6

I?I?NOA?NOAI AA?II?IIENEIAIAI EIIIEAENO OE?A?IE

IEEIEA?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AA?A?IA AEAAeAI?ss

E?OOEINUeEA Oaoyia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE
631.16 : 658.155

I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO? AE?IAIEOeOAA OA IA?A?IAEE IIEIEA A
I?AeI?E?INOAAO ??CIEO OI?I AINIIAeA?THAAIIss I?EI?NUeEI? CIIE
i.IEEIEA?AA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 — Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ieeiea?a — 1999Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ieeiea?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aa?a?i?e aeaaeai??
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?Ea?aiai Ieoaeei
Ieiiae/, Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia aa?a?ia aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeiiii?ee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaaIo?oe?ei? iiiiaioe -aeieoi?
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?Caei?iaoeia Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,

Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y,i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee
oa ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Noo?e ss?ineaa Aaneeueiae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa -E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

I?i?noa?noai aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

(i.Neioa?iiieue)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”_27_”_ea?oiy_1999?. i_13__aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Ae.38.806.01 Ieeiea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? aeaaeai??
ca aae?anith: 327021, i.Ieeiea?a, aoe.Ia?ecueei? Eiioie, 9, eiioa?aioe
— caea.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ieeiea?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: i.Ieeiea?a,
aoe.Ea?iaiea,73.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_23__”__aa?aciy_1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
Ioaie/aiei A.N.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, i?e ?nioaaii? ??cieo
oi?i aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy, aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo
oi?i oe?eeii caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace, i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, iaoiae?a
oi?aae?iiy. Iaea?eueo a?aceeaei caeeoa?oueny oaa?eiieoeoai, cie?aia
iiei/ia neioa?noai. Ae?iaieoeoai iieiea iaeaea o eiaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?
caeoeiaa, oi/a o ae??oaii? ieoaiue iane/aiiy ?eieo iieiei caeia?
iniaeeaa i?noea ? ia iiaeia aeiionoeoe cieuaiiy oe??? aaaeeeai? aeey
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa aaeoc?.

Iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? iia??oo? ye
iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, oae ? nioe?aeueia
noaiiaeua a?eueoino? aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Oaia??oi?e e?eciaee noai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
i?ioean?a, oaeoi??a, iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo i?aei?e?inoa,
iiooe?a iaea?eueo i??i?eoaoieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino?.

I?iaeaiaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa caeiathoueny a?aeii? aeiiii?noe-aa?a?ieee ?.?.Eoe?iia,
A.A.TH?/eoei, I.I.Iieuaiei, I.O.Naaeoe, A.I.Ceiiaaoeue, A.A.Aiae??e/oe,
A.A.Ioe?i, ?.A.?aaioo, ?.ss.Iao?aiei, N.?.Eiaaiia, N.A.Anoaiia,
A.A.Aeia?ei?i, I.?.Nieie oa ?io?. ?acii c oei, a?eueo?noue ?ia?o
a?aeiineoueny aei ia??iaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee, a
iniaeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa i?e ci?i? oi?i
aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy aeine?aeaeai? ua iaaeinoaoiuei ?
iio?aaothoue iiooeo iiaeo oeyo?a oa i?aeoiae?a aeey ae??oaiiy aeaiiai
ieoaiiy, /ei ? coiiaeaiee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeeoue aei ieaio aea?aeathaeaeaoii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe Ieeiea?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai?? ”?ic?iaea aaciai? ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie ?ioi?iaoe?eii-ia/enethaaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iniia aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo iiei/iiai
i?aeeiiieaeno i?ei?nueei? ciie i.Ieeiea?aa, aecia/aii? ? iaa?oiooaaii?
oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee
iieiea a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Eiie?aoi? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy caiaeyoueny aei:

· ?icaeyaeo noo? eaoaai??? aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, iniaeeainoae aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea noa’?eoaie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ??cieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

· aiae?co no/aniiai noaio oa aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia
aoae-

oeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea o i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ae?iaieeaie iieiea ? ia?a?iaieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie;

· ?ic?iaee iiaeoe?a ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa;

· ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ?ano?niaeei?enoaiiy o iiei/iiio neioa?noa?;

· aecia/aiiy ?ie? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a ?
?ic?iaee i?iiiceoe?e uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ?
ia?a?iaee iieiea.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?a?iaee iieiea o
i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa, naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa i?ei?nueei? ciie
i.Ieeiea?aa (AEiaoiaaee, Ieeiea?anueeee, I/ae?anueeee ?aeiie),
iieieiia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa i?noa — oe?a?inueei-o?aioeocueea
aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai cae?eoiai oeio “Aaiue? Oe?a?ia” (eieeoi?e
Ieeiea?anueeee i?nueeee iiei/iee eiia?iao), Ieeiea?anueeee i?nueeee
ianeine?caaiae.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ? iieiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, caeiiiaeaa/? oa
ii?iaoeai? aeoe, iinoaiiae o?yaeo e?a?ie uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa o i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?
no?oeoo?e ?eieiaiai oeio.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aoiaoaaeeny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo oao?aoe?a c ieoaiue noo? eaoaai??? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iniaeeainoae aecia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea noa’?eoaie
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Iinoaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? caaaeaiiy ae??ooaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith oaeeo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: iiiia?ao?/iiai, aano?aeoii-eia?/iiai,
?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiiai, aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iiai, a?ao?/iiai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

· cae?eniaii iiaeeo?eaoe?th ?ino?oiaioaeueieo cania?a i?iaiicoaaiiy
?icaeoeo iiei/iiai neioa?noaa a oiiaao i?ei?nueei? ciie i.Ieeiea?aa;

· iaa?oioiaaii i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai
i?aeeiiieaeno a i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.Ieeiea?aa c aeoeaioii ia
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ia?oia?aie ii ae?iaieoeoao
? ia?a?iaoe? iieiea;

· nenoaiaoeciaaii ? iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iiaeoe? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa i?e cae?eniaii? ooieoe?e
i?iaiicoaaiiy aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa;

· aeeiiaii i?iaiicoaaiiy aaeoc? oaa?eiieoeoaa, cie?aia iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa a a?aee?eoiio aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa? “Ieaicaaiae ?i.
Oi?aeoa” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?. I?e oeueiio
iaa?oioiaai? iioeiaeuei? ?ici??e ae?iaie/eo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ia
iaeeieoeth iiaie?a’y ca?aeii i?eeiyoii? aeey ainiiaea?noaa oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea;

· cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy o iiei/iiio
neioa?noa? c o?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?? ii eiaei?e noaoo? aeo?ao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?o
n?euenueeiain- iiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?e i?iaiicoaaii? ?icaeoeo aaeoc? oaa?eiieoeoaa.
Aaeaioaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo ye aaeoc? iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa oae ? oaa?eiieoeoaa o oe?eiio aoei i?iaaaeaii ia iaoa??aeao
a?aee?eoiai aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa “Ieaicaaiae ?i.Oi?aeoa”
I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? ? iaea?aeaii iiceoeaio
ioe?ieo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Ieeiea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo a
1996-1998??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? ia noi??ieao
oaoiaeo aeaeaiue o 5iaoeiaeo noaooyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,0ae?oea?nueeee
a?eoo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia oe?a?inueeith
iiaith ia 160 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo 174 aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?noeoue 37 oaaeeoeue, 6 ?enoie?a, 14 aeiaeaoe?a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aoaeoeaiino? ?
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?e
??cieo oi?iao ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 1.1 Nooue aoaeoeaiino? ? aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. 1.2 Iieacieee
ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, iniaeeaino? ?o aecia/aiiy i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ? ia?a?iaoe?
iieiea a i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 1.3 Aieea oi?i
aeaniino? ia aoaeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 1.

?icae?e 2. No/aniee noai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno oa
eiai aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?e ??cieo oi?iao ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.Ieeiea?aa. 2.1 Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ne?iaeiii? ciie ?
iieieiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa i.Ieeiea?aa. 2.2 Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea a ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?
? ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 2.

?icae?e 3. Iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai
i?aeeiiieaeno a i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.Ieeiea?aa. 3.1 I?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo
iiei/iiai neioa?noaa a oiiaao ?eieo. 3.2 ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa — iaeei c oaeoi??a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea. 3.3 Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ia?oia?aie ii ae?iaieoeoao oa ia?a?iaoe? iieiea.
3.4 ?ieue aea?aeaae o i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?a?iaee
iieiea. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 3.

Aeniiaee.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aena?oeaii oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa o i?aei?e?inoaao
??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

No/aniee noai a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? o i?ioean? eiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iio?aao? ?aaeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa.
Eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieie iiaeooue aooe eeoa o? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aeinyaee
aenieiai ?? ??aiy. I?e aaei?i?no?aoeaii — eiiaiaei?e nenoai? ?nioaaea
nenoaia caoiae?a i?ioe aaie?oonoa i?aei?e?inoa. Nueiaiaei? neooaoe?y
?ioa — i?aei?e?inoaa naiino?eii iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe oiiae a?aeoai?aiiy
? ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aeiiii?/iee noai ye
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oae ? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa, iacaeaaeii a?ae
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aeaniino?, caeaaeeoue a?ae ?acoeueoao?a ?o
ae?iaie/i — aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aeani?noue noai?th? ooiaeaiaio
i?ae i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ioaaiiy ? aieeaa? ia aea?? o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aecia/eoe iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?
aeaniino? iiaeeeai eeoa a ii??aiyii? nenoaie ?o iieaciee?a, i?e/iio c
an??? nenoaie iieaciee?a ne?ae aea?aoe iaea?eueo aeioe?euei? c ieo aeey
eiie?aoieo aeiaaee?a. Iaa?? iieaciee?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??
/e oi ?ineeiieoeueeiai, oaa?eiieoeueeiai aai i?iieneiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
oaoiieia?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo iniaeeainoae ?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ??aiy
iaoai?caoe??.

Iniiaiei iai?yiii o i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenue-
eiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?
?aoe?iiaeueia ? aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy an?o aeae?a ?ano?n?a: caiaeueieo,
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo, o?oaeiaeo, a a ia?a?iai?e i?iieneiaino? ua e
ne?iaeie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi no/aniee noai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiei/iiai
i?aeeiiieaeno oa eiai aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?e ??cieo oi?iao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.Ieeiea?aa.

No/aniee noai ?icaeoeo iiei/iiai neioa?noaa aecia/aii o ?acoeueoao?

· aiae?co aeeiai?ee iiaie?a’y ei??a, i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea;

· aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e o no?oeoo?ieo ci?iao;

· aieeao iniiaieo aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa

iieiea.

Aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea o eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao i?ei?nueei? ciie
i.Ieeiea?aa ca 1993-1997??. iieacaa, ui ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
nei?ioeeiny iiaie?a’y ei??a ? iiieceeeny na?aaeiuei??/i? iaaei? iieiea
a?ae ei?iae. Iiaie?a’y ei??a o eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao c 1993 ii
1997?. nei?ioeeiny iaeaea aaea?/?. Aaeiaa ae?iaieoeoai iieiea ciaioeeiny
o 3 ?ace. Ca oie aea ia??iae o iiei/iiio neioa?noa? iia??oeeeny on?
iieacieee eiai ?icaeoeo.

Iecueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?eiieoeueei? aaeoc? a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?aeiiao, oae naii, ye ? niaae ?? ae?iaieoeoaa, iiynith?oueny cia/ieie
cao?aoaie ia ae?iaieoeoai ei?i?a ? iaaeinoaoiueith ?o e?euee?noth. I?e
aeineoue aenie?e nia?aa?oino? iieiea, ei?ie caeiathoue iaea?eueoo ieoiio
aaao a caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? — 44,4%.

Nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe iieiea a aaniethoi?e a?eueoino? eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noa i?ei?nueei? ciie Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? ia?aaeuo?
caeoi?aaeueio oe?io a 1,5 — 2,0 ?ace. Na?aaeiy nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe iieiea
o eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao i?ei?nueei? ciie i.Ieeiea?aa ca 1996-1997
??. neeaea 60,3 a?i. i?ioe 26,0 a?i. caeoi?aaeueii? oe?ie. Oiio o
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao i?aai?ciaaii
ia?a?iaeo ne?iaeie ia i?noeyo, oi/a ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue
iieacothoue, ui aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueea ia?a?iaea iiei/ii? ne?iaeie
caeoeiaa iaeaea o an?o aiae?ciaaieo ainiiaea?noaao, ui iathoue i?i?oeaoe
aeey ia?a?iaee iieiea. O oaeeo ainiiaea?noaao aeoaea iecueeee ani?oeiaio
i?iaeoeoe??, ia caaacia/o?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueia ? eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy
ne?iaeie, iniaeeai aoi?eiii?. Iniiaiith i?iaeoeoe??th
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueei? ia?a?iaee iieiea ? aa?oee, ne?, ianei. E??i
oiai, noai?aiiy o ainiiaea?noaao aeanieo iiooaeiinoae aeey ia?a?iaee
ne?iaeie, cieaeo? caaaioaaeai?noue aaeeeeo ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa. C
aeuaaeeeaaeaieo i?e/ei iinoa/aiiy ne?iaeie aei iieieiia?a?iaieo
i?aei?e?inoa i.Ieeiea?aa ciaioeeinue c 1990 ii 1997?. o 5?ac?a.

Ciaioaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue iiei/ii? ne?iaeie o iieieiia?a?iai?
i?aei?e?inoaa iaaaoeaii a?aeia?aaea?oueny ia ae?iaieoeoa? iiei/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

O eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao i?ei?nueei? ciie c eiaeiei ?ieii
nei?i/o?oueny e?euee?noue iiaie?a’y ei??a, a a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio
naeoi?? Ieeiea?aueie a inoaii? ?iee a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai c?inoaiiy.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?e iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ne?iaeie o iieieiia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa
i.Ieeiea?aa iieaco?, ui a 1996?. e?euee?noue iieiea a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naeoi?o a caaaeueiiio ianyc? iaaeoiaeaeaiue
ca?eueoeeanue ia 1,2%. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?noa i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o
caaacia/o? ye aeani? iio?aae, oae ? iio?aae niiaeeaa/?a.
Iaaeineiiae?noue ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? ?acoeueoaoii ?icaeoeo i?eaaoiiai
naeoi?o, yeee a oeae ia??iae aeiiiaith? ??ci? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ioaaiiy.
Aoaeoeai?noue o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaea aooe aeieacaia
o?eueee a i?ioean? naiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

O oiae? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aecia/aii e?euee?noue
caeoeiaeo ? i?eaooeiaeo ainiiaea?noa ii eiaei?e a?oi? i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?ioaaiue (ENI, ?aaeainie, aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, anioe?aoe??
eiiia?aoea?a, aa?io??ie) ca 1996-1997??. A aaniethoi?e a?eueoino?
ainiiaea?noa ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy aaeocue iiei/iiai neioa?noaa
caeoeiaa, a oea aieeaa? aaciina?aaeiuei ia iieacieee ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino? oeeo ainiiaea?noa o oe?eiio. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
iieacaee, ui ia caaaeaee iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeai?o? ca
iiia?aaei?, oiaoi iane?aeee aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie ne?ae ioe?ithaaoe ia ca
e?euee?noth ?aoi?iiaaieo ainiiaea?noa, a ca aoaeoeai?noth ?o
ae?yeueiino? (oaae.1)

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa

iieiea o eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy
i?ei?nueei? ciie i.Ieeiea?aa a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1997??.

Iieacieee

ENI

?aaeainieAeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa?io?

oi?ioaaiiy E?euee?noue ainiiaea?noa167202 Na?aaeiuei??/iee iaae?e a?ae
1ei?iae, ea1275190913161194 Cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1oe,
ethae.-aiae.26,312,423,427,5 Aeo?aoe ei?i?a ia 1oe,oe
ei?i.iae.2,452,002,952,41 Iiaia nia?aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea,
a?i.101,251,979,4105,8 I?eaooie(+),caeoie(-) a ?ic?aooieo ia 1ei?iao,
a?i.

-2860,3

-1782,4

-1633,2

-3665,3 ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? (+),

caeoeiaino? (-), %

-72,1

-30,5

-60,6

-70,7

Aeaoaeueiee ?icaeyae ie?aii acyoeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa i?ei?nueei? ciie aoaeue-oi aea?aeaaieo aai aeoe?iia?ieo, oi
ia no/aniiio aoai? aiie aieiae?thoue iaeiaeiaeie iiaeeeainoyie
aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo o aeiaaeeo, yeui oaoi?/ia aaca oeeo i?aei?e?inoa
?iaeono??aeueia ? ea??aiee iaae?eaiee cae?aiinoyie oi?aaeyoe o neeaaeieo
oiiaao ?eieo.

O ?acoeueoao? a?oioaaiiy caeoeiaeo ? i?eaooeiaeo eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noa (oaae.2) aeaeii, ui a caeoeiaeo ainiiaea?noaao caiaaeoi
aenie? cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1oe iieiea (o na?aaeiueiio ca 1996?. aiie
neeaee 27,7ethae.-aiae.), iecuee? na?aaeiuei??/i? iaaei? iieiea a?ae
1ei?iae — 854ea.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea o eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noaao i?ei?nueei? ciie i.Ieeiea?aa c ??ciei ??aiai
?aioaaaeueiino?, 1996?.

A?oie

ainiiaea?noa

ca ??aiai

?aioaaaeueiino? iieiea,% E?eue- e?noue

ainii- aea?noa??aaiue

?aioaaaeue- iino? (+),

caeoeiaino? (-),%Na?aaeiuei-

??/iee iaae?e ia 1 ei?iao,

eaCao?aoe i?aoe? ia

1oe iieiea,

ethae.-aiae.Na?aaeiy

?aae?ca- oe?eia oe?ia, a?i.Nia?aa?o?noue 1oe ?aae?ci- aaiiai
iieiea,a?i.Ia?oia -0,1 … -35,07-25,3190712,029,4239,4IIa?oia -35,1

-70,022-49,5149613,024,3548,3IIIa?oiaa?eueoa…-70,112-80,485427,719,289
8,6Anueiai oa a na?aaeiueiio ii caeoeiaeo

ainiiaea?noaao

41

-57,6

1324

15,9

24,19

57,0I a?oia 0,0…+15,029,2241917,824,9622,85II
a?oia+15,1…+35,0132,145196,917,9613,59III
a?oiaa?eueoa…+35,1179,122568,330,6517,12Anueiai oa a na?aaeiueiio ii
i?eaooeiaeo

ainiiaea?noaao

4

37,1

2408

12,1

25,22

18,40

Ioe?iea ae?yeueiino? i?eaooeiaeo ainiiaea?noa aeaco? ia oa, ui iaeaeui?
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeinyaiooi o eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao
IIa?oie. Ii oe?e a?oi? aenie? na?aaeiuei??/i? iaaei?, iecuee? cao?aoe
i?aoe? ? nia?aa?o?noue iieiea.

Aeey i?aei?e?inoa ye n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oae ? ia?a?iaieo a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aieiaiei e?eoa???i aoaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?
i?eaooeia?noue. A oaeee iieaciee ye nia?aa?o?noue aea? iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiae?coaaoe o ui iaoiaeeoueny i?aei?e?inoao ae?iaieoeoai oiai /e
?ioiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??.

E??i oiai, ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo iieaciee?a iiaeia aeaoe iaeiiai?oo
ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ??ciiai i?io?eth.
?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noa i?ei?nueei? ciie ? iieieiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa
i.Ieeiea?aa iieacothoue, ui iaeaea an? iieacieee aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa e?au? ca iieacieee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo (oaae.3)

Oaaeeoey 3

Ii??aiyiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoaao i. Ieeiea?aa a
na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1997??.

