Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y Iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a

AOCEIA A?EOI? AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 629.12.037.6 : 621.891.004.62

I?AeAEUAIIss NEOAEAIAEO AEANOEAINOAE

IAOA??AE?A AeEss ?ICAEOEO NOAeIIAEO AeAEAeAOAeIEO

IAEAAeIAIUe OA CAOENOO II?ss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.02.01 — iaoa??aeiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ii?nueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ioianueeee Aai?a?e Ieaenaiae?iae/,
*a?i?a?anueeee oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oaoiieia??
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iinianueeee ?ai? Aai?a?eiae/,
Ee?anueeee ?inoeooo a?enueeiai- iia?o?yieo nee Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e iaoa??aeiciaanoaa, oaoiieia?? oa ?aiiioo aa?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaaoeye Oaae?? A?eai?iae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? a’yaeo/eo, iie?ia?ieo
oa eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.A. Ea?iaiea
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 27 ” 09 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.207.03 a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252142, i. Ee?a-142, aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai, 3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai??
Iaoe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252142, i. Ee?a-142, aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai,
3.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 “ __04___ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? caaee Ae 26.207.03,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
I?iaeiaa ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa iia`ycaia c iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo caaea/ oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae –
aoae?aieoeoaii ? ?icaeoeii ii?nueeiai ? ??/eiaiai oeioo Oe?a?ie, iia?
noaeia yeiai iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoeny iaeaaeiaiiyi ? iaoai?ciaie,
aeaioiaeaieie ?c no/anieo iaoa??ae?a.

Iaeiei ?c iniiaieo iaeaaeiaiue ii?nueeeo ? ??/eiaeo noaeai ?
aeaeaeaoaeia iaeaaeiaiiy (AeI), i?ecia/aia aeey aeaiaeo a?aaiiai aaea c
a?aaiei aaeioii c ei?iona noaeia iaciai? oa ou?eueiaiiy aeo?aeiiai
ioai?o. Oea iaeaaeiaiiy neeaaea?oueny c aeaeaeaoaeii? o?oae, ei?iiaiai
oa iiniaiai aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a (AeI) oa ou?eueiaiue.

Aeiaaia?/i?noue, aaciaea, ?aiiioii?eaeaoi?noue oa aeieia?/ia /enoioa AeI
ii?nueeeo oa ??/eiaeo noaeai iia`ycai? c ?o ?icaeoeii, yeee
aecia/a?oueny noai?aiiyi oa aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo iaoa??ae?a aeeaaeeo?a
AeI, iaeeoethaaiue a?aaieo aae?a, c`?aeiaiue ou?eueiaiue, ye? o?ooueny,
a oaeiae iiaeo ianae, ciacoth/eo ??aeei oa ianoee oa aeeeoo?oueny
?icaeoeii na?oiaiai noaeiiieaanoaa oa noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

Aaeeea oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ia? ocaaaeueiaiiy aaaaoi??/iiai
aeina?aeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo,
ocaaaeueiaiiy aaaaoi??/iiai aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe?? AeI oa AeI ??cieo
oei?a ia ii?nueeeo ? ??/eiaeo noaeiao ??ciiai oiiiaaeo a?o/eciyii? oa
ca?oa?aeii? iiaoaeiae oa aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoa-o?a.

O ca`yceo c iiaei?noe?oaiiyi aeiia caoenoo ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua a
inoaii? ?iee ana a?eueo aeooaeueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??ae?a, a oiio
/ene? ianoeeueieo, oa eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a no/anieo ?
ia?niaeoeaieo AeI, ye? caoeuathoue ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua – ii?a a?ae
caa?oaeiaiiy.

Aei aeaiiai /ano a?aenooi? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oei?a AeI ia noaeiao ??ciiai oiiiaaeo, i?ecia/aiiy
oa ?aeiio ieaaaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe. I?aeaeuaiiy neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee noaeiiaeo AeI oa AeI
oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiue iaoaii-o?ce/ieo oa iaoaii-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
eiino?oeoe?eieo oa?iiieanoe/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo ?cio?iiieo iie?ia?ieo
iaoa??ae?a, ?aaoethaaiiy ?o oaciaiai neeaaeo, aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaeei?a
a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai oa?oy oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e AeI ia i?aenoaa?
aeai?o iioeiaeueieo oiia ?aae?caoe?? aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a oa ae?ia?a,
oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a noaeii?aiiio. ?ic?iaea
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo noaeiiaeo AeI
oa caoenoo ii?y.

Oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy iaoe:

1. ?ic?iaea eeaneo?eaoe?? AeI, eiiieaenii? aaaaoinooiaiaai? iaoiaeeee
o?eaaeeo eaai?aoi?ieo (c?ace?a oa i?aeoeiiee?a), noaiaeiaeo, iaoo?ieo
aei?iaoaaiue oa ieaiiai? aenieoaoaoe?? iie?ai?aeieo AeI ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e, yea aeicaieeoue io?eia-oe a??ia?aei? ?acoeueoaoe aaee/ei
ciinino?eeino?, eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy, oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith,
noa??iiy, iiaco/ino? oa iaae?eiino? AeI, ye? i?aoeththoue a na?aaeiaeu?
caai?oii? aiaee, aeaioiaeaieo oa anoaiiaeaieo a noaeiiaeo AeI, a oaeiae
iae?aneeoe oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo AeI.

2. Aea/aiiy iaoai?cio oa?oy, iniaeeainoae ciino iie?ia?ieo oa iaoaeaaeo
c?ace?a oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio ci?oeiaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? iie?ai?aeieo c?ace?a, iaiiaiaieo a?ao?oii, i?e oa?o? ii
o?iiieaaei??aiio iie?eoo?, a?iic? oa ei?ic?eii-no?ee?e noae? oa ciauaii?
aiaeith. Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? ciino
iie?ai?aea-eai?iia, iaiiaiaiiai a?ao?oii.

3. Aea/aiiy aieeao iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy oa /ano ia
ciinino?ee?noue, eiao?oe??ioe oa?oy, iiaco/?noue oa noa??iiy c?ace?a c
oa?iiieanoe/ieo iie?ai?aeieo ?cio?iiieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a (eai?iio
I-6, iaiiaiaiiai 5% a?ao?oo, ei?ieiio A (I-6 aeieiaee), eai?ieiio A,
iaiiaiaiiai 5% a?ao?oo, 5% ianea oa 5% a?ao?oo oa 5% ianea iaeii/anii)
i?e oa?o? ii ei?ic?eii-no?ee?e noae? 10O18I9O, o?iiieaaei??aiio iie?eoo?
oa a?iic? A?05Oe5N5 oa A?010Oe2 i?e ciauaii? aiaeith. Aea/aiiy aieeao
iaaeinoa/? ciauoth/i? ??aeeie – aiaee ia iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe
iie?ai?aeieo AeI.

4. Aea/aiiy aieeao iaoa??aeo aeeaaeeoa (iaiaoaeaaee, iaoaeaaee), ?iaeo
ianoeea (aiaea, ianei), oi?ie oa ?icoaooaaiiy ciauoth/eo oa
ioieiaeaeoth/eo ea?iai?a ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi? AeI ia ?aaeeie
a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai oa?oy. Aea/aiiy aieeao oi?ie oa ?icoaooaaiiy
ciauoth/eo oa ioieiaeaeoth/eo ea?iai?a ia ?iai-/?e iiaa?oi? iie?ai?aeieo
AeI ia ?o ciinino?ee?noue i?e aenieoaoaoe?? noaeai ia /eno?e aiae?,
aiae?, caa?oaeiai?e aa?aceaieie /anoeaie, aaeeeiio /ene? ?aaa?n?a
a?aaieo aae?a, a oaeiae i?e canoinoaaii? oii?ii-iii?ieo AeI.

5. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo iniia ae?iaieoeoaa iiiie?oieo iie?ai?aeieo
aeeaaeeo?a AeI, aeaioiaeaiiy AeI, io?eiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenieoaoaoe??
aeine?aeieo oa ooaoieo c?ace?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
iniia noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oa?i?i?a neoaeae AeI oa iaoeiaeo
iniia iiaeaeueoiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo AeI aeey iiaeo noaeai c
o?aooaaiiyi caoenoo ii?y.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeine?aeaeai? iaoaii-o?ce/i? oa
iaoaii-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa?iiieanoe/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo ?cio?iiieo
iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy iioeiaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
AeI c oeeo iaoa??ae?a. Iie?auai? iiaa?oi? oa?oy oa oiiae iiaea/? aiaee a
ciio oa?oy AeI, ye? caaacia/othoue aeieia?/iee caoeno ioi/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua – ii?y a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?icaeoeo, oiia ?iaioe canoiniaoaaieo iaoa??ae?a oa
eiin-o?oeoe?e AeI oa AeI ?ic?iaeaia ?oiy eeaneo?eaoe?y ca iciaeaie
niieo/aiiy c caai?oiith aiaeith (a?aee?eo?, cae?eo?), ?iaeii oa?oy
(eiacaiiy, ei/aiiy), aeaeii ciauaiiy (aiaea, ianei oiui) oa
canoiniaoaaiei iaoa??aeai (iaiaoaeaa? – aaeaoo, oaenoie?o, AeNI, aoia,
iie?ai?aee, oi?aeii, oa?ioi?i oa ?io. ? iaoaeaa? – aaa?o, a?iica).

?ic?iaeaia oaeiae eeaneo?eaoe?y ou?eueiaiue AeI ca noaiith eiioaeoo
ou?eueithth/eo aeaiaio?a (oi?oeiaa, iaiaeaoia oa ?io.) oa nooiaiai
caoenoo ii?y a?ae i?io?eaiiy ianea.

?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia, aaaaoinooiaiaaa iaoiaeeea o?eaaeeo eaai?aoi?ieo,
noaiaeiaeo, iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ieaiiai? aenieoaoaoe??
iie?ai?aeieo AeI, yea aeicaieeea noai?eoe iaoeia? iniiae io?eiaiiy
iiaeo eiiiiceoe?eieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa iioeiaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
AeI c ieo, iaa?oiooaaoe ?oi? neoaeaia? aeanoeaino? oa a??ia?aei?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae iae?aneeoe oeyoe ii-aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
AeI. Ni?eueieie e?eoa??yie i?e eaai?aoi?ieo, noaiaeiaeo ? iaoo?ieo
aei?iaoaaiiyo oa ieaiia?e aenieoaoaoe??, ?ic?iaoe? noaoenoe/ii? iiaeae?
aecia/aiiy ia??iaee/iino? ?aiiioo AeI ca oaoi?/iei noaiii oa ?ic?iaoe?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee ??cieo AeI neoaeeee: iaaaioaaeaiiy,
oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy, ciinino?ee?noue, oaeaee?noue ciino, eiao?oe??ioe
oa?oy (eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy), ianoeei – caai?oiaa aiaea, ianei,
i?io?eaiiy ianea a ii?a. Ni?eueieie oiiaaie aenieoaoaoe??: ioi/oth/a
na?aaeiaeua – ii?nueea aiaea.

?ice?eoi iaoai?ci ciino ia?e iie?ia?-iaoae,yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ia?aia-naiiyi iaoaeaaeo /anoi/ie ia iiaa?oith oa?oy iie?ia?ieo c?ace?a
oa cai?iiiii-aaii iaoiae onoiaiiy aeyaeaiiai yaeua. Oea yaeua
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ??cieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a –
?aaeoiieano?a (oaiiieano “Dytron”, aieiei?o, aiieneaeiieano) ?
oa?iiieano?a (iie?ai?aee, iie?aoeeai, iie?i?ii?eai) oa oa?o? a ia?ao c
iaoaeaie iaeeoethaaiue a?aaieo aae?a (o?iiieaaei??aa iie?eooy, a?iica,
ei?ic?eii-no?eea noaeue) i?e ciauoaaii? aiaeith.

?ioaineaia aeenia?aoaaiiy iaoaeo, yeee o?eeoe?eii eiioaeoo? c
aenieiiieaeoey?iei na?aaeiaeuai, iia`ycaia c iaoaiiaeano?oeoe??th
iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a iie?ia??a, ooai?aiiyi iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo niieo/aiue,
i?eieeiaiiyi ?o a iiaa?o-iaa? noai?e?io??ueie ia iaoaeaa?e iiaa?oi?,
?iceeeithaaiiyi oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi ?o o anueiio iiaa?oiaaiio oa??
(A.I.Ai?ioianueeee). I?e oeueiio niinoa-??aa?oueny ciin iiaa?oi? oa?oy
iie?ia?ieo c?ace?a.

C iaoith onoiaiiy aieao iaoaeaaeo /anoie ia i?ioeann ciino aoei
i?iaaaeaii iaiiaiaiiy no?oeoo?e eai?iio a?ao?oii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a iie?ai?ae-a?ao?o iieacaee a?aenooi?noue
iaoaeaaeo /anoie a cii? oa?oy. Aaaaeaiiy a?ao?oo, aeia?iai aaeni?aaioo,
ni?ey? oaeiae aeeo/aiith iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe c ciie o?eeoe?eiiai
eiioaeoo. I?e oeueiio ciaioo?oueny ciin iie?ai?aeieo oa iaoaeaaeo
c?ace?a.

I?aeaeuaiith ciinino?eeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia? oa?oy oa onoiaiith
ooai?aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iaoaeaaeo /anoie c cii? oa?oy ni?eyei
oaeiae canoinoaaiiy a?eueo oaa?aeiai iie?ai?aeo aei/ii? iie?ia??caoe?? –
eai?ieiio ? a?iice c a?eueoei ai?noii ieiaa, oae ye ciaioeeanue
iaoaiiaeano?oeoe?y iae?iiieaeoe iie?ia?o oa ooai?aiiy noai?e?io??uei ia
iiaa?oi? iaoaeo a oiiaao aei?iaoaaiue.

Ii?yae c i?aeaeuaiiyi ciinino?eeino? aaaaeaiiy a?ao?oo ni?ey?
ca?eueoaiith oaa?aeino? (IA) oa i?oeiino? ia noene ( symbol 115 \f
«Symbol» \s 16 s no ) iie?ai?aeo (eai?iio). Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy oeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee niinoa??aa?oueny, yeui ai?no a?ao?oo ??aiee 5%. sseui
ai?no a?ao?oo a?eueoee, cacia/ai? oa?aeoa?enoeee cieaeothoueny. Oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?e iaeiio ai?noia? a?ao?oo oaa?aea iiaa?oiy
aeenia?nii? oace ni?ey? e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oii? /anoeie iie?ia?o, i?e
a?eueoiio ai?noia? oaa?aei? oace aeenia?ni?noue ?? ca?eueoo?oueny ?
aaeni?aoe?ei? caeaoiino? a?ao?oo (a i?eeiyoeo oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa oa
aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a) aeyaeythoueny iacao?aaoaaieie /a?ac noa?e/i?
i?e/eie.

Cieaeaiiy i?oeiino? ( symbol 115 \f «Symbol» \s 16 s ? ) i?e
?icoyaoaaii? iie?ai?aeo c i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo a?ao?oo aeeeeeaia
a?aeiiniei ciaioaiiyi iie?ia?ii? oace ia iaae? a?ao?oiaeo /anoi/ie.

?ic?iaeai? o?e eiino?oeoe?? AeI c iiiie?oieie iie?ai?aeieie aeeaaeeoaie.
Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aaee/ei eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy, oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy
aiaeith, i?e?inoo oaiia?aoo?e ciauoth/i? oa ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee
anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aenie? aioeo?eeoe?ei? aeanoeaino? ia?
i?aeoeiiee c aeaiia aieiaeie ea?iaiaie, aeae? ?aeooue i?aeoeiieee c
oeee?iae?e/iith aioo??oiueith iiaa?oiath, o?ueiia iicaeiaaeieie
eaiaaeaie, aeaiia oa o?ueiia ni??aeueieie eaiaaeaie.

Iaoo?i? aei?iaoaaiiy ia noaeiao aeine?aeieo c?ace?a i?aeoaa?aeeee
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?aeoeiiee?a c aeaiia aieiaeie ea?iaiaie ia
noaeiao, ye? aneieoaoothoueny ia /eno?e aiae?, c o?ueiia iicaeiaaeieie
eaiaaeaie ia aiae?, caa?oaeiai?e aa?aceaii, c aeaiia oa o?ueiia
ni??aeueieie eaiaaeaie – i?e aaeeeiio /ene? ?aaa?n?a aieiaieo iaoai?ci?a
oa iayaiino? aa?aceaieo /anoi/ie.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eiino?oeoe?y i?aeoeiieea c aeaiia aieiaeie i?oaeieie
ia-?aie/eaie, ye? i?e aiaeiiiaeeiaii? oa i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e
i?iaeiathoueny aei ia?eoa???. Aei?iaoaaiiy cacia/aiiai i?aeoeiieea
iieacaee, ui i?e eiai canoinoaaii? onoaiia/ee caci? iiaea aooe ciaioaiee
a 1,2-1,5 ?ace. Ia cacia/aiee i?aeoeiiee c iie?ia?iei aeeaaeeoai
io?eiaii aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai.

Cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia ciauoaaiiy AeI aeaiia ianeaie – o?aaeeoe?eiei oa
aeieia?/ii /enoei, ye? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ae?iaaeai noaeia a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aeiio ieaaaiiy. A i?eaa?aaeieo ?aeiiao, cae?eoeo
aiaeieo aanaeiao aeei?enoiaothoueny aeieia?/ii /enoa ianei aai
ianoeeueia ??aeeia, ye? a?i?iciaaeathoueny a ii?nuee?e aiae?, a?eueo
aeao?oeeoi? oa aei?ia?. Ia cacia/aio iiao nenoaio ciauaiiy io?eiaii
??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioa..

