Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

NIEIOA AANEEUe AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 621.9.06-187.4: 539.37

I?AeAEUAIIss OI*IINO? OIEA?IEO AAOIIAOECIAAIEO AA?NOAO?A OEssOII CI?IE
AIEEAO OIIA NOEEOAAIIss AACIAEO AOCE?A IA OAIIA?AOO?I? AeAOI?IAOe??

05.03.01 – i?ioeane iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, aa?noaoe oa ?ino?oiaio

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aioeia TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoaei??caeueieo aa?noao?a
? ?ino?oiaioo Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: 1. Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaeue/aiei A?oae?e ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoaei??caeueieo
aa?noao?a ? ?ino?oiaioo, *a?i?a?anueeee oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

2. Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

N??oiaaoeue Ieaa ?aaiiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy
oa iaoaei??caeueieo aa?noao?a, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “EI?”,
eaoaae?a ”Eiino?othaaiiy aa?noao?a ? iaoei” i. Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 “ aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 14
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.12 i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith
61002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21,

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 “ ethoiai 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I. Ae.
Ocoiyi

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?iaioa ia aa?noaoao c aenieeie oaeaeeinoyie
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei oaieiaeae?eaiiyi a iaoai?ciao oa nenoaiao
aa?noaoa, ui ni?e/eiy? aei oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aeaiaio?a iano/i?
nenoaie. I?ae /an ia?iaee aeaoaeae ia iaoaei??caeueieo aa?noaoao iioeaee
ia?iaee, iaoiiaeai? oaiia?aoo?ieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie, iiaeooue c?iaeoe
iaiiaeeeaei iaea?aeaiiy aeaoaeae c iaiao?aeiith oi/i?noth. Iniaeeai?
aaae oea ieoaiiy iaaoaa? c aeei?enoaiiyi aaoiiaoeciaaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy,
ui i?aoeth? ca iaia?aae ?ic?iaeaiith ea?oth/ith i?ia?aiith
(aa?noaoe-aaoiiaoe oa iai?aaaoiiaoe, aa?noaoe c *IE, aaaaoiiia?aoe?ei?
aa?noaoe). Oaiia?aoo?ia iiaaae?iea aa?noaoa aecia/a?oueny ?ioaineai?noth
oaieiooai?aiiy ? oaieiiai?io aeaiaio?a aa?noaoa c ioi/aiiyi ?
ni?yaeaieie aeaoaeyie, aaiiao???th aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??, iaeeaaeaieie
ciai?oi?ie ca’yceaie. A?eueo?noue oeeo oaeoi??a ? ea?iaaieie, ?o iiaeia
i?iaiicoaaoe ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy aa?noao?a. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
oeueiai iathoue ciaiiy i?i iiaaae?ieo noee?a ni?yaeaieo aeaoaeae, ye? a
aa?noaoieo aoceao iathoue cia/i? ?ici??e. Noeee aieeaathoue ia
oaieiiai?i i?ae aeaoaeyie, iaeeaaeai? ciai?oi? ca’ycee ci?iththoue
oa?aeoa? ? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e eiioaeooth/eo aeaoaeae,
iniaeeai a ieiuei? noeeo. ?nioth/? caeaaeiino? c oaieii?ia?aeiino?
a?aoiaothoue eeoa aieea i?e?ia?aeoeeaiue, ui aeanoeai aeey noee?a iaei?
ieiu?, oaieii?ia?aei?noue noee?a cia/ieo ?ici???a aeine?aeaeaia iaei.
Niin?a o?enoaaiiy oieiaeaeueii? aaaee ia noaiei?, yeee aecia/a? a?aie/i?
oiiae ia noeeo a ?ic?aooieao oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, nooo?ai ci?ith?
aaee/eio ? iai?yiie oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue in? oieiaeaey. Iaeiae ia
nueiaiaei? a?aenooi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ui aei caaaeaiiy a?aie/ieo oiia ia
noeeo ? a?aooaaiiy aieeao ?ici?uaiiy o?enoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia
oaiia?aoo?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? oieiaeaeueieo aaaie.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aeooaeueiei ? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeu, ye?
niinoa??aathoueny a noeeao aaciaeo aeaoaeyo ? ?o aieeao ia oaieiao
iiaaae?ieo aaoiiaoeciaaieo aa?noao?a.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iaoa ?iaioe – caaacia/aiiy oiia i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?
oiea?ieo aaoiiaoeciaaieo aa?noao?a ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy aeie?
oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a aaeain? oi/iino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