IieacieeeN?euenueei- ainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa Iieiei- ia?a?iai?
i?aei?e?inoaaCao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1o, ethae.-aiae.181,358,3Nia?aa?o?noue 1o
iieiea, a?i.604,6577,6I?eaooie(+), caeoie(-) ia 1o iieiea,
a?i.-362,719,9??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?
(+),caeoeiaino?(-),%-60,93,9Na?aaeiy caeoi?aaeueia oe?ia 1o
iieiea,a?i.247,0oNa?aaeiy ?aae?caoe?eia oe?ia 1o

oe?eueiiiiei/ii? i?iaeoeoe??,a?i.

o

750,7

Aiae?c aeaieo oaae.3 aeaco? ia ia??ai? oiiae ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Iiiiiieueia
noaiiaeua caeiathoue ia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?a?iaee iieiea o i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee i?e ci?i? oi?i aeaniino?,
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aoaeoeaia
aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaiiaeeeaa aac
iiia?aaeiueiai ae??oaiiy ieoaiue i?iaiicoaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Aea a inoaii? ?iee ieoaiiy ieaioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? caeiiiaeaa/i iaiaia’yceiaei ? oiio caeeoa?oueny iica
oaaaith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Oi/a aeina?ae e?a?i c
?icaeiooith aeiiii?eith na?ae/eoue, ui naia ieaioaaiiy aea? ciiao
i?iaiae?coaaoe neooaoe?th ia ?eieo, aoaeoeaii oi?aaeyoe aa?a?iei
ae?iaieoeoaii.

Iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiith caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia oi?aae?iiy
aeo?aoaie oa nia?aa?o?noth o i?ae?icae?eao i?aei?e?inoaa. Ci?ia
ciai?oieo ? aioo??oi?o ia?aiao??a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua aeiaaa?
iino?eiiai aiae?co aeo?ao, cae?eniaiiy aaaaoiaa??aioieo ?ic?aooie?a
cao?ao, i?eaooeo c iaoith aeai?o iaea?eueo aea?aeieo. I?e oeueiio
aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ia?iaee cia/iiai ianyao aeiiii?/ii? ? iae?eiai?
?ioi?iaoe??. ?ic?aooiee aeineoue o?oaeii?noe? ? i?e ?o/i?e ia?iaoe?
?ioi?iaoe?? aeiaaathoue aaaaoi /ano.

O?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith I?II iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe aaaaoiaa??aioi?
?ic?aooiee, neii?aeeioaaoe coneeey i?aei?e?inoa ia aeai?? iai?yi?a
ae?yeueiino?. Iaeiae a oaia??oi?o oiiaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei
i?aei?e?inoaai a?aeo? aeanieo eioo?a ia i?eaeaaiiy no/anii?
eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee. A oea icia/a?, ui aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo na?a?nieo oi?ioaaiue aeey iaaeeaeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiinoeueoaoe?eieo iineoa aei ae?iaiee?a. Ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy
iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? iieeaaeaii ia oeaio? iaoeiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa (eieeoi? iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a
ia’?aeiaiiy “Ae?oa”).

A?aenooi?noue o i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? aeiiii?/ieo neoaea
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aoaeoeaiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th
aiae?co aeo?ao ? i?iaiicoaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iaoiiaeee
iiooe iaea?eueo aeineiiaeeo.

Iaeiei c ?iciianthaeaeaieo ?ino?oiaioa???a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?-
iioaaiiy aaeocae o ae?iaie/?e nenoai? ? i?iaiicoaaii? ?? ?icaeoeo ?
?ino?oiaioaeuei? caniae ?ic?aooie?a aaeiaiai aeioiaeo Gross Margin
.Ia?aeeaae oi?ioee ?ic?aooie?a Gross Margin icia/a? aa?o?noue (?eieiaa)
i?iaeoeoe?? i?ion ci?ii? aeo?aoe. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaaeaia oiiai?noue
i?e aecia/aii? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ? i?eaooeo — oiiaii-aaeiaee aeioiae,
oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie. ?ic?aooiee Gross Margin canoiniaothoueny o
?iaio? eiinoeueoaoe?eieo neoaea Aeai??, Aiae??, Oioeaiae?? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa o oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao. A
1997?. aeeiiaia aaeaioaoe?y i?ia?aiiiai i?iaeoeoo aeioeaioii
Iineianueei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai?? E.?.O?eaoiaei aei oiia
?in??. Aaeaioaoe?y ?ino?oiaioaeueieo cania?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aei oiia Oe?a?ie aeeiiaia o
Ieeiea?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aa?a?i?e aeaaeai?? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
aeioeaioa A.I.A?eyeiaa. Oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao o i?ia?aiiiio i?iaeoeo? Gross
Margin cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oaaee/iiai i?ioeani?a AONAL. Oi/a
i?ia?aiiei i?iaeoeoii Gross Margin ia?aaeaa/aii i?iaaaeaiiy
i?iaiicoaaiiy ye ie?aii? aaeoc?, oae ? i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio, ca
aeiiiiiaith no/aniiai oaaee/iiai i?ioeani?a AONAL iiaeia ?iaeoe a?eueo
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ii i?ae?icae?eao.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?iaioe o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao iio?aao? ia?o ca ana iaeaaeii? i?aai?caoe?? ii?iaoeaiiai
iaoiaeo ieaioaaiiy, iniiao yeiai neeaaea? ii?iaoeaia aaca, yea aeeth/a?
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? aaee/eie aeo?a/aiiy ae?iaie/eo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
ia iaeeieoeth iiaie?a’y ca iaaiee /an. I?e i?iaiicoaaii? oiiaii-/enoiai
i?eaooeo iiei/iiai neioa?noaa iaie aeei?enoai? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
ii?iaoeae ca?aeii i?eeiyoii? aeey ainiiaea?noaa oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aiiy i?yieo aeo?ao ? oi.i?eaooeo ia
1aieiao, iiaeia iia?aoeaii cae?enieoe aaaaoiaa??aioi? ?ic?aooiee.
I?e/iio, aa??aioi?noue ?ic?aooie?a ia?aaeaa/a? ci?ie o ?aoe?iiao, oe?iao
ia i?iaeoeoe?th, ?ano?ne, ci?ie i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei. Ioaea, aea??
iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? ca aeiiiiiaith IAII ?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ii?i caaacia/o? o iiei/iiio
neioa?noa? i?eaooie a ?ici??? 6,7 oen.a?i.i?ioe 136,7 oen.a?i.
caieaiiaaieo ainiiaea?noaii caeoe?a.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo ?aoi?ioaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa Ieeiea?aueie iieaco?, ui iia?
oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeii? ?icaeaaoeny ia ia iniia? ?oeioaaiiy
?aaeaini?a, ENI oa ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?ioaaiue, a caaaeyee
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?o aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei, o?oaeiaiai
i?ioeano, ae?iaie/eo i?ia?ai, nenoaie oi?aae?iiy. ?icaeyiooa iaie
caaaeueia eiioeaioe?y i?iaeoo ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e- ?inoa aoaeo?oueny ia iiaeoeyo, ui
ioiieththoue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ie?aieo ae?iaie/eo
i?ioean?a ? ooieoe?e. Aeey aoaeoeaiino? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
ne?ae caaacia/eoe aeiiii?/io naiino?ei?noue no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a,
aecia/eoe i?aai?caoe?eio nenoaio aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei,
caaacia/eoe oi/i?noue iae?eo ? nenoaie eiio?ieth ae?iaieoeoaa a
i?ae?icae?eao, ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio iaoa??aeueieo naieoe?e o
aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae no?oeoo?ieie i?ae?icae?eaie i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeey
noai?aiiy iaeaaeiiai eiio?ieth ca aeo?aoaie ae?iaieoeoaa ne?ae aeo?aoe
?iciiae?eyoe ia ci?ii? ? iaci?ii? (iino?ei?). Oaea iiaoaeiaa iae?eo
aeicaiey? i?aaeeueii aecia/eoe aeiiii?th (ia?aaeo?aoe) ii eiaei?e noaoo?
aeo?ao. I?e oeueiio ia?aooaaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iaiao?aeii i?ea’ycoaaoe
aei aeiiii?? aeo?ao, aeoiaey/e c aeiiii?? (ia?aaeo?ao) ie?aieo noaoae.
E??i oiai, ?iciiae?e aeo?ao ia ci?ii? ? iaci?ii? aea? iiaeeea?noue
aoaeoaaoe a?ao?ei-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aaccaeoeiaino? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ca
aeiiiiiaith aeaii? iiaeae? iiaeia aiae?coaaoe ia?aiao?e aaeoc?: a?ioiao
ae?o/eo, i?eaooie, ci?ii? ? iaci?ii? aeo?aoe i?e ??cieo ??aiyo
i?iaeoeoeaiino? (?en.1)