Iaa?oioiaai? a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? ?aaeeie ?iaioe iaiaoaeaaeo oa iaoaeaaeo
AeI ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aaee/ei ciino, eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy oa oeneo
ciauoth/iai na?aaeiaeua a cii? oa?oy aeey iaiaoaeaaeo AeI oa ciino aeey
iaoaeaaeo AeI.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaiaoaeaa? AeI ia iaei-, na?aaeiuei- oa
aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao i?aoeththoue a ?aaeei? iai?a??aeeiiiai oa?oy,
iaoaeaa? i?aeoeiieee – a ?aaeei? ??aeeiiiai.

Iaeiae, i?e iaai?e oi?i? ciauoth/eo ea?iai?a (aeaa aieiaeo na?iiaeaeieo
ea?iaie, ?icoi/aieo a?eueoei ?aae?onii), aeeiiaieo a iie?ai?aeieo AeI,
oa ciai-oaii? aeiaaeeie i?aeoeiiee?a iiaeeeaee ia?ao?ae ?o ia ?aaeei
?iaioe i?e ??aeei-iiio oa?o?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?y iie?ai?aeieo AeI i?iaiaeyoueny i?e
ciauaii? caai?oiith aiaeith – aeieia?/ii /enoei iaoa??aeii.

Anoaiiaeaia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae o?eaaeeie eaai?aoi?ieie,
noai-aeiaeie oa iaoo?ieie aei?iaoaaiiyie ? ieaiiaith aenieoaoaoe??th
iie?ai?aeieo oa iie?ai?aeieo, iaiiaiaieo a?ao?oii, AeI iaei- (Da?.a.
symbol 163 \f «Symbol» \s 14 F 150 ii, L symbol 187 \f «Symbol» \s 14 »
400 ii), na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo (Da?.a. symbol 163 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 F 780 ii, L symbol 187 \f «Symbol» \s 14 » 3200 ii)
ii?nueeeo noaeai ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ciinino?eeino? i?e oiia?
aeiaea?aeaiiy iaaii? oaoiieia?? ae?ia-ieoeoaa.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
aenieoaoaoe?? ii?nueeeo noaeai cai?iiiiiaaia oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
?ic?aooieo ia??iaee/iino? ?aiiioo AeI ca oaoi?/iei noaiii, yea aeicaiey?
ca?eueoeoe i?ae?aiiioi? ia??iaee oa ?ic?aooaaoe ?o e?euee?noue ca aanue
ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? noaeia ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ca aaee/eiaie
ieoiieo ciin?a iaiaoaeaaeo aeeaaeeo?a AeI.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue oa iiaeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue cai?iiiiiaai? aenieoaoaoe?ei? e?eoa??? ioe?iee
AeI, ye? aeicaieythoue i?e ii-aeaeueo?e ?oi?e no?oeoo?ecaoe??, ia iniia?
c?a?aieo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, ia?aeoe aei ?ic?iaee oaooiia aai ?Ae aeey
??cieo oei?a AeI aeey noaeai ??ciiiai?oiiai oiiiaaeo, i?ecia/aiiy oa
?aeiio ieaaaiiy. Aei cacia/aieo e?eoa???a a?aeianai? – aaciaea
ii?aieaanoaa, ?aeii ieaaaiiy, aeieia?/ia /enoioa iaoa??ae?a oa caoeno
ioi/oth/i-ai na?aaeiaeua.

Ni?eueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye? iia`ycoaaee cai?iiiiiaai? e?eoa??? c
iiia?aaei?ie aeaieie eaai?aoi?ieo, noaiaeiaeo oa iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue
iiaeo AeI neoaeeee – aenieoaoaoe?y AeI a na?aaeiaeu? ii?nueei? aiaee,
iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy, ciinino?ee?noue, ciauaiiy aiaeith
aai ianeii, iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue i?io?eaiiy ianea a ii?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?
ii?aieaanoaa aaoi?ii, a ia??iae c 1961 aei 1963 ??., ia 16
iaeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao c ae?aiao?ii a?aaieo aae?a aei 150 ii aoee
anoaiiaeai? o?e eiino?oeoe?? iiaeo AeI c iiiie?oieie aeeaaeeoaie c
iie?ai?aeo (eai?iiia?ao?oo), io?eiai? eeooyi i?ae oeneii c ianooiiith
iaoai?/iith ia?iaeith.

Iiaa oaoiieia?y ?aiiioo AeI, ye? iathoue aenieo ciinino?ee?noue, aoea
ia?aaeaia *i?iiii?nueeiio oeaio?aeueiiio i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeiio
ath?i (*OeIEA, ca?ac THAEIAe?IO), aea ia i?ioyc? ianooiieo 10 ?ie?a aeey
noaeii?aiiioo aoei aeaioiaeaii 245 eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo i?aeoeiiee?a.
Ia?aaeaia oaoiieia?y iineo-aeeea aacith aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo iiiie?oieo eai?ieiiiaeo AeI ia aeine?aeiiiaoai?/iiio
ae?iaieoeoa? THAEIAe?IOo, anoaiiaeaieo a?eueoa i?ae ia 300 na?aaeiuei-
oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao *i?iiii?nueeiai oa ?ioeo ia?iieaanoa, a
oaeiae i?e aoae?aieoeoa? oa ?aiiio? noaeai i?aei?e?inoaaie I?inoaei?iio
(a?eueoa i?ae ia 4300 noaeiao). Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
ioe?iee no?ie?a neoaeae AeI aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe i?ae?aiiioiee ia??iae
noaeai oa aecia/eoe e?euee?noue ?aiiio?a AeI ca aanue no?ie
aenieoaoaoe?? noaeia.

Aeei?enoaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee AeI ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a ?oiuei? aenieoaoaoe?? aeicaiey? ia?aeoe aei ?ic?iaee
oaooiia aai ?Ae ia canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oei?a AeI ia noaeiao
??ciiiai?oiiai oiiiiaeo, i?ecia/aiiy oa ?aeiio ieaaaiiy.

Iaoa??aee oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aaoi?a
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaoeia?e ?iaio? c? nooaeaioaie, aeeieiiiiio
i?iaeooaaii?, i?e /eoaii? eo?no “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeianai? ia caoeno.

1. Iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiee, aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee i?aeo?ae
aei ?icaeoeo, i?aeaeuaiith iaae?eiino?, aeiaaia?/iino?,
?aiiioii?eaeaoiino? oa aeieia?/ii? /enoioe AeI oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoaii-o?ce/ieo oa iaoaii-o?i?/ieo aeanoe-ainoae oa?iiieanoe/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo ?cio?iiieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa aecia/aiiy
eiino?oeoe?e AeI.

2. Iaoai?ci ciino eiioaeooth/eo iiaa?oiiue iie?ia?-iaoae a oiiaao ?iaioe
AeI, ia i?aenoaa? yeiai aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee aeey AeI iiaee eiiiiceoe?eiee
iaoa??ae – iie?ai?ae, iaiiaiaiee a?ao?oii.

3. Eiiieaenia aaaaoinooiaiaaa iaoiaeeea eaai?aoi?ieo, noaiaeiaeo oa
iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a ? i?aeoeiiee?a (caaaeuei?
e?eoa??? – iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy, ciinino?ee?noue,
i?io?eaiiy ianea a ii?a oa ?io.), ia iniia? yei? aoee io?eiai?
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee oa aeanoeaino? iie?ia?ieo
iaoa??ae?a, cai?iiiiiaai? iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? AeI, aecia/ai?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? ?aaeeie oa?oy a iie?ai?aeieo AeI, ui aeicaieeei ia?aeoe
aei oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy iie?ai?aeieo AeI ia ii?nueeeo noaeiao.
Ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie o?eaaeeo eaai?aoi?ieo,
noaiaeiaeo oa iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue ? ieaiiaith aenieoaoaoe??th
ii?nueeeo iaei-, na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeai ia iniia?
ii??aiyiiy ciinino?eeino? c?ace?a c iie?ai?ae?a oa i?aeoeiiee?a c ieo, c
iaoith i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a??ia?aeiino? oa iaa?oioiaaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii?
aaaaoinoo-iaiaai? eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee.

4. Iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e iie?ai?aeieo AeI aeey noaeai,
ye? aenieoaoothoueny ia /eno?e aiae?, aiae?, caa?oaeiai?e aa?aceaieie
/anoeaie, aeey noaeai c aaeeeei /eneii ?aaa?n?a a?aaieo aae?a,
oii?ii-iii?ieo AeI ?c ciaioaieie onoaiiai/ieie caci?aie, ui ni?ey?
ca?eueoaiith i?ae?aiiioiiai ia??iaeo.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aaeei?a a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai oa?oy i?e i?iaaaeaii?
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a, noaiaeiaeo oa
iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue iie?-ai?aeieo AeI, i?e ieaiia?e aenieoaoaoe??
iaiaoaeaaeo AeI, ye? i?aoeththoue a ?aaeei? iai?a??aeeiiiai oa?oy,
iaoaeaaeo – ??aeeiiiai. Iiaeeeaa noai?aiiy iie?ai?aeieo iiiie?oieo AeI,
ui i?aoeththoue a ?aaeei? ??aeeiiiai oa?oy. Oe? aeai? iio??ai? aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy i?ae?aiiioieo ia??iae?a noaeai oa ?ic?aooie?a ao?aoe
iiooaeiino? noaeiiaeo neeiaeo onoaiiaie a AeI.

5. ?ic?iaea iniia oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa AeI c iiiie?oieie aeeaaeeoaie
c iie?ai?ae?a, iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a ioe?iee no?ie?a neoaeae AeI ca
oaoi?/iei noaiii, aenieoaoaoe?eieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a
AeI (aaciaea ii?aieaanoaa, ?aeii ieaaaiiy, aeieia?/ia /enoioa
iaoa??ae?a, i?eno?i? aeey caoenoo ii?y), ui ni?ey? iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo, ca?eueoaiith no?ie?a neoaeae AeI ii?nueeeo ? ??/ei-aeo noaeai
oa caoenoo ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? iaoeia? oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Aeine?aeaeai?
iaoaii-o?ce/i? oa iaoaii-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa?iiieanoe/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a, aecia/ai? eiino?oeoe?? iiiie?oieo
iie?ai?aeieo AeI. Aea/aii iaoai?ci oa?oy, iniaeeainoae ciino iie?ia?ieo
oa iaoaeaaeo c?ace?a i?e ciauaii? aiaeith oa iaa?oioi-aaii iaoai?ci
ci?oeiaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? iie?ai?aeieo c?ace?a oa AeI c
iie?ai?ae?a, iaiiaiaieo a?ao?oii. Ia iniia? canoiniaoaaieo eiino?oeoe?e
? iaoa??a-e?a ?ic?iaeai? eeaneo?eaoe?? AeI oa ?oi?o ou?eueiaiue.
?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea o?eaaeeo eaai?aoi?ieo, noaiaeiaeo oa
iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue iie?ai?ae-ieo AeI, a??ia?aei?noue yei?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ?acoeueoaoaie o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? iie?-ai?aeieo AeI
a?eueoa i?ae ia 4600 noaeiao. ?ic?iaeai? iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe??
iie?ai?aeieo AeI oa iniiae oaoiieia?? ?o ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaa?oioiaai?
?aaeeie a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai oa?oy a iaiaoaeaaeo oa iaoaeaaeo AeI.
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooie?a no?ie?a neoaeae AeI oa AeI ca oaoi?/iei
noaiii. Cai?iiiiiaai? aenieoa-oaoe?ei? e?eoa??? ioe?iee AeI, ye?
aeicaieythoue ia?aeoe aei ?ic?iaee oaooiia aai ?Ae ia canoinoaaiiy
??cieo oei?a AeI ia a?aeiia?aeieo noaeiao ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia-/aiiy
oa ?aeiio ieaaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi caoenoo ii?y.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoiaeeea, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iaioe aaoi?a, a oaeiae aeai? i?i aeei?enoaiiy a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iaaiai?thaa-eeny oa noaaeai? ia: Ia?o?e
ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? ii canoinoaaiith ieanoian oa neioaoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a a noaeiiaoaeoaai? oa noaeii?aiiio?, Ia?o?e Oe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue canoinoaaiiy ieanoian a
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, can?aeaii? eaoaae?e noaeii?aiiioo Iaeanueeiai
?inoeoooo ?iaeaia??a ii?nueeiai oeioo (I??IO, ca?ac IAeIO), i?iaaaeaiiio
o ca`yceo c a??ciith nan??th, ui i?ioi-aeeea, a?aeae?eaiiy oaoi?/ieo
iaoe AI O?N?, oaoi?/ieo ia?aaeao ii ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiai? oaoi?ee
Aeeeianueei? noaeii?aiiioii-oaoi?/ii? noaioe?? Iaeani?nuee?eai?ii —
o?anoo, ii?oioeioo Iaeanueeiai ii?nueeiai oi?aiaaeueiiai ii?oo oa
Iaeanueeiai N?C ?2, nai?ia?? oa a/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa AI O?N?, ae?oa?e i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaaniianuee? /eoaiiy”,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
IAeIO, O?ao?e, *aoaa?o?e, I`yo?e oa Oino?e Oe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?ai-oe?yo “Iia? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??
iaa/aiiy a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie”, ia neiiic?oi? i?aeia?iaeii?
aenoaaee c yooeiao “Iaeana aio-oio symbol 162 \f «Symbol» \s 14 c 96”,
ia Ae?oa?e i?aeia?iaei?e aenoaaoe? ii noaeiiieaanoao, noaeiiaoaeoaaiith
oa ?icaeoeo ii?o?a “Iaeana-96”, i?aaenoaaieeaie i?ia?aeieo o??i ii
ae?iaieoeoao aeaeaeaoaeieo ou?eue-iaiue oa ?oo??a – i?iaoeueei? “BLOHM
+ VOSS”, aieeaiaenueei? “LAGERSMIT” oa o?inueei? “KAMEWA”.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aaoi?a iioae?eiaai? o aeaeaiiyo AI N?N?
| 1, 5, 6|, ia ?iaioo | 5 | ? iineeaiiy a ioae?eaoe?yo ?ioeo aaoi??a,
ia ?iaioe | 5, 6,27 | ? iineeaiiy a aeaio eaiaeeaeaonueeeo
aeena?oaoe?yo, aeieoi?nuee?e. Iineeaiiy ia ?iaioo |10| aeei?enoaii i?e
ae?aaeeoaoe?? noaeiiiaoai?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo IAeIO a A?eoainueeiio
?inoeooo? ii?nueeeo ?iaeaia??a. ?iaioe | 9, 10, 11, 18 | aoee a?ae?a?ai?
i?aaenoaaieeaie A?eoainueeiai ?inoeoooo ii?nueeeo ?iaeaia??a oa
iai?aaeai? aei Eiiaeiia, a a?ae?ioaeo ?inoeoooo.

Ca?oe i?i aeeiiaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o iai?aaeyeenue oa aoee
aeei?enoai? a I?i?noa?noa? ii?nueeiai oeioo oa *OeIEA, Aeee?anueeith
noaeii?aiiioii-oaoi?/iith noaioe??th Iaeani?nuee?eai?iio?anoo,
Oeaio?aeueiei iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei ?inoeoooii oaoiieia??
noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy (OeIAe?ON) oa THAEIAe?IO.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeiaeo ocaaaeueiaiue oa
iaoeiai- oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 27 ?ia?o (aac
ni?aaaoi??a – 11, aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa – 1).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, 14 ?icae?e?a iniiaii? /anoeie, aeniiae?a, nieneo ?c 184
aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoea, i?noeoue 297 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo,
?enoie?a oa 39 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ?icae?e? 1 iiaeaii aiae?c aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeaeaeaoaeieo
iaeaaeiaiue ii?nueeeo oa ??/eiaeo noaeai.

Ia?oei aaeioiaei noaeiii i?eeiyoi ?aooaaoe iiaoaeiaaiee a Aiae?? a 1838
?ioe? ia?iieaa “A?o?iaae” (?en.1.1,a), ia yeiio aoee canoiniaai?
aaeaooia? AeI (?en.1.1,a). A aeaaaeoeyoeo ?ieao cai?noue aeao?oeeoiiai
aaeaooa (“cae?cia” aaayeiaa aea?aai) ii/aee canoiniaoaaoe aoie, a
o?eaeoeyoeo-ni?ieiaeo – oaenoie?oe oa aea?a-aiieanoeee, a i`yoeaeanyoeo
– a Aiae?? Orcot, a oanoeaeanyoeo-naieaeanyoeo – iie?ai?aee (I??IO,
OeIAe?ON, *OeIEA oa ?io.), a ainueieaeanyoeo – iie?ai?aee, iaiiaiai?
a?ao?oii, eaiaaenueeee ieanoee Thordon, neiaaio?nueeee Feroform
(ciauaiiy aiaeith), aiae?enueeee Railko (ciauaiiy ianeii) oiui.

C o?eaeoeyoeo ?ie?a ii/aee canoiniaoaaoe oaeiae a?iicia?, aaa?oia?
i?aeoeiieee eiacaiiy oa i?aeoeiieee eaoaiiy (ciauaiiy ianeii).

