Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiaee oeaio?

“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

CA?EOeUeEEE Ieeiea Na?a?eiae/

OAeE 621.039.531:539.67

I?AeAEUAIIss NO?OEOO?II? NOAA?EUeIINO?

AOeE-NIEAA?A IA INIIA? AETHI?I?TH OA CAE?CA

OEssOII AAAAeAIIss IIOEI?CIAAIEO AeII?OIE NEAIAe?TH

01.04.13 — o?ceea iaoae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiaiio oeaio?? “?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue”
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Ea?anueia A. N.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IOe “?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue” IAI Oe?a?ie, ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Neueicia A.A.,

IIOe “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, ia/aeueiee eaai?aoi???

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ?eue?inueeee I.?.,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e o?ceee oa oaoiieia?? iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? o?iio

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.845.01 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiaiio
oeaio?? “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” ca aae?anith: 310108,
i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaoeiaiai oeaio?o “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” ca aae?anith:
310108, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 18.05 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe
I.?. Aecaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A onoaoeoaaii? aoiiii? oa oaieiai? aia?aaoeee,
eini?/ii? oaoi?ee oa e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue nieaae
c a?aiaoeaio?iaaiith eoa?/iith ?ao?oeith, cie?aia, ia?aeaa?th/?
aonoai?oi? noae? e aethi?i??a? nieaae. A aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao (aenie?
oaiia?aoo?e, ?ioaineai? iioiee aei?ii?ithaaiue, ei?ic?eii-aeoeai?
na?aaeiaeua oa ?io?) no?oeoo?ii-oaciaa noaa?euei?noue ia? ae??oaeueia
cia/aiiy aeey i?aoeacaeaoiino? iaoa??ae?a. I?e noai?aii?
?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo nieaa?a (Ia?oei I.I., Iaeethaeia ?.I., I?eueiai
TH.A., Aaii A.A) ?ic?iaeaia iecea o?ce/ieo i?aeoiae?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
no?oeoo?ii-oaciai? noaa?eueiino?, cie?aia: aaaaeaiiy a nieaae iniaeeaeo
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a, oae caaieo oeaio??a ?aeiia?iaoe?? ci?iii?
iiey?iino?; noai?aiiy a nieaaao oiia aeey i?eioniai? ?aeiia?iaoe??
oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a ca ?aooiie iaia?a?aiiai ?iciaaeo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a ?
ia’?iii? aeeeaoaoe?? ia iaae? iiae?eo oac oiui.

O i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? oaeeo o?ce/ieo i?aeoiae?a iniaeeaa i?noea
iin?aea? aaaaeaiiy a nieaae i?e?iaeii?oie ??aeeicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a
(?CA) oa neaiae?th. Uia iaea?aeaoe nieaae c iaiao?aeieie aeanoeainoyie
? no?oeoo?ith, aeii?oee neaiae?th o?aaa /?oei aeicoaaoe. Eiiieaen ?ia?o
c iioei?caoe?? ai?noo neaiae?th a aethi?i??aeo nieaaao oa aonoai?oieo
ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeyo iieacaa ia?niaeoeai?noue aeiciaaieo aeii?oie aeey
noai?aiiy ?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo iaoa??ae?a. ?acii c oei aeooaeueiei ?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao
iioei?ciaaieo aeii?oie neaiae?th ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
oa iiaiaeaeaiiy aoii?a aae?th a AOeE-nieaaao, ia?niaeoeaieo aeey
?aaeoi?iaoaeoaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoai? a AeIOOe ss?A I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o
ca oaiaeith i?ae GRS (I?ia//eia) oa Aaei?i?no?aoe??th yaea?iiai
?aaoethaaiiy (Oe?a?ia) c oaie “Ioe?iea i?iaeai aaciaee aeey aia?aiaeie?a
AAN Oe?a?ie” (1996-1998 ?.?.) oa o ?ic?iaeao IOe “?inoeooo yaea?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue” IAI Oe?a?ie c oaie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?i aeanoeainoae
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a o ?aae?aoe?eieo iieyo”
(?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?629 a?ae 01.04.1988 ?.), c oaie
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino? ia?niaeoeaieo eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a yaea?ieo ? oa?iiyaea?ieo ?aaeoi??a oa oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
?oiuei? aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino?” (ca?o IOe “?inoeooo yaea?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue” IAI Oe?a?ie, A? ?01. 88. 0056009, 1988 ?.).

Iaoa ?iaioe: aeine?aeeoe aieea iioei?ciaaieo aeii?oie neaiae?th ia
i?aee?enoae?oio aaeni?aoe?th aae?th a aethi?i??aeo nieaaao ? ia oa?i?/io
noaa?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aonoai?oieo ia?aeaa?th/eo
noaeae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

1. Aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? ci?ie no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae /enoiai
aethi?i?th ye iiaeaeueiiai iaoa??aeo a oiiaao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
ii?ii?iaiiy ?iiaie aae?th.

2. Aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue aieeao aeiciaaii? aeii?oee neaiae?th ia
i?aee?enoae?oio aaeni?aoe?th aae?th a nieaa? aethi?i?th.

3. Aeine?aeeoe oi?ioaaiiy oa oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e ia?aeaa?th/eo aonoai?oieo noaeae, i?e?ieaaiaaieo neaiae??i.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo oa onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aei??thaaiiy aioo??oiueiai
oa?oy a iaoaeao ? nieaaao ca oiia ii?ii?iaiiy iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie
?iiaie aae?th.

5. Aea/eoe aieea aeii?oie neaiae?th ia i?aeaeuaiiy no?oeoo?ii?
noaa?eueiino? iaoa??ae?a, ia?niaeoeaieo aeey ?aaeoi?iaoaeoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia:

1. Aecia/aii oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? aioo??oiueiai oa?oy aethi?i?th oa
eiai nieaa?a Al-2 aaa.% Mg ? Al-2 aaa.% Mg-0,2 aaa.% Sc, ii?ii?iaieo ca
??cieo aeic iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th.

2. Aia?oa ?ic?aoiaaii ia?aiao?e i?aee?enoae?oii? aaeni?aoe?? aae?th aeey
aethi?i?th oa eiai nieaa?a Al-2 aaa.% Mg ? Al-2 aaa.% Mg-0,2 aaa.% Sc.

3. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui i?e?ieaaoaaiiy aethi?i?e-iaai??aiai nieaao
neaiae??i ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo aae?th c ca?iiiaaeiaeie
ianoeaie oa i?aeaeuo? aeico ii?ii?iaiiy iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie,
i?ney yei? ii/eia?oueny ?ioaineaia ii?iooai?aiiy.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoiae ioe?iee noeeueiino?
iaoa??ae?a aei aaciaiai ?iciooaiiy a ?i?oaoe?eieo oiiaao ii?ii?iaiiy,
yeee a?oioo?oueny ia c?inoaii? aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? ca?iiiaaeiaiai i?eo i?ae /an ooai?aiiy ii? o iaoa??ae?.

5. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy oai??? A?aiaoi – Etheea aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aonoai?oieo noaeae iaoiaeii
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy.

6. Iaoiaeii aiie?ooaeii-caeaaeiiai aioo??oiueiai oa?oy aeine?aeaeaii
aieea aeii?oie neaiae?th ia aeeneieaoe?eio no?oeoo?o aonoai?oieo
ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae 08O18I10O, 08O16I11I3, 09O16I15I3A ? 00O16I15I3A.
Aea/aii aieea neaiae?th ia i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?/ii? noaa?eueiino? oi/ie
cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?ae /an aeiai?o eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aeey
oaieiaiai oa yaea?iiai aia?aaoe/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, ?aaeoi??a
oa?iiyaea?iiai neioaco, ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/ c iaoa??aeiciaanoaa o
eini?/iiio aia?aoiaoaeoaaii?, aenieoaoaoe?? aaci?ic?yaeieo i?eeaae?a,
eiino?othaaii? oa ?ic?iaoe? iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe??.
Niiaeeaa/aie ?ic?iaie iiaeooue aooe oaeiae aeaaeai?/i? oa aaeocaa?
?inoeoooe, aeu? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee iaoaeio?ce/iiai i?io?eth.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo iniia o?ceee
?aae?aoe?eieo yaeu c ieoaiue aaciaiai ?iciooaiiy oa ?aae?aoe?eiiai
ie?eoeaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, oie oaeo, ui ?ic/eiai? a e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe?
aoiie neaiae?th neeaaeathoue eiieo?aioe?th aeey iaae ca?ai ye noieo aeey
aoii?a aae?th.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

1. ?ic?iaeaii onoaiiaeo aeey aei??thaaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa iiaeoey
i?oaeiino? iaoa??ae?a i?ae /an ii?ii?iaiiy iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie
aac?a.

2. A?aei?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeeeo aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ii?ii?iaiiy iaoae?a ?
nieaa?a iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii aioo??oi? oa?oy, aeaye? o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? oa iniaeeaino? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ii?ii?iaieo c?ace?a.

4. Ia?iaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ca aeiiiiiaith IE (Microsoft
Exnel).

5. O/anoue o ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaio?a, ocaaaeueiaii? oa iiyniaii? ?o
?acoeueoao?a, oai?aoe/iiio iiaeaethaaii?, iaienaiiy noaoae oa
i?aeaioiaea aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia Ananithci?e ia?aae? c iaoai?ci?a
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy o oaa?aeeo o?eao (i. Aaooi?, aeiaoaiue 1985 ?.),
III-io Ananithciiio nai?ia?? “?aae?aoe?eia iioeiaeaeoaai?noue ?
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a” (i. Iiey?i? ci??
Io?iainueei? iaeano?, aeiaoaiue 1988 ?.), Ananithci?e ia?aae? c
iaoai?ci?a aioo??oiueiai oa?oy o oaa?aeeo o?eao (i. Oa?e?n?, /a?aaiue
1989 ?.), Sixth European Conference on Internal Friction and Ultrasonic
Attenuation in Solids (Crakov, Poland, September 1991), Specialists
Meeting on “Technology for Lifetime Management of Nuclear Power Plant“
Organized by IAEA (Tokyo, Japan, November 1994), Joint EC OECD IAEA
Specialists Meeting on “NDE Techniques Capability Demonstration and
Inspection Qualification“ (Petten, The Netherlands, March 1997).

O iiaiiio ianyc? aeena?oaoe?y aeiiia?aeaeanue a IOe “?inoeooo yaea?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue” IAI Oe?a?ie, IOO Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo” oa ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (iaeia
a?ioo?a, 4 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? 2 aeiiia?ae? o iaoa??aeao
i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??), ?c ieo 4 ioae?eaoe?? — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’youeio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui
i?noeoue 141 iineeaiiy. Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 145 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 36 ?ethno?aoe?e ? 12 oaaeeoeue ianyaii 16 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii noai i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe,
aecia/aii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae. I?iaiae?ciaaii aieea
aeii?oie ?CA ia no?oeoo?ii-oaciaee noai nieaa?a ia iniia? aethi?i?th,
i?eaeth oa AOeE- nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca a oiiaao ii?ii?iaiiy
iaeo?iiaie ? ca?yaeaeaieie /anoeieaie. ?icaeyiooi no/aniee noai i?iaeaie
aieeao aoii?a aae?th ia no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a. Cacia/aii iaaeinoaoi?noue aeaieo i?i aieea aeii?oie ?CA ia
aca?iiae?th aoii?a aae?th c iaaeaie ca?ai oa noaa?euei?noue
aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e iaoae?a. Iieacaii iiaeeeaino? oa ia?aaaae
iaoiaeo aioo??oiueiai oa?oy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? aeii?oeiaeo
aoii?a c iaaeaie ca?ai ? aeeneieaoe?yie (E?eooae I.A., Cieiooo?i ?.A.,
Aeaieuee I.I., A?ei?e A.O., Eooia?ueiaa I.I.).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa
iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a. Aeine?aeaeoaaieie iaoa??aeaie aoee
AOeE-nieaae:

— /enoee aethi?i?e (99,99 aaa.%) ye iiaeaeueiee iaoa??ae, nieaa
Al-2aaa.%Mg ? aethi?i?e-iaai??aee nieaa, iiaeeo?eiaaiee neaiae??i,
Al-2aaa.%Mg-0,2aaa.%Sc;

— ia?aeaa?th/? noae? aonoai?oiiai eeano 09O16I15I3A, 08O18I10O,
08O16I11I3, 00O16I15I3A ? ?oi? aiaeiae c aeii?oeith Sc o e?eueeino? 0,12
aaa.%.

C?acee aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aeaioiaeai? a ?inoeooo? iaoaeo?a?? ?i. I.I.
Aaeeiaa oa IIOe “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.
Aeine?aeaeoaai? ia’?eoe ? ia?niaeoeaieie eiino?oeoe?eieie iaoa??aeaie
aeey yaea?ii? oa oa?iiyaea?ii? aia?aaoeee.

C?acee ii?ii?ithaaee ?iiaie aae?th ?c ieacie oe?th/iai ?ic?yaeo ca
iai?oae U=(100…500) A oa aonoeie neee no?oio I=(10…400) A(i-2.
Oaiia?aoo?a c?ace?a i?e oeueiio noaiiaeea ~ 650 E. Aia?a?th ?ii?a ia
iiaa?oi? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaoethaaee ci?iith ??cieoe?
iioaioe?ae?a i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie. Cia/aiiy aeice ii?ii?iaiiy
i?ae?aoiaoaaee ca oi?ioeith

, (1)

aea O — aeica ii?ii?iaiiy, i-2; I -aonoeia neee no?oio oe?th/iai
?ic?yaeo, iA·ni-2; t — o?eaae?noue ii?ii?iaiiy, n.