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?en.1 A?ao?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aaccaeoeiaino? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iieacothoue, ui aaccaeoeia?noue iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa a aiae?ciaaiiio ainiiaea?noa?, a?aoiaoth/e noeoii? aeo?aoe,
aeinyaa?oueny i?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? 3463,9 ea.

I?ae?aoiaaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
aeei?enoaiiy oaoi?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo ii?i, canoinoaaiiy ?aaeeio aeiiii??
? iaeiei c ?aca?a?a cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?. Oae, a aiae?ciaaiiio
ainiiaea?noa? oaeoe/ia nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe iieiea ca 1998 ??e neeaea 45,9
a?i. i?ioe 33,9a?i. ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui yeui aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? a?aeiineie canoiniao-
thoueny ia ia iaeaaeiiio i?ioan?eiiio ??ai?, aac aeinoaoi?o iaoeiaeo
iaa?oiooaaiue, oi oaea oi?ia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia aeanoue ciiao oe?eeii
aeei?enoaoe an? ?? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?.

Iioeiaeueia i?ia?aia ?icaeoeo aaeoc? aaaaea?oueny aeinyaiooith, yeui
caaacia/o?oueny caoo i?iaeoeoe?? i?e aenie?e ?aioaaaeueiino?.
Ae?iaieoeoai iaao- aa? cia/aiiy, eiee aiii neoaeeoue niiaeeaa/o. sseui
i?iaeoeoe?y ei?enoo?oueny iiieoii, a?aeaoaathoueny c?ooaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoa?.

Cia/io ?ieue o iaeaaiaeaeaii? ?eieo iieiea a?ae?a?athoue ?ioaa?aoe?ei?
i?ioeane. Iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiith oi?iith iaeaaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a i?ae ia?oia?aie ii ae?iaieoeoao ? ia?a?iaoe? iieiea ?
aa?oeeaeueia ?ioaa?aoe?y.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?yeuei?noth iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno Ieeiea?aueie
iieacaei, ui iiee iaei??th c iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oi?i ?ioaa?aoe??
caeeoa?oueny eiio?aeoia ca ?aooiie ?? aio/eino? oa iia?aoeaiino?.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui ia?a?iaia i?iieneia?noue iiaeiia a?aoe ia naaa
ooieoe?? ?ioaa?aoi?a. Naia a ia?a?iaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? ne?ae
i?aai?ciaoaaoe ia?eaoeiaiao neoaeao.

Iaieiae?oe ?eieii iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeia o?eueee ye?niith ?
aeaoaaith i?iaeoeoe??th, caaacia/oth/e i?e oeueio ??ciiiai?oiee
ani?oeiaio.

C ?ic?iaeaieo iaie iniiaieo oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? (?en.2)
aeaeii, ui ia?a?iaia i?aei?e?inoai i?e aea/aii? ?eieo i?eeia? ??oaiiy
i?i ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?icoe?aiiy ani?oeiaioo
i?iaeoeoe??. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe
iinoa/aiiy ne?iaeie, caeoieoe oaoiieia?/i? e?i??, aaeineiiaeeoe
oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa. A?aeiia?aeii aei aeacaii? iaoe ?ic?iaeythoueny
ieaie aeinyaiaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo oe?eae.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue, ui aeieea? o ia?a?iaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa
? ieoaiiy i?eaaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai oiaa?iae?iaieea aeey ca?eueoaiiy
iinoa/aiue ne?iaeie o ia?a?iaio aaeocue.

Aeey oeueiai ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe:

· anoaiiaeaiiy a?eueo aeniei? caeoi?aaeueii? oe?ie;

· iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o i?eaeaaii? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo cania?a;

· o/anoue o i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei.

Ia an? oe? caoiaee iaiao?aei? eiooe. A oiio ia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa
iaea?aeaiee i?eaooie ? ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? iiaeii? ni?yiiaoaaoe ye ia
iiaea?i?caoe?th aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oae ? ia iie?ioaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei. Caeo/aiiy ca?oa?aeieo ?iaanoeoe?e naia a
ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue coiiaeaia oei, ui aeaia i?iieneia?noue aeey
?iaanoi??a ? a?eueo i?eaaaeeaith i?ae n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai.