?en.1.1. Ia?oee aaeioiaee ia-

?iieaa “A?o?iaae”: a – aeae caieo,a–

aeaeaeaoaeia iaeaaeiaiiy, a?aaiee aae

? e?iiooaei, 1 – ?aaeoeoi?,2 –ia?i-

aa iaoeia, 3– eioae, 4 – aeaeaeaoaeia

iaeaaeiaiiy, 5–a?aaiee aae oa a?aa-

iee aaeio, 6 – e?iiooaei

A AeI, ye? ciauothoueny ianeii, aeei?enoiaothoueny neeaaei? ei?iia?
ou?eueiaiiy iaiaeaoiiai oa oi?oeaaiai oeio oae, iai?eeeaae, i?iaoeueei?
o??ie «BLOHM+VOSS» — «SIMPLEX», «SIMPLEX-COMPACT”, oaaaenueei?
“CEDER-VALL” oa ?io.

?in?enueeei A.I.OeIAe?IO oa aia?eeainueeith o??iith “IIA?L” ?ic?iaeai?
??aeeie oa ianea, ye? a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny a ii?nuee?e aiae?.

Ia ?en.1.2 iiaeaia ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii eeaneo?eaoe?y AeI no/anieo
noaeai.

?en.1.2. Eeaneo?eaoe?y aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue ii?nueeeo

? ??/eiaeo noaeai ca iciaeaie niieo/aiiy c caai?oiaith aiaeith,

aeaeo oa?oy, ?iaeo ianoeea oa iaoa??aeaie aeeaaeeo?a i?aeoeiiee?a

Iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue o i?aeaioiaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei canoinoaaiiy
??cieo AeI aeey noaeai on?o eean?a, i?ecia/aiue oa ?aeii?a ieaaaiiy.

A ?icae?e? 2 i?eaaaeaii aiae?c oiia ?iaioe aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue,
aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a oa a?aaieo aae?a.

A AeI c iaiaoaeaaeie aeeaaeeoaie ianoeeii ? aiaea, yea ia? iecueeo
a`yce?noue, i?eaeecii a 40 ?ac?a iaioa, ? oiaueio iano/iai oa?o a n?i
?ac?a iaioo i?ae o ianae (A.A.Aea?ya?i, A.E.Ae`y/eia). O?aaeeoe?eii
aeiaaeeia AeI neeaaeaea aaee/eio, ui aei??aith? /ioe?ueii ae?aiao?ai.
Oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy iaeeoethaaiue aae?a a AeI – 3-10 i/n, i?e
aeei?enoaii? aaeiiiai?ioiiai i?eno?ith – 0,1 i/n. Oaiia?aoo?a a?ae 15iN
i?e ciauoaaii? aiaeith ? aei 70iN i?e ciauoaaii? ianeii (I.A.?oa?i,
A.?.Aaoa??aa).

?aiiio AeI iia`ycaiee c iinoaiiaeith noaeia a aeie oa aaeeeeie
aeo?aoaie.

A ?icae?e? 3 aeeiiaii aiae?c eiino?oeoe?e, ia?aaaa oa iaaeie?e?a
aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue ??cieo oei?a.

Aei iniiaieo ia?aaaa AeI, ye? ciauothoueny oa ioieiaeaeothoueny aiaeith,
ne?ae a?aeianoe ?o aeieia?/io aaciaeo oa a?aenooi?noue neeaaeiiai
ei?iiaiai ou?eueiaiiy. Aei iniiaieo iaaeie?e?a – iaiaaeai? iaaaioaaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, iaiaaeaiee no?ie neoaeae AeI oa iiaeeea? iioeiaeaeaiiy
a?aaieo aae?a aiane?aeie eiioaeoo c ii?nueeith aiaeith.

Aei iniiaieo ia?aaaa AeI, ye? ciauoththoueny oa ioieiaeaeothoueny
ianeii, (?iiae? ? ieanoe/ieie ianoeeaie) ne?ae a?aeianoe o?eaaeee no?ie
neoaeae AeI oa a?aaieo aae?a. Aei iniiaieo iaaeie?e?a – caa?oaeiaiiy
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua aiane?aeie aeo?eaiiy ianea a ii?a c ei?iiaeo
ou?eueiaiue oa iayai?noue neeaaeiiai ei?iiaiai ou?eueiaiiy.

C?a?ai? aaoi?ii noaoenoe/i? aeai? ii ia?iieaanoaao Oe?a?ie iieacothoue,
ui noaeia c AeI, ye? ciauothoueny aiaeith, ca noaiii ia 1994 ??e,
neeaaeaee a *i?iiii?nueeiio – 47%, a Acianueeiio – 67,3 %, a
Aeoiaenueeiio – 78,9 %, a Aei?i?ianueeiio – 100 %. Ca inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y ia noaeiiaa?oao Oe?a?ie oa ca ?oaaaeai a iniiaiiio
aoaeothoue noaeia c AeI, ye? ciauothoueny ianeii.

A ?icae?e? 4 iiaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoa??aee aeeaaeeo?a aeaeaeaoaeieo
i?aeoeiiee?a, eiino?oeoe?? oa c?iaeaii ?o aiae?c.

Iaoa??ae aeeaaeeo?a AeI aecia/a? ?o eiino?oeoe?th (?en.4.1), ??ae
ianoeea oa no?iee neoaeae. Ia ?en.4.1,a cia?aaeaia noaia iaei??? c
eiino?oeoe?e aaeaooiaeo, oaenoie?oiaeo oa aoii-iaoaeaaeo i?aeoeiiee?a,
ia ?en.4.1,a – aea?aaiieanoeeiaeo, ia ?en.4.1,a – i?aeoeiiee?a c aoie
aeey iaaaeeeeo aae?a, 4.1,a – aaa?oiaeo.

?en.4.1. Eiino?oeoe?? aeeaaeeo?a

aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a: 1 – aeea-

aeeo i?aeoeiieea; 2 – aeaeaeaoaeia

aooeea; 3 – aeaeaeaoaeia o?oaa

A aeaiee /an iie?ai?aei? AeI aeaioiaeythoueny iiiie?oieie aac ea?iai?a ?
eaiaaie ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi?, ui ni?ey? iia??oaiith oiia ioieiaeaeaiiy
? aeeeeea? o?eaaea ciaioaiiy onoaiiai/ieo caci??a (?en.4.2).

A 1994?. ia noaeiao *i?iiii?nueeiai II (a ii?yaeeo aeei?enoaiiy)
canoini-aoaaeeny aaa?oia? oa eai?ieiiia? AeI, a Acianueeiio oa
Aeoiaenueeiio – oaenoie?oia?, aoii-iaoaeaa?, eai?ieiiia?, aaeaooia?,
aaa?oia?, a Aei?i?ianueeiio – aoiia?.

?en.4.2. Aeeiai?ea ci?ie caci-

??a eai?ieiiiaeo AeI a caeaaeii-

no? a?ae no?ieo aenieoaoaoe?? ca oca-

aaeueiaieie aeaieie aeieiaeo ia-

eyae?a 64 AI?O c Da?.a. =335-360

ii (A.I.?e?ca?ia): 1– aioo??oi?e

ae?aiao?; 2 – onoaiiai/iee caci?;

3 –ae?aiao? iaeeoethaaiiy a?aaiiai

aaea

A ?icae?e? 5 i?eaiaeyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i ia?niaeoeai? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue oa canoinoaaiiy a aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiieeao iia?
iie?ia?i? iaoa??aee.

Ca?aeii c aeaieie A.?.sseia? (H.R.Jakobi), iioae?eiaaieie o 1957 ?.,
aaaaeaiiy aei iie?ai?ae?a aei 10 % a?ao?oo i?aeaeuo? ?o ciinino?ee?noue
oa ciaioo? eiao?oe??io oa?oy (eiio?o?ei – noaeue, ianoeei – aiaea).

Aaoi?ii o 1960 ?. aeey ia?oeo ii??aiyeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
a?ae?a?ai? oae? iia? iie?ia?i? iaoa??aee: oa?ii?aaeoeai? – oaiiieanoe
(aieiei?o, AA-4), aiieneaeiieano (AAe-6), oaiiieano “Dytron” (iaoa??ae
AeI ca?oa?aeieo noaeai), oa?iiieanoe/i? – iie?ai?aee (eai?ii I-6,
aoi?eiiee eai?ii, eai?ii c 10% ai?noii a?ao?oo), iie?i?ii?eai,
iie?aoeeai, aaeaoo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioyaii 12890 aiaeei i?e ciauaii? aiaeith aeyaeee
iaea?eueoo ciinino?ee?noue eai?iio c 10% a?ao?oo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioyaii 1500 aiaeei i`yoe eiino?oeoee eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo
i?aeoeiiee?a iieacaee, ui iaea?eueo aenie? aeanoeaino? (a ii?yaeeo
ciaioaiiy) iaee i?aeoeiieee c aeaiia aieiaeie na?iiaeaeieie ea?iaiaie,
aeaaeeee oeee?iae?e/iee aac ea?iai?a ? eaiaaie, c o?ueiia eaiaaeaie,
?icoaoiaaieie i?ae eooii a 120i iica iaaaioaaeaiith ciiith. I?aeoeiieee
c aeanyoueia ieaieaie oa aoiia? oeio “Aoae??/” iaee iecuee?
aeanoeaino?.

Ia neiino?oeiaaiiio aaoi?ii noaiae?, yeee ?i?ooaaa ?iaioo AeI, aoee
i?iaaaeai? aeeiai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy i?e iayaiino? aa?aceaiiai na?aaeiaeua
i?ioyaii 11 i?nyoe?a (1700 aiaeei), ye? aeyaeee iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe
eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo (10% a?ao?oo) AeI.

Ca aeaieie A.I.?ai?iaa aaaaeaiiy aei eai?iio a?ao?oo (a?ae 1 aei 5 %)
??cei cieaeo? a?aieoeth i?oeiino? ia ?ic?ea oa caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
a?aieoe? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo (1965 ?.).

I?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e a AeI, aiane?aeie iiaea/? iaaeinoaoiuei?
e?eueeino? aiaee, a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeieaaeaiiy i?aeoeiiee?a,
ca?eueoo?oueny caci?, aea i?aeoeiie-ee i?iaeiaaeothoue ii?iaeueii
i?aoethaaoe. (A.I.?e?ca?ia, E.O.Aaeaoeueeee, O.I.Aaaa-aiai, 1980 ?.).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?.A.Nieiaa oa I.I.Eenaieiaa (1995 ?.) iieacaee, ui
iiaea/a aiaee i?e oaiia?aoo?? 45iN cia/ii ca?eueoo? ciin eai?ieiio i?e
oa?o? ii a?iic? A? 010Oe2.

TH.I.Co?a oa E.A.Ooi?oeeia a 1982 ?ioe? cai?iiiioaaee aeey aeeaaeeo?a
AeI canoiniaoaaoe iie?ai?ae aeaeeii, ciin yeiai a 1,5-2 ?ace, a
aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy a 2,5-3 ?ace iaioa i?ae o eai?ieiio.

A ?icae?e? 6 i?eaaaeai? aeanoeaino? oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i?
iieacieee iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a.

C iaoith ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iie?ai?aeieo AeI ia na?aaeiuei- oa
aaeeeioiiiaaeieo ii?nueeeo noaeiao aoee i?iaeiaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iie?ai?ae?a – eai?iio c 5% ai?noii a?ao?oo oa eai?ieiio.

O?eaaeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, i?ioyaii 930 aiaeei, i?aeaeaaaeeny 5 ia?
oa?oy. Oe? iaoa??aee i?e ciauoaaii? aiaeith i?aoethaaee c a?iicith,
o?iiieaaei??aei iie?eooyi oa ei?ic?eii-no?eeith noaeeth.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia iiaea?i?ciaaieo iaie iaoeiao oa?oy A?-5I,
ye? i?aoeththoue ca noaiith oi?oeaaiai eiacaiiy o?ueio oeee?iae?e/ieo
ieanoianiaeo c?ace?a ii iaoaeaaiio e?eueoeaa? (Aen? = 100 ii).

Ioe?iea ciinino?eeino?, eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy, noaio iiaa?oi? oa?oy,
iiaco/ino? oa noa??iiy iie?ia??a i?e ciauoaaii? aiaeith i?iaiaeeeany i?e
??cieo cia/aiiyo oeneo oa oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee
?aaeueiei oiiaai aenieoaoaoe?? AeI.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aeaieo ii??aiyeueii? ciinino?eeino? onoaiiaethaaeanue
aaaiaa oa e?i?eia ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy.

A oaaeeoe? 6.1 iiaeai? ii??aiyeuei? cia/aiiy cniinino?eeino? oa cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy iniiaieo aei?iaoaaieo iaoa??ae?a aeeaaeeo?a AeI
(c?acee) oa iaeeoethaaiue a?aaieo aae?a (e?eueoey) i?e oaeaeeino?
eiacaiiy 2 i/n(ianoeei — aiaea). Ca iaeeieoeth ciino c?ace?a i?eeiyoi
ciin c?ace?a c eai?iio c 10%-iei ai?noii a?ao?oo, a ca iaeeieoeth ciino
e?eaoeue – ciin ei?ic?eii-no?eei? noae? 10O18I9O, aei?iaoaaieo noi?nii
i?e iaaaioaaeaii? 0,2 IIa.

Aaaaeaiiy aei eai?iio 5% a?ao?oo ni?ey? iaeneiaeueiiio i?aeaeuaiith
oaa?aeino?, a 5% oa 10% — i?aeaeuaiith ciinino?eeino?.

I?e ciauaii? aiaeith iie?ia??a, ui i?aoeththoue a ia?? c iaoaeaie,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aianaiiy ia iie?ia?io iiaa?oith oa?oy /anoie iaoaeo.
Aaaaeaiiy a eai?ii a?ao?oo aei 10% ni?ey? oiia?eueiaiith
iaoaiiaeano?oeoe?? i?e?iiieaeoe, ooai?aiith iecueeiiieaeoey?ii? oac?,
yea i?iieea? a noai?e?io??ueie iaoaeo, ui cieaeo? ciin ia?e (aeea.
oaeiae noi?.3, 4 ).

I?e oa?o? ii noae? 10O18I9O oa o?iiieaaei??aiio iie?eooth iaeneiaeueio
ciinino?ee?noue ia? eai?ii, iaiiaiaiee a?ao?oii (10%), i?e oa?o? ii
a?iic? A? 010Oe2 – eai?ieii.

Ia?aae anoaiiaeaiiyi ia iaeioiiaaei? noaeia c iaoith aeai?o
iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo AeI aeey noaeai ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy oa ?aeiio
ieaaaiiy ia iaoeiao, ye? i?aoeththoue ca noaiith iiaiee aeeaaeeo-aae,
aoee i?aeaeai? o?eaaeei aei?iaoaaiiyi i?ioyaii 600 aiaeei o?e
eiino?oeoe?? i?aeoeiiee?a c aeeaaeeoaie, aeaioiaeaieie c iaeiiai
iaoa??aeo – eai?iio c 10%-aei ai?noii a?ao?oo. Ae?aiao? i?aeoeiiee?a
neeaaeaa 78,5 ii, caci? – 0,5 ii, aeiaaeeia 100 ii. Noaeaaee aae iaa
o?iiieaaei??aa iie?eooy. Ianoeei oa ioieiaeaeaiiy – aiaea. ?ici??e
i?aeoeiiee?a a?aeiia?aeaee ?ici??ai AeI noaeai, ia yeeo ieaioaaeinue
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?oeo iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue.

Aaee/eie eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy, oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith, ca?eueoaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e ciauoth/i? oa ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee aecia/aeeny i?e oeneao
a?ae 0,05 aei 0,2 IIa oa oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy 2,8 i/n.

Aia?oa aeeaaeeo? i?aeoeiiee?a aoee aeeiiai? iiiie?oieie. Aia?oa aoee
cai?iiiiiaai? iie?ai?aei? AeI aeey noaeai ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Oaaeeoey 6.1

CAAAeAIA OAAEEOess

aioeo?eeoe(eaieo aeanoeainoae iie(ai(ae(a, aaeaooa, oaiiieanoa ia?ee
“Dytron” oa aoie ia?ee 8075, aei?iaoaaieo a ia?ao oa?oy c iaoaeaie
oeeie a?aaieo aae(a (Oaeaee(noue eiacaiiy (=2 i(n, ianoeei — aiaea)

Aei?iaoaai( iaoa?(aee oa (o ii(aeiaiiy Ii?(aiyeueiee ciin i?e oeneo, IIa
Eiao(oe((io oa?oy

Aeeaaeeo( Iaeeoeth- 0,2 0,6 1,2 1,8 0,2 0,6 1,2 1,8

(c?acee) aaiiy (e(eueoey) c?acee e(eueoey c?acee e(eueoey c?acee
e(eueoey c?acee e(eueoey

Eai?ii c

10 % a?ao(oo* Ei?ic(eii-no(eea noaeue

1,00

1,00

1,33

1,29

1,66

1,68

0,043

0,023

0,028

Eai?ii 10O18I9O 1,20 11,10 8,35 1,21 17,50 1,45 27,60 1,68 0,027 0,025
0,029 —

Eai?ii c

10 % a?ao(oo

0,94

0,63

3,17

1,25

6,35

1,87

19,10***

2,12***

0,006

0,007

0,012***

Eai?ii c

5 % a?ao(oo** O?iii-

eaaei((aa

1,10

4,32

3,38

6,12

0,006

0,007

Eai?ii iie?eooy 0,285 19,70 4,68 21,8 10,80 31,30 108,00 33,20 0,0066
0,0075 0,024 0,006

Oaiiieano ia?ee “Dytron”

1,97

3,75

4,96

5,63

10,40

8,75

0,027

0,016

0,032

Eai?ii c

10 % a?ao(oo*

1,66

5,56

3,33

14,60

5,55

38,30

8,72

42,00

0,006

0,007

0,016

0,005

Eai?ii c

5 % a?ao(oo**

A?iica

1,34

5,98

3,31

10,42

0,008

0,003

Eai?ii A? I5Oe5N5 0,545 7,06 3,34 9,65 6,94 14,0 10,80 18,20 0,022 0.080
0,022 0,017

Eai?ieii**

0,81 2,12 2,97 2,38 — — — — 0,014 0,017 — —

Oaiiieano ia?ee “Dytron”

0,89

3,55

2,59

12,10

4,66

24,80

7,65

37,00

0,021

0,027

0,028

0,031

Aaeaoo

1,24 2,43 4,34 2,53 10,20 3,03 14,00 4,55 0,025 0,027 0.020 0,030

Eai?ieii** A?iica 0,41 2,96 2,81 2.01 — — — — 0,022 0,024 — —

Aaeaoo A? I10Oe2 0,53 2,02 3,80 12,14 — — — — 0,020 0,022 — —

I?ei(oea: * Aeine(aeaeoaaeenue aeey canoinoaaiiy ia
iaeioiiaaeieo noaeiao (?icae(e 5 oa ?icae(e 6).