-aeyaeaiiy aeaea?ae oaieiaeae?eaiiy a oiea?ieo aaoiiaoao ? aieeao ??cieo
oaeoi??a ia ?ioaineai?noue oaieiooai?aiiy;

-aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaieiaeae?eaiiy a ??cieo aeaea?aeao ia
oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy aoce?a;

-aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue aoce?a aa?noaoa ? ?o aieeao ia
oi/i?noue ia?iaee;

aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiaiai iii?o ciie eiioaeoo noeeiaeo ni?yaeaiue
aa?noaoieo aoce?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy aieeao iae?iaaiiao??? iiaa?oiiue;

-aeyaeaiiy aieeao cae??ieaiiy oa noaie o?enaoe?? oieiaeaeueii? aaaee ia
oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy oieiaeaey. ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c caaaeaiiy
a?aie/ieo oiia ia noeeo i?e ?ic?aooieao oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?
canoinoaaiiy noai o?enaoe??, ui caaacia/othoue i?i?iaeuei? oaiia?aoo?i?
ci?uaiiy oieiaeaey;

-ae?iaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia cieaeaiiy aieeao
oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?? aa?noaoa ia oi/i?noue
ia?iaee ia oiea?ieo aaoiiaoeciaaieo aa?noaoao.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia
aac? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? oaieiia?aaea/? oa oa?iii?oaeiino? c
aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo /eneiaeo iaoiae?a ae??oaiiy caaea/ aecia/aiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a oa oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo aei??thaaeueieo oa
?a?no?oth/eo i?eeaae?a, ye? caaacia/othoue iaiao?aeio oi/i?noue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

-anoaiiaeaii aieea iae?iaaiiao??? iiaa?oiiue eiioaeoo ia
oaieii?ia?aei?noue na?aaeiaeua, ui caiiaith? ciio eiioaeoo.
Cai?iiiiiaaia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua
a cii? eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue c iae?ia?aeoeeaiiyie.

-anoaiiaeaii aieea oa?aeoa?o iae?ia?aeoeeaiue ia oaieiaee ii??
iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo noeeiaeo c’?aeiaiue Cai?iiiiiaaii caeaaei?noue aeey
aecia/aiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo c ??ciei oa?aeoa?ii
iae?ia?aeoeeaiue.

-aecia/aii aieea cae??ieaiiy oa o?enoaaiiy oieiaeaeueii? aaaee ia
noaiei? ia aaee/eio ? oa?aeoa? oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue oieiaeaey.
Cai?iiiiiaai? a?aie/i? oiiae aeey ?ic?aooie?a oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e
oieiaeaeueieo aaaie, ye? a?aoiaothoue cae??ieaiiy ? o?enoaaiiy.

-?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?ici?uaiiy o?enoth/eo aeaiaio?a, yea
caaacia/o? iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy oieiaeaey. Cai?iiiiiaai?
aa??aioe noai o?enaoe?? c i?i?iaeueieie ai?eciioaeueieie ci?uaiiyie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaeaieo
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae aea? iiaeeea?noue:

cieceoe oaieiaeae?eaiiy a oieiaeaeueiiio aoce?, ui nooo?ai ciaioo?
oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy a cii? ia?iaee;

cieceoe aieea oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei?
(iiia?a/ieo oa inueiaeo) ia oi/i?noue ia?iaee ia oiea?ieo
aaoiiaoeciaaieo aa?noaoao;

i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey aa?noaoieo aoce?a
ca ?aooiie ooi/iaiiy aaee/ei oaieii?ia?aeiino? noee?a c
iae?ia?aeoeeaiiyie;

i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ?ic?aooie?a oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy ooi/iaieo a?aie/ieo oiia a ieiuei? noeeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aaeineiiaeai? aiae?oe/i?
caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy oaieiaiai iii?o noeeo, ye? a?aoiaothoue
aieea oa?aeoa?o ? aaee/eie iae?ia?aeoeeaiue eiioaeooth/eo iiaa?oiiue.
?ice?eoi aieea noaie o?enoaaiiy oa caoyaeee noeeo oieiaeaeueia aaaea –
noaieia ia oa?aeoa? oa aaee/eio oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue in? oieiaeaey;
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai, c oi/ee ci?o
oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, iieiaeaiiy ooeoo?a.