Aeieea? ieoaiiy ?iciiae?eo i?eaooeo a ?ioaa?iaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao. A
aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?iciianthaeaeaia aeoiea, ui ?iciiae?eyoe i?eaooie
iaiao?aeii ca ieoiieie aeo?aoaie, ii aeeaaeaiiio eai?oaeo. Oe?
noaa?aeaeaiiy ? a??ieie, yeui iiei/ia neioa?noai o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ia caeoeiaa, aai ?ioaa?aoe?y
aeeth/a? ia?a?iaio ? iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa. Ne?iaeiia ciia ae aeeth/a? i?i?ioi 10 — 15
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. I?e/iio, ca?ac neeaeany oaea
neooaoe?y, ui iiei/ia neioa?noai caeoeiaa iaeaea o an?o eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noaao. ? yeui iaea?aeaiee a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? i?eaooie
?iciiae?eyoe i?ae oaeith e?euee?noth i?aei?e?inoa, oi eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
ainiiaea?noao ia?aiaea a caiaaeoi i?ca?ia noia eioo?a, yea aeiaeiei
/eiii ia ni?eyea a ?icaeoeo aaeoc?.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, aca?iia?aeiineie ne?ae aoaeoaaoe oaeei /eiii, uia
ae?enii io?eiaiee i?eaooie aoa ei?eniee aeey an?o i?aei?e?inoa
?ioaa?aoe??.

I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui ia?ao?ae o?eueee ia aeoe?iia?io oi?io
?ioaa?aoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a c ia?a?iaieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie ia caaacia/ea i/?eoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeiiii?/iee
iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei ia?oia??a aeioe?eueii aoaeoaaoe ia
aeoe?iia?ii-?iaanoeoe?eieo

?icoe?aiiy ani?oeiaioo
Ca?eueoaiiy aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??

I?eaeaaiiy iiai? I?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
O/anoue o i?aeaeuaii? Ciaioaiiy

oaoi?ee i?iaeoeoe??
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a ao?ao i?iaeoeoe??

Aaeineiiaeaiiy Aaiaoeea Eoeueoo?i?

oaoiieia?? ianiaeua

1. Caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e
2. Aeei?enoaiiy i?eaooeo

Iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy caooo

?en.2 Iniiai? oe?e? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? iieieiia?a?iaiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa

canaaeao ca o/anoth ca?oa?aeieo o??i ? eiiiai?e.

Ca ?aooiie ?iaanoeoe?e ? i?eaooeo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoe??
iiaeia cae?enithaaoe oaoi?/ia ia?ainiauaiiy ye ia?a?iaiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa, oae ? i?aei?e?inoa iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno, iniiaieo
iinoa/aeueiee?a ne?iaeie.

I?eeeaaeii aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa iiei/iiai
i?aeeiiieaeno ? caeo/aiiy aeoe?iia?iei i?aei?e?inoaii a?aee?eoiai oeio
“Ieeiea?anueeee i?nueeee iiei/iee eiia?iao” o 1996?. aei ni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino? o?aioeocueei? o??ie “Eiiiai? Eao’?? A?iue?”. Oea aeaei
ciiao noai?eoe o 1997?. oe?a?inueei-o?aioeocueea oiaa?enoai cae?eoiai
oeio ”A?iue? Oe?a?ia”. Ni?eueia ae?yeuei?noue aea? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe
ye aeey ?ia?oiee?a aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa, oae ? aeey ainiiaea?noa —
iinoa/aeueiee?a ne?iaeie. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e, caeo/aiiy
?iaanoeoe?e aeey iiiaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a iaeno/ani?oith oaoi?eith
ci?oeith? o?iainiaee noai i?aei?e?inoaa. Naith ae?yeuei?noue
aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai ni?yiiao? ia ca?eueoaiiy caaio?aaeue iieiea a?ae
on?o eaoaai??e ainiiaea?noa Ieeiea?aueie ? aeayeeo ainiiaea?noa
non?aeiuei? Oa?niiueie. E??i nai?/anieo ?ic?aooie?a ca ne?iaeio, a
caeoi?aaeueia oe?ia, ii ye?e ?ic?aoiao?oueny i?aei?e?inoai ca
iieiei, iaeaeua na?aae ?ioeo iieieiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa ( ae?oeo
1998?. aiia neeaea 235-240 a?i., ainaie oiai ae ?ieo — 290 -300 a?i. ca
oiiio), ainiiaea?noaai — iinoa/aeueieeai ne?iaeie iaaea?oueny aeiiiiiaa
a i?eaeaaii? iaeeaii-ianoeeueieo, aeiiii?aeieo iaoa??ae?a.

Iniaeeai a?ae/ooii aieeioei ia ci?oeiaiiy ca’yce?a i?ae ia?oia?aie
aaceiooiaia anoaiiaeaiiy ioieiaeaeoaa/?a iieiea o eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noaao Aa?acainueeiai (17oooe), Ni?ao??anueeiai (14),
I/ae?anueeiai (11), AEiaoiaaiai (10), Ieeiea?anueeiai (6) ?aeii?a.

E??i oiai, ii 1-2 ioieiaeaeoaa/a anoaiiaeai? o ainiiaea?noaao
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naeoi?o.

Aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui ia?a?iaia i?aei?e?inoai ni?yiiao? ca?oa?aei?
?iaanoeoe?? ia iie?ioaiiy noaaea A?O ? ei?iiai? aace ainiiaea?noa.
Iai?eeeaae, a ENI “Eiein” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio ia?aaeaii 50 aie?a
ieai?iii? ooaeiae (oaeeoeue).

Caaacia/aiiy ?aaeueieo oiia iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ni?ai?aoe? i?ecaaei aei
oaeeo iiceoeaieo c?ooaiue: iioe?eeany ne?iaeiia ciia, ia 12%
ca?eueoeeiny iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ne?iaeie o 1998?. o ii??aiyii? c 1997?.

Ioaea, ai?ea aeei?enoaiiy iaaeaieo caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie iiaeeeainoae
uiaei i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ? aea?? iaea?eueo aeioe?eueieo
oi?i ?ioaa?aoe?? aeathoue ciiao aoaeoeaii ainiiaea?thaaoe o aeineoue
neeaaeieo oiiaao.