** Aeine(aeaeoaaeenue aeey canoinoaaiiy ia na?aaeiuei- oa
aaeeeioiiaaeieo noaeiao (?icae(e 6).

*** Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue i?e ? = 2,4 IIa.

Aeai( ii eai?iio, “Dytron” oa aaeaooo iiaeai( aeey ii?(aiyiiy.

Ia iaeio eiino?oeoe?th i?aeoeiieea ?c cacia/aieo o?ueio aoei io?eiaii
aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoeiiee?a c aeaiia (?en.6.2) oa o?ueiia ni??aeueieie
eaiaaeaie iieacaee, ui ?o aeanoeaino? aoee aeae?eueea ieae/?, i?ae o
?ai?oa aei?iaoaaieo (aeea. ?icae?e 5) c aeaiia aieiaeie na?iiaeaeieie
ea?iaiaie (?en.7.2,a), aeaaeeiai oeee?iae?e/iiai oa c o?ueiia
iicaeiaaei?ie eaiaaeaie (?en.6.1), ?icoaoiaaieie i?ae eooii a 120i iica
iaaaioaaeaiith ciiith.

ssaeua noa??iiy oa iiaco/ino? aeeaaeeo?a ia niinoa??aaeiny.

Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny i?e iai?a??aeeiiiio oa?o?.

I?e ei?ioei/aniiio ciaioaii? aai i?eieiaii? iiaea/? ciauoth/i? oa
ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee ?iaioa iie?ai?aeieo i?aeoeiiee?a i?ioiaeeea
ii?iaeueii.

Ia?aaeaa/aeinue, ui i?aeoeiieee c aeaiia aieiaeie na?iiaeaeieie
ea?iaiaie aeioe?eueii anoaiiaethaaoe ia noaeia, ye? ieaaathoue ia /eno?e
aiae?, c o?ueiia eaiaaeaie – ia noaeia, aenieoaoaoe?y yeeo i?ioiaeeea ia
i?eeiaiaeae?, c aaeioiaeie eaiaa-eaie – ia noaeia, ye? ca oiiaaie
aenieoaoaoe?? iiaeii? aeeiioaaoe aaeeea /enei ?aaa?n?a a?aaieo aae?a.

A iiaeaeueoiio (aeea.?icae?e 8) cacia/ai? ia?aaeoiiae aoee
i?aeoaa?aeaeai?, iaeiae ia aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao aei aeaiiai /ano
anoaiiaeththoueny eai?ieiiia? AeI o?eueee c oeee?iae?e/iith ?iai/ith
iiaa?oiath, ?aooa eiino?oeoe?e i?aeoeiiee?a ua i?aeeyaathoue ?aae?caoe??
ia a?aeiia?aeieo oeiao noaeai.

?en.6.1.Iie?ai?aeiee aeaeaeaoaeiee

i?aeoeiiee c o?ueiia iicaeiaaeieie

eaiaaeaie: 1– aeeaaeeo i?aeoeiieea,

2 —
aeaeaeaoaeia aooeea

?en.6.2.Iie?ai?aeiee aeaeaeaoaeiee

i?aeoeiiee c aeaiia aaeioiaeie ea-

iaaeaie: 1 – aeeaaeeo i?aeoeiieea,

2
– aeaeaeaoaeia aooeea

Iaie cai?iiiiiaaia (a.n. ? 205451) eiino?oeoe?y i?aeoeiieea c
iie?ai?aeiei aeeaaeeoai (?en.6.3), yeee ia? aea? aieia? i?oaei?
ia?aie/ee, ui ooai?ththoue na?iiaeaei? aieia? ea?iaie oa “oiiieia?”
aenooie. I?e ca?eueoaii? oaiia?aoo?e ciauoth/i? oa ioieiaeaeoth/i?
??aeeie aieia? i?oaei? ia?aie/ee aeae-iathoueny aei ia?eoa???,
ca?eueoothoue i?io?aeiee ia?a??c, /a?ac yeee iaaeoiaeeoue a?eueoa
e?euee?noue aiaee. Oe? ia?aie/ee ? iaeii/anii ? eiiiainaoi?aie
ae?aiao?aeueiiai caci?o.

?en.6.3.
Iie?ai?aeiee i?aeoeiiee c aeaiia

i?oaeieie ia?aie/eaie
aeey ca?eueoaiiy iiaea/?

ciauoth/i? oa
ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee, ui iaaeoi-

aeeoue a ciio oa?oy: 1
– iie?ai?aeiee aeeaaeeo, 2 —

“oiiieia?” aenooie, 3 –
i?oaei? ia?aie/ee, 4 –

aeaeaeaoaeia aooeea, 5
– aeaeaeaoaeia o?oaa

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o iie?ai?aeiiai i?aeoeiieea cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe??
ci?ia aioo??oiueiai ae?aiao?a i?ae ae??th aieiae oa oaiia?aoo?e iaioa
i?ae o i?aeoeiiee?a c iiiie?oiei aeeaaeeoai.

Iaaaioaaeiee ?aaeei iii? iaeeo a?aaio aae?a iaaaeeeee, cia/ii ieae/a
aeiionoeiiai aeey iie?ai?ae?a, oiio aieiaiei e?eoa???i ?o
i?aoeacaeaoiino? ne?ae ?aoo-aaoe oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei.

A ?iaio? aeeiiaii oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie oa aecia/aia iaiao?aeia
e?euee?noue ciauoth/i? oa ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee, ui i?iea/o?oueny /a?ac
AeI c iie?ai?aeieie aeeaaeeoaie.

I?e i?iea/oaaii? ia iaioa i?ae 1 i3/aiae caai?oiai? aiaee a iiniao
/anoeio iie?ai?aeiiai AeI (Aea?.a.= 78 ii) aoaea caaacia/aia eiai
ii?iaeueia ?iaioa.

A ?icae?e? 7 iia?aeiiey?oueny i?i ?aaeeie oa?oy a iie?ai?aeieo oa
aoii-iaoaeaaeo i?aeoeiieeao.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (aeea. ?icae?e 6) ia iaoeiao
A?-5I, ui i?aoethaaee ca noaiith oi?oeaaiai oa?oy o?ueio ieanoianiaeo
c?ace?a ii iaoaeaaiio e?eueoeaa?, aoei anoaiiaeaii aieea ci?ie
i?e?iaaiiao??? iiaa?oi? oa?oy ia aaee/eio eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy oa oeneo a
oa?? ciauoaaiiy aiaeith. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi iaaaioaaeaiiy aei 1,2 IIa
oi?noe?noue ca?eueooaaeanue (V= 2 i/n) aei 1,68 iei, eiao?oe??io
oa?oy aei 0,016 (?en.7.1) oene a oa?ia? ianoeea aei 0,01 IIa, aeae?
oe? oa?aeoa?enoeee cieaeoaaeeny, niinoa??aaeinue i?ei?aoethaaiiy
iiaa?oiiue oa a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee aoaeo.

?en.7.1. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa

oa?oy
oa oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? oa?oy a?ae

oeneo:
1– oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy 2 i/n; 2–

oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy 1,3 i/n; 3 – oaeae-

e?noue
eiacaiiy 0,3 i/n

I?e
aei?iaoaaiiyo i?aeoeiiee?a c

eai?iiia?ao?oiaeie aeeaaeeoaie (aeea.

?icae?e 6)
iaea?eueo aenie? aioeo?eeoe?e-

i?
aeanoeaino? i?e ciauoaaii? aiaeith

iaa
i?aeoeiiee c aeaiia aieiaeie na?ii-

aeaeieie
ea?iaiaie (?en.7.2,a) ( =

0,017; ?n=
5 IIa; t= 2 iN), noaeee ?aaeei

ianooiaa
(? = 0,2 IIa) /a?ac 5 aiaeei,

i?e ?=
0,05 IIa – /a?ac 1 aiaeeio.

Aei?iaoaaiiy i?aeoeiieea (?en.7.2,a) c aeaiia ea?iaiaie o??? ae
aeeaeie, aea ?icoi/aieie ?aae?onii 36 ii (?en.7.2,a), oiaoi i?e
aeae?eueea ci?iai?e ao?aei?e e?iioe? ea?iai?a, ye? ooai?ththoue
ciauoth/ee eeei, oa ciaioai?e aeiaaeei? aeoae ?iai/i? iiaa?oi?, i?e
oiiaiiio oeneo 0,2 IIa iieacaee, ui eiao?oe??io oa?oy cieceany aei
aaee/eie 0,007, a i?e ?=0,25 IIa aei 0,005. I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo
cacia/aiiai i?aeoeiieea a?ae`?iieo oene?a a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith ia
niinoa-??aaeiny.

?c aiae?co e?eaeo caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy a?ae /ano, i?eaaaeaio
ia ?en. 7.3, aecia/aii ianoaiiy noaeiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe aeey ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e i?aeoeiiee?a.

Aeey i?aeoeiiee?a c a?eueo iecueeeie cia/aiiyie eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy
i?ioean nieeaaiiy oeaioe oa ia?a?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea
ni?eeia?oueny i?e?iia??aiinoyie iiaa?oi? oa?oy oa ianoeeueiei eeeiii
aiaee, ? a?eueo o?eaaeei, oae ye a?eueoa aeyaey?oueny a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee
aoaeo. I?e oeueiio noaa?e?caoe?y eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy, oeneo a oa??
ianoeea oa i?e??noo oaiia?aoo?e ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee ianoaaaee
iaeii/anii.

?en. 7.2. Eiino?oeoe??

iie?ai?aeieo i?aeoeiiee?a c

na?iiaeaeieie ea?iaiaie

oa aith?e oene?a a oa?? cia-

uaiiy aiaeith: a — c ?aae?o-

nii ?icoi/ee ea?iai?a 25

ii; a – c ?aae?onii ?icoi/-

ee ea?iai?a 36 ii

?en.7.3. Ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa

oa?oy ca /anii aeaeaeaoaeieo

i?aeoeiiee?a c aeeaaeeoaie

?c iie?ai?aeo: 1 -e?oaeee aac

ea?iai?a ? eaiaaie; 2 –e?oa-

eee c o?ueiia eaiaaeaie; 3-

e?oaeee c aeaiia ea?iaiaie;

4–iaa??iee c aeanyoueia ieai-

eaie; 5 –aeanyoea?aiiee; 6 –

aoii-iaoaeaaee oeio“Aoae?e/”

I?e oeneo iaioa 0,2 IIa cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy c?inoaee aeey on?o
eiino?oeoe?e i?aeoeiiee?a.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iieacaee aaeeeo caeaaei?noue aioeo?eeoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae i?aeoeiiee?a a?ae iae?iaaiiao??? ?iai/i? iiaa?oi?. A
i?aeoeiieeao c ieanoianiaeie aeeaaeeoaie aeeiiaiiy eaiaaie a ?iai/?e
cii? cieaeo? oene a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith oa ca?eueoo? cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy.

Ia ?en.7.4 i?eaaaeai? a?ao?ee ci?ie oene?a a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith ii
aeiaaeei? i?aeoeiieea.

Ca aaee/eiith eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy oa oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith
anoaiia-eaii, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny i?e iai?a??aeeiiiio oa?o?.
Aeeeth/aiiy neeaaeaa i?aeoeiiee c aeaiia aieiaeie na?iiaeaeieie
ea?iaiaie, ?icoi/aieie ?aae?onii 36 ii, ?iaioa yeiai i?ae oeneii 0,2 IIa
(V = 2,8 i/n) ii/eiaea i?io?eaoe a ?aaeei? ??aeeiiiai oa?oy. Oae ye ia
noaeiao, ia yeeo onoaiaaethaaeeny AeI c aeeaaeeoaie ?c eai?iiia?ao?oo,
oene ia ia?aaeuoaaa 0,2 IIa, AeI i?aoethaaee a ?aaeei? iai?a??aeeiiiai
oa?oy. Iaeiae aeyaeaia iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy iie?ai?aeieo AeI, ui
i?aoeththoue a ?aaeei? ??aeeiiiai oa?oy. Ca?eueoaiiy oeneo aei 0,25 IIa
? a?eueoa iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie AeI.

?en.7.4. A?ao?e ci?ie oeneo a oa??

ciauaiiy
aiaeith a iie?ai?aeieo i?aeoei-

ieeao i?e
?iaio? c aaeii, iie?eoei o?i-

iieaaei??i
(Aea = 78 ii; S = 0,5 ii; ?=

= 0,2 IIa;
V =2,8 i/n; Q = 0,6 e/oa; L =

= 1,5 Ae):
1 – e?oaeee c aeaiia ea?iaiaie

(?en.7.2,a); 2 – e?oaeee aac ea?iai?a ? ea-

iaaie; 3 –
e?oaeee c o?ueiia eaiaaeaie,

?icoaoiaaieie iica iaaaioaaeaiith

ciiith
(?en.6.1)

?icae?e 8 i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaae?eiino? ?iaioe iie?ai?aeieo
aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a. I?eaaaeaii ia?oee aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy
iie?ai?aeieo AeI ia iaeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao a ia??iae iaoo?ieo
aei?iaoaaiue.

C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai oa?oy, a?aenooiino?
“ca?aeaiiy” a?aaiiai aaea i?e o?eaae?e noiyioe? noaeia aiane?aeie
iaa?yeaiiy aeeaaeeoa i?aeoeiieea, a oaeiae yaeu iiaco/ino? oa noa??iiy
eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo (10% a?ao?oo) AeI ia noaiae?, ui ?i?oo? ?iaioo AeI
(Ae a?.a. = 47 ii) iaeiiai c oei?a noaeai, aaoi?ii aoee i?iaaaeai?
noaoe/i? aei?iaoaaiiy i?aeoeiiee?a o?eaae?noth 6 i?nyoe?a.

?ai?oa (aeea. oaeiae ?icae?e 5) ia cacia/aiiio noaiae?
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe oeeo aea ei?iiaiai ? iiniaiai
eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo i?aeoeiiee?a i?e aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo oa
iayaiino? aa?aceaiiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?e aeine?aeaiiyo ?ic?aooieiaee onoaiiai/iee caci? aoa ca?eueoaiee o
i?aoi?a ?ace.

Ia ?en.8.1 i?eaaaeai? a?ao?ee ?iciiae?eo oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith
ii aeiaaeei? ei?iiaiai iie?ai?aeiiai i?aeoeiieea c o?ueiia eaiaaeaie
(?en. 6.1), a oaeiae iaea?eueoa ciioaia ei?iiaa /anoeia i?aeoeiieea.

?en.8.1. A?ao?ee ci?ie oeneo a

oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith: 1 – V =

=1,6 i/n; 2 – V =0,85 i/n; 3 – V =

=0,5 i/n (? =0,3IIa;Aea = 47ii;

S =0,7 ii; L = 3Ae; noaeaaee aae,

iie?eoee ei?ic?eii-no?eeith

noaeeth 10O18I9O)

Oa?aeoa? ciino aeeaaeeoa iiaeia iiynieoe ae??th iaaaioaaeaiiai a
ei?iia?e /anoei? a?aaiiai aaea oa iaae?iiyi oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy
aiaeith. Aaee/eia ciino eai?iiia?ao?oiaiai AeI aoea aaea?/? iaioa
oaenie?oiaeo, ye? canoiniaothoueny ia noaeiao. I?e/iio, ciin
niinoa??aaany eeoa a ia??iae iiia?aaei?o aei?iaoaaiue i?aeoeiiee?a i?e
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo oa iayaiino? aa?aceaiiai na?aaeiaeua
(850aiae., 3,75% i?neo). ssaeu iiaco/ino? oa noa??iiy iie?ai?aeieo
aeeaaeeo?a i?aeoeiiee?a ia niinoa??aaeiny.

Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ca iai?a??aeeiiei ?aaeeiii oa?oy.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo (10% a?ao?oo) AeI aoee
a?ae?a?ai? i`youe a?oi noaeai c ae?aiao?aie a?aaieo aae?a 24, 46, 78 oa
106 ii. ?aaeeie ?iaioe AeI cacia/aieo noaeai — ? symbol 163 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 F 0,1 IIa, V symbol 163 \f «Symbol» \s 14 F 2,8
i/n.

Ianoeeii oa ioieiaeaeaiiyi AeI neoaeeea caai?oia aiaea.

No?iee neoaeae eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo AeI anoaiiaethaaeeny ca ?acoeueoaoaie
iiaoi?ieo iaeyae?a i?aaenoaaieeaie ii?nueeiai ?aa?no?o, noaeiiaeanieea
oa i?aae-noaaieea I??IOo – aaoi?a i?e i?aeeii? noaeai. Aecia/aeenue
aaee/eie ciino i?aeoeiiee?a oa a?aaieo aae?a.

