?oeththoueny niaaeei?ii? ca’ycee c ?a?iiaenueeith
ai?noiey?iith o?aaeeoe??th oa nai???aei?noue oe?a?inueei? ai?noieia?ao??
o aeiao 20 — 50-o ?? OO no. Ia iaoa??ae? i?eaaoii? ei?aniiiaeaioe??
a?o/eciyieo ienueiaiiee?a aea/athoueny ?oi? iiaeyaee ia ?ieue ?
caaaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? e?eoeee, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ai?noiey?ieo e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ieo ioe?iie oa ?oi?e
aieea ia oiai/aniee e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean. O aeena?oaoe??
aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeiae ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea, a?aee?eoa
eenooaaiiy ? ooaeiaei? ai?noiee I.Ai?iiiai, A.Aeiie/aiea, I.Oaeeueiaiai,
I.Eoe?oa, I.?eeuenueeiai, TH.ssiianueeiai, I.Aeiaaeaiea, ?.Aaa?yiiai,
?.Iaeaithea, A.Aioiiaiea -Aeaaeaeiae/a oa ?ioeo ienueiaiiee?a icia/aiiai
ia??iaeo, ui aeeee e i?aoethaaee ye a Oe?a?i?, oae ? ia ai?a?aoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : ai?noiey??e, eeno, iineaiiy, ai?noieia?ao?y,
ai?noiey?ia oi?ioea, o?acaia?aia, e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean, ai?noiey?ia
e?eoeea, ai?noiey?ia ioae?oeenoeea, a?aee?eoa eenooaaiiy, ooaeiaeiy
ai?noiea.

Eocueiaiei A.I. Ienaoaeueneee yienoiey?ee a oe?aeineii eeoa?aoo?iii
i?ioeanna 20-50-o aiaeia OO no.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01- oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. — Einoeooo
eeoa?aoo?u ei.O.A.Oaa/aiei IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa aiaeece?oaony yienoiey?iia ianeaaeea I.Ai?iiiai, A.Aeiie/aiei,
I.Oaueaaiai, I.Eoeeoa, I.?ueueneiai, TH.ssiianeiai, A.Aeiaaeaiei,
E.Aaa?yiiai, A.Iaeaithea, A.Aioiiaiei – Aeaaeaeiae/a e ae?oaeo
oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae. ?anniao?eaay oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou eco/aiey
/anoiie ia?aienee eeoa?aoi?ia, i?aaeaea anaai niaoeeoeeo ienaoaeueneiai
yienoiey?ey e aai ooieoeee a oe?aeineii eeoa?aoo?iii i?ioeanna 20-50-o
aiaeia OO aaea, aaoi? i?ineaaeeaaao i?aainoaaiiua nayce ioa/anoaaiiie
yienoieia?aoee n aa?iiaeneie yienoiey?iie o?aaeeoeeae.

Ia iaoa?eaea /anoiie ei??aniiiaeaioeee oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae eco/athony
eo i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?iee e caaea/ao eeoa?aoo?iie e?eoeee,
oa?aeoa?ecothony iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yienoiey?iuo
eeoa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/aneeo ioeaiie. A ?aaioa inaauaiu ?acee/iua aeai?iaua
oi?iu yienoiey?iie e?eoeee, a /anoiinoe, yienoiey?iue aaoieiiiaioa?ee,
aaoieiiiaioa?ee-aaoiia?aaiae, yienoiey?iay aaoie?eoeea, ianoaaie/aneay
e?eoeea e ae?., ii?aaeaeyaony eo aeeyiea ia eeoa?aoo?iue i?ioeann a
oneiaeyo noaeeineie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oeaico?u e oai?/aneie
ianaiaiaeu. Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca aaoi? aeaeaao auaiae i oii,
/oi ienaoaeueneee yienoiey?ee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eaeaioeoeoee?iaae
ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey, caaeneiua io iieeoe/aneie eiiuthieoo?u,
iineieueeo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aue eeoai i?eaioaoeee ia oeaico?iua
ia?aie/aiey. Oai naiui yienoiey?iay e?eoeea a ia?eiae noaeeiecia
iaeaieaa iieii ?aaeeciaaea ia oieueei eioi?iaoeeiiioth e
ynoaoeei-aeneieiae/aneoth, ii e nioeeaeueii-?aaoee?othuoth ooieoeeth.

Ioaeaeueii eco/aaony yienoiey?iay ioaeeoeenoeea A.Aeiie/aiei,
I.Oaueaaiai, TH.ssiianeiai, A.Aeiaaeaiei e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aaoi?ia.
Oa?aeoa?ecothony aa aeai?iaua aeiieiaiou : noauaeoeaiinoue,
yiioeeiiaeueiinoue, ioeaii/iinoue eioi?iaoeee, iauyniaiea e
iiaoaeaeaiea, a ioee/ea io noaoai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aeai?ia ioaeeoeenoeee,
eioi?ua iino?iaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ia eiinoaoaoeee oaeoia.