Cai?iiiiiaai? a?aie/i? oiiae ia noeeo aeey ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e oieiaeaeueii? aaaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e “Iaoaei??caeuei? aa?noaoe
oa ?ino?oiaio” Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1986
-1999 ?. ?.), can?aeaiiyo IO? AAO “Iae?oiiieuenueeee aa?noaoiaoae?aiee
caaiae” (1986 — 1997 ?. ?.), ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Oeiia? iaoai?cie oa oaoiieia?/ia onoaoeoaaiiy
aa?noao?a-aaoiiao?a, aa?noao?a c *IE oa AAN” (o?aaaiue 1991 ?., i.
*a?i?a?a), “Iie?ioaiiy yeino? ?iaioe i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa”
(aeiaoaiue 1991 ?., i. Eooeuee), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?ia?aneaia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ? caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa” (o?aaaiue 1998 ?. ,
i. Ee?a), i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “AMTECH ’99” (/a?aaiue 1999 ?., i.
Ieiaae?a, Aieaa??y).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 3 ca??ieeao oac
aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo oa 9 noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoeo. Iniiaia /anoeia aeeeaaeaia ia 159 noi??ieao ?
i?noeoue 65 ?enoie?a ? 3 oaaeeoe?. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
neeaaea?oueny ?c 120 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aaaeeea?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe??,
aeeeaaeaii iaoo ?iaioe oa noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa iiaecio.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi no/aniee noai aeine?aeaeaiue oaiia?aoo?ii?
iiaaae?iee aa?noao?a ? ?? aieeao ia oi/i?noue ia?iaee. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c
iniiaieo aeaea?ae oaieiaeae?eaiiy a aa?noaoao. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia
oaieiaeae?eaiith a oieiaeaeueiiio aoce?, ?iaioa iii? yeiai
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?ioaineaiei oaieiaeae?eaiiyi ? oaiia?aoo?i?
aeaoi?iaoe?? yeiai aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia oi/i?noue
ia?iaethaaii? aeaoae?.

I?iaiae?ciaaii a?aie/i? oiiae, ca yeeo aeeiiothoueny ?ic?aooiee
oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey oieiaeaeueieo aoce?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yiee
?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiai?
iiaaae?iee oiea?ii-?aaieueaa?ieo aaoiiao?a. Aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea
oaieiaeae?eaiiy a ??cieo iaoai?ciao ia oaiia?aoo?ia iiea ? oaiia?aoo?i?
aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiiaoa.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae oaieiaeae?eaiiy a aaoiiao?, yea a iaea?eueo?e
i??? aieeaa? ia oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy a cii? ??caiiy ? oieiaeaeuei?
iii?e. Ia oaieiaeae?eaiiy a iii?? aieeaathoue /anoioa iaa?oaiiy, niin?a
iauaiiy iii?e, aeanoeaino? ianoeea oa ye?noue neeaaeaiiy aocea. Ci?ia
/anoioe iaa?oaiiy oieiaeaey c n=400 oa-1 aei 5000 oa-1, a ?ac?
aeei?enoaiiy e?aiaeueii? nenoaie iauaiiy i?ia?aeueiei ianeii “Oo?a?iia
O-22” i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy iaaei??ii? oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai
e?eueoey i?aeoeiieea iaeaea a 8 ?ac?a – aeey i?aeoeiieea 3182110 ?
aeecueei 4,5 ?ace — aeey i?aeoeiiee?a 46209. E?euee?noue ianoeea, ui
iiaea?oueny a iii?o, iiaeiia aooe oaeith, uia caaacia/eoe ooai?aiiy
ianeyii? ie?aee, ui ?icae?ey? iiaa?oi? aeaiaio?a i?aeoeiieea. Ana caeaa
ianoeei ni?e/eiy? aeiaeaoeiaa oa?oy, aeeeeeaia ia?ai?ooaaiiyi ianoeea, a
ioaea ? ??no oaieiooai?aiiy, ui iniaeeai iii?oii ia i?aeoeiieeo 3182110,
a yeiio ca?eueoaiiy iiaea/? ianoeea a iii?o c 0,1 ie/oa-1 aei 1,5
ie/oa-1 i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iii?e ia 100 (?en.1).