A 1964-1966 ?ieao AeI c aeeaaeeoaie c eai?iio c 5%-aei ai?noii a?ao?oo
aoee io?eiai? a *OeIEA oa anoaiiaeai? ua ia 22 noaeiao (Aea?.a. = 78-
150 ii), a anueiai ca caiiaeaiiyie i?aei?e?inoa a cacia/aiee ia??iae
aoei aeaioiaeaii 245 iiaeo AeI.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a i`yoe??/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo AeI i?e
iai?a??aeeiiiio oa?o? iieacaa, ui ?o ciinino?ee?noue a 1,5-2 ?ace
ia?aaeuoaaea ciinino?ee?noue oaenoie?oiaeo oa aoii-iaoaeaaeo. Noa??iiy
oa iiaco/ino? eai?iii-a?ao?oiaeo aeeaaeeo?a AeI ia niinoa??aaeiny.

O?eaaeei aeina?aeii aenieoaoaoe?? aeine?aeieo c?ace?a ia noaeiao
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeioe?euei?noue onoaiiaee iie?ai?aeieo AeI c aeaiia
aieiaeie ea?iaiaie ia noaeiao, ye? ieaaathoue ia /eno?e aiae?, c o?ueiia
eaiaaeaie, ?icoaoiaaieie iica iaaaioaaea-iith ciiith, — ia noaeiao, ye?
ieaaathoue a i?eaa?aaeieo ?aeiiao, c aaeioiaeie ea-iaaeaie – ia noaeiao
c aaeeeei /eneii ?aaa?n?a a?aaiiai aaea. Aeey nii?oeaieo noaeai
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy oii?ii-iii?ieo iie?ai?aeieo
AeI (?en.8.2).

?en.8.2. Iie?ai?aeiee oii?ii-

iii?iee ei?iiaee aeaeaeaoaeiee i?ae-

oeiiee: 1 – oii?ia e?eueoea c iie?ai?-

aeo; 2
– aeaeaeaoaeia aooeea; 3 – aeeaaeeo

c
iie?ai?aeo; 4 – aeaeaeaoaeia o?oaa

A ?icae?e? 9 i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aioeo?eeoe?eieo
aeanoeai-noae, iaaaioaaeii? caeaoiino? oa iaae?eiino? ?iaioe iaiiaiaieo
iie?ai?ae?a i?e ciauaii? aiaeith.

?ic?iaeaia ca iaoith o/anoth iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue aeicaieeea aecia/eoe
neoaeaia? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaiiaiaieo iie?ai?ae?a noiniaii aei oiia ?iaioe
AeI aaeeeioiiiaaeieo ii?nueeeo noaeai.

Aeey aei?iaoaaiue aoee neiino?oeiaai? iaoeie oa?oy, ye? i?aoethaaee ca
noaiith iiaiee aeeaaeeo – eiinieueii ?icoaoiaaiee aae (Aea = 58 ii),
aiaeia?/ii noai? ?iaioe iaoei aeey aei?iaoaaiue i?aeoeiiee?a, ye?
canoiniaoaaeeny iaie ?ai?oa (aeea. ?icae?e 6).

Aaee/eia ciino ieanoianiaeo c?ace?a aecia/aeany i?e?iiao?oaaiiyi, ciin
iaoaeaaeo c?ace?a – i?io?eia?aooaaiiyi oa i?e?iiao?oaaiiyi.

Ia ?en.9.1 i?eaaaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiino?, oaa?aeino? oa
ciinino?eeino? iie?ai?aeo-eai?iio, iaiiaiaiiai a?ao?oii, ye?
aeicaieythoue iaa?oiooaaoe aea?? aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue c
iaoith canoinoaaiiy a iaaaioaaeaieo AeI aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeai
iie?ai?aeo-eai?ieiio, iaiiaiaiiai 5% a?ao?oo (i?e oeueiio ai?noia?
a?ao?oo niinoa??aa?oueny iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? ia
noene, oaa?aeino? oa ca?eueoaiiy ciinino?eeino?) (aeea. oaeiae noi?. 3,
4).

?en.9.1.A?ao?ee caeaaeii-

no? aaee/eie a?aieoe? i?oeiino?

ia ?ic?ea, noene, oaa?ae?noue oa

ciinino?ee?noue iie?ai?aeo-eai-

?iio a?ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth: —

a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia ?ic?ea,

-a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia

noene, (aeai? A.I.?ai?iaa)

IA – oaa?ae?noue ca A?eiaeai,

— noia?ia ciinino?ee?noue

c?ace?a, — noia?ia cii-

nino?ee?noue e?eaoeue, aecia/ai? i?e ? = 0,2 IIa, ye noia cia/aiue i?e
V1 = 2 i/n, V2 = 1,3 i/n oa V3 = 0,3 i/n (aeai? aaoi?a, aeea. oaeiae
?icae?e 6).

Ii??aiyeueiei aei?iaoaaiiyi i?aeaeaaaeenue eai?ieii, eai?ieii, iaiia-
iaiee a?ao?oii (5 %), aai ianeii (5%), aai iaeii/anii a?ao?oii ?
ianeii (5% + 5%), ye? i?aoethaaee c a?iicith A? 010Oe2 oa
ei?ic?eii-no?eeith noaeeth 10O18I9O (aoaeiiia ia?a oa?oy
eai?ieii-a?iica A? 010Oe2).

O?eaae?noue aei?iaoaaiue – 260 aiaeei.

Ia iiaa?oi? oa?oy iie?ai?aeieo c?ace?a aeeth/aiue /anoi/ie iaoaeo ia
niinoa??aaeiny. I?e aecia/aii? a?aie/ieo oene?a iiaco/ino? c?ace?a
oaeiae ia niinoa??aaeiny.

I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo eai?ieiio aac iaiiaithaa/?a ciin ?ieee?a iaa aaee/eio
aei 0,5 iei. I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ianeiiaiiaiaiiai eai?ieiio ciin ?ieee?a
ca?eueooaaany aei 7 iei, ia iiaa?oi? oa?oy niinoa??aaeeny nioae. I?e
?aoo? aei?iaoaaiue aaee/eia ciino ?ieee?a aoea aaeueie iaeith ? ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 1-3 iei.

Ia ?en.9.2 i?eaaaeaia ae?aa?aia ii??aiyeueii? ciinino?eeino?
aei?iaoaaieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ia ?en.9.3 i?eaaaeaia ae?aa?aia a?aie/ieo cia/aiue oiiaieo oene?a
iaiia-iaiiai eai?ieiio oa eai?ieiio i?e oa?o? ii a?iic? oa
ei?ic?eiino?ee?e noae?.

?en.9.2. Ae?aa?aia ii??aiyeueii?

ciinino?eeino? ia? oa?oy ieanoia-

na- iaoae i?e ciauaii? aiaeith: a-

?ieee c a?iice; a – ?ieee c ei?i-

c?eii-no?eei? noae?; 1 – aooeea c

eai?ieiio; 2 – aooeea c eai?iei-

io c a?ao?oii;3 – aooeea c eai?i-

eiio c ianeii; 4 -aooeea c eai?i-

eiio c a?ao?oii oa ianeii

?en.9.3.Ae?aa?aia a?aie/ieo cia-

/aiue oiiaieo oene?a ia? oa?oy

ieanoiana-iaoae i?e ciauaii?

aiaeith: a – ?ieee c a?iice; a –

?ieee c ei?ic?eii-no?eei? noae?;

1 – aooeea c eai?ieiio; 2 – aooe-

ea c eai?ieiio c a?ao?oii; 3 –

aooeea c eai?ieiio c ianeii;

4 – aooeea c eai?ieiio c a?ao?-

oii oa ianeii

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aaaaeaiiy a?ao?oo (5%) ca?eueoo?
ciinino?ee?noue oa iaaaioaaeio caeaoi?noue eai?ieiio i?e ?iaio? c
a?iicith oa ei?ic?e-ii-no?eeith noaeeth. Aaaaeaiiy a?ao?oo oa ianea
iaeii/anii aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe eai?ieii, yeee ia? iaea?eueoo
iaaaioaaeio caeaoi?noue i?e ?iaio? c ei?ic?eii-no?eeith noaeeth.

I?e iaaeinoa/? aiaee aeiaoa i?aoethaaa eai?ieii, iaiiaiaiee ianeii.

?acoeueoaoe ae?oaiai aoaio aei?iaoaaiue aeicaieythoue ?aooaaoe
aeioe?eueiei i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo ?ia?o ii aeei?enoaiith oei?i/aieo
AeI c aeeaaeeoaie c iaiiaiaiiai eai?ieiio.

A ?icae?e? 10 iia?aeiiey?oueny i?i aeine?aeaeaiiy aioeo?eeoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae iaiiaiaieo iie?ai?ae?a i?e ciauaii? ieanoe/iei ianoeeii.

Ia?niaeoeaiei aeioe?eueii ?aooaaoe canoinoaaiiy aeey iiniaeo ou?eueiaiue
e?eaoeue c eai?ieiio, iaiiaiaiiai eai?ieiio oa aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
aa??aioo iiaea/? ianoeea (AeI ?c ciauaiiyi aiaeith).

Aei?iaoaaiiy ia? oa?oy ieanoiana-iaoae ca iaoith o/anoth i?iaiaeeeeny ia
iaoeiao oa?oy A?-5I (aeea. ?icae?e 6), aei aocea oa?oy yeeo aoee
aianai? ci?ie, i?ioa noaia aei?iaoaaiue caeeoeeanue eieeoiueith –
oi?oeaaa eiacaiiy ieanoianiaiai (ia?ooiiiai) oa iaoaeaaiai (?ooiiiai)
c?ace?a.

Ii??aiyeueiei aei?iaoaaiiyi i?aeaeaaaeeny c?acee c eai?ieiio, eai?ieiio,
iaiiaiaiiio a?ao?oii (5%), ianeii (5%) oa a?ao?oii ?acii c ianeii (5% +
5%). Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o e?eueeino? iaiiaithaa/a i?eaaaeaii a ?icae?eao
5, 6 oa 9.

Ioe?iea aioeo?eeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iaiiaiaiiai eai?ieiio oa eai?ieiio
i?e ?iaio? a ia?? oa?oy c a?iicith A? 010Oe2 oa ciauaii? ieanoe/iei
ianoeeii Oe?AO?I 201 i?iaiaeeeany ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee: aaee/eie ciinino?eeino?, cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy oa
oaiia?aoo?e a cii? oa?oy.

?aaeeie aei?iaoaaiue – iaaaioaaeaiiy 5,3 IIa oa oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy
0,05 i/n aeiae?aeeny c oiia caa?aaeaiiy iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? a cii?
ciauaiiy oa oa?oy.

Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ca aeaiia iaoiaeaie ciauoaaiiy. I?e
aeei?enoaii? ia?oiai iaoiaeo ianoeei o aocie oa?oy iaoeie iaaeoiaeeei
aacia?a?aii, i?e aeei?enoaii? ae?oaiai – aocie oa?oy caiiaithaaany
ianoeeii o?eueee ia ii/aoeo aei?iaoaaiue.

Ocaaaeueiai? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue aioeo?eeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
cacia/aieo ia? oa?oy i?e noaeiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 10.1.

Oaaeeoey 10.1

Iaoa??ae iie?-

ai?aeieo c?ace?a Oaeaee?noue ciiooaaiiy, iei/aiae Eiao?oe??io

oa?oy

ia?e oa?oy

(noia?ia) iie?ai?aeo a?iice

A?010Oe2

Eai?ieii 0,55/2,34 0,25/1,99 0,30/0,35 0,120/0,180

Eai?ieii c

a?ao?oii 0,55/1,90 0,45/1,54 0,10/0,36 0,105/0,145

Eai?ieii c a?ao?- oii ? ianeii 1,00/2,26 0,70/1,42 0,30/0,84
0,095/0,170

Eai?ieii c

ianeii 0,73/3,86 0,58/1,93 0,15/1,93 0,100/0,175

I?ei?oea: /enaeueiee – aacia?a?aia iiaea/a ianoeea; ciaiaiiee –
iaeii?aciaa.

?icae?e 11 i?enay/aiee aiae?co aaaaoi??/iiai aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe??
iie?ai?aeieo aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo
noaeai.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o?eaaeeo eaai?aoi?ieo oa noaiaeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue oa ieaiiai? aenieoaoaoe?? (ia i?ioyc? o?ueio
aeanyoe?a ?ie?a), io?eiaieo aaoi?ii a IAeIO oa ?ioeie aaoi?aie a
THAEIAe?IO?, OeIAe?ON oa OeIAe?IO?, iieacaa ?o aeia?ee ca?a oa
i?aeoaa?aeea a??ia?aei?noue aeaii? aaaaoi-nooiaiaai? eiiieaenii?
iaoiaeeee.

Aeai? aiae?co iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 11.1.

Oaaeeoey 11.1

I?aai?ca- oe?y ??e Aoaeiiiee

iaoa??ae Iaoa??ae ia inii- a? iie?ai?ae?a Ca?eueoaiiy ciinino?e-eino?
ia?e

AeI — aae

?acoeueoaoe eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa noaiaeiaeo aei?iaoaaiue

I??IO 1960- 1961 Aaeaoo Eai?iiia?ao?o

(10% a?ao?oo) 2,4

I??IO 1961 Aaeaoo Eai?ieii 1,3

I??IO 1961 Eai?ii Eai?iiia?ao?o (10% a?ao?oo) 3,0

OeIAe?ON 1972 Aaeaoo, oaen-oie?o, AeNI, aoia Eai?ieii 1,3-1,9

I??IO, THAEIAe?IO 1988 Eai?ieii Eai?ieiiia?ao?o (5% a?ao?oo)
3,5-11

?acoeueoaoe iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue oa ieaiiai? aenieoaoaoe?? (4600
noaeai)

I??IO 1961 1963 Oaenoie?o, aoia Eai?iiia?ao?o (10% a?ao?oo)
1,5-2,5

I??IO 1961 Eai?ii Eai?iiia?ao?o (10% a?ao?oo) 1,5

I??IO, *OeIEA 1963 1973 Oaenoie?o, aoia Eai?iiia?ao?o (5% a?ao?oo)
1,5

OeIAe?ON 1965 1978 Aaeaoo, oaen- oie?o, AeNI,

aoia Eai?ieii 2-4

OeIAe?IO 1975 Aaeaoo, oaen- oie?o, AeNI,

aoia Eai?ieii 1,3-2,4

THAEIAe?IO 1973 1983 Aaeaoo Eai?ieii 1,5-2,0

THAEIAe?IO IAeIO 1985 1993 Eai?ieii Eai?ieiiia?ao?o (5% a?ao?oo)
1,2-1,5

A ?icae?e? 12 i?eaaaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ia??iaee/iino? ?aiiioo
noaeiiaeo aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue ca oaoi?/iei noaiii.

Aenieoaoaoe?y oa ?aiiio AeI ca oaoi?/iei noaiii aeicaieeoue ca?eueoeoe
ia??iaee i?ae aeieoaaiiyie. Iniiaieie aeaiaioaie, ui aieeaathoue ia
no?ie neoaeae AeI, ? aeeaaeeo? AeI oa ou?eueithth/? aeaiaioe ei?iiaeo
ou?eueiaiue.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia i?e ?ic?aooieo
ia??iaee/iino? aeieoaaiiy noaeai, ye? i?iaeoothoueny iaiiai, a oaeiae
noaeai ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? aenieoaoothoueny.

E?euee?noue ?aiiio?a AeI c cai?iith aeeaaeeo?a ca aanue no?ie neoaeae
noaeia (Z) oa i?ae?aiiioi? ia??iaee aeey iiaeo noaeai iiaeooue aooe
?ic?aoiaai? ia i?aenoaa? cai?iiiiiaaii? aaoi?ii oi?ioee:

O oiae.aiae.noaeia

O oiae.aiae.i?aeoei.

aai

25 E N oiae.aiae.noaeia

a?.aeii. — ono.

U

aea: O oiae.aiae.noaeia – e?euee?noue oiaeiaeo aiaeei, i?ieaeaieo
noaeiii ca aanue

no?ie neoaeae;

O oiae.aiae.i?aeoei. – e?euee?noue oiaeiaeo aiaeei, i?ieaeaieo
noaeiii ca no?ie

neoaeae AeI aac ?aiiioo;

25 – i?iaeoiaaiee no?ie neoaeae noaeia aei ii?aeueiiai /e
o?ce/iiai ciino;

E – eiao?oe??io, yeee aecia/a? no?ie neoaeae caaeaiiai oeio
noaeia aei ii-

?aeueiiai /e o?ce/iiai ciino (iai?eeeaae, aeey
o?ainii?oieo aaeeeioii-

iaaeieo ii?nueeeo noaeai i?eeia?oueny ??aiei 1, aeey
aaeeeioiiiaaeieo

ianaaee?nueeeo noaeai – 2 oiui);

N oiae.aiae.noaeia – e?euee?noue oiaeiaeo aiaeei, ye? i?ioiaeeoue
noaeii ui??/ii

(aecia/a?oueny ia i?aenoaa?
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo);

a?ai.aeii., ii – a?aie/ii aeiionoeiee caci? a AeI (aecia/a?oueny
ii?nueeei

?aa?no?ii);

ono., ii – onoaiiai/iee (iiioaaeiee) caci? iaiaoaeaaeo AeI
(aecia-

/a?oueny ii?nueeei ?aa?no?ii);

U – noia?iee ciin AeI oa a?aaieo aae?a ca 1000 oiaeiaeo aiaeei
aeey iaaii-

ai oeio noaeia (aecia/a?oueny ia i?aenoaa? noaoenoe/ieo
aeaieo).