?anniao?eaaaony oaeaea ioe?uoay ia?aienea ecaanoiuo ianoa?ia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u, iioaeeeiaaiiay eae a oe?aeineeo ecaeaieyo,
oae e a ca?oaaaeiie ia?eiaeeea (“Ioe?uoia ienueii A.Aeiie/aiei e
I.Ai?ueeiio”, “Ioe?uoia ienueii e aee?aeoeee ”Aieina Aia?eee”
E.Aaa?yiiai e ae?.). I?iaiaeece?iaaiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiua yienoieu
I.Eoeeoa, TH.ssiianeiai, I.Ieueaee/a, A.Aeiaaeaiei, /oi iicaieeei
oaaee/eoue a?aoiaiou a iieueco noa?aeiaaiai aaoi?neiai iieiaeaiey i
?aaiii?aaiii ianoa ienaoaeueneiai yienoiey?ey n?aaee iaeaieaa y?eeo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo yaeaiee a oe?aeineii eeoa?aoo?iii i?ioeanna 20-50-o
aiaeia OO aaea. A oneiaeyo noaeeiecia ia eaaeaeue eeoa?aoi? iia
iaienaoue (a oai aieaa iaia/aoaoue) i?eaeiaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea. Iaaeaeo
oai eaaeaeue ienaoaeue (aeaaea n o/aoii ia?aie/aiee a ia?aienea,
iai?eia? a AOEAAa) iia a /anoiie ei??aniiiaeaioeee ecia?aceoue naay e
aae?anaoa, eniieueciaaa i?e yoii naiue ?aciiia?aciue a?naiae
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e i?eaiia.

Aaoi? aeenna?oaoeee inaauaao oaeaea enoi/ieeiaaae/aneoth ooieoeeth
ienaoaeueneiai yienoiey?ey, aai ?ieue a ?ane?uoee aeia?aoee eeoa?aoi?ia,
eaeaeii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iieneia ienaoaeae e oe?a – aeooiaiuo cai?inia
yiioe. Yienoiey?iia ianeaaeea oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae “?anno?aeyiiiai
aic?iaeaeaiey”, ia?eiaea 2-e ie?iaie aieiu e iineaaiaiiiai aeanyoeeaoey
– yoi naiaia?aciay ea?aeeia?aiia oao i?ioeannia aeooiaiie aeecie
oai?/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee, eioi?ua i?aaeaa?yee iiyaeaiea i?aaicaueoiiai
aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia.

Caaa?oaaony aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea e?aoeeie auaiaeaie,
iaiauathueie ?acoeueoaou iao/iiai iienea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa : yienoiey?ee, ienueii, iineaiea, yienoieia?aoey,
yienoiey?iay oi?ioea, o?acaia?aiia, eeoa?aoo?iue i?ioeann, yienoiey?iay
e?eoeea, yienoiey?iay ioaeeoeenoeea, ioe?uoay ia?aienea,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay yienoiea.

Kuzmenko V.I. Writer’s epistolaruy in Ukrainian Literary Process of
20-50 th of XX century.- Manuscript/

The thesis is submitted for the Doctor of Philology degree/ The
speciality – 10.01.01 – Ukrainian literature. Taras Shevchenko Institute
of Literature. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1999.

Special features of epistolaruy of the writers are analysed in this work
their functions in Ukranian literary process of 20-50 th of XX century.

Theoretical aspects of the resourch of epistoliarian in heritance of the
writers are taken into consideration in this work Genesys of European
epistolarian tradition ?s clar?fying there and originality of Ukrainian
epistolagraphy in times of Stalinism. On the base of the materials of
private correspondence of native writers are studied their pointsof view
on the part and aim of literary criticism, are characterized the
peculiarities of the function of epistolary literary critic, estimation
and their influence on the literary process of their time. In the work
is investigated epistolarian publicism, open correspondence and art
epistola V.Vinichenko, M.Voronoy, M.Khvilyovoy,M. Kulish, M.Rulskuy,
Y.Yanovskuy O.Dovzhenko, I.Bagryanuy, E.Malanyuk, B.Antonenko-Davidovich
and other writers of mentionens period, who lived and worked in Ukraine
as in emigration.

Key words: epistolyariy, letter, message, epistolography, literary
process, epistolarian criticism, epistolarian publicism open
correspondence art epistola.

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Oai naii.

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Oai naii. — N.504.

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