Canoinoaaiiy ieanoe/ieo ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? caeeaaeathoueny a
iii?o ia o?eaaeee oa?i?i, iiaea caaacia/eoe ooai?aiiy ianoeeueii? ie?aee
? cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iii?e. Iaea?eueoee aoaeo a?ae canoinoaaiiy
ieanoe/ieo ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a niinoa??aa?oueny ia aenieeo /anoioao
iaa?oaiiy oieiaeaey (ia /anoioao 5000 oa-1 – 6000 oa-1 niinoa??aa?oueny
cieaeaiiy iaaei??ii? oaiia?aoo?e aei 4 ?ac?a), ia na?aaei?o ? iecueeeo
/anoioao oeae aoaeo aeaui ieae/ee.

?en.1. Aieea iiaea/? ianoeea ia oaieiaeae?eaiiy a i?aeoeiieeo 3182110.

Oaiia?aoo?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaiaio?a iano/i? nenoaie aa?noaoa
aeeeeeathoue oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy a cii? ??caiiy, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iioeaie ia?iaee. A aa?noaoao, aeey iauaiiy iii? yeeo aeei?enoiao?oueny
??aeea ianoeei, oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy nyaathoue cia/ieo aaee/ei: a
aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? – 34 iei, a ai?eciioaeuei?e – 18 iei, ui ia
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe oe? aa?noaoe aeey iaea?aeaiiy oi/ieo aeaoaeae.
A aaoiiaoao c ieanoe/iei iauaiiyi iii? oieiaeaey oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy
cieaeothoueny a 2 – 3 ?ace ? a iaio ieiueiao neeaaeathoue 8 – 9 iei, ui
ca aecia/aieo oiia iiaea caaacia/eoe iaea?aeaiiy ia aaoiiao? aeaoaeae 8
eaae?oaoo oi/iino?.

Oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy oieiaeaeueii? aaaee a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei?
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaoue a?ae noaie ?ici?uaiiy ooeoo?a, ye? o?enothoue
oieiaeaeueio aaaeo ia noaiei?. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iieacothoue, ui aaee/eia oa iai?yiie ci?uaiiy in?
oieiaeaey caeaaeeoue a?ae i?eeiyoi? noaie o?enaoe?? oieiaeaeueii? aaaee.
A caeaaeiino? a?ae i?eeiyoi? noaie o?enaoe?? oaiia?aoo?i? ci?uaiiy in?
oieiaeaey a?aeiinii noaieie aeey aaoiiao?a, ye? i?aoeththoue ia
ieanoe/iiio ianoee?, iiaeooue ci?ithaaoenue a?ae +17 iei – +18iei aei
–12 iei (ciae ”+” – ci?uaiiy a?ae iia?aoi?a, ciae “-“ — ia iia?aoi?a).
Caoyaeea noeeo oieiaeaeueii? aaaee ? noaieie aieoaie ciaioo? aaee/eio
ci?uaiue ia ci?ithth/e iai?yieo (?en. 2).

?en. 2. Caeaaei?noue oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue a?ae o?enaoe?? oa
cae??ieaiiy ia noaiei?.

1- caoyaeea ? ooeooe neiao?e/ii in?; 2 – caoyaeea aac ooeoo?a; 3 –
ooeooe neiao?e/ii in? aac caoyaeee; 4 – caoyaeea ? ooeooe ii iaeei a?e
in?; 5 – ooeooe ii iaeei a?e in? aac caoyaeee.