Aiae?c aeo?a ?aa?no?o oa iioae?eiaaieo aeaieo E.O.Aaeaoeueeei,
O.I.Aaaa-ai?a?i, A.I.?e?ca?iaei aeicaieeee c?a?aoe oa ia?iaeoe
noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i ciine (ii/1000 o.a.) – aaeaooiaeo ? eai?ieiiiaeo
AeI 24 na??e noaeai (anueiai 244 noaeia) ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, aeaye? c
eio?eo, ye i?eeeaae, iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 12.1.

I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee i?ae?aiiioieo ia??iae?a AeI noaeai c eai?ieiiiaeie
oa aaeaooiaeie AeI ? aiae?c oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? noaeai c aaa?oiaeie
AeI ca oao-i?/iei noaiii iieacaee (ca oiiaith a?aeiia?aeiiai oaoi?/iiai
noaio a?aaieo aae?a), ui aeey noaeai:

— c eai?ieiiiaeie AeI ?eaieiaaoeueeeo noaeai oeio N?OI ca ii?iaeueieo
oiia aenieoaoaoe?? ?aiiio AeI iiaea ia aeeiioaaoeny i?aeoe/ii aanue
no?ie neoaeae noaeia;

Oaaeeoey 12.1

Oei noaeia E?euee.

noaeai,

oo Iaoa??ae aeeaaeeoa

AeI Ae?aiao?e a?aaieo aae?a, ii Na?aae.

??/iee

ia?iaie

oiae.aiae. Na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue ciino, ia 1000 oiae.aiae.,ii

coia?ia aeey i?aeoei-ieea aeey iaeeoethaaiiy aaea

N?OI 21 Eii?ieii 300 3500 0,035 0,013 0,022

Ii?nueea 18 Eii?ieii 401-500 4000 0,090 0,046 0,044

O?ainii?oia 7 Eii?ieii > 500 3600 0,145 0,096 0,049

Noaeiaaioaaeia oeio «Io?ii» 15 Aaeaoo 588 4100 0,206 — —

Ii?nueea iana-aee?nueea «Oa-

?an Oaa/aiei»

(aoaeiiia) 1 Aaeaoo 615 4800 0,124 — —

— c eai?ieiiiaeie AeI e?euee?noue ?aiiio?a c cai?iith aeeaaeeo?a ca
aanue no?ie neoaeae aaeeeioiiiaaeieo ii?nueeeo o?ainii?oieo noaeai
neeaaeaa – 2,4, ?aiiio AeI ca noaiii aeey oeeo noaeai iiaeiai
aeeiioaaoeny eiaei? 10 ?ie?a;

— c aaeaooiaeie AeI e?euee?noue ?aiiio?a c cai?iith aeeaaeeo?a ca aanue
no?ie neoaeae aaeeeioiiiaaeieo ianaaee?nueeeo noaeai, iai?eeeaae,
oaieioiaea “Oa?an Oaa/aiei”, neeaaea? 4,6 , ?aiiio AeI ca noaiii aeey
oeeo noaeai iiaeiai aeeiioaaoeny eiaei? 11 ?ie?a;

— c aaa?oiaeie AeI ?aiiio i?aeoeiiee?a i?aeoe/ii ia aeeiio?oueny ca
aanue no?ie neoaeae noaeia. Cai?i? i?aeeyaathoue ou?eueithth/? aeaiaioe
c aoie ei?iiaeo oa iiniaeo iaiaeaoieo ou?eueiaiue, aeey yeeo aeai? i?i
no?iee neoaeae iiaeii? cae?aoeny oa ia?iaethaaoeny.

A ?icae?e? 13 i?eaaaeai? eeaneo?eaoe??, e?eoa??? ioe?iee oa i?iiiiiaaia
aaeocue canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue ia no/anieo
noaeiao.

AeI, AeI, a?aai? aaee oa ou?eueiaiiy, ye? canoiniaothoueny, iathoue
??ci? no?iee neoaeae, ?aiiioii?eaeaoi?noue oa aieea ia ioi/oth/a
na?aaeiaeua.

Iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue a ?ic?iaoe? eeaneo?eaoe?? AeI ca iciaeaie
a?eueiiai niieo/aiiy c caai?oiith aiaeith, aeaeii oa?oy, ?iaeii ianoeea
oa iaoa??aeai aeeaaeeo?a AeI. Ia ?en.1.2 (aeea. ?icae?e 1) i?eaaaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y AeI ca i?eaaaeaieie oaeoi?aie, yea ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii.

Iac??ea oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue a ?ic?iaoe? eeaneo?eaoe?? iiniaeo oa
ei?iiaeo ou?eueiaiue AeI. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ou?eueiaiue a
caeaaeiino? a?ae nenoaie ciauaiiy, oeio ou?eueithth/eo aeaiaio?a oa
iaoiae?a caoenoo ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia aeaiee /an a?aenooi? oaoi?/i? oiiae, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue aeei?enoaiiy
AeI ??cieo oei?a ia noaeiao ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, oiiiaaeo oa ?aeiio
ieaaaiiy. A?aenooi? aeieia?/i? ii?iaoeae ia caa?oaeiaiiy caai?oii? aiaee
a ?acoeueoao? aeieaaiiy ieanoe/ieo ianoee oa i?io?eaiiy ianea c iiniaeo
? ei?iiaeo ou?eueiaiue.

Aaoi?ii, aia?oa a na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? noaeiiieaanoaa, cai?iiiiiaai?
e?eoa??? ioe?iee AeI ii?nueeeo ? ??/eiaeo noaeai, ye? aeicaieythoue ia
iaoeia?e iniia? i?iaeiaaeeoe ?iaioe a cacia/aieo iai?yieao. Aei iiaeo
e?eoa???a a?aeianai?: aaciaea ii?aieaanoaa, ?aeii ieaaaiiy, aeieia?/ia
/enoioa iaoa??ae?a oa caoeno ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeioe?eueiith ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a eiio?ieth oaoi?/iiai noaio a?aaieo
aae?a aac ?o aeeiaiiy c AeI.

Aaciaea ii?aieaanoaa – oea e?eoa??e, yeee, a ia?oo /a?ao, iiaeiai
iiaiith i??ith caaacia/oaaoeny i?e i?eeiyoo? oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue a ia??iae
i?iaeooaaiiy noaeai ?, a oiio /ene?, i?e aeai?? AeI c ??cieie nenoaiaie
ciauaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy, ??cieie iaoa??aeaie AeI oa ??cieie oeiaie
ou?eueiaiue, a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?ecia/aiiy, ?aeiio ieaaaiiy oa
aeo?aeieo oa?aeoa?enoee noaeia. Aeioe?eueia iinoa-iiaea ieoaiiy i?i
?ic?iaeo i?aaee uiaei iineeaiiy eiio?ieth oaoi?/iiai noaio AeI a ia??iae
aenieoaoaoe?? – nenoaiaoe/ii eiio?iethaaoe aenieoaoaoe?ei?
oa?aeoa-?enoeee AeI, aeey /iai cae?enithaaoe aaoiiaoe/iee eiio?ieue
iiaea/? ianoeeueii? oa ioieiaeaeoth/i? aiaee, aaoiiaoe/iee eiio?ieue
e?eueeino? ianea, yea ciaoiaeeoueny a aenieoaoaoe??, anoaiiaeoe i?eeaaee
aeey eiio?ieth ciino aeeaaeeo?a i?aeoeiiee?a a?aaiiai aaea oiui.

?aeii ieaaaiiy – ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy, ?aiiioo oa aenieoaoaoe?? AeI
aeey ?aeii?a c i?aeaeuaieie aeiiaaie caoenoo ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoa??aee, ui ia i?aaenoaaeythoue iaaaciaee
aeey ii?y, a oiio /ene? ianea, ianoeea oa ianoeeuei? ??aeeie.

Caoeno ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua – i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ia aioo??oi?o ii?yo,
a i?eaa?aaeieo ?aeiiao, cae?eoeo aiaeieieuao oa ??/eao, a A?eoeoe? ?
Aioa?eoeoe? eiino?oeoe?? AeI oa ou?eueiaiue iiaeii? aeeeth/aoe
caa?oaeiaiiy ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua – caa?oaeiaiiy ii?y. Ia?aaeaa/aoe
canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo iiniaeo ou?eueiaiue AeI, ia?aaeaa/aoe
canoinoaaiiy ei?iiaeo ou?eueiaiue ae?oaiai oa o?aouei-ai iieie?iue,
iaeaaeiaieo i?eno?iyie aeey caoenoo ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, ye?
aeeeth/athoue aai caiaeyoue aei i?i?ioio i?io?eaiiy ianea a ii?a.
Canoiniaoaaoe ianea oa ianoeeuei? ??aeeie, ye? a iaeiaio?e i???
caa?oaeiththoue ii?a oiui.

Aeaeaeaoaee ?c ciauaiiyi oa ioieiaeaeaiiyi aiaeith aoaeooue
canoiniaoaaoeny ia noaeiao, aenieoaoaoe?y yeeo aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny a
cae?eoeo aiaeieo aanaeiao, ia ??/eao, noaeiao i?eii?oiaiai niieo/aiiy,
A?eoe/iiai oa Aioa?eoe/iiai ieaaaiiy. Aeaeaeaoaee ?c ciauaiiyi ianeii –
ia na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao, ye? aenieoaoothoueny a?eueo
iai?oaeaii o a?aee?eoeo aiaeieo aanaeiao. Ca?ac ii/aeenue ?iaioe uiaei
aiae?co noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo a?aeiiaeaiue AeI oa ou?eueiaiue.

A ?icae?e? 14 iai?/ai? oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai ca?eueoaiiy no?ie?a neoaeae oa
aeieia?/ii? aaciaee aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue ii?nueeeo oa ??/eiaeo
noaeai Oe?a?ie.

Iaeioiiiaaei? noaeia (Aea?.a. = 100-150 ii), iaea?eueo aaaaoi/enaeueia
a?oia noaeai, aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia
aenieoaoaoe??, iie?ai?aei? AeI, ye? iathoue na?iiaeaei? aieia? ea?iaie
(?en.7.2,a), o?e iicaeiaaei? eaiaaee (?en.6.1), aea? ni??aeuei? eaiaaee
(?en.6.2), oii?ii-iii?i? (?en.8.2), c aoiiaeie naaiaioaie, ye?
aeicaieythoue ?aaoethaaoe onoaiiai/i? caci?e, aieaiaenueei? o??ie
“MAPROM GOHONSON”.

Na?aaeiueioiiiaaei? noaeia (Aea?.a. = 250-450 ii) aeioe?eueii
caaacia/oaaoe AeI c iie?ai?aeieie aeeaaeeoaie eiino?oeoe?e, ye?
i?eaaaeai? ia ?en.6.1, 6.2, 7.2,a, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia
aenieoaoaoe??, aeeaaeeoaie c oi?aeiio, aoiiaeie o??ie “MAPROM GOHONSON”,
a oaeiae c aaa?oiaeie aeeaaeeoaie oa ou?eueiaiiyie ae?oaiai oa o?aoueiai
iieie?iue iaiaeaoiiai oeio o??i “BLOHM+VOSS”, “LAGERSMIT” oa ?io.

Aaeeeioiiiaaei? noaeia (Aea?.a. symbol 179 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 500
ii) – canoiniaoaaoe AeI c aeeaaeeoaie c aaa?oo oa ou?eueiaiiyie ae?oaiai
? o?aoueiai iieie?iue o??i “BLOHM+ VOSS”, “LAGERSMIT”, “CEDERVALL”,
“Iaiooi” oa ?io. Aeioe?eueii a AeI aeei?enoiaoaaoe ianea oa ??aeeie, ye?
ia caa?oaeiththoue ii?a. Canoiniaoaaoe AeI c aeeaaeeoaie c eai?ieiio oa
oi?aeiio.

A aeena?oaoe?? c on?o oei?a noaeai i?eaaaeai? aeieeaaei? aeai? uiaei
ia?niae- oeaieo AeI.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE

1. Aeine?aeaeai? iaoaii-o?ce/i? oa iaoaii-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?
oa?iiieanoe/-ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa iniiae
oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa AeI c oeeo iaoa??ae?a aeey AeI ii?nueeeo noaeai,
ye? iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe aaciaeo ii?aieaanoaa a na?aaeiaeu? ii?nueei?
aiaee, ciauaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy oeyoii i?iea/oaaiiy caai?oii? aiaee,
i?e iiaeeea?e iayaiino? ioeo oa i?neo, iayaiino? a?a?aoe??, aeeiai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue oiui.

2. Iaoiaeii iaoaeia?ao?/iiai oa niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co iieacaii, ui a
oiiaao ciauaiiy aiaeith aenieiiieaeoey?ieo iaoa??ae?a (oaiiieano
“Dytron”, aieiei?o, aiieneaeiieano, eai?ii, iie?aoeeai, iie?i?ii?eai),
ye? i?aoeththoue a ia?? c iaoaeaaith iiaa?oiath iaeeoethaaiue a?aaieo
aae?a (o?iiieaaei??aa iie?eooy, a?iica, ei?ic?eiino?eea noaeue)
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aianaiiy ia iie?ia?io iiaa?oith i?e?i/anoie iaoaeo,
ye? iathoue a?eueoo oaa?ae?noue oa aeeiiothoue ooieoe?? i?e?i-??coe?a.
I?e oeueiio niinoa??aaa?oueny ciin iiaa?oi? oa?oy iie?ia?ieo oa
iaoaeaaeo c?ace?a.

3. Aia?oa ?ice?eoi iaoai?ci i?aeaeuaiiai ciino iaoaeaaeo eiio?o?e
(iaee-oethaaiiy a?aaieo aae?a), ye? i?aoeththoue a ia?? c
oa?ii?aaeoeaieie oa oa?iiieanoe/ieie aenieiiieaeoey?ieie iaoa??aeaie i?e
ciauaii? aiaeith, a iniia? yeiai ciaoiaeeoueny iaoaiiaeano?oeoe?y
iae?iiieaeoe, oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaieo iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo i?iaeoeo?a
iaoaiiaeano?oeoe?? oa i?iieeiaiiy ?o a noai?e?io?eueie, ui
?ice?eaathoueny, iaoaeaaiai eiio?o?ea, ui aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a iaoaeo.

4. ?ioa?i?aoiaaia i?e?iaea i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e
iaaai-oaaeaiiyo noeneo oa aenie?e aioeo?eeoe?eiino? eai?iio, iaiiaiaiiai
a?ao?oii, yeee i?aoeth? i?e ciauaii? aiaeith a ia?ao c iaoaeaie
iaeeoethaaiue a?aaieo aae?a a i?eeiyoeo oiiaao aei?iaoaaiiy oa
ae?iaieoeoaa c?ace?a:

— aaaaeaiiy a eai?ii a?ao?oo a e?eueeino? aei 5% ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith
oaa?aeino? oa a?aieoe? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo, ui iiaeia iiynieoe oaeei
/eiii – i?e iaaaeeeeo ai?noao a?ao?oo oaa?aea iiaa?oiy aeenia?niiai
na?aaeiaeua ni?ey? e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oii? oace, i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo
a?ao?oo caa?o 5% a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia noene oa oaa?ae?noue
cieaeothoueny, oae ye ca?eueoo?oueny aeenia?ni?noue oaa?aei? oace ?
aaeni?a-oe?ei? caeaoiino? a?ao?oo aeyaeythony iacao?aaoaaieie ?c
noa?e/ieo i?e/ei;

— aaaaeaiiy a?ao?oo aei 10% ni?ey? oiia?eueiaiith iaoaiiaeano?oeoe??
iae?i-iieaeoe aenieiiieaeoey?ii? oace, aeieoaaiith a?eueieo
i?e?i?aaeeeae?a, ui ooai?eeeny, oa ai?iaaaeaeaiith iecueeiiieaeoey?ii?
oace a i?e?io??ueie iaoaeaai? iiaa?oi? oa?oy, ui cieaeo? ciin
iie?ai?aeieo oa iaoaeaaeo c?ace?a;

— aeey iaeioiiiaaeieo noaeai, ia yeeo iaaaioaaeaiiy ia AeI ia ia?aaeuo?
0,1 IIa, aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iie?ai?aee, iaiiaiai? 10% a?ao?oo,
aeey aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeai, ia yeeo iaaaioaaeaiiy ia AeI aeua, aei
0,5 IIa, aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iie?ai?aee, iaiiaiai? 5% a?ao?oo;

— i?aeaeuaiith ciinino?eeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia? oa?oy oa onoiaiith
ooai-?aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iaoaeaaeo /anoie a cii? oa?oy ni?eyei
oaeiae canoinoaaiiy a?eueo oaa?aeiai iie?ai?aeo aei/ii? iie?ia??caoe?? –
eai?ieiio ? a?iice c a?eueoei ai?noii ieiaa, oae ye ciaioeeanue
iaoaiiaeano?oeoe?y iae?iiieaeoe iie?ia?o oa ooai?aiiy i?e?io??uei ia
iiaa?oi? iaoaeo (a oiiaao aei?iaoaaiue).