Aeey aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo ? aiie?ooaeieo caeaaeiinoae
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ? iiaeoey i?oaeiino? iaoae?a i?ae /an ii?ii?iaiiy
aaci?ic?yaeieie ?iiaie ?ic?iaeaia iecueei/anoioia onoaiiaea oeio
caeiiiai iayoieea c aeaeo?iiaai?oiei caoaeaeaiiyi oa ?ii?niith nenoaiith
?a?no?aoe?? eieeaaiue c?acea.

A iniiao onoaiiaee iieeaaeaii “?aciiainiee” i?eioeei, eiee i??ith
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ? ci?ia aiie?ooaee ?aciiaino. Ca oaeeo oiia
aiie?ooaeii-iacaeaaeia aioo??oi? oa?oy aecia/a?oueny oi?ioeith

(2)

— ?aciiainia /anoioa.

.

Ia?aaaaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ia?aae ?ioeie ? iiaeeea?noue
ii?ii?iaiiy c?ace?a iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie ?c ieacie oe?th/iai
?ic?yaeo aaciina?aaeiuei a onoaiiaoe? aeey aei??thaaiiy aioo??oiueiai
oa?oy.

Iiaeaii aeieeaaeiee iien iaeaaeiaiiy oa i?eioeeio ae?? onoaiiaee.
I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iioeaie aei??thaaieo aaee/ei. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeyeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee ca aeiiiiiaith IE.

Aea/aiiy e?eueeino? aae?th, iaeiie/aiiai a ii?ii?iaieo c?aceao, a oaeiae
e?iaoeee aaciaeae?eaiiy i?ae /an iaa??aaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ca ??cieo
oaeaeeinoae iaa??aaiiy (vi1=0,083 E·n-1 oa vi2=0,25 E·n-1) ia onoaiiaoe?
aeey oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co.

No?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ii?ii?iaieo iaoa??ae?a aea/aeenue ca aeiiiiiaith
?aioaai?anueeiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai aiae?co ia aeeo?aeoiiao?? Ae?II-2,0 o
Cu-K(-aei?ii?ithaaii? a aeene?aoiiio ?aaeei?. Cia/aiiy i?e?iiai?oaeaiue
o c?aceao ioe?ithaaee iaoiaeii ai?ieneiaoe??. I?e?ino?oeoo?a c?ace?a
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ia iaoaeia?ao?/iiio i?e?ineii? IEI-7 oa aeaeo?iiiiio
i?e?ineii? YAI-1000EI ca o?aini?n?eiith iaoiaeeeith. Aeey aea/aiiy
aieeao aae?th ia oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiino? cae?enithaaee iaoai?/i?
aei?iaoaaiiy ieineeo c?ace?a ?c ?ici??aie ?iai/i? /anoeie 13o3o1 ii ca
oaeaeeino? ?icoyao 2,7·10-5 i·n-1 ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie
no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae aethi?i?th, ii?ii?iaiiai iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie
?iiaie aae?th.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui niaeo?e oa?iiaeani?aoe?? aae?th ?c c?ace?a aethi?i?th,
ii?ii?iaiiai ?iiaie aae?th a?ae 5,4·1024 aei 1,25·1026 i-2,
neeaaeathoueny c aeaio i?e?a: ia?oee, iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee i?e ?c
iaeneioiii i?e O~715 E ? ae?oaee, ieaaeeueiee i?e — i?e oaiia?aoo??
O~940 E. A?aenooi?noue i?e?a ia e?eaeo aaciaeae?eaiiy ca ua ieae/eo
oaiia?aoo? coiiaeaia aeineoue aenieith oaiia?aoo?ith ii?ii?iaiiy
~0,65·OIE oa aeaco? ia oa, ui aaea a i?ioean? ii?ii?iaiiy aoiie aae?th
caoiieththoueny iiooaeieie ianoeaie.

a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aecia/a?oueny oae:

, (3)

— aia?a?y, yea iaiao?aeia aeey ia?ai?uaiiy aoiia aae?th ?c iieiaeaiiy
cai?uaiiy a non?aeith aaeain?th.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeice ii?ii?iaiiy a iaaeao a?ae 5,4(1024
aei 5,4(1024 i-2 oaiia?aoo?a iaeneiaeueiiai aaciaeae?eaiiy cieaeo?oueny
ia ~25 E, ui iaoiiaeaii ci?iaie oiia i?a?aoe?? aoii?a aae?th aei
iiaa?oi? c?acea, iia’ycaieo c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? oa aaee/eiith
caaeeaeaiiy.

Ca aeaieie oa?iiaeani?aoe?? aoaeoaaee caeaaeiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? aae?th
a c?aceao a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy. Aeyaeaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeice
ii?ii?iaiiy a iaaeao O(4·1026 i-2 eiioeaio?aoe?y aae?th a c?aceao
aethi?i?th iiiioiiii ca?eueoo?oueny, a ca i?aeaeuaieo aeic (O(5·1026
i-2) iaeiie/aiiy aae?th oiia?eueith?oueny. Aeinyaiooi cia/ieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e aae?th a c?aceao (~10-3 ao.% He) i?e ii?ii?iaii?
aaci?ic?yaeiith ieaciith. Iieacaii, ui i?ioeane a?ic?? ii?ii?iaii?
iiaa?oi? iaiaaeothoue iaeiie/aiiy aoii?a aae?th a c?aceao.

Iaeiie/aiiy aae?th a iaoaeaa?e iao?eoe? ni?e/eith? ?icaeoie aaciai?
ii?enoino?. Iaoiaeii o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? aeyaeaii
i?e?iaoeueaaoee ?ici??aie aei 0,1 iei ia aeeaei? a?ey 100 iei a?ae
iiaa?oi?, ii?ii?iaii? aeicith O=2,7·1025 i-2 (?en.1,a). Ca aeiiiiiaith
iioe/ii? i?e?ineii?? aeyaeaii ii?e (ae?aiao?ii aei 10 iei) ia
aeeaeiao iiiaae 100 iei a?ae iiaa?oi? i?e i?aeaeuaii? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy
aei O=1,25·1026 i-2 (?en.1,a).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?ii?iaiiy iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th aeicith
O=5,4·1025 i-2 i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ieanoe/iino? c?ace?a (aei
(50%) ca oaiia?aoo? aei?iaoaaiue ~0,65OIE, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aae??aa ie?eoeaiiy. Aoiie aae?th ii?ooothoue aaeain
i?oeiino? o?ea ca?ia oa a?aieoeue ca?ai, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaiiy
ii?ii?iaieo c?ace?a ii a?aieoeyo ca?ai.

a (o 70000, O=2,5·1025 i-2) a (o 600, O=1,25·1026 i-2)