Oaieiaeae?eaiiy a ei?iaoe? oaeaeeinoae, noaioe?yo iauaiiy oa
ioieiaeaeaiiy, ?ici?uaieo a iniia? aa?noaoa, aieeaathoue ia ci?uaiiy a
cii? ??caiiy iiina?aaeeiaaii, /a?ac iaa??aaiiy iniiae ? aaoiiaoa c?
cia/iith cao?eieith a /an?, ui iia’ycaia c oaieiaith ?ia?oe??th.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeai? oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? ciie eiioaeoo. Aaee/eia oaieiaiai iii?o
noee?a aecia/a? ?ioaineai?noue oaieiiai?io i?ae aeaiaioaie eiino?oeoe??
aa?noaoa ?, ye iane?aeie, oa?aeoa? oaieiaiai iiey aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??
? oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e oeeo aeaiaio?a. Oaieiaee ii?? noee?a
aeieea? aiane?aeie iaaeineiiaeino? iiaa?oiiue, i?io?eue yeeo
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?aeaaeueiiai aiane?aeie iayaiino? ia ?aaeueieo
iiaa?oiyo iae?i- ? i?e?iia??aiinoae. Oae? iiaa?oi? eiioaeooaaoeiooue
aenooiaie i?e?iia??aiinoae ? ?aaeueia ieiua eiioaeoo neeaaeaoeia aeoaea
iaeo /anoeo a?ae iii?iaeueii?.

i

i,

Oaieii?ia?aei?noue i?ioa?eo na?aaeiaeua aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??ioii
oaieii?ia?aeiino? ?a/iaeie, ui caiiaith? i?e?icaiaaeeie a cii? eiioaeoo,
oa aea?aaeaioiith oiaueiith i?ioa?eo na?aaeiaeua.

na?/ha

Aieiaia i?iaeaia a aecia/aii? oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua iia’ycaia
naia c aecia/aiiyi aea?aaeaioii? oiaueie i?ioa?eo. sse iieacaa aiae?c
oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a?eueo?noue aaoi??a
aecia/athoue aea?aaeaioio oiaueio i?ioa?eo , aeoiaey/e c ia?aiao??a
i?e?iaaiiao???

ha=h1+h2,,

aea h1 ? h2, — aenioa i?e?iaenooi?a eiioaeooth/eo iiaa?oiiue:
iaeneiaeueia, na?aaeiy aai aenioa caeaaeaeoaaiiy a ??cieo aaoi??a.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae oe?eeii ii?aaaeaiee a ?ac? eiioaeooaaiiy iiaa?oiiue
iacia/ieo ?ici???a, eiee aieea iae?iaaiiao??? ia i?iyaey?oueny. Noeee
aaciaeo aeaoaeae aa?noaoieo aoce?a iathoue cia/i? ?ici??e ? oieeiooe
aieeao iae?iaaiiao??? ia iiaaae?ieo eiioaeoo iaiiaeeeai.

I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy noee?a iiaa?oiiue c
iae?ia?aeoeeaiiyie iieacaee cia/ia cieaeaiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino?
na?aaeiaeua a ii??aiyii? c ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie, iaea?aeaieie
aeoiaey/e c ia?aiao??a i?e?iaaiiao??? iiaa?oiiue. Aeey iiaa?oiiue
eiioaeoo c aeineoue a?oaith ia?iaeith (ia?aiao? Rz>10 iei) canoinoaaiiy
oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua, yea a?aoiao? eeoa
aenioo i?e?iaenooi?a, aea? aeia?? ?acoeueoaoe. Aea c i?aeaeuaiiyi yeino?
ia?iaethaaii? iiaa?oi? ?icoiaeaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo iiaea aooe cia/iei.

A ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c oaieii?ia?aeiino?
na?aaeiaeua nooeo oa iauaieo noee?a oe?oiaaieo iiaa?oiiue iaea?aeaia
oi?ioea, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aoiaoaaoe aieea iae?ia?aeoeeaiue ia
oaieii?ia?aei?noue na?aaeiaeua

(4)

aea K – eiao?oe??io, yeee a?aoiao? aieea iae?ia?aeoeeaiue ia
oaieii?ia?aei?noue na?aaeiaeua.