Aeniiaee

1. ?nioth/a nenoaia ainiiaea?thaaiiy o iiei/iiio neioa?noa? iineoue
cao?aoiee oa?aeoa? (nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe iieiea o eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noaao i?ei?nueei? ciie i.Ieeiea?aa neeaea a 1996-1997??. o
na?aaeiueiio 60,3 a?i. i?e na?aaei?e caeoi?aaeuei?e oe?i? 26 a?i), ui ia
noeioeth? oiaa?iae?iaiee?a. A oiio ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea o
i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.Ieeiea?aa a 1997?ioe? ii??aiyii c 1990 ?ieii
nei?ioeeeny ia 82,4% ? caaaeueiee ??aaiue caeoeiaino? o 1996-1997??.
neeaa 60,2 %. Ia iaae? aaie?oonoaa iieieeeny i?aei?e?inoaa ??cieo oi?i
aeaniino? ? ??ciiai ??aiy ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aenieeo aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? aeinyaee i?aei?e?inoaa, ye?
iathoue i?oeio iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/io ? ei?iiao aaco, canoiniaothoue
iaoeii?noe? ? ?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea, cie?aia
oea ni?eueia oe?a?ii-o?aioeocueea iieieiia?a?iaia i?aei?e?inoai “Aaiue?
Oe?a?ia”, ENI”Ieuea?y”, a?aee?eoa aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai “Ieaicaaiae
?i.Oi?aeoa” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio, ?aaeaini “Noaiiaee” Ieeiea?anueeiai
?aeiio

2. Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?aai?caoe?y aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueei? ia?a?iaee
iieiea ia coiiaeth? e?ea?aeaoe?? caeoeiaino? eiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
ine?eueee ia caaacia/o?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueia ? eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy
ne?iaeie. sse?noue ? ani?oeiaio aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e oae?e
ia?a?iaoe? ? iecueeeie.

Ciaioaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue ne?iaeie a iieieiia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa i?noa
Ieeiea?aa i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui ae?iaieoeoai oe?eueiiiiei/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??, ii/eiath/e c 1990 ?ieo, ciaioo?oueny ? neeaei 12,2 % aei
??aiy 1996?ieo.

3. A ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy a i?ei?nuee?e cii? i.Ieeiea?aa
noaany ia?a?iciiae?e ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?iaeaaeo iieiea ia ei?enoue
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a, a yeiio nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe?? o 2 — 2,5 ?ace
ieae/a, i?ae a eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao. Oiio c i?eaaoiei naeoi?ii
ne?ae iia’ycoaaoe caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa i?nueeeo iaoeaioe?a o iiei/i?e
i?iaeoeoe??. Aeey /iai caaacia/oaaoe i?eaaoieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a
eiia?ei?iaie, iaiao?aeieie oiaa?aie, a oaeiae i?noeinoyie c
ioieiaeaeoaa/aie aeey cai?o iieiea oa ioieoaie i?eeiio.

4.Iaei??th c aoaeoeaieo oi?i iaeaaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a i?ae
ia?oia?aie ii ae?iaieoeoao oa ia?a?iaoe? iieiea a i?ei?nuee?e cii? ?
eiio?aeoia oi?ia ?ioaa?aoe??. A oeueiio eaioethc? ia?a?iaia
i?iieneia?noue ia? a?aoe ia naaa ooieoe?? ?ioaa?aoi?a ? i?aai?caoi?a
ia?eaoeiaiai? neoaeae. Aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae
ia?oia?aie aeioe?eueii aoaeoaaoe ia aeoe?iia?ii-?iaanoeoe?eieo canaaeao
oa ca o/anoth ca?oa?aeieo o??i ? eiiiai?e.

5.Ia ??ai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa i?ei?nueei? ciie
cae?eniaiiy aaaaoiaa??aioieo ?ic?aooie?a i?eaooeiaino? ae?iaieoeoaa oa
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a
— ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a. Naia iiaeeo?eiaaiee ca o/anoth aeena?oaioa
eaoaae?ith ?ioi?iaoeee Ieeiea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? aeaaeai??
i?ia?aiiee i?iaeoeo Gross Margin aei oiia Oe?a?ie ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieo ?ino?oiaioa???a i?iaiicoaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Iniaeea?noue aeaiiai i?iaeoeoo
iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy eiai iaeieaae?o?eiaaieie
ei?enooaa/aie c iaeiaioeie aeo?aoaie /ano.

6.Aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa i?ei?nueei? ciie iaie iiaoaeiaai? ? nenoaiaoeciaai? iiaeoe?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oaeei /eiii, uia caaacia/eoe aea?? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaii? aeey aeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? oi?ie,
aeiiii?/io a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ci?ie o aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo
a?aeiineiao, nenoai? oa i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy, nenoai? iaoa??aeueiiai
caioi/aiiy. I?iaiicoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai i?iaeoeoo Gross
Margin ?icaeoeo iiei/iiai neioa?noaa c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo ii?iaoea?a aeo?ao a a?aee?eoiio aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa?
“Ieaicaaiae ?i. Oi?aeoa” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?
caaacia/eei ainiiaea?noao o 1998?. i?eaooeia?noue i?aeaaeoc? iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa i?ioe caieaiiaaieo caeoe?a.

7. Iaea?eueo i?eeiyoieie oi?iaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy a i?ei?nuee?e cii?
i.Ieeiea?aa, ia iao iiaeyae, ? i?eaaoii-i?aiaei? a?aeiineie, ye?
caaacia/othoue ?oo iaeiiaeo oa caiaeueieo ia?a oa iaoiiaeththoue
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1.E?ooeinueea O.I. Aeaye? ieoaiiy iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae ae?iaieeaie iieiea ? ia?a?iaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie // A?niee aa?a?ii?
iaoee I?e/i?iiii?’y.-1997.- ?1.-N.44-47.

2.E?ooeinueea O.I. Ie?ai? aniaeoe aoaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee I?e/i?iiii?’y.-
1998.-?4.-N.54-57.

3.E?ooeinueea O.I. No/aniee noai oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ?eieo iiei/ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? a iaeaniiio oeaio?? // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee I?e/i?iiii?’y.
— 1998.- ?3.- N.53-55.

4.E?ooeinueea O.I. sse iiieceoe nia?aa?o?noue iieiea a i?ei?nuee?e cii?
i.Ieeiea?aa // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee I?e/i?iiii?’y.- 1997.- ?2.-
N.28-31.

5.E?ooeinueea O.I. ??oaiiy i?iaeaie a?aeoiae?a o iiei/iiio i?aeeiiieaen?
AIE / iiiia?ao?y ca ?aae.*a?aaia ?.?., A’thia A.A.Oi?ioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-ae?iaie/eo no?oeoo? ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.- Ieeiea?a, 1996.-N.234-236.-Aeai.a IIOA Oe?a?ie
26.11.96, ?2210 — Oe 96.

Aiioaoe?y

E?ooeinueea O.I.I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?a?iaee
iieiea a i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?ei?nueei? ciie
i.Ieeiea?aa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02- aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
? AIE. — Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia aa?a?ia aeaaeai?y, Ieeiea?a, 1999.

Aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiei/iiai i?aeeiiieaeno oe?eeii caeaaeeoue
a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace,
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ia?oia?aie.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi no/aniee noai oa i?e/eie iaae?iiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea, cieaeaiiy eiai aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? o
i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Iaa?oioiaaii i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? iiei/iiai
i?aeeiiieaeno (?ic?iaea iiaeoe?a ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??, ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y
?ano?niaeei?enoaiiy o iiei/iiio neioa?noa?, eiio?aeoia ?ioaa?aoe?y
ia?oia??a, aecia/aiiy ?ie? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ioaa?aoe?y, aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue, iiei/ia
neioa?noai, i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo aaeoc?, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y, i?yi?
cao?aoe.

Aiiioaoeey

E?ooeineay O.I. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?a?aaioee
iieiea a i?aae?eyoeyo ?aciuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey i?eai?iaeiie ciiu
a.Ieeieaaaa.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 — yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE.
— Ieeieaaaneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aa?a?iay aeaaeaiey, Ieeieaaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioea iieiea ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia a i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aciuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey a
i?eai?iaeioe ciia a. Ieeieaaaa, ?ane?uou iniiaiua i?e/eiu iaaeaiey
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, nieaeaiey aai yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe.

A ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo eiieo?aioiniiniaiuie iiaoo auoue eeoue oa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua aeinoeaee aunieiai aa
o?iaiy.

Iiyoiio iac?aea ?aaeueiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oieueei a i?ioeanna n?aaiaiey nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua oi?iu
oicyenoaiaaiey e nianoaaiiinoe. I?e/ai, aeey i?aaei?eyoee eae
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oae e ia?a?aaaouaathueo iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
e?eoa?eaa yooaeoeaiinoe oicyenoaiaaiey a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony
i?eaueueiinoue.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey n iiiiuueth yoiai iieacaoaey naeaeaia
n?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee iiei/iiai
iiaeeiiieaena. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ?acoeueoaou n?aaiaiey
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eieeaeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e
iieieiia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee i?eai?iaeiie ciiu a.Ieeieaaaa
iieacaee ia ia?aaiua oneiaey eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Iieacaoaee
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee iaiiiai
eo/oa iieacaoaeae naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo.

Enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie neaaeoao no?ieoue ia
aeoeeiia?ii-eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiao n o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo oe?i e
eiiiaiee. I?e yoii ia?a?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue aeieaeia a?aoue ia
naay ooieoeee eioaa?aoi?a. E?iia oiai, a ia?a?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe neaaeoao nicaeaaaoue ia?eaoeiaiaoth neoaeao.
I?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee eiaao cia/aiea, eiaaea neoaeeo iio?aaeoaeth.
Anee i?iaeoeoeey iieuecoaony ni?inii, i?ienoiaeeo ia?aueaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiinoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaaiciiaeii aac ?aoaiey aii?inia
i?iaiice?iaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eniieueciaaiea
nia?aiaiiie eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee i?e i?iaiice?iaaiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui,
oae eae n iiiiuueth IYII iiaeia ?aoaoue aac ia?aie/aiee ethaua aii?inu
i?iaiice?iaaiey, a oii /enea oi?aaeaiea cao?aoaie a iiae?acaeaeaieyo
i?aaei?eyoey.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia i?aaiecaoeey ii?iaoeaiiai iaoiaea ieaie?iaaiey,
aaca eioi?iai niaea?aeeo iao/ii-iainiiaaiiua aaee/eiu eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. I?e i?iaiice?iaaiee io?anee
iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa oi?ie?iaaiea cao?ao auiieiyeinue n iiiiuueth
oaaee/iiai i?ioeanni?a EXCEL n eniieueciaaieai eino?oiaioaeueiuo
n?aaenoa Gross Margin — iaeieo ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo eino?oiaioa?eaa
ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey io?aneae e i?aaei?eyoey a
oeaeii.

Enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeatho oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?acaeaeaiey cao?ao ia
ia?aiaiiua e iaeciaiiua (iinoiyiiua).

Iniaiai cia/aiey oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea cao?ao i?eia?aoaao a
?ano?oeoo?eciaaiiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo i?e i?aaiecaoeee
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Nenoaia iaoa?eaeueiiai iiiu?aiey a oaeeo oi?ie?iaaieyo no?ieony n o/aoii
yeiiiiee eee ia?a?anoiaea cao?ao ii eaaeaeie noaouea.

?ani?aaeaeaiea cao?ao ia ia?aiaiiua e iaeciaiiua aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
no?ieoue a?aoeei-iaoaiaoe/aneoth iiaeaeue aacoauoi/iinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
/oi iicaieyao aiaeece?iaaoue ia?aiao?u io?anee: aeaiaaeioth au?o/eo,
i?eaueue, noiio ia?aiaiiuo e iaeciaiiuo cao?ao i?e ?aciuo o?iaiyo
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua iiaeoee ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaatho
yeiiiie/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee,
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth nenoaio aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, oi/iinoue
o/aoa, eiio?ieue i?iecaiaenoaa a iiae?acaeaeaieyo, nenoaio iaoa?eaeueiuo
naieoeee i?e acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iuie ia?oia?aie.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iieacaee, /oi iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eniieueciaaiea iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo ii?i, niaethaeaiea
?aaeeia yeiiiiee yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe e
iieo/aiey i?eauee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eioaa?aoeey, yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue, iiei/iia
neioiaiaenoai, i?iaiice?iaaiea ?acaeoey io?anee, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey,
i?yiua cao?aou.

Summary

Krushinskaja T.M. Production effectiveness and milk processing in
enterprises of different menage forms of suburban zone Mykolayiv. —
Manuscript.

The dissertation is to be present for scientific degree of Candidate of
Ekonomic Science in speciality 08.07.02.- Agricultural Economics and
Agroindustrial Complex.- Mykolayiv State Agrarian Academy, Mykolayiv,
1999.

Functioning Effectiveness of milk production complex wholly depends on
concrete menage conditions, material and technical base, organizational
structure, mutual relations between partners.

In dissertation it is opened the contemporary fortune and production
volumes degradation causes milk, lowering of his economic effectiveness
in enterprises of diverse menage forms.

The rise of economic effectiveness of milky production complex is
Grounded (reforming modules elaboration, rational use of resources in
milky cattle-breeding, partners integration, determination of role of
state adjustment).

Key words: integration, economic efficiency, milky cattle-breeding,
prognostication of branch development, reforming, straight
expenditures.

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