?en.1 I?e?ino?oeoo?a c?ace?a aethi?i?th ca ??cieo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy
iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th

?ioi?iaoe?th i?i noai aoii?a aae?th a ?ao?ooe? aethi?i?th oa ci?iao,
iia’ycaieo c ooai?aiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ii?enoino?, io?eiaii
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei iaoiaeii. Iiaoaeiaaii caeaaeiino? ci?i ia??iaeo
?ao?oee e ?ioaa?aeueii? oe?eie e?i?? (200) a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy
(?en.2). Aeyaeaii, ui ca iaeeo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy (O(2,5·1025 i-2)
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy ia??iaeo ?ao?oee ? cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/eie i?e?iiai?oaeaiue, yea i?iyaey?oueny a ??ceiio ?icoe?aii?
aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy aeice ii?ii?iaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ia??iaeo ?ao?oee ? ?aeaenaoe??
i?e?iiai?oaeaiue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aae?th a iaoaeaa?e iao?eoe?
ci?ith? noai aoii?a aae?th o oae?e iine?aeiaiino?: ?ic/ei cai?uaiiy
SYMBOL 174 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ® aaciaaeain?ei? eiiieaene SYMBOL 174 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 ® ii?iooai?aiiy. ?nioaaiiy ?ic/eio ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aae?th
a aethi?i??, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi ia??iaeo ?ao?oee,
aeeeth/a?oueny aiine?aeie cia/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa?i?/ieo aaeain?e ?
aeniei? ?ooeeaino? i?aeaocaeueieo aoii?a aae?th ca aeaieo oaiia?aoo?
ii?ii?iaiiy. Ca oeeo oiia iae?iia??i?oei ? caoaao aoii?a aae?th
aaeain?yie c ooai?aiiyi oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy oa

?en.2 Caeaaeiino? ci?ie ia??iaeo ?ao?oee (() ? oe?eie ?ioaa?aeueii?
e?i?? (200) (() aethi?i?th a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy

aaciaaeain?eieo eiiieaen?a. Oaeei /eiii, ni?eueia ?nioaaiiy oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio cai?uaiiy ? aaciaaeain?eieo eiiieaen?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
ii?ii?iaiiy ni?e/eiy? ciaioaiiy ia??iaeo ?ao?oee ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
i?e?iiai?oaeaiue. Ca oiia iiaeaeueoiai ii?ii?iaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? aae?th, eiia??ii, eiiieaene aeinyaathoue e?eoe/ieo
?ici???a ? noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey iiyae aaciiaiiaiaieo iooe?oe?a. I?e
oeueiio iai?oaeaiiy a ?ao?ooe? ?aeaenothoue, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
a?aeiiaeaiiyi oi?ie aeeo?aeoe?eieo iaeneioi?a (aeea.?en.2).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aee?enoae?oii? aioo??oiuei? aaeni?aoe?? aae?th a aethi?i?? ? eiai
nieaaao oa aeaii ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? aeii?oie neaiae?th o oi?ioaaii?
noie?a aeey aoii?a aae?th. Ia aeo?aeieo oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy aeyaeaii aeia?a a?aeoai?thaai? i?ee c iaeneioiaie
i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 650, 520 ? 530 E aeey c?ace?a aethi?i?th (?en.3),
nieaa?a Al-2aaa.%Mg ? Al-2aaa.%Mg-0,2aaa.%Sc, a?aeiia?aeii. Ca
oi?ioeith Aa?oa – Ia?ena aecia/aii aia?a?th aeoeaaoe?? oeeo i?e?a, yea
noaiiaeea (1,2 aA. Ii??aiyiiy cia/aiue aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? ?
oaiia?aoo?iiai iieiaeaiiy i?e?a c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie iieacaei, ui oe?
i?ee ? ca?iiiaaeiaeie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca aeic ii?ii?iaiiy O(1,7·1026 i-2 iaeiie/aiiy aoii?a
aae?th a e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? aethi?i?th oa eiai nieaa?a ia ni?e/eiyei
iiyae aeii?oeiaeo i?e?a ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo aioo??oiueiai
oa?oy (aeea.?en.3), i?ioa ?noioii aieeaaei ia aioo??oi? oa?oy a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? ca?iiiaaeiai? ?aeaenaoe??. Aeyaeaii, ui ca iaeeo
aeic ii?ii?iaiiy (O(2,5(1025 i-2) niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy aenioe
iaeneioi?a aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa ?oiuei? oaiia?aoo?e, a i?e
iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? aeice (O(5(1025 i-2) – c?inoaiiy aenioe e
noaa?e?caoe?y oaiia?aoo?e i?e?a (?en.4).

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie no?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai
aiae?co ? iaoiaeo aioo??oiueiai oa?oy anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae ci?iaie
i?e?ino?oeoo?e, ia?aiao?o ?ao?oee, i?e?iiai?oaeaiue, aenioe ?
oaiia?aoo?e i?ea ca?iiiaaeiai? ?aeaenaoe?? aeey ii?ii?iaieo c?ace?a.
Iieacaii, ui ca iaeeo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy (aei O(2,5(1025 i-2) ci?ie aenioe
? oaiia?aoo?e i?ea aioo??oiueiai oa?oy coiiaeai? iaeiie/aiiyi aae?th a
e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? oa ?nioaaiiyi oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy ?
aaciaaeain?eieo eiiieaen?a.

?en.4 Caeaaei?noue ci?ie aenioe ? oaiia?aoo?e ca?iiiaaeiaeo i?e?a a?ae
aeice ii?ii?iaiiy:

(-aethi?i?e (99,99 aaa.%) ; (-Al-2aaa.% Mg ; (-Al-2 aaa.% Mg-0,2 aaa. %
Sc

ca oi?ioeith:

(4)

-eiioeaio?aoe?y aeii?oie o iaoa??ae? oa a aaeni?aoe?ei?e cii? iaae
ca?ai, a?aeiia?aeii.