Rz)0.676, aeey iiaa?oiiue c iacia/iith aenioith i?e?iaenooi?a ?
a?aeoeeaiiyie oi?ie, ye? ia?aaeuothoue ca aaee/eiith aenioo
i?e?iaenooi?a.

K=1, aeey eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue c aeineoue a?oaith ia?iaeith (Rz>10 iei).

?ic?aooiie oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua ca oi?ioeith (4) aea?
?acoeueoaoe, ye? aeineoue oi/ii ni?aiaaeathoue c aenia?eiaioaeueieie
aeaieie (?en. 3). A?aeoeeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo a?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ia ia?aaeuothoue 12%.

?en. 3. Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue
oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua.

Wz=6,2iei;

Iiaaae?iea nooeo oa iauaieo noee?a nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny. A nooeo
noeeao oaieii?ia?aei?noue eiioaeoo ci?ith?oueny c? ci?iith i?eeeaaeaiiai
oeneo. Ca oiia ioeueiaiai oeneo ia eiioaeo? oaiei ia?aaea?oueny ca
?aooiie oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua. C i?eeeaaeaiiyi iaaaioaaeaiiy a
ia?aaea/? oaiea /a?ac noee ii/eia? i?eeiaoe o/anoue iaoaeaaee eiioaeo ?
a i??o c?inoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy c?inoaoeia oaieii?ia?aei?noue iaoaeaaiai
eiioaeoo.

A iauaieo noeeao a ?ac? ii/aoeiaiai i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy
oaieii?ia?aei?noue eiioaeoo, a iaaeao aeine?aeaeaiiai oeneo (aei 5•105
I/i2), i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny, ui na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iiaa?oi?
eiioaeoo iiai?noth ?icae?eai? ie?aeith ianoeea, aaciina?aaei?e iaoaeaaee
eiioaeo a?aenooi?e ? oaiei /a?ac noee ia?aaea?oueny eeoa ca ?aooiie
oaieii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua. A oiiaao iiaoi?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aac
aeiaeaoeiai? iiaea/? ianoeea a noee niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy
oaieii?ia?aeiino? noeeo a i??o c?inoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia noee, a
oaieii?ia?aei?noue eiioaeoo c ioeueiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi aeyaey?oueny
iaioith ca oaieii?ia?aei?noue ii/aoeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i i?aeniieooaaiiy a noee iia?o?y ? iiyao aaciina?aaeiueiai iaoaeaaiai
eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue.

Oaieiaee ii?? iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo aeieea? aiane?aeie noyaoaaiiy e?i?e
oaieiaiai iioieo aei i?noeue ?aaeueiiai eiioaeoo. Aeey iiaa?oiiue c
iae?ia?aeoeeaiiyie noyaoaaiiy aoaea iiaea?eiei: aei i?noeue
iae?ieiioaeoo ? a i?noeyo iae?ieiioaeoo aei i?noeue eiioaeooaaiiy
i?e?iaenooi?a. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo oaieiaee ii?? eiioaeoo iiaeia
i?aaenoaaeoe a aeaeyae?

Rk=RL+RS, (5)

aea RL – oaieiaee ii?? iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo, iaoiiaeaiee iayai?noth
iae?iia??aiinoae; RS — oaieiaee ii?? iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo, iaoiiaeaiee
i?e?iia??aiinoyie iiaa?oiiue.

Oaieii?ia?aei?noue i?e?ineii?/ii? ciie eiioaeoo iiaea?oueny a aeaeyae?

, (6)

– eiao?oe??io noyaoaaiiy e?i?e oaieiaiai iioieo, yeee a?aoiao?
caoaeaiiy i?io?aeiiai ia?a??co aeey oaieiaiai iioieo a?ey iiaa?oi?
eiioaeoo.