5. ?ic?iaeaia aaaaoinooiaiaaa eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea o?eaaeeo
eaai?aoi?-ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, noaiaeiaeo oa iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue
iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa AeI c ieo, yea aeicaieeea iaa?oiooaaoe
canoinoaaiiy iie?ai?aeieo AeI ia noaeiao ii?nueeiai oeioo. Ni?eueieie
e?eoa??yie iaoiaeeee neoaeeee iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy,
ciinino?ee?noue, eiao?oe??ioe oa?oy (eaai?aoi?i? aeien?aeaeaiiy),
iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue i?io?eaiue ianea a ii?a.

Eaai?aoi?i?, noaiaeia? oa iaoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a oa AeI,
i?iaaaeai? ia iniia? aaaaoinooiaiaai? eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee i?e oa?o?
eiacaiiy oa ciauaii? aiaeith iie?ai?ae?a oa iaoae?a oeeie a?aaieo aae?a,
aeicaieeee io?eiaoe cia/aiiy aaee/ei ciinino?eeino?, iaaaioaaeii?
ni?iiaeiino?, eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy, oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith oa
iaae?eiino? ?iaioe.

A??ia?aei?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeia?ei
ni?aiaae?iiyi ?acoeueoao?a o?eaaeeo eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
noaiaeiaeo oa iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue, io?eiaieo aaoi?ii, oa ?ioeie
aaoi?aie, a oaeiae aaaaoi??/ii? (a?eueoa 30 ?ie?a) ieaiiai?
aenieoaoaoe?? iie?ai?aeieo AeI ia iaei-, na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo
noaeiao. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?ieo aeene?aeaeaiue
oa noaiaeiaeo aei?iaoaaiue aeieeaa? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ca
ciinino?ee?noth eai?iiia?ao?o (10% a?ao?oo) ia?aaa?oo? aaeaoo a 2,4
?ace, eai?ii a 3,0 ?ace, eai?ieii ia?aaa?oo? ca ciinino?ee?noth aaeaoo,
oaenoie?o oa aoio a 1,3-1,9 ?ace, eai?iiia?ao?o (5% a?ao?oo) ia?aaa?oo?
eai?ieii a 3,5-11 ?ac (a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoa??aeo eiio?o?ea).
?acoeueoaoe iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiue oa o?eaaei? ieaiiai? anei-eoaoaoe??
AeI iieacaee, ui ca ciinino?ee?noth eai?ieii ia?aaa?oo? aaeaoo,
oaen-oie?o oa aoio a 1,3-4,0 ?ace, eai?ieiiia?ao?o ia?aaa?oo? eai?ieii a
1,2-1,5 ?ace.

6. Aenia?eiaioaeueii, a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao, ia iniia? aaee/ei ciino,
eiao?oe??io?a oa?oy oa oeneo a oa?? ciauaiiy aiaeith, a oaeiae ciino AeI
i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ia noaeiao anoaiiaeaii, ui iaiaoaeaa? AeI i?aoeththoue
a ?aaeei? iai?a??aeeiiiai oa?oy (niinoa??aa?oueny eiioaeooaaiiy
i?e?iia??aiinoae iiaa?oiiue, ye? o?ooueny, i?e iayaiino? aiaee).
Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui i?e iaaiiio iaaaioaaeaii?, oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy,
oi?i? oa ?icoaooaaiith ea?iai?a ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi? oa ciaioaii?
aeiaaeeie iiaeeeaa ?iaioa iiiie?oieo iie?ai?aeieo AeI i?e ciauaii?
aiaeith a ?aaeei? ??aeeiiiai oa?oy (i?e?iia??aiino? iiaa?oiiue, ye?
o?ooueny, ?icae?-eai? oa?ii aiaee).

Ia iniia? aaee/ei ciino oa aiae?co iiaa?oi? oa?oy AeI noaeai
anoaiiaeaii, ui AeI c iaoaeaaeie aeeaaeeoaie i?aoeththoue a ?aaeei?
??aeeiiiai oa?oy.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii, ia iniia? iaoo?ieo (i?ioyaii 4-5 iaa?aaoe?e)
aei?iao-aaiue aeine?aeieo c?ace?a i?aeoeiiee?a, anoaiiaeaii, ui
iie?ai?aei? AeI, ye? inia-uai?:

— aeaiia aieiaeie na?iiaeaeieie ea?iaiaie – aeioe?eueii onoaiiaethaaoe
ia noaeia, ye? aenieoaoothoueny ia /eno?e aiae?;

— iicaeiaaeieie eaiaaeaie, ?icoaoiaaieie i?ae eooii 120i iica
iaaaioaaeaii? ciie, — ia noaeia, ye? aenieoaoaothoueny ia aiae? c
aa?aceaieie /anoeaie;

— aeaiia ni??aeueieie eaiaaeaie – ia noaeia c aaeeeei /eneii ?aaa?n?a
a?aaieo aae?a;

— o?ueiia ni??aeueieie eaiaaeaie – ia noaeia c aaeeeei /eneii ?aaa?n?a
a?aaieo aae?a, ye? aenieoaoothoueny ia aiae? c aa?aceaieie /anoeaie;

— iii?ii-oii?i? AeI – ia noaeia ?c ni?iuaiith noaiith aai eaiaiith
e?i??th aaeii?iaiaeo (i?e oeueiio a?aenooi?e oii?iee i?aeoeiiee).

7. ?ic?iaeai? iniiae oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iiiie?oieo iie?a?iaeieo
AeI, ye? iathoue a?eueoo ?aiiioii?eaeaoi?noue o ii??aiyii? c ?ai?oa
canoiniaoaaieie ia iaei-, na?aeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao. A
I??IO? c eai?iio, iaiiaiaiiai a?ao?oii eeooyi i?ae oeneii, aoea
aeaioiaeaia ia?o?y (40 oooe) iiiie?oieo AeI o?ueio eiino?oeoe?e aeey
iaeioiiiaaeieo noaeai. Cacia/aia oaoiieia?y aoea ia?aaeaia *OeIEA, aea
aoei aeaioiaeaii 245 i?aeoeiiee?a. Ia?aaeaia oaoiieia?y iineoaeeea
aacith aeey ae?iaieoeoaa iiiie?oieo aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo eai?ieiiiaeo AeI ia
aeine?aeii-iaoai?/iiio ae?iaieoeoa? THAEIAe?IOo, anoaiiaeaieo i?e
?aiiio? a?eueoa i?ae ia 300 na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao, a
oaeiae i?e iiaoaeia? oa ?aiiio? noaeai i?aei?e?inoaaie I?inoaei?iio
(a?eueoa i?ae ia 4300 noaeiao).

8. Canoinoaaiiy eai?iiia?ao?oiaeo AeI ia iaeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao cai?noue
oaenoie?oiaeo oa aoii-iaoaeaaeo ciaioeei aa?o?noue ?aiiioo AeI a 3,3-7
?ac, canoinoaaiiy eai?ieiiiaeo oa eai?ieiiia?ao?oiaeo AeI cai?noue
aaeaooiaeo, oaenoie?oiaeo oa aoii-iaoaeaaeo ia aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao
ciaioeei aa?o?noue ?aiiioo AeI a 3-6 ?ac.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue a?ae canoinoaaiiy eai?ieiiiaeo AeI o?eueee ia
205 aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao *i?iiii?nueeiai ia?iieaanoaa neeaea
aeecueei 12 iei. ?oae?a.

Canoinoaaiiy eaiaaenueeiai ieanoeea oi?aeiio, o ii??aiyii? c
canoinoaaiiyi eai?ieiio, ca?eueooaaei aa?o?noue ?aiiioo AeI a 10 ?ac, ia
aeaiee /an canoinoaaiiy oi?aeiio ca?eueoo? aa?o?noue ?aiiioo AeI, o
ii??aiyii? c canoinoaaiiyi a?o/eciyiiai eai?ieiio, a 3-5 ?ac.

9. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae caaaeueieo
e?eoa???a iaoiaeeee oaeeo ye iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy,
ciinino?ee?noue (no?ie neoaeae), a?aenooi?noue aai iayai?noue i?io?eaiiy
ianea a ii?a oa ?io. cai?iiiiiaai? oae? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y AeI ca iciaeaie niieo/aiiy c caai?oiith
aiaeith, ?iaeii oa?oy, aeaeii ianoeea oa canoiniaoaaiei iaoa??aeai AeI;

— ?ic?iaeaia eiino?oeoe?y AeI c aeaiia i?oaeieie ia?aie/eaie (a.n. ?
205451), yea aeicaiey? ca?eueooaaoe no?ie neoaeae AeI;

— cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia ciauaiiy AeI aeaiia oeiaie ianae – o?aaeeoe?eiei
oa a?i?iceeaaeath/einy aeieia?/ii /enoei, canoinoaaiiy yei? aoaea
ni?eyoe caoenoo ii?y (aeaoa i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioa ia
aeiao?ae IAeOeIA Aea?aeiaoaioa Oe?a?ie 15.02.99);

— cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaiiy eai?ieiiia?ao?oiaeo ou?eueithth/eo
aeaiaio?a iiniaeo ou?eueiaiue AeI oa iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue
aacia?a?aii? iiaea/? ieanoe/iiai ianoeea, i?e oeueiio e?ea?aeo?oueny
iiaeeea?noue aeieaaiiy i`yeeo iaaeaaiue a ii?a;

— ?ic?iaeaia noaoenoe/ia iiaeaeue no?ie?a neoaeae AeI ca oaoi?/iei
noaiii, yea aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe i?ae?aiiioi? ia??iaee oa aecia/eoe
e?euee?noue ?aiiio?a AeI ca aanue no?ie neoaeae noaeia;

— cai?iiiiiaai? oa iaa?oioiaai? aenieoaoaoe?ei? e?eoa??? ioe?iee
canoiniaoaaiino? ??cieo oei?a AeI, oae? ye aaciaea ii?aieaanoaa, ?aeii
ieaaaiiy, aeieia?/ia /enoioa iaoa??ae?a (a oiio /ene? ianae oa
ciauoth/eo ??aeei) oa caoeno ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, yea ia iaoeia?e
iniia? aeicaiey? ia?aeoe aei ?ic?iaee oaooiia aai ?Ae ia canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo oei?a AeI ia noaeiao ??ciiai oiiiaaeo, i?ecia/aiiy oa
?aeiio ieaaaiiy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Aaeaeianeee ss.E., Aoceia A.A. Eaai?aoi?iua enneaaeiaaiey e iaoo?iua
eniuoaiey ieanoianniauo iii? noaeiauo a?aaiuo aaeia //A na. «Ieanoiannu
a iiaeoeiieeao neieueaeaiey». –I. -AI NNN?. -Iaoea. –1965. –N.84-92.

2. Aaeaeianeee ss.E., Aoceia A.A., Io?aaueaa A.A. I?eiaiaiea iieeaieaeia
a iii?ao noaeiauo a?aaiuo aaeia //I.-«Ii?neie oeio».-1965.-?6.-N.31-32.

3. Aaeaeianeee ss.E., Aoceia A.A. Oeo/oaiea eiino?oeoeee iieeaieaeiuo
iiaeoeiieeiauo aooeie //A na. «Noaeiaua neeiaua onoaiiaee».-I.,-E.
–O?ainii?o.-1965.-Auione ?4.-N.112-114.

4. Aoceia A.A., Iieiaeaoeeee Y.I., Oieino A.A. Ec iiuoa yenieoaoaoeee
eai?iiia?aoeoiauo aeaeaeaoaeiuo iiaeoeiieeia //I.-«Ii?neie oeio».-1967.
-?6.-N.32.

5. Aoceia A.A. Eiino?oeoeee eai?iiia?aoeoiauo iii? neieueaeaiey a?aaiuo
aaeia //A ei. «I?eiaiaiea iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa ieanoiann aeey iii?
neieueaeaiey e oieioiaiee a iaoeiao».-I.-AI
NNN?.-Iaoea.-1968.-N.105-107.

6. Aoceia A.A. I ?aaeeiao o?aiey a eai?iiia?aoeoiauo aeaeaeaoaeiuo
iiae-oeiieeao //A ei. «I?eiaiaiea iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa ieanoiann aeey
iii? neieueaeaiey e oieioiaiee a iaoeiao».-I.-AI
NNN?.-Iaoea.-1968.-N.108-111.

7. Ieeeoi?ia A.E., Aoceia A.A., Oieino A.A., Aaaae I.I., Aai?eonai A.A.,
Eaieoiiiaa E.I., Ai?eniaa N.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aioeo?eeoeeiiiuo naienoa e
iiuo yenieoaoaoeee iieeaieaeiuo iiaeoeiieeia neieueaeaiey noaeiauo
ono?ienoa i?e aiaeyiie niacea //I. -Ii?neie o?ainii?o. -Na?ey
«Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa».-1993. -? 20(808). -N.1-27.

8. Ieeeoi?ia A.E., Aoceia A.A., Oieino A.A., Aeie/aiei E.A., Aai?eonai
A.A., Eaieoiiiaa E.I. Enneaaeiaaiea aioeo?eeoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee e
iaa?oci/iie niiniaiinoe iieeia?iuo iiaeoeiieeia neieueaeaiey noaeiauo
iaoaieciia e ono?ienoa i?e niacea ianeii e eiinenoaioiuie niaceaie
//I.-Ii?neie o?ainii?o. -Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa».-1993.-
?15(803).-16(804).-N.1-13.

9. Aoceia A.A. Aeaeaeaoaeiue iiaeoeiiee – iiaeiea aeey yooniaiia //
Iaeanna.-ae. «ssooa».-1993-94.-? 3-4.-N.12-13.

10. Aoceia A.A. Aeaeaeaoaeiua ono?ienoaa //Iaeanna.-Eiiiaaoeeiiiue
oeaio? «Ii?neea
oaoiieiaee».-ae.«Noaeioiaenoai»/NAVIGATION/.-1995.-?10-12.-N.60-63.

11. Aoceia A.A. Iiaeoeiiee aeey yoo – aeaeaeaoaeiay iiaeiea //Iaeanna.-
ae. «ssooa».-1995.- ? 2-3(6-7).-N.23-24.

12. Aoceia A.A. Ia yoou e eiaeee – ieanoianniaua iiaeoeiieee n
oiaiueoaiiui e caci?aie //Iaeanna.-ae. «ssooa».-1995.-?
4-6(8-10).-n.24-25.

13. Noaeueie/aiei I.E., Aoceia A.A., Ieeyaaoe TH.N. Aeaeaeaoaeiua
ono?ienoaa.-Eiino?oeoeee e iaoa?eaeu. *anoue ia?aay. //I.-Ii?neie
o?ainii?o.-«Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa».-1996.-? 16-18
(860-862).-52n.

14. Noaeueie/aiei I.E.,Aoceia A.A., Ieeyaaoe TH.N. Aeaeaeaoaeiua
ono?ienoaa. Eiino?oeoeee e iaoa?eaeu. *anoue ia?aay.//I.-Ii?neie
o?ainii?o. -Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e
noaei?aiiio».-1997.-? 1-2 (863-864).-40n.

15. Noaeueie/aiei I.E., Aoceia A.A., Ieeyaaoe TH.N. Aeaeaeaoaeiua
ono?ienoaa.- Niacea e ioeaaeaeaiea. *anoue aoi?ay.//I.-Ii?neie
o?ainii?o. -Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e
noaei?aiiio».-1997.- ? 3-4 (865-866).-52n.

16. Aoceia A.A. Noaoenoe/aneay iiaeaeue ia?eiaee/iinoe ?aiiioa noaeiauo
aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa ii oaoie/aneiio ninoiyieth //I.-Ii?neie
o?ainii?o.- Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e noaei?aiiio».
-1997.- ? 9-10 (871-872).-N.20-28.

17. Aoceia A.A. E?eoa?ee ioeaiee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa ii?neeo e
?a/iuo noaeia //I.-Ii?neie o?ainii?o.-Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey
oeioa e noaei?aiiio».-1997.- ? 11-12 (873-874).-N.1-8.

18. Aoceia A.A. Aiaeec eiino?oeoeee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa //Iaeanna.-
Eiiiaaoeeiiiue oeaio? «Ii?neea oaoiieiaee».-ae. «Noaeioiaenoai» (NAVIGA-
TION).- 1998.- ? 6-7.-N.74-76.

19. Aeaenaaa E.A., Aoceia A.A., Eioai I.I., Noaeueie/aiei I.E.
Oaoie/a-neia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio oieioiaiee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa.
?acaeoea e eeanneoeeaoeey oieioiaiee. *anoue ia?aay //I.-Ii?neie
o?ainii?o.-«Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e noaei?aiiio».-1998.- ? 1-2
(875-876).-N.6-20.

20. Aeaenaaa E.A., Aoceia A.A., Eioai I.I., Noaeueie/aiei I.E.
Oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio oieioiaiee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa.
Oieioiaiey iaiaeaoiiai oeia. *anoue aoi?ay. Aeaau 1-3.//I. –Ii?neie
o?ainii?o. –Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e
noaei?aiiio».-1998.- ? 3-4 (877-878).-33n.

21. Aeaenaaa E.A., Aoceia A.A., Eioai I.I., Noaeueie/aiei I.E.
Oaoie/a-neia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio oieioiaiee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa.
Oieioiaiey iaiaeaoiiai oeia. *anoue aoi?ay. Aeaau 4-7. //I. –Ii?neie
o?ainii?o. –Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e
noaei?aiiio».-1998.- ? 5-6 (879-880).-21n.

22. Aeaenaaa E.A., Aoceia A.A., Eioai I.I., Noaeueie/aiei I.E.
Oaoie/a-neia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio oieioiaiee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa.
Oieioiaiey oi?oeiaiai oeia. *anoue o?aouey. Aeaau 1-4.//I. –Ii?neie
o?ainii?o. –Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e
noaei?aiiio».-1998.- ? 7-8 (881-882).- 40n.