?ic?aoiaai? cia/aiiy aia?a?? F aeey aethi?i?th oa eiai nieaa?a iiaeaii o
oaae.1. Ooo aea iaaaaeaii eiioeaio?aoe?? aae?th a c?aceao ? oaiia?aoo?e
i?e?a, ui a?aeiia?aeaee aeicai ii?ii?iaiiy, ca yeeo aenioa
ca?iiiaaeiaiai iaeneioio aeinyaaea iane/aiiy. Cacia/aii, ui aia?a?y
ca’yceo aeey aoii?a aae?th cia/ii ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i? aaee/eie aeey
?ioeo aeii?oie o oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao, cie?aia ca aeaieie Ae?eiaia ?.A. ?
Ieaociaa TH.A. — aia?a?th ca’yceo iiaa?oiaai aeoeaiiai ai?o a i?ae? oa
aoaeaoeth a cae?c?. Oaea iniaeea?noue i?aee?enoae?oii? aaeni?aoe??
aae?th ni?e/eiy? eiai iaeiie/aiiy ia iaaeao ca?ai, oi?ioaaiiy aaciaeo
iooe?oe?a ? ?icaeoie aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai ie?eoeaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1 — Ia?aiao?e no?eeino? aethi?i?th oa eiai nieaa?a aei
ii?ii?iaiiy iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th

, aA E?eoe/ia aeica OS, i-2

Al 650 620 2,5· 10-4 0,73(0,03 2,5· 1025

Al-2 %Mg 520 490 6,25· 10-4 0,64(0,03 4,5· 1025

Al-2%Mg-0,2 % Sc 530 520 7,5· 10-4 0,54(0,03 7,5· 1025

, ca yeith niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy, ? e?eoe/iith
aeicith ii/aoeo ?ioaineaiiai ii?iooai?aiiy ? iiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
noeeueiino? iaoa??ae?a aei aaciaiai ?iciooaiiy aiane?aeie ii?ii?iaiiy
iecueei-aia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e?iaeii?oee neaiae?th cieaeothoue aia?a?th ca’yceo
aoii?a aae?th c iaaeaie ca?ai, i?aeaeuothoue eiioeaio?aoe?th aoii?a
aae?th a iaoa??ae?, ca yei? ianoa? aaeni?aoe?eia iane/aiiy iaae, ?
ca?eueoothoue aeico ii?ii?iaiiy, ca yei? ii/eia?oueny ?ioaineaia
ii?iooai?aiiy. I?e/eiith oeueiai ? oa, ui ?ic/eiai? aoiie neaiae?th
ni?e/eiththoue oi?ioaaiiy cia/ieo iai?oaeaiue o ?ao?ooe? nieaao ca
?aooiie ?aae?onii? iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oa yaeythoueny aoaeoeaieie ianoeaie
aeey aoii?a aae?th.

Ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ??no aaciaeo iooe?oe?a ia iaaeao ca?ai eiio?ieth?oueny
i?a?aoe??th aae?th ?c iaoaeaai? iao?eoe? aei iaae? oa eiai iiaeaeueoith
aeeooc??th ocaeiaae iaae?. Oea ni?e/eiy? ooai?aiiy
ia’?iii-iaiaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo iooe?oe?a a ciiao, ye? i?eeyaathoue
aei iaae?. A oiiaao eiieo?oth/eo noie?a (iaae? ca?ai, aeeneieaoe??,
aaeain?? oiui) aoiie neaiae?th oo?eiothoue aae?e a o?e? ca?ia.
Ooai?thth/e noai?e?iiooe?oe? c ??aiii??iei ?iciiae?eii cia/ii? aonoeie,
?, oaeei /eiii, cieaeothoue eiai iaeiie/aiiy ia iaaeao ca?ai. Iiae?aiei
/eiii iiaeooue aieeaaoe ? eiaa?aioi? aeae?eaiiy iaii/anoie oace ScAl3.
Iieacaii, ui aeniea aoaeoeai?noue neaiae?th ye noieo aeey aoii?a aae?th
? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii aeey i?aeaeuaiiy no?oeoo?ii? noaa?eueiino? nieaa?a
a oiiaao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai ie?eoeaiiy oa ?iciooaiiy.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeii?oie
neaiae?th ia oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
aonoai?oieo ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae 08O18I10O, 08O16I11I3, 09O16I15I3A ?
00O16I15I3A.

iiae?ai?: i?e aeinyaiaii? aeayei? e?eoe/ii? aiie?ooaee aeaoi?iaoe??
aioo??oi? oa?oy ??cei c?inoa? (?en.5,a) oa noa? aiie?ooaeii-caeaaeiei. O
?aieao oai??? A?aiaoi–Etheea oea coiiaeaii a?ae?eaii aeeneieaoe?e a?ae
oi/ie cae??ieaiiy c iiaeaeueoei ?o ?ooii i?ae ae??th i?eeeaaeaieo
iai?oaeaiue.

a
a

?en.5 Aiie?ooaei? caeaaeiino? aioo??oiueiai oa?oy (a) ? a?ao?ee
A?aiaoi–Etheea (a) noaeae 00O16I15I3A (( () ? 00O16I15I3A+Sc (( () i?e
300 E (( () ? 775 E (( ()

?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiiy aiie?ooaeii-caeaaeiiai aioo??oiueiai oa?oy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeae aoei i?aaenoaaeaii oi?ioeith A?aiaoi–Etheea :

, (5)

— u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e, ui aa?ooue o/anoue o i?ioean? a?ae?eao a?ae
oi/ie cae??ieaiiy.

).

, ia/eneaieo ca aeaieie a?ao?e?a A?aiaoi–Etheea aeey noaeae caeaaeii
a?ae iiaeeo?eoaaiiy oa oaiia?aoo?e.

Oaaeeoey 2 — A?aeiini? ci?ie ia?aiao??a aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e

aonoai?oieo ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo? a?ae 300 aei 775 E

Noaeue A?aeiini? ci?ie aonoeie oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, %
A?aeiini? ci?ie aonoeie

?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e, %

i?e iaa??aaii? aoaeo aieeao aeii?oee Sc i?e iaa??aaii? aoaeo aieeao
aeii?oee Sc

00O16I15I3A -53 +26 +185 -48

00O16I15I3A+ Sc -39

+97

09O16I15I3A -74 +6 +190 -49

09O16I15I3A+ Sc -69

+97

08O18I10O -58 +26 +272 -65

08O18I10O+Sc -43

+93

08O16I11I3 -38 -31 +86 -52

08O16I11I3+ Sc -50

+41

Iieacaii, ui aeey aeine?aeaeaieo noaeae ca i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?
niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy aonoeie oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aonoeie ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e. Oea coiiaeaii ye ?ic/eiaiiyi
ea?a?ae?a o?iio oa cae?ca, oae ? oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaiei a?ae?eaii
aeeneieaoe?e a?ae oi/ie cae??ieaiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?e?iaeii?oee neaiae?th i?aeaeuothoue oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue
aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aonoai?oieo noaeae, a naia:

— ca?eueoothoue aonoeio oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e;

— aonoeia oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e
aeey iiaeeo?eiaaieo noaeae ca?eueoo?oueny;

— ca i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? o iiaeeo?eiaaieo noaeae iia?euei?oa c?inoa?
aonoeia ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e.

Aeyaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy aonoeie oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e a
iiaeeo?eiaaieo noaeyo coiiaeaii ooai?aiiyi aoiinoa? c aoii?a neaiae?th
ia aeeneieaoe?yo. Ca aeaieie Iaeethaeiaa ?.I. ? Ai?aiae?ia A.I. oea
ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy aaeain?eiiai ii?iooai?aiiy oa ?aae?aoe?eiiai
?iciooaiiy iaoa??ae?a. Ineaaeaiiy ?iciooaiiy iia’ycothoue c ae?aioaaiiyi
aeeneieaoe?e aeii?oeaie a?ae i?aeaocaeueieo aoii?a, cao?eieith oi/eiaeo
?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a o iao?eoe? oa, ye ?acoeueoao, i?aeaeuaiiyi
eiia??iino? ?o ?aeiia?iaoe?? i?e cono??/?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea aeii?oie neaiae?th ia oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue
aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e caeaaeeoue a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
aonoai?oieo noaeae. Iaeaoaeoeai?oee aieea neaiae?th aeyaeaii o
iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae? 00O16I15I3A; a?i iieyaa? o cia/iiio i?aeaeuaii?
aonoeie oi/ie cae??ieaiiy oa iaeiaioeie, a?aeiinii ?ioeo noaeae, ci?iaie
ia?aiao??a aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e i?e iaa??aaii?. Oea coiiaeaii
ae??th neaiae?th ia ?ao?ioaaiiy iaae ca?ai, ia?a?iciiae?e ea?a?ae?a o
iaaeao o?ea ca?ai ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai i?aeaeuo?oueny aonoeia
ae??aiiaeenia?nieo ea?a?aeieo aeae?eaiue o ca?i?. E??i oiai, ?ic/eiai?
aoiie neaiae?th a?aeiinii aaeeeiai ?aae?ona noai?ththoue o e?enoae?/i?e
?ao?ooe? aonoai?oo i?oaei? iiey, ye? ni?e/eiythoue oi?ioaaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e oa no?eiothoue ?o ?oo ca
i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?. O iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeyo oaea ae?y neaiae?th
iiaea aooe aieeaia?oith aiane?aeie iaioiai ca’ycoaaiiy aoii?a neaiae?th
o ea?a?aee. Aoaeoeai?noue aieeao aeii?oie neaiae?th ia oa?i?/io
noaa?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aeua aeey noaeae,
iiaeeo?eiaaieo i?ia??i ? oeoaiii. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui neaiae?e aieeaa?
ia oi?ioaaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e noaeae ua ia noaae?? aeieaaee ? ci?ith?
ii?oieia?th ?iciiae?eaiiy ooaiieaaeeo ea?a?ae?a o ca?i? oa ia iaaeao
ca?ai.

I?e?ieaaoaaiiy ia?aeaa?th/eo aonoai?oieo noaeae neaiae??i i?aeaeuo?
no?oeoo?io noaa?euei?noue, aiii ia?niaeoeaia aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo
iaoa??ae?a, no?eeeo aei ?aae?aoe?eiiai ?iciooaiiy oa iiaco/ino?.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

1. Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae
aethi?i?th, ii?ii?iaiiai iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th ca
oaiia?aoo? O(0,5OIE, io?eiaii ieceo iiaeo ?acoeueoao?a:

— aia?oa aeyaeaii cieaeaiiy (aei 50%) ieanoe/iino? c?ace?a aethi?i?th,
ii?ii?iaieo iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie aae?th ? aei?iaoaaieo i?e
oaiia?aoo?? O(0,65(OIE;

— anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie i?ae ci?iaie i?e?ino?oeoo?e,
ia?aiao?a ?ao?oee, i?e?iiai?oaeaiue ? aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a c?aceao, ye?
coiiaeai? iaeiie/aiiyi aae?th oa aaiethoe??th no?oeoo?e iaoaeo;

— aia?oa aeinyaiooi cia/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aae?th (aei (10-3 ao.%) o
c?aceao ca aeic ii?ii?iaiiy O(1026 i-2.

2. Aeyaeaii caeiiii??i?noue ci?i aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? ca?iiiaaeiai? ?aeaenaoe?? a ii?ii?iaieo ?iiaie aae?th c?aceao
aethi?i?th oa eiai nieaaao: ca iaeeo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy (O(2,5·1025 i-2)
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy aenioe ? cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaeneioi?a
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy, ui aeaco? ia aaeni?aoe?eia iane/aiiy iaae ca?ai;
i?e iiaeaeueoiio i?aeaeuaii? aeic ii?ii?iaiiy O(5·1025 i-2 –
aiiiaeueia c?inoaiiy aenioe oa noaa?e?caoe?y oaiia?aoo?e iaeneioi?a, ui
coiiaeaii ?icaeoeii aaciai? ii?enoino? a iaoa??aeao.

3. Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ioe?iai? cia/aiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo aoii?a
aae?th c ca?iiiaaeiaeie ianoeaie aeey aethi?i?th ? eiai nieaa?a
Al-2 aaa. %Mg, Al-2aaa.%Mg-0,2aaa.%Sc. Cacia/aii, ui aia?a?y ca’yceo
aeey aoii?a aae?th cia/ii ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i? aaee/eie aeey ?ioeo
aeii?oie o oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao. Iieacaii, ui aeii?oee 0,2 aaa.% neaiae?th
a aethi?i?e-iaai??aee nieaa ni?e/eiythoue cieaeaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo
aae?th c ca?iia?aie/ieie ianoeaie ia (20% oa iaeaea a aeaa ?ace
i?aeaeuothoue no?ee?noue nieaao aei ?iciooaiiy. Oea coiiaeaii
aoaeoeaiith ae??th ?ic/eiaieo aoii?a neaiae?th oa oi?ioaaiiyi oaciaeo
aeae?eaiue a o?e? ca?ia ye noie?a aeey aoii?a aae?th.

4. Aeine?aeaeaii aiie?ooaei? caeaaeiino? aioo??oiueiai oa?oy
ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae 09O16I15I3A, 08O18I10O, 08O16I11I3, 00O16I15I3A
oa oeeo naieo noaeae ?c aeii?oeaie 0,12 aaa.% Sc ca oaiia?aoo? 300 ? 775
E. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ioe?iee ?oiuei? aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e a
?aieao iiaeae? A?aiaoi–Etheea. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeii?oee neaiae?th a
ia?aeaa?th/?e noae? ni?e/eiythoue i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?/ii? noaa?eueiino? ?o
aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, yea aeyaey?oueny a iaio?e ci?i? ye aonoeie
oi/ie cae??ieaiiy (aei 26%), oae ? ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e (aei 65%) ca
an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaiia?aoo?.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue aeii?oie neaiae?th ia oa?i?/io
noaa?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e caeaaeeoue a?ae o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeae. Iae?noioi?oa aeii?oee neaiae?th
aieeaathoue i?e eaaoaaii? iecueeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?, ui iiynith?oueny
ia?a?iciiae?eii aoaeaoeth a iaaeao aonoai?oiiai ca?ia ca ?aooiie
?ao?ioaaiiy iaae ca?ai oa noai?aiiyi aeiaeaoeiaeo noiii??a aeey
aeeneieaoe?e. Aoaeoeai?noue ae?? i?e?iaeii?oie neaiae?th aeua aeey
noaeae, iiaeeo?eiaaieo i?ia??i ? oeoaiii, ui coiiaeaii ia?aaaaeii
ci?iith ii?oieia?? ?iciiae?eo ea?a?ae?a ? ?ioa?iaoae?ae?a o o?e? ca?ia
oa ia iaaeao.

6. Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy aeii?oie neaiae?th o AOeE-nieaae i?aeaeuo?
no?oeoo?io noaa?euei?noue ? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii i?ae /an ?ic?iaee
iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ?aaeoi?iaoaeoaaiiy, no?eeeo aei aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
aae??aiai ie?eoeaiiy, ?aae?aoe?eiiai ?iciooaiiy oa iiaco/ino?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o i?aoeyo:

1. Ca?eoeueeee I.N. Iaoiae aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a iaoa??aeiciaanoa?. —
E.: «Eea?aeue”,1999. – 36 n.

2. Ca?eoeeee I.N., Iaeeaia E.N. Aeeyiea aeiaaaee neaiaeey ia ia?aiao?u
aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u ia?aeaaathueo noaeae O16I15I3A // Aii?inu
aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?.: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e
?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea.- 1998.- Aui. 6(72).- N. 23-26.

3. Ca?eoeeee I.N. Ca?iia?aie/iua ?aeaenaoeeiiiua yaeaiey a aethieiee e
aai nieaaao, iaeo/aiiuo ieceiyia?aaoe/aneeie eiiaie aaeey // ssaea?iay e
?aaeeaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue. — 1998. — Oii ?1.- Aui.1. — N.243-250.

4. Ao?aae/ I.A., AEo?aaeaa A.O., Ca?eoeeee I.N. Enneaaeiaaiea
oaieiaieinoe eiaaeueoa a iaeanoe i?eaioaoeeiiiuo oaciauo ia?aoiaeia //
Iaoaeeioeceea.- 1987. – Oii 9. — ?4. – N.108-110.

5. Ao?aae/ I.?., Ca?eoeueeee I.N., Ea??eia E.I., Iiai??eia I.?.,
Oaeue/aiei A.I. Aieea aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae ia ia?aiao?e
ianiia?aiino o i?eae? i?e ?iioeueni?e ae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy IEA //
Aeiiia?ae? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?, na??y A. O?ceei-iaoaiaoe/i?
oa oaoi?/i? iaoee. — 1979. — ?9 – N. 740-743.

6. Ca?eoeeee I.N., Ea?anaa A.N., Oeuaoeueei TH.A. Iiaaaeaiea aoiiia
aaeey a aethieiee e aai nieaaao // ?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea
(O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiiio
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaieth, Aeoooa, 22-25 iay 1990 a.). — Oa?ueeia: OOOE.- 1991.
— Oii 6. – N. 54-59.

7. Ea?anaa A.N., Ca?eoeeee I.N., Iai/e/ N.Ae., *e?ei E.E., AEo?ia A.E.,
Aa?a/oe I.E. No?oeoo?a e naienoaa nieaaa NAA-1 iinea aeeeoaeueiiai
?aaeoi?iiai iaeo/aiey // ?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea (O?oaeu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiiio iaoa?eaeiaaaeaieth,
Aeoooa, 22-25 iay 1990 a.). – Oa?ueeia: OOOE.- 1991. — Oii 8. – N.
112-117.

Ca?eoeueeee I.N. I?aeaeuaiiy no?oeoo?ii? noaa?eueiino? AOeE-nieaa?a ia
iniia? aethi?i?th oa cae?ca oeyoii aaaaeaiiy iioei?ciaaieo aeii?oie
neaiae?th. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.13 — o?ceea iaoae?a.
— IIOe “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/i?e ?inoeooo”, Oe?a?ia, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?aeaeuaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii?
no?eeino? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a yaea?ii? oa oa?iiyaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee oeyoii ?o i?e?ieaaoaaiiy neaiae??i. Iieacaii, ui i?e
ii?ii?iaii? iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie ca aeice (1,7(1026 i-2
iioei?ciaai? aeii?oee neaiae?th a aethi?i??aeo nieaaao ni?e/eiythoue
ciaioaiiy ia (20% aia?a?? ca’yceo aae?th c ca?iiiaaeiaeie ianoeaie oa a
aeaa ?ace i?aeaeuothoue no?ee?noue nieaa?a aei ?iciooaiiy. Aeii?oee
neaiae?th a aethi?i??aeo nieaaao noai?ththoue iniaeea? iaiino?oeoo?i?
aeaiaioe, ye? caeaoi? aei oo?eiaiiy aoii?a aae?th a o?e? ca?ia. Aeyaeaii
aieea aeii?oie neaiae?th ia i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?/ii? noaa?eueiino?
aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e a ia?aeaa?th/eo noaeyo, yeee i?iyaey?oueny o
ca?eueoaii? aonoeie oi/ie cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e (aei 26%) oa
ciaioaiiy aonoeie ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e (aei 65%) ca an?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaiia?aoo?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?ceea ?aae?aoe?eieo yaeu, aethi?i??a? nieaae,
ia?aeaa?th/? noae?, neaiae?e, ii?ii?iaiiy, iecueeiaia?aaoe/i? ?iie
aae?th, iaoiae aioo??oiueiai oa?oy, i?aee?enoae?oia aaeni?aoe?y,
aeeneieaoe?eia no?oeoo?a.

Zaritsky Mykola. Improvement of structural stability of face-centered
cubic structured alloys based upon aluminum and iron by introduction of
optimized additives of scandium — Manuscript.

The thesis for the degree of Candidate of physical and mathematical
sciences on speciality 01.04.13 — Physics of Metals.- NSC “Kharkiv
Physical and Technical Institute”,Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1999.

The thesis was dedicated to investigate radiation resistance improvement
of nuclear and thermonuclear reactors construction materials by scandium
micro-additives. It was shown that under exposure by low-energy ions of
about 1,7(1026 m-2 the optimized scandium additives in aluminum alloys
reduce by 20% the energy of helium binding with grain-boundary traps and
two times increase resistance to swelling. Scandium additives create
special nanostructural elements in aluminum alloys that are capable of
helium atoms keeping within body of grains. It was disclosed that doping
of austenitic stainless steels by scandium improves thermal stability of
dislocation structure, which manifests itself as increasing of points
fastening dislocation density (up to 26%) and lowering of movable
dislocation density (down to 65%) under all the temperatures tested.

Key words: physics of radiation phenomena, aluminum alloys, stainless
steels, scandium, irradiation, low-energy helium ions, method of
internal friction, inter-crystallite adsorption, dislocation structure.