Aeey ieanoe/iiai eiioaeoo, yeee ia? i?noea a c’?aeiaii? iiaa?oiiue c
Rz>(0,1-0,2) iei i?aeaeaieo iaeii?aciaiio iaaaioaaeaiith, a?aeiinia
ieiua eiioaeoo

,

– a?aieoey i?oeiino? iaoa??aeo; H – oaa?ae?noue ca A?ea?nii iiaa?oi?
eiioaeoo c iaioith oaa?ae?noth.

– ia? cia/aiiy aeecueea aei iaeeieoe?, ine?eueee oaeoe/ia ieiua
eiioaeoo ia ia?aaeuo? aeae?eueeio a?aenioe?a.

Oaieii?ia?aei?noue iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo c?o/ii iiaeaoe a aac?ici??iiio
aeaeyae?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aiae?coaaoe oaieii?ia?aei?noue eiioaeo?a
c ??cieo iaoa??ae?a ? c ??ciith ye?noth ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?.

, (7)

aea n ? n – eiao?oe??io oa iieaciee nooiaith.

Oaieii?ia?aei?noue iae?ineii?/ii? ciie aeey eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue , ye?
iathoue iae?ia?aeoeeaiiy a oi?i? iioeeinoae iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia a
aeaeyae? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?e?ineii?/ii? oa iae?ineii?/ii? i?ia?aeiinoae

, (8)

;

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? eiioaeoo c ??ciei
oa?aeoa?ii iae?ia?aeoeeaiue aeathoue ?acoeueoaoe, ye? aeineoue oi/ii
ni?aiaaeathoue c ?ic?aooieiaeie, iaea?aeaieie ca oi?ioeaie (7) ? (8),
o?eueee aeey iioeeeo iiaa?oiiue; aeey iiaa?oiiue c ?ioei oa?aeoa?ii
a?aeoeeaiue (?en. 4) aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ca aaee/eiith aeyaeeenue
cia/ii a?eueoeie i?ae ?ic?aooieia?. Oaeee oa?aeoa? oaieii?ia?aeiino?
a?aeiia?aea? iayaiino? aeae?eueeio cii iae?ieiioaeoo, ui iiaea aooe
a?aoiaaii a ?ic?aooieao aaaaeaiiyi eiao?oe??ioo k1

(9)

k1=1 aeey iioeeeo iiaa?oiiue (?en. 4a); k1=2 aeey eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue
?en.4a; k1=3 aeey eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue ?en. 4a.

a a a

?en. 4. Noaie eiioaeoo c iae?ia?aeoeeaiiyie

?ic?aooiee oaieii?ia?aeiino? iaoaeaaiai eiioaeoo, aeeiiai? ca oi?ioeith
(9), aeineoue oi/ii ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie aenia?eiaio?a (?en. 5).
?ica?aeiino? ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue a onueiio
ae?aiacii? iaaaioaaeaiue ia ia?aaeuothoue 25%, a a ae?aiacii? a?ae
15•105 I/i2 aei 50•105 I/i2 – 15%-20%. Aeey coneeue caoyaeee aa?noaoieo
noee?a (20•105 I/i2 — 25·105 I/i2) ?ica?aeiino? a cia/aiiyo ia
ia?aaeuothoue15%.

Ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c iiaii? oaieii?ia?aeiino? noee?a c
?ic?aooieaie, aeeiiaieie c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao iae?ia?aeoeeaiue
iiaa?oiiue (oi?ioee (4), (9)) ca oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eiioaeo? ?=25·105
I/i2 iieacai? ia ?en.6.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ?
oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?uaiue oieiaeaeueii? aaaee oiea?ii-?aaieueaa?iiai
aaoiiaoa. ?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ? aeaoi?iaoe?e aeey o?eaei??ii?
iiaeae? oieiaeaeueii? aaaee (OA) aeeiiaii iaoiaeii e?ioeaaeo aeaiaio?a.
?icaeyaea?oueny noaoe?iia?iee oaieiaee ?aaeei. Aeeoa?aioe?aeueia
??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino?

, (10)

??oa?oueny c a?aie/ieie oiiaaie (?en.7):

O=const – ii ia?eiao?o ioai??a i?ae i?aeoeiiee;

aeey x=0, 0

Похожие записи