23. Aeaenaaa E.A., Aoceia A.A., Eioai I.I., Noaeueie/aiei I.E.
Oaoie/a-neia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio oieioiaiee aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa.
Oieioiaiey oi?oeiaiai oeia. *anoue o?aouey. Aeaau 4-6.//I. –Ii?neie
o?ainii?o. –Na?ey «Oaoie/aneay yenieoaoaoeey oeioa e
noaei?aiiio».-1998.- ? 9-10 (883-884).- 20n.

24.Aaeaeianeee ss.E., Aoceia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aioeo?eeoeeiiiuo
naienoa eai?iiia?aoeoiauo aeaeaeaoaeiuo iiaeoeiieeia e iiuo eo
i?eiaiaiey ia ii?neeo noaeao //A na. noaoae ananithciiai naieia?a ii
iaiaio ia?aaeiaui iiuoii «I?eiaiaiea neioaoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia e ae?oaeo
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa a noaei?aiiioa e yenieoaoaoeee
oeioa».-I.-IIO.-Nithcii?ieei?iaeo.-1965.-N.79-86.

25. Aoceia A.A. Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey
eai?iiia?aoeoiauo iii? noaeiauo a?aaiuo aaeia //A na. noaoae ananithciie
eiioa?aioeee ii i?eiaiaieth ieanoiann a iaoeiino?iaiee «Yeiiiie/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey ieanoiann a iaoeiino?iaiee e
i?eai?ino?iaiee».-I.-AINEIOE.-1967.-N.7-8.

26. Aoceia A.A. I iaaeaaeiinoe aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa ii?neeo noaeia
//A na. oacenia aeieeaaeia aoi?ie iaae?aaeiiaeueiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eiioa?aioeee «Iaaaniianeea /oaiey».-Iaeanna.-Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey
Oe?aeiu.-1995.-N.5.

27. Aoceia A.A., Aeueoeoe E.ss. Ieanoianniaay iiaeoeiieeiaay aooeea
//Aaoi?neia naeaeaoaeuenoai ? 205451.-I.-Atheeaoaiue ecia?aoaiee.-Eeann
47ue,9.-1968.-? 23.-2n.

I?e aecia/aii? aioeo?eeoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee eai?iio oa
eai?iiia?ao?oo, iaae?eiino? ?iaioe oa iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiiyo iiaeo AeI
iaeioiiiaaeieo noaeai a?aee o/anoue aeioe.Aaeaeianueeee ss.?.,
?iae.E?aaoeiaa A.?.,Ea?oeaa TH.I., Io?aaeia A.A.,Naiaea?ia A.A.,I?c?ia?
I.I.,E?ania? ?.I., oaoi?ee O?yie/e?i A.?. oa ?oaai I.?. I?e aecia/aii?
aioeo?eeoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enee oa iaaaioaaeii? caeaoiino? eai?ieiio oa
eai?ieiiia?ao?oo, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy AeI c oeeo iaoa??ae?a ia
na?aaeiuei- oa aaeeeioiiiaaeieo noaeiao a?aee o/anoue aeioe.I?e?oi?ia
I.E. oa A?i?/aiei ?.A., no.aeeeaaea/? Aaaae I.I. oa Aai??onai ?.A.,
?iae.Oieino A.?., Iieiaeaoeueeee A.I.,Eai?oiiiaa ?.I.,Ai?eniaa N.A.,
Aa?aneiia A.A., ?iaeaia?e *II oa N?C.

A ?iaioao |13, 14, 15| aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue a?aeiiino? i?i aeanoeaino?
iaoa??ae?a, aiae?c eiino?oeoe?e AeI oa AeI, a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? ?aaeeie
oa?oy iaiaoaeaaeo oa iaoaeaaeo AeI oa aeina?ae ?o aenieoaoaoe?? ia
ii?nueeeo noaeiao, e?eoa??? ioe?iee AeI.

?iaioe | 9,11, 12 | i?aeaioiaeai? oa iioae?eiaai? ia i?ioaiiy yooiaeo
eiino?oeoi??a, eai?oai?a oa yooniai?a Oe?a?ie.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? ioae?eaoe?e |19-23| aaoi? i?aoethaaa iaae
?noi???th ?icaeoeo, eeaneo?eaoe??th oa oaoiieia??th canoinoaaiiy
ou?eueiaiue AeI.

Aoceia A.A. I?aeaeuaiiy neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae iaoa?(ae(a aeey ?icaeoeo
noaeiiaeo aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue oa caoenoo ii?y. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.01 — iaoa??aeiciaanoai. — ?inoeooo i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith iaoa??ae?a oa ?icaeoeo
eiino?oeoe?e aeaeaeaoaeieo iaeaaeiaiue (AeI) aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae oa caoenoo ii?y. Aeine?aeaeai? iaoaii-o?ce/i? oa
iaoaii-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa?iiieanoe/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iie?ia?ieo
iaoa??ae?a oa aeaeaeaoaeieo i?aeoeiiee?a (AeI) c ieo. Iaa?oioiaai?
iaoai?cie ci?oeiaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? iie?ai?ae?a,
iaiiaiaieo a?ao?oii. Aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? iie?ai?aeieo AeI
aeey noaeai, ye? aenieoaoothoueny ia /eno?e aiae?, aiae? c i?neii, i?e
aaeeeiio /ene? ?aaa?n?a aae?a, c eiiaiith e?i??th aaeii?iaiaeo.
Anoaiiaeai? aeaee ?aaeei?a oa?oy: a iaiaoaeaaeo AeI – iai?a??aeeiiee, a
iaoaeaaeo – ??aeeiiee. ?ic?iaeai? iniiae oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
iiiie?oieo iie?ai?aeieo AeI. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iie?ai?aei? AeI neoaeaoue a
1,5-4 ?ace aeiaoa aaeaooiaeo oa ?io., ?aiiioii?eaeaoi?, aeiiii?/i?
ciauothoueny aiaeith, ia caa?oaeiththoue ii?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa
nenoaia ciauaiiy AeI aeaiia aeaeaie ianae – o?aaeeoe?eiei (aeey
a?aee?eoeo aiaeieo aanaei?a) oa a?i?iceeaaeath/einy, aeiaie?/ii /enoei
(aeey cae?eoeo aiaeieo aanaei?a). ?ic?iaeaia noaoenoe/ia iaoiaeeea
ioe?iee no?ie?a neoaeae oa i?ae?aiiioieo ia??iae?a AeI ca oaoi?/iei
noaiii. Cai?iiiiiaai? oa iaa?oioiaai? aenieoaoaoe?ei? e?eoa??? ioe?iee
canoiniaoaaiinoe AeI, ye? aeicaieythoue ia?aeoe aei ?ic?iaee oaooiia ia
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oei?a AeI aeey ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a noaeai.

Eeth/ia( neiaa: aeaeaeaoaeia iaeaaeiaiiy, iie?ai?aee, a?ao?o,
aeanoeaino?, i?aeoeiieee, ?aaeeie oa?oy, noaoenoe/ia iiaeaeue, e?eoa???
ioe?iee, caoeno ii?y.

Aoceia A.A. Iiauoaiea neoaeaaiuo naienoa iaoa?eaeia aeey ?acaeoey
noaeiauo aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa e caueou ii?y. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie /oaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 — iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. — Einoeooo i?iaeai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieyi iaoa?eaeia e ?acaeoeth
aeaeaeaoaeiuo ono?ienoa (AeO) aeey iiauoaiey neoaeaaiuo naienoa e caueou
ii?y. Auiieiai aiaeec ?acaeoey AeO, i?eiaiyaiuo iaoa?eaeia e
eiino?oeoeee. ?ac?aaioaiu eeanneoeeaoeey AeO ii i?eciaeo niiauaiey n
caai?oiie aiaeie, aeaeo o?aiey, ?iaeo niacee e i?eiaiyaiui iaoa?eaeai, a
oaeaea eeanneoeeaoeey oieioiaiee ii noaiai eiioaeoa oieioiythueo
yeaiaioia. Enneaaeiaaiu iaoaii-oece/aneea e iaoaii-oeie/aneea naienoaa
oa?iiieanoe/iuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia e iniiau
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaeaeaoaeiuo iiaeoeiieeia (AeI) ec yoeo iaoa?eaeia.
Iainii-aaiu iaoaieciu oi?i/iaiey e iiauoaiey eciininoieeinoe
iieeaieaeia, iaiieiaiiuo a?aoeoii. Aaaaeaiea a eai?ii aei 5% a?aoeoa
iiauoaao aai i?i/iinoue ia naeaoea e oaa?aeinoue a nayce n aeeyieai
aeenia?niie oacu – a?aoeoa ia oaaee/aiea e?enoaeeecaoeee aii?oiie oacu
iieeia?a. Aaaaeaiea a eai?ii aieaa 5% a?aoeoa iiieaeaao aai i?i/iinoue
ia naeaoea e oaa?aeinoue, oae eae oaaee/eaaaony aeenia?niinoue oaa?aeie
oacu e aaeni?aoeeiiiua niiniaiinoe a?aoeoa ieacuaathony
iaaino?aaiaaiiuie ii noa?e/aneei i?e/eiai. I?e o?aiee ia?
iieeia?-iaoaee e niacea aiaeie a oneiaeyo ?aaiou AeI iaaethaeaaony
oi?ie?iaaiea aeoeaiuo ieceiiieaeoey?iuo i?iaeoeoia iaoaiiaeano?oeoeee
iae?iiieaeoe, i?iieeiiaaiea eo a ?ane?uaoeany noaiee?io?aueiu
iaoaeee/aneiai eiio?oaea, aucuaathuea iiieaeaiea iaoaie/aneeo naienoa
iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa iaoaeea, ia?aiin /anoeoe iaoaeea ia iiaa?oiinoue
o?aiey iieeia?a e oaaee/aiea eciina ia?u. Aaaaeaiea a?aoeoa aei 10%
niinianoaoao caiaaeeaieth iaoaiiaeano?oeoeee aunieiiieaeoey?iie oacu,
aeiee?iaaieth ia?aciaaaoeony naiaiaeiuo iae?i?aaeeeaeia e i?iieeiiaaieth
ieceiiieaeoey?iie oacu a noaiee?io?aueiu iaoaeee/aneie iiaa?oiinoe
o?aiey, /oi iiieaeaao eciin iieeaieaeiuo e iaoaeee/aneeo ia?acoeia. Aeey
iaeioiiiaaeiuo noaeia oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiaiea AeI ec iieeaieaeia,
iaiieiaiiuo 10% a?aoeoa, a aieaa iaa?oaeaiiuo AeI e?oiiioiiiaaeiuo
noaeia – iaiieiaiiuo 5% a?aoeoa. ?ac?aaioaia iiiainooiai/aoay
eiiieaeniay iaoiaeeea eaai?aoi?iuo, noaiaeiauo e iaoo?iuo eniuoaiee AeI,
iaueie e?eoa?eyie eioi?ie yaeythony iaa?ocea, nei?inoue neieueaeaiey,
eciininoieeinoue, ionoonoaea e iaee/ea i?ioa/ae ianea a ii?a e ae?. A
eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo aaoi?ii e ae?oaeie aaoi?aie onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii
eciininoieeinoe eai?iiia?aoeo i?aainoiaeeo aaeaoo a 2,4 ?aca,
eai?ieii-aaeaoo, oaenoieeo e ?aceio a 1,3-1,9 ?aca, eai?ieiia?aoeo
i?aainoiaeeo eai?ieii a 3,5-11 ?ac. Eai?ieiia?aoeo oaeaea iaeaaeaao
iaeaieaa aunieie iaa?oci/iie niiniaiinoueth. ?ac?aaioaiu iniiau
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiiieeoiuo iieeaieaeiuo AeI e aia?aua a ie?iaie
i?aeoeea ii?aieaaaiey auea ecaioiaeaia e oniaoii i?ioea eniuoaiey
iiuoiay ia?oey eai?iiia?aoeoiauo AeI. ?acoeueoaou iaoo?iuo eniuoaiee e
ieaiiaie yenieoaoaoeee AeI ia e?oiiioiiiaaeiuo noaeao iieacaee, /oi ii
eciininoieeinoe eai?ieii i?aainoiaeeo aaeaoo, oaenoieeo e ?aceio a
1,5-4 ?aca, eai?ieiiia?aoeo i?aainoiaeeo eai?ieii a 1,2-1,5 ?aca.
Yenia?eiaioaeueii, ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca aaee/ei eciina e ae?.
iieacaoaeae onoaiiaeaii, /oi AeI n iaiaoaeee/aneeie aeeaaeuoaie
?aaioatho a ?aaeeia iieoaeeaeeinoiiai o?aiey, n iaoaeee/aneeie – a
?aaeeia aeeaeeinoiiai o?aiey. Iaeiaei, i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie iaa?ocea,
nei?inoe neieueaeaiey, oi?ia e ?aniieiaeaieth ea?iaiia ia ?aai/ae
iiaa?oiinoe aiciiaeia ?aaioa iiiieeoiuo iieeaieaeiuo AeI i?e niacea
aiaeie a ?aaeeia aeeaeeinoiiai o?aiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi AeI n aeaoiy
aieiauie ea?iaiaie, iaeaaeathuea iaeaieaa aunieeie aioeo?eeoeeiiiuie
naienoaaie, oeaeaniia?acii onoaiaaeeaaoue ia noaea, yenieoaoe?othueany
ia /enoie aiaea, n o?aiy i?iaeieueiuie eaiaaeaie aeey oaeaeaiey
aa?aceaiuo /anoeoe, ?aniieiaeaiiuie aia iaa?oaeaiiie ciiu – ia noaea,
yenieoaoe?othueany a aiaea n aa?aceaiuie /anoeoeaie, aeaoiy nie?aeueiuie
eaiaaeaie – ia noaea n aieueoei /eneii ?aaa?nia a?aaiuo aaeia,
oii?ii-iii?iua AeI – ia noaea n oi?iuaiiie eeieae aaeii?iaiaea.
I?aaeeiaeaii i?eiaiaiea eai?ieiiia?aoeoiauo iiniauo oieioiaiee AeO e
iainiiaaia oeaeani-ia?aciinoue iai?a?uaiie iiaea/e ieanoe/iie niacee,
i?e yoii eeeaeaee?oaony aiciiaeiinoue auiuaaiey iyaeeo iaaeaie a ii?a.
I?eiaiaiea iieeaieaeia a AeI ?aciuo oeiia noaeia oiaiueoaao noieiinoue
?aiiioa a 3-7 ?ac. I?aaeeiaeaia iiaay nenoaia niacee AeO aeaoiy oeiaie
ianae – o?aaeeoeeiiiui (aeey ioe?uouo aiaeiuo aannaeiia) e
aei?aceaaathueiny – yeieiae/anee /enoui (aeey cae?uouo aiaeiuo
aannaeiia). ?ac?aaioaia ?an/aoiay noaoenoe/aneay iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
n?ieia neoaeau AeO ii oaoie/aneiio ninoiyieth ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo ii
eciino, iicaieythuay oaaee/eoue iaae?aiiioiua ia?eiaeu e ii?aaeaeeoue
eiee/anoai ?aiiioia AeO ca aanue n?ie neoaeau noaeia. Iainiiaaiu
yenieoaoaoeeiiiua e?eoa?ee i?eiaieiinoe ?aciuo oeiia AeO, e eioi?ui
ioianaiu aaciianiinoue ii?aieaaaiey, ?aeii ieaaaiey, yeiei-ae/aneay
/enoioa iaoa?eaeia, caueoa ii?y, iicaieythuea ia iao/iie iniiaa ia?aeoe
e ?ac?aaioea oaooneiaee ia i?eiaiaiea ?aciuo oeiia AeO ia noaeao
?acee/iiai oiiiaaea e ?aeiia ieaaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaeaeaoaeiia ono?ienoai, iieeaieaeu, a?aoeo, naienoaa,
iiaeoeiieee, ?aaeeiu o?aiey, noaoenoe/aneay iiaeaeue, e?eoa?ee ioeaiee,
caueoa ii?y.

Buzkov V.A. The Increasing of the Service Properties for Development of
the Ships Stern Tube Installation Contribution and Sea Protection.
Handwriting.

Dissertation for awarding of the Doctor Technical Science Degree on
speciality 05.02.01 — materials science. Institute for Problems of
Materials Science, the Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, 1998.

Dissertation is dedicated to the foundations of the materials creation
and development of the stern tube installation constructions for
increasing of the service properties and sea protection. It was based
the mechanisms of solidness and increasing of antifrictioness of
polyamide which is mixed with carbon. It is defined the optimal
constructions of polyamide stern bearings for the ships to be sail in
clean water, in water with sand, when often reversing, and when the
line of the shaft is not straight. It is realised the friction regimes
in nonmetall stern bearings as semiliquid, in metall liquid.It is
worked the formdation of producing technology for monosolid polyamide
stern bearings. It is realised, that polyamide stern bearings serve
1,5-4 times than bokaut etc., they are good for repair, economical,
water lubricated, not polution of the sea. It is suggested new oil
system if the stern bearings with two kinds of the oils – one –
traditional (for the open basin) and the second biologicalbroken,
ecological clean (for the closed basin). It is made up statistic model
for value of service period of stern tubes installations due to the
technical condition. It is suggested and based working criterions for
value of the stern tube installations for making up of the technical
conditions for using for different kind of stern tube constructions
and ships.

Key words: stern tube installations, polyamides, carbon, properties,
friction regimes, statistic model, criterions for value, sea protection.

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