Ca?eoeeee I.N. Iiauoaiea no?oeoo?iie noaaeeueiinoe AOeE-nieaaia ia
iniiaa aethieiey e aeaeaca iooai aaaaeaiey iioeiece?iaaiiuo aeiaaaie
neaiaeey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.13 — oeceea
iaoaeeia. — IIOe “Oa?ueeianeee oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo”, Oe?aeia,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iiauoaiey oa?ie/aneie
noaaeeueiinoe e ?aaeeaoeeiiiie noieeinoe eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia
aeey yaea?iie e oa?iiyaea?iie yia?aaoeee. Aeey nicaeaiey
?aaeeaoeeiiii-noieeeo nieaaia ?ac?aaioai ?yae oece/aneeo iiaeoiaeia ii
iiauoaieth eo no?oeoo?ii-oaciaie noaaeeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe, aaaaeaiea a
nieaau iniauo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia- oeaio?ia ?aeiiaeiaoeee ia?aiaiiie
iiey?iinoe; nicaeaiea a nieaaao oneiaee aeey i?eioaeeoaeueiie
?aeiiaeiaoeee oi/a/iuo aeaoaeoia ca n/ao iai?a?uaiiai ?aniaaea oaa?aeuo
?anoai?ia e iauaiiie aeeeaoaoeee ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oac e ae?.
Enneaaeiaaieyie aethieieaauo nieaaia e aonoaieoiuo ia?aeaaathueo noaeae
iieacaia ia?niaeoeaiinoue iioeiece?iaaiiuo aeiaaaie neaiaeey aeey
i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee oaeeo oece/aneeo iiaeoiaeia. Aianoa n oai,
aeooaeueiui yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey aeiaaaie neaiaeey
ia oi?ie?iaaiea aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u e iiaaaeaiea aoiiia aaeey a
AOeE-nieaaao.

Oeaeue ?aaiou: eco/eoue aeeyiea iioeiece?iaaiiuo aeiaaaie neaiaeey ia
iaaee?enoaeeeoioth aaeni?aoeeth aaeey a aethieieaauo nieaaao e ia
oa?ie/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u aonoaieoiuo
ia?aeaaathueo noaeae.

Iauaeoaie enneaaeiaaiey auee aua?aiu AOeE-nieaau: /enoue aethieiee
(99,99 aan.%) eae iiaeaeueiue iaoa?eae, nieaa Al-2aan.%Mg e
aethieiee-iaaieaaue nieaa, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue neaiaeeai,
Al-2aan.%Mg-0,2aan.%Sc; ia?aeaaathuea noaee aonoaieoiiai eeanna
09O16I15I3A, 08O18I10O, 08O16I11I3, 00O16I15I3A e eo aiaeiae n aeiaaaeie
0,12 aan.% Sc.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey ?ac?aaioaia niaoeeaeueiay onoaiiaea,
iicaieythuay i?iaiaeeoue ecia?aiey aioo?aiiaai o?aiey e iiaeoey
oi?oainoe iaoa?eaeia a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 300…1000 E e a oneiaeyo
iaeo/aiey ieceiyia?aaoe/aneeie eiiaie aacia. A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu
iaoiaeu oa?iiaeani?aoeeiiiie niaeo?ineiiee, iioe/aneie e yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiiee, ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca, a oaeaea inouanoaeyeenue
iaoaie/aneea eniuoaiey enoiaeiuo e iaeo/aiiuo ia?acoeia ia ?anoyaeaiea.

Ia iniiaaiee enneaaeiaaiee aethieiey, iaeo/aiiiai ieceiyia?aaoe/aneeie
eiiaie aaeey i?e oaiia?aoo?ao O(0,5OIE e aeicao iaeo/aiey O(1026 i-2,
auyaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiee iee?ino?oeoo?u, ia?aiao?a ?aoaoee,
iee?iiai?yaeaiee e aioo?aiiaai o?aiey a ia?acoeao, iaoneiaeaiiua
iaeiieaieai aaeey a oaa?aeii ?anoai?a e iineaaeothuei ?acaeoeai
ii?enoinoe.

Iaia?oaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey aioo?aiiaai o?aiey a iaeanoe
ca?iia?aie/iie ?aeaenaoeee a iaeo/aiiuo eiiaie aaeey ia?acoeao aethieiey
e aai nieaaia: i?e iaeuo aeicao iaeo/aiey (O(2,5·1025 i-2) iaaethaeaaony
nieaeaiea auniou e oaiia?aoo?u iaeneioiia aioo?aiiaai o?aiey, /oi
oeacuaaao ia aaeni?aoeeiiiia ianuuaiea a?aieoe ca?ai; i?e aeaeueiaeoai
iiauoaiee aeicu (O(5·1025 i-2) — aiiiaeueiue ?ino auniou e
noaaeeecaoeey oaiia?aoo?u iaeneioiia, iaoneiaeaiiua ?acaeoeai aaciaie
ii?enoinoe a iaoa?eaeao.

Aia?aua yenia?eiaioaeueii ii?aaeaeaiu cia/aiey yia?aee nayce aoiiia
aaeey n ca?iia?aie/iuie eiaooeaie aeey aethieiey e aai nieaaia. Aeiaaaea
0,2aan.% neaiaeey a aethieiee-iaaieaaue nieaa i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ia
20% yia?aee nayce n ca?iia?aie/iuie eiaooeaie e a aeaa ?aca iiauoaao
noieeinoue e aaciaiio ?aniooaieth, /oi iaoneiaeaii aeaenoaeai
?anoai?aiiuo aoiiia neaiaeey e oaciauo auaeaeaiee a oaea ca?ia eae
noieia aeey aoiiia aaeey.

Enneaaeiaaiu aiieeooaeiua caaeneiinoe aioo?aiiaai o?aiey ia?aeaaathueo
noaeae 09O16I15I3A, 08O18I10O, 08O16I11I3, 00O16I15I3A e yoeo aea noaeae
n aeiaaaeaie 0,12 aan.% Sc i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 300 e 775 E e iieacaia
aiciiaeiinoue ioeaiee eo aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u a ?aieao iiaeaee
A?aiaoi–Etheea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeiaaaee neaiaeey a ia?aeaaathuea noaee
i?eaiaeyo e iiauoaieth oa?ie/aneie noaaeeueiinoe eo aeeneieaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u, /oi i?iyaeyaony a iiauoaiee ieioiinoe oi/ae cae?aieaiey (aei
26%) e nieaeaiee ieioiinoe iiaeaeaeiuo aeeneieaoeee (aei 65%) i?e anao
enneaaeiaaiiuo oaiia?aoo?ao. Aeenna?oaoeey eceiaeaia ia 145 no?.,
niaea?aeeo 36 ?enoieia e 12 oaaeeoe. Aeaeeia?aoey — 141.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo yaeaiee, aethieieaaua nieaau,
ia?aeaaathuea noaee, neaiaeee, iaeo/aiea, ieceiyia?aaoe/aneea eiiu
aaeey, iaoiae aioo?aiiaai o?aiey, iaaee?enoaeeeoiay aaeni?aoeey,
aeeneieaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